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: A146782




: 17 MAC 2014



Waste Management and Administration in Malaysia : An Empirical Study

in UKM


Discussion and Results
3.1 Waste Management Laws and Policy in Malaysia
3.2 Waste management Department in Malaysia
International Waste Management Law and Policy
Literature View
Empirical Study



The existence of ecosystem is a prove that the environment is a living

system. The ecosystem consists of the flora and fauna and also the ever
evolving creature that is the human. Human evolves in the state of their mind
in which they craves for improvement and satisfaction. In some view, human
evolution in the form of idea and knowledge is essential because it creates
the technology, which makes things easier to achieve nowadays compared to
a century ago. However, this evolution takes its toll, not on human but to the
nature. Human have been exploring the mother-nature in order to get its
resources. For example, people have been known to mine in some area that is
concentrated with gold, coal or any other resources that can be sold at a high
Human activities are the main culprit that contributed to environmental
pollution, including land, water, air and other kinds of pollutions. Focusing on
the main waste management issue, here we are trying to identify as well as
initiate a solution so that this pollution issues can be overcome or controlled.
In this study, we are focusing on the solid waste management. Solid waste
management can be defined as the discipline associated with the control of
generation. At the same time, increasing traffic density problems also affect
the removal and collection of municipal solid waste transportation, which will
affect adversely the productivity rate from the source of waste, in this case
Kuala Lumpur State Territory, to the place of final disposal, in this case Bukit
Tagar Landfill, a remote location with a regional urban settlements. The long
period required to move a municipal solid waste from Kuala Lumpur State
Territory towards Bukit Tagar Landfill.
By that, Government Board of Kuala Lumpur City should consider the best
way of handling and management of municipal solid waste that meets the
values of economic, hygienic, and ecologic. A more challenge now is to
improve performance and productivity of municipal solid waste management
that will bring economic benefits for local government which will then improve
the quality of service to urban environmental management.



In this study, the main focus area is in the campus of University

Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia. We are
trying to identify as well as initiate a solution so that this pollution issues,
namely waste management issue can be solved.

Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM

In UKM, pollution issues also occurred. For instance, there has been
several number of cases of landslides happened in UKM, flooding and also
waste management problem. All these issues is directly caused by human
activities. Human activities such as deforestation caused all the trees to be
chopped down, thus causing landslides because there are no trees that can
hold the soil from its ground, as it was the role of the trees to do so.
Deforestation is being done so that a new place can be used to build
industrial areas or even housing areas. This kind of activities not just harmed
the flora, but also the fauna. All the birds as well as other animals that has
been living in the forest had to move out because human is taking over that
place. Loss of habitat and also extinction may occurred due to this incident.
Plus, the land structure in UKM is hilly and in order to make the land useful for
industrial or even housing, the land had to be flattened because hilly areas
are hard to be managed.
Besides that, waste management issue is also important. We can see that
most of the garbage areas are full with wild animals; because the animals
searched for food from the garbage. But the most important factor that has
contributed to this issue is the land pollution issue. Lack of awareness among
the community within the campus contributes to the pollution. For instance,
thrash such as water bottles or can, plastic bag, etc been thrown away along
the road side.


Discussion and Results

3.1 Waste Management Laws and Policy in Malaysia
Pollution issue is a serious matter nowadays. This is because it has
been worsening day by day. For instance, the emitting of carbon
dioxide (Co2) and other harmful gaseous in the air has been causing
the green-house effect and also thinning the ozone layer. The thinning
of ozone layer and the green-house effect that are caused by air
pollution has contributed to the increasing of temperature worldwide.
This does not just stop here. In fact, these actions had also caused the
melting of ice in the north pole, that also caused the risen of the water
level. The polar bear species, for instance, is suffering from the habitat
loss as their main habitat which is in the ice field of the north pole are
melting. Later on, if this problem does not stop, our next generation
might probably not going to see the polar bear species as they would
The Malaysias legislative bodies have taken step to counter this
problem. One of the most effective legislation is the Environmental
Quality Act 1947 of Malaysia. This act has provided several kinds of
ways to prevent pollution in Malaysia including waste management,
role of the Ministries and the Director General, penalties, and so on.
This legislation is related to the prevention, abatement, control of
pollution and enhancement of the environment. Industrial activities are
required to obtain the following approvals from the Director General of
Environmental Quality: EIA reports (for prescribed activities); Site
suitability evaluation (for non-prescribed activities);Written permission
to construct; Written approval for installation of incinerator, fuel
burning equipment and chimney; License to use and occupy (for
prescribed premises).
Besides that, all the prescribed premises such as natural rubber
processing mill, treatment and disposal of scheduled waste must obtain
license to occupy and use; prescribe a vehicle or ship used in the
movement of waste (called prescribe conveyance); fine for noncompliance is max. RM50k or jail up to 2 years or both; prior written
permission to construct building or work on vehicle must be obtained;
plans for buildings must be submitted for approval to the DG.
The Minister may specify conditions for emission, discharge or
deposit of environmentally hazardous substances, pollutants or wastes
or the emission of noise into any area, segment or element of the
environment. Penalty for atmospheric pollution is max RM100k or jail
term of up to 5 years or both. Penalty for noise pollution is max.
RM100k or jail term of up to 5 years or both

A person is deem to have pollute any soil or surface of land if:

places in or on any soil or in any place where it may gain access to soil
any matter whether liquid, solid or gaseous; establish a refuse dump,
garbage tip, soil and rock disposal site, sludge deposit site, waste
injection well for disposal of solid or liquid waste so as to be obnoxious
or offensive to human beings or interfere with underground water or
detrimental to soil; and also Penalty is max.RM100k or jail term of up to
5 years or both.
A person is deem to have pollute any inland waters if: places waste
in or on any waters or in any place where it may gain access to water;
places any waste in a position where it can gain access to water;
causes the temperature of the receiving waters to be raised or lowered
by more than the prescribed limits; Penalty is max. RM100k or jail term
of up to 5 years or both. Penalty for discharge of oil in Malaysian waters
exceeding acceptable conditions is max. RM500k or jail term of up to 5
years or both

Penalty for discharge of environmentally hazardous substances,

pollutants or waste in Malaysian waters exceeding acceptable
conditions is max. RM500k or jail term of up to 5 years or both
Minister may prohibit the use of any material or equipment for
process, trade or industry. Minister may prescribe any substance as
environmentally hazardous substance and control its use and
management. Minister may specify guidelines and procedures on
deposit and rebate schemes in connection with the disposal of products
that are considered environmentally unfriendly or causing adverse
constraint on the environment.
The DG, to control the emission of environmentally hazardous
substances, pollutants or waste, has the power to direct the owner: to
install, operate, repair, replace control equipment; erect or increase
height of chimney; measure or sample pollutants; conduct study of
environmental risk; install, maintain and operate monitoring programs;
measures to reduce or remove pollution. Any person who contravenes
the notice issued in item 14 is liable to a fine of RM25k or jail up to 2
years or both The Minister may direct the DG to issue an order to the
occupier to cease all acts that cause the pollution. Any person who
contravenes item 16 is liable to a fine of RM50k or jail up to 2 years or
both. The DG may direct the occupier of a premises, even if is not a
prescribed premise, or ship or vehicle to conduct an environmental
audit. For prescribed activities EIA report to the DG must be submitted
before approval is given by the relevant approving activity.
Prior written approval of the DG is required:

to place, deposit or dispose of scheduled waste except at prescribed

receive or send scheduled waste in or out of Malaysia;
transit any scheduled waste. Any person who is aggrieved by the
conditions set by the DG on his EIA submission may appeal to the
Appeal Board. For the purpose of conducting, promoting or coordinating research, the Minister may impose a cess or set up an
Environmental Fund on waste generated.
The DG may issue notices to occupier of premises or vehicle or ship
or aircraft to furnish information on the equipment or products handled.
The DG or an authorized officer may stop, board, search, enter a
premise, ship, vehicle, aircraft. The DG or an authorized officer may
examine a person in order to carry out investigation. Any vehicle or
ship used in transportation of waste that is unapproved can be seized
by the DG and forfeited and sold after judgement. DG may recover cost
from the person responsible for the pollution to mitigate the pollution

Environmental Quality Act, 1974

Malaysia has had environmentally-related legislation since the early
1920s (table 4). But the legislation is limited in scope and inadequate
for handling complex emerging environmental problems. So through
EQA, 1974, a more comprehensive form of legislation and an agency to
control pollution was established.
EQA is an enabling piece of legislation for preventing, abating and
controlling pollution, and enhancing the environment, or for other
related purposes. Pollution, as declared in EQA, includes the direct or
indirect alteration of any quality of the environment or any part of it by
means of a positive act or act of omission.
Pollution is controlled through the mechanism of licences issued by
the Department of Environment. The mode of control is by prescribing,
by means of a ministerial regulation, that licences are mandatory for:
The use and occupation of prescribed premises;
Discharging or emitting wastes exceeding acceptable conditions into
the atmosphere, as well as noise pollution, polluting or causing the
pollution of any soil or surface of any land; Emitting, discharging or
depositing any wastes or oil, in excess of acceptable conditions, into
inland waters or Malaysian waters.
The provision of "acceptable conditions" is controversial because the
polluter is not liable for prosecution if the discharge are within those
acceptable conditions, even if the effluents are sufficient to severely
damage the environment. Most people adversely affected by pollution

do not want to seek legal remedy through common law because of the
prolonged nature of such hearings and the costs incurred.
Currently, 16 sets of regulations and orders are enforced by the
Department of Environment under EQA. Despite government efforts to
implement environmental laws and regulations, it has been found that
enforcement measures need to be further enhanced to ensure the full
compliance with laws and regulations.
With regard to monitoring and enforcement, surveillance capability
will be strengthened. The penalty structure related to environment
offences will be revised to ensure a more effective deterrent, especially
in the case of repeat offenders. The enforcement function of agencies
such as the Department of Environment, Health Department, Pesticide
Board and local authorities will be rationalized and streamlined, and
adequate training will be provided for their enforcement staff.
Environmental laws and regulations One of the three strategies
embodied in EQA, 1974, is for the regulation of pollution. The other two
strategies are for preventing and abating any form of pollution. To bring
the law and other environmentally-related laws into effect, the laws and
regulations listed below have been introduced and are strictly enforced
by the Department of Environment.


Waste management Department in Malaysia

Besides, laws and policy regarding waste management in Malaysia, we

also have our own department that controls issues related to waste
management. For example, we have the National Solid Waste Management
Department (JPSPN) which is to integrate solid waste management system at the
national level was established under the Solid Waste and Public Cleansing
Management Act 2007 (Act 672). The Act was passed by the Parliament on July
17, 2007 and gazetted on August 30, 2007. This Act Gives the executive
authority to the Federal Government to carry out the responsibilities on the
management of solid waste and public cleansing.
Before the establishment of JPSPN, SWM function is located within the
Engineering Division of Environmental Health and Project Implementation
Division, Department of Local Government (JKT), KPKT. With the passing of Act
672 and Act 673, this function is Transferred to JPSPN and the Solid Waste and
Public Cleansing Management Corporation (PPSPPA).
The objective of the establishment of PSN is to establish a sustainable
solid waste management system so as to safeguard public health, protect and
conserve the environment and preserve the natural-resource. Besides that, it is
to ensure a clean surrounding and the esthetic value protected. Moreover, JPN
responsible to play its role as the responsible institution on formulating policy,
strategy, action plan and law on solid waste and public cleansing management;
and to coordinate the cooperation between Federal Government agencies, State
Government, local Authority, private and the communities so as to ensure
smooth implementation of solid waste and public cleansing management.
Data collection included populations, generation rate and characteristics of
municipal solid waste, management system in the Kuala Lumpur study area.
Prior to the main survey a pilot study was carried out to test the practicalities of
the proposed sampling strategy, waste collection and sorting systems and
questionnaire. This survey was restricted only to local authorities managed by
Private Company rounds in each authority area.
However, this represents an idealized situation and for practical reasons
the following other criteria were set the survey had to be based on all of Kuala

Lumpur local authorities there have to be two authorities from each community
type (domestic and commercial); The survey and sampling was taken place in
100 samples and has carried out from November-December 2009 and JanuaryJune 2010. Data are collected from Annual Reports and through in depth
interviews to Private Company executive staff. These data are necessary for
population growth rate and MSW generation rate determination.

A. Financial Barriers
Many developing countries like Malaysia and Indonesia, have a habit in
terms of allocating budget for urban solid waste management in the range of
20-50 percent. Urban solid waste which cannot be handled for about 30-60
percent of the total amount of waste throughout the urban areas. The total urban
population that can covered by solid waste management services by local
governments amounted to less than 50 percent. In some cases, transport
equipment and solid waste collectors who are not suitable to be used anymore
has reached 80 percent range, which requires remedial action and maintenance
stages. So that it can be said that any circumstances and the poor
quality of municipal solid waste management in developing countries is a
normal thing.
B. Role of The Government
Existing solid waste expenditure levels increased in Malaysia in line with
the pattern of economic standard of living and consumption rate. These levels
may differ, follow the type of expenditures and use of the land, such as
dwellings, commercial, industrial, institutional, and so forth. Salleh (2001)
mentions that since 1993, it has been launched Recycling Program which
involves 23 local authorities or Pihak Berkuasa Tempatan (PBT) in the entire
Role of the Ministry of Housing and Local Government or Kementrian
Perumahan dan Kerajaan Tempatan (KPKT) in municipal solid waste management
is giving advice and notification automatically. The Role of Environmental
Department is in terms of pollution control and handling in order to protect and
maintain the quality of community environment. The Economics Planning Unit is
also get involved in the development programs relating to the municipal solid
waste management in national level. The approach undertaken in this program
specifically uses the original remains in the form of solid waste without going

through the process of physical change. The rest is recycling a solid waste
originally for producing a raw materials that may be used for further process.
Last process is to deduct the expenses of existing solid waste generation
from the sources. PBT has allocated between 30 to 70 percent of manpower for
their responsible in environmental management practices. In addition, for 40 to
50 percent of PBT officers get involved in cleaning, including the solid waste
management. KPKT will always help and support PBT in order to provide the
financial allotment to purchase the appropriate machines and vehicles
maintenance. In addition, KPKT also being providing the financial allotment for
upgrading and constructing several new solid waste container in some area of
C. Previous Condition of Municipal Solid Waste in Malaysia
In 2001, Kuala Lumpur State Territory estimated the total solid waste at
2.500 tonnes per day or equal to 912.500 tonnes a year. The quantity of dwelling
premises reached as many as 65 percent or 1.625 tonnes per day. With total
population estimated around of 1.5 million, then the average of solid waste
generated from any person is as many as 1.7 kilograms a day. According to the
solid waste accretion of 1.2 percent tons a year, the 2020 estimation will be
around of 3.317 tonnes per day or 1,210,705 tonnes a year.

In the year 2003, amounted to 17.000 tonnes of solid waste

generated on all regions of Malaysia peninsular. On average, solid waste per
capita output is about 0.85 kg /capita/day. In the Kuala Lumpur State Territory
estimated of 1.5 kg / capita / day. Solid waste collection activities reached about
76 percent, and at 1-2 percent of it has recycled directly and the rest sent
to the landfill. Amounting to 5 percent of solid waste from Kuala Lumpur City
Area has recycled directly.
In 2004, solid waste generation at Kuala Lumpur State Territory was
calculated at 2.500 tonnes per day or a total of 912.500 tonnes a year. The
quantity of dwelling premises reached as many as 65 percent or 1.625 tonnes
per day. With a population of 1.57 million, then the average of solid waste
generated from any person is as many as 1.6 kilograms a day.
In 2005, Kuala Lumpur solid waste generation was about 3478 tonnes/day,
with the population was around of 2.150 million. The average of solid waste
generated from any person is as many as 1.6 kilograms a day.
D. Lates Condition of Municipal Solid Waste in Malaysia
Privatization program of the municipal solid waste management at Kuala Lumpur
State Territory began in 1996, in which Alam Flora Sdn Bhd (AFSB) has been
sworn as concession holder, and took over solid waste transfer station
management namely Taman Beringin Transfer Station (TBTS) that started in
2001. Furthermore, as a technical problem occurred in AFSB, the management of

the site TBTS then has transferred to the Solid Waste Disposal Sdn Bhd (SWDSB)
in the year 2006. In order to ensure the work of municipal solid waste collecting,
transporting and disposing executed perfectly, the Unit Kawal Selia (UKS) has
been realized. For the contractor performance monitoring program, UKS always
made the investigation sessions involving the Supreme Board of Management
Kuala Lumpur. UKS also gave a warning to the relevant business partner, and
provided achievement reports each month and surveillance programs
simultaneously. UKS also serves as a guidance officer to ensure residual
removal or garbage are placed in appropriate trash bins. Solid waste
generated from every landed-houses, apartments, flats, commercial shops,
private and royal offices levied and collected by the workers and put into
baskets or trolleys and then transported into the suitable solid waste lorry.
Solid waste that has been collected then transported using three types of lorries,
namely compactor lorries, open lorries and roll-on-roll-out lorries. Solid waste
generated from the entire area of Kuala Lumpur State Territory picked and sent
by lorries owned by the private contractor, such as the Alam Flora Sdn Bhd, to
Beringin Park transfer station. In transfer station, the whole municipal solid waste
compressed and compacted to facilitate the transfer into the larger lorries,
namely the semi-trailer container, which then sent to Bukit Tagar landfill.
Recent investigations in 2010 resulted information that population of Kuala
Lumpur City Area has reached 1.66 million people [6]. With the population
growth rate of 6.1 percent, then the population in the year 2010 can be
estimated at least to 1.69 million people. The number of municipal solid waste
generated from Kuala Lumpur State Territory and delivered to TBTS was recorded
of 2,000 tonnes per day. Accordingly, the solid waste generation average for any
person is 1.2 kilograms a day. The amount and generation rate of solid waste
from Kuala Lumpur State Territory remaining unchanged and cannot be better
from year to year, and strategic planning needed to avoid excess spending
capacity that bring bad impact on TBTS management and in Kuala Lumpur State
Territory environment primarily.

International Waste Management Law and Policy

In other countries, pollution is also a main issue. All the
governments throughout the globe conduct research to get the best
solutions for this issue. These include enacting laws and policy. In United
Kingdom, the Control of Pollution Act 1974 was introduced. This act
provides a comprehensive system of licensing for the disposal of waste
which supplemented the existing control over land used in the Town and
Country Planning Act of UK.
Regulation 16 of the Special Waste Regulations 1996 requires any
person who makes a deposit of special waste in or on any land to record
the location of the deposit. Records must be kept until the person
surrenders his or her waste management license. The site records will
comprise either a site plan marked with a grid or site. Regulations 17

prohibits any establishment or undertaking which carries out the disposal

or recovery of special waste, or which collects special waste, from mixing
different categories of special waste, or from mixing special waste with
waste which is not special waste.
In US, the program for Government agreed in 2007 included a number of
objectives relating to waste management among them a commitment to
carry out an international review of waste management plans, practices and
procedures. In February 2008, a procurement process was initiated to
appoint consultants to undertake a comprehensive study on the waste sector,
to underpin the overall review, and to cover a wide range of issues to help
identify how best to proceed with further efforts to reduce waste levels,
improve recycling rates and deliver equitable and cost-effective sustainable
waste management solutions.
The Minister for the Environment, Heritage and Local Government has
prepared a new draft Statement of Waste Policy arising from the
recommendations of the report. The statement is designed to set a policy
context which will ensure that waste management services are delivered by
the public and private sectors in an environmentally progressive and cost
efficient manner. In advance of finalising the Statement of Waste Policy by
Government, comments are invited from relevant stakeholders and any other
interested parties.
The Regulatory Impact Analysis conducted by AP EnvEcon Limited for the
Minister for the Environment, Heritage & Local Government which examines
proposed areas of amendments to the Waste Management legislation with
regard to the plastic bag levy and the landfill levy, including its extension to
other treatment facilities, can also be accessed at the following link.


Empirical Study

Before the awareness and education program can be conducted, two

different researches were carried out. The first study was to identify the
current waste collection and waste data. Results showed it is estimated that
the National University of Malaysia produce an average collection of about 8
ton of solid waste per day. In order to identify the type of waste produce by
the university, waste characterization study was conducted. The method used
can be referred from the study by Kian-Ghee Tiew, Stefan Kruppa, Noor Ezlin
Ahmad Basri and Hassan Basri (2010) of waste characterization research
team from Faculty of Engineering and Built Environmental. After sorting, the
waste was store in bins which were labeled for different items and later were
weighed to determine waste composition. The study has been successful in
highlighting the composition and characteristics of the solid waste produced
at the university campus. The main components of the waste are organics
(43%), plastics (36%) and paper (17%), which is more than 96% of the total
solid waste. The average amount of a sample is 108 kg. Striking is the high
plastic and organic content and the third most amounts is paper.
Most of the waste collected comprises combustible and noncombustible
wastes. The combustible waste consists of materials such as paper,
cardboard, furniture parts, textiles, rubber, leather, wood, plastic and garden
trimmings. Non-combustible waste consists of items such as glass, discarded
tins, aluminum cans and food waste. Characteristics of solid waste can be
divided into two: physical and chemical characteristics. The physical
characteristics of solid wastes vary widely based on socio-economic, cultural
and climatic conditions. The physical qualities of solid waste like bulk density,
its moisture content etc., are very important to be considered for the
selection of disposal, recycling and other processing methods. Chemical
characteristics information of solid wastes such as pH, chemical constituents
like carbon content, nitrogen, potassium and micronutrients are important in
evaluating processing and recovery options. In addition, the analysis helps in
adopting and utilizing proper equipment and techniques for collection and
transportation. Identifying both chemical and physical characteristics of solid
wastes are important for the selection of proper waste management
Thus both physical and chemical characteristics of the solid waste are
important to determine the selection of the final method of waste disposal.
Based on this findings the university provide three different bins for the
separation at source activities. Each bin is coloured differently, for example
green is for organic or bio-waste, orange for recyclables and black for residual
waste. Before this only one bin is used for all waste.

In the second study, a self-administered questionnaire was used to assess

students awareness, attitudes and perceptions towards the solid waste
management. The approach of this research was to analyze problems, create
and conduct interventions and then evaluate the effectiveness of
interventions. The main tool used in data collection was a structured three
part questionnaire specifically designed for this study. The questionnaire
covered demographic factors such as year of study and ethnic of the
respondent as well as variables related to the respondents littering attitudes
and practices. Examples of statement regarding this variable: 1. I do not care
if someone throws litter; 2. I assume waste is not useful and should be thrown
away; 3. I do not care if my friends throw rubbish into drains.
Another part of the questionnaire consists of statements regarding the
environmental awareness and knowledge of SWM among respondents.
Respondents were asked about their knowledge of SWM and programs
conducted by the university in order to create awareness. They were also
asked about the source of their information regarding environmental
For the first requirement, simple interactive statistical analysis for size
sample calculation was used (Raosoft sample size calculator) to determine
sample size required based on the population size of 5,000 students from the
university main campus. Size of sample required at 95% confidence level, a
margin of error at 5% was 537. Distribution numbers is estimate for
cooperation for questionnaire return at 50%. A much higher number is
required to entail sufficient number for survey study. Therefore 600
questionnaires were distributed by convenience sampling.
A total of 10 undergraduate students that were chosen randomly from
different faculties in The National University of Malaysia completed the
questionnaire forms. There were 6 Malays, 2 Chinese and 2 Indians. Most of
the respondents were first year students. Data was analyzed using the
Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) computer program version 10
software. Descriptive statistics such as means and ranges were computed.
Test of chi square was performed to determine the relationships between
attitude and practices and also between facilities and practices.
Results showed that more than half of the students (64%) had high
awareness status concerning SWM. But there was still quite a number of them
(36%) which have low awareness status. Only 34.1% of the students showed
positive attitude towards SWM whereas another 65.9% showed negative

attitude. Regarding perceptions concerning SWM only 40% of the subjects

perception status was positive.
Despite the high status of awareness expressed by 64% of the students
concerning SWM, it is not consistent with their attitude and perception. The
results of this study showed that more than half of the students (65.9%) have
negative attitudes towards SWM. Like wise only 40% showed positive
perception concerning SWM. Results from the descriptive analysis were
supported by the results of Chi Square which showed that there was no
relationship between attitude and practice (x2=2.452, p>0.05), and also
between facilities and practice
Although results indicated that majority of the students showed high
status of environmental awareness, however, more than half of the subjects
showed negative attitude and perceptions concerning SWM. Behavioral
problem: not practicing environmentally responsible behavior (an inconsistent
and highly unbalanced strong knowing but weak doing) because:
attitudinal problems, lack of enforcement, lack of monitoring and the students
did not understand their roles and responsibilities in environment protection.
Hvatum and Kelly (2008) [20] labelled the situation as you know it, but you
dont do it.
Results of this study supports some studies that suggest that there is no
relation between education and attitude to the environment [21,22]. Findings
of previous studies [23-25] and the findings of Hines, Hugerford and Tomera
(1986), also suggest that the level of consistency between environmental
attitudes and behavior is affected by a persons knowledge and awareness,
public verbal commitment and his/her sense of responsibility. The transfer
from attitudes to behavior can also be affected by lifestyle; many people,
while professing to correct attitudes to the environment, are not ready to
change their lifestyle in ways that might mean sacrificing certain forms of
leisure and comfort for the sake of the environment. Other study has also
found a weak and inconsistent relationship between environmental attitudes
and behavior; usually attributable to a reluctance to give up the comforts of
modern life.
This answers the question as to why in certain circumstances individuals
with acquired knowledge act on that knowledge to implement changed waste
practices, while in other instances, this acquired knowledge does not lead to
change. According to Miller and Morris, (1999:74) "there is a commonly held
myth that providing individuals or groups with information will lead them to
appropriate personal and organizational actions and performance, but this is
far from true." According to Pfeffer and Sutton (2000), while information and
knowledge are 'crucial to performance', but knowledge of an issue is often not
sufficient to cause action: "there is only a loose and imperfect relationship
between knowing what to do and the ability to act on that knowledge. The
inability to transfer knowledge of what needs to be done into action or
behavior which is consistent with that knowledge is referred as the 'knowing-

doing gap' or the 'performance paradox'. While it was believed that the
'knowing-doing gap' was due to a lack of personal knowledge or skills,
research conducted suggests that while personal knowledge is important in
ensuring action, it is not as important as having management systems and
practices in place.



Several universities have successfully implemented a greening university

campus; whereby solid waste management programs were carefully planned
based on key focus and waste characterizations. Paper and paper products
represent a huge number component of solid waste due to academic and
research activities. It is suggested that paper consumption to be reduced and
paper recycling is encouraged. It is also advisable for campus community to
use refillable cup to replace a single-use beverage containers. For instance,
the University of Wisconsin-Madison is the first university that has initiated
this programme.
Besides that, students awareness about the environmental problems and
solutions can be increased through education. It is expected that solid waste
management activities in university campus involve the students as part of
their learning process. The particular skills and knowledge gained from
environmental education would help in changing human behaviour towards
the environment. Students with some knowledge and skills on environmental
education are more motivated to take part in environmental protection
activities and plans thus would generate new ideas for the solution of
environmental problems. Sharing new informations from their activities with
families, other adults, and community probably will have some positive
implications on solid waste management practices. Although there are a
number of literatures on solid waste management in term of intergenerational
influence and socialization processes, however the practical impacts of
environmental education somehow has been given little attention.
Actually, the best way to create awareness and to educate the students,
steps had to be taken to include environmental education in the school
educational system. This must be the leading approach to address the
environmental problems and engendering sustainable development.
Knowledge and understanding of the environment are important since a
degraded environment means a lower quality of life for all. It is, therefore, the

collective responsibility of all human beings to secure a healthy environment

not only for present, but also for future generations, so building
environmental curricula on this principle becomes a necessity.
Clear inadequacy in the environmental education paradigm in Malaysian
educational curricular is essential as they pertain to solid waste management.
For instance, elements of environmental problems were integrated into the
subjects of health education, integrated science, agricultural science and
geography among others. These approaches are insufficient if environmental
protection is to be undertaken sustainably as presently advocated through
environmental awareness and educational programming globally.
Environmental education should, therefore, be a fundamental and integral
part of education for all members of society. Modern societies, both
developed and developing, need environmental education in its formal and
informal aspects. Knowledge of the environment, its conservation and threats
must be integrated with the development of sensitivity to, and respect for,
the natural environment and the formation of proper attitudes towards it.
Fundamental education is therefore the kind of education aimed at realizing a
sustainable living for mankind as a whole.
The Malaysian curricula need adjustments to allow for the inclusion of
standard environmental education and training at the primary, secondary,
tertiary, and informal levels. In so doing, the nations and their peoples would
prospectively thwart the on-going environmental damage which is a threat to
human survival and sustenance both now and in the future due to the lack of
proper management of solid waste. Another aspect that is important to
highlight because of its practical consequences on environmental education is
teacher education. How do we expect a teacher to teach environmental
education if he or she has not received the minimal tools to do so? For
example, environmental education nowadays is included in some way in most
of the basic education curricula, but teachers are not qualified to teach it. The
pedagogical approach and the teachers interest in environmental issues
seem to affect childrens learning processes. A major bottleneck of education
in general and environmental education in particular, is teacher training and
sensitivity about environmental matters.
In UKM, since the students and most of the workers had never been
exposed to any proper environmental education before, an environmental and
waste awareness and education program was implemented. The university is
committed to protect the environment by developing practices that are safe,
sustainable and environmentally friendly and has developed a practical,
staged approach to manage waste in an increasingly sustainable fashion.



The realization that universities also contribute greatly to pollution and

environmental issues, university decision makers should be proactive in
promoting environmental sustainability through implementing this integrated
approach as a tool for improving the environmental performance of their
activities, reducing the negative impacts of their operations and conserving
resources. For a university campus to be sustainable, it must preserve the
environment, stimulate economic growth, and improve society.
Plus, any environmental program at a university must be rooted in the belief
that the process of paying attention to the environment will have the greatest
impact if it becomes an integral part of the educational mission of the institution.
The initiative offers a means to connect what happens in the classroom with
what is happening immediately outside. Recycling alone will not earn a campus a
clean bill of environmental health. Waste reduction and reuse are far more
effective ways of reducing environmental impact, and the goal should be a net
reduction in the campus waste stream, not simply more recycling. Yet, recycling
is among the most visible, measurable, and enforceable of the environmentally
sound practices that a campus can undertake. It is also important to make public
the commitment to sustainable waste management since universities assume a
special societal responsibility, in that they educate the future decision-makers of
society. They take on a multiplier function and therefore a significant
responsibility. Environmental protection should be the responsibility of all
students and employees. The university will only fulfill this task when as many
university members as possible identify with the aims of environmental
protection and sustainable development, and actively contribute to the
implementation of such aims.