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Chapter I Outline of vehicle

Section I Summary
The model MP.Midi is a brand new sedan independently developed and designed by BEIJING FOTON
MOTOR CO.LTD, which is displayed in the world by its sculptural outlook, smooth and robust line and
active visual effect.
It uses the engine, model 4G13S-7L/4G18S-7L, which is characterized by strong power, stable operability,
smooth drivability, reliability, durability and easy maintainability
Product classification of the Foton, MP.Midi Maintenance Manuals:
By the classification of model uses: the model Foton MP.Midi is divided in to dual-purpose type and
passenger type

Section II Technical parameters of main models


1. Size parameters of main model structures
Parameters
Size
Outer dimension(LWH)(mm) free
load

Passenger type

Duo-purpose type

4288/1725/1728

4338/1725/1768

Trunk(cargo space)capacity(m3)

6242800

8243000

Axle base(mm)
Front
Wheel
base(mm)
Rear
Front suspension(mm)
Rear suspension(mm)
Drive type
Dynamic displacement and gearbox
pattern
Number of seats
Type of front rear suspension bracket
Drive brake type
Steering system type

269
1420
1440
830
763
FF

2695
1420
1440
830
813
FF

1.3.L/1.6L,5MT

1.3.L/1.6L,5MT

6/7
McPherson/vertical arm torsion bar
Front disc/rear drum
Power steering by rack/pinion

7
McPherson/vertical arm torsion bar
Front disc/rear drum
Power steering by rack/pinion

2. Vehicle mass parameters


Mass parameters
Full mass (kg)
Full mass state
Front/rear shaft load(kg)
Number of seats
Half loaded state
Vehicle mass
Front/rear shaft load(kg)
Number of seats
Full loaded state
Full loaded mass
Front/rear shaft load(kg)
Max. passengers
Max. designed load mass(kg)
Max. designed mass (kg)
Max. designed total mass state
Front/rear shaft load(kg)

Passenger type
1290
748/542
2
1440
830/610
5
1665
883/782
7
525
1815
873/942

Duo-purpose type
1320
722/598
2
1470
804/666
5
1695
857/838
7
650
1970
881/1089

3. Parameters of wheel positioning


Parameters of front wheel positioning
Type of product

Front axle
type

Introversion
of master pin

Backward
tilt of master
pin

Wheel
camber

Toe-in of
front wheel

Steering angle of
front wheel
Internal
External
corner
corner

BJ6438MC6VA-1
BJ6438MC6VA-2
BJ6438MC6VA-P1
BJ6438MC6VA-P2

Steering
booster

10830

23030

1530

13 mm
(1510)

37

31

BJ6438MC6VA-P1
BJ6438MC6VA-P2

Mechanical
steering

10830

130

1530

13 mm
(1510)

37

31

Type of product

Parameters of rear wheel positioning


Wheel camber
Toe-in of rear wheel

Main reduction ratio

BJ6438MC6VA-1
BJ6438MC6VA-2
BJ6438MC6VA-P1
BJ6438MC6VA-P2

4.052
4.333
4.052
4.333

-2010 or
-1-3mm

-12530

4. Mobility and traffic ability


Functional parameters
Min.turning diameter(m)
Min. ground clearance(mm)(free/full load)
Approach angle ()(Full load)
Departure angle()(Full load)

Passenger type
5.65
156/124
16
24

Duo-purpose type
5.65
154/121
16
22

5. Dynamic and economic parameters


Functional parameters
Power ratio(w.t-1)
Moment ratio (N.m.t-1)
Max.speed(Km/h)
Max. gradeability (%)
Acceleration time:0-100km/h (s)
Acceleration time of the direct gear:
80-120Km/h (s)
Min. steady speed of the direct gear (km/h)
Fuel consumption: 90 km/h
Fuel consumption of integrated operating
mode (L/100km)

Passenger type
(4G18S)
(4G13S)
57.5
48.4
103.9
83.7
161
154
40
30
15.5
19.3

Duo-purpose type
(4G18S)
(4G13S)
56.2
47.3
100.7
81.8
160
152
40
30
16.36
19.6

20.39

24.41

20.39

24.41

21
6.66

20
6.51

21
6.66

20
6.51

7.6

7.6

7.6

7.6

Chapter II Engine
The vehicles, Model-MP.Midi have been fitted, on demand, with the engine model
4G13S-7L/4G18S-7L produced by Harbin Andong Automobile Engine Manufacturing
Corp.Litd. The engine, Model-4G13S-7L/4G18S-7L is the ideal dynamic of the family
multi-purpose vehicles and sedans with displacements of 1.3l/1.6l. In comparison with
homologue type, the engine is characterized with the compact construction, large power per
liter, good fuel economy, high speed and less noise etc., By adopting the electronically
controlled fuel injection system, which reduces considerably the harmful constituents in
off-gases, the engine is worth of the Green Earth power fully meeting the III of new National
Emission Regulations III.

Section I Introduction to engine products


1. Engine diagram

Figure 2.1 Engine assembly outlook

Figure 2.2 Engine left-side outlook

Figure 2.3 Engine right-side outlook

Figure 2.4 Engine front-view outlook

Figure 2.5 Engine rear viewoutlook

II. Engine technical performance and structural parameters


Table 2.1 Engine technical performance and structural parameters
Model

4G18S-7L

4G13S-7L

Type

L4/16VSOHCMPI

Displacement

1299cm3

1584cm3

Cylinder bore

71.0mm

76.0mm

Stroke

Compression ratio

9.5

Max.power

62.5Kw /6000r/min

74.2Kw /6000r/min

Max.Torque

108N.m / 4500r/min

134N.m / 4500r/min

Min. fuel consumption

272g/Kw.h

Rated Speed rpm

6000r/min

Idle

75050r/min

Steering

Counterclockwise(seen from rear to front)

Ignition sequence

1-3-4-2

Oil pressure

150kpa(750r/min)\54050kpa(2000r/min)

Overall dimension

Overall lengthwidthheight=617.8mm613.3mm622.2mm
1152kg
1132kg

Net weight
Fuel
Use of oil
Emissions regulation to meet
Number of cylinders

Unleaded gasoline over 93#


SAE5W-30(in winter, north);
SAE15W-40(through year, south or in summer, north)
National 3
4
4

Combustion chamber

Roof type

Roof type

Stroke mm

82

87.3

Valve and drive mechanism

SOHC-4

SOHC-4

Cylinder center distance

82

82

Cylinder height

201

201

Central distance between the connecting


big/small rods

131

131

Intake valve

Exhaust valve

Emissions regulation to meet

National 3

National 3

Lubrication system

Oil supply under pressure

Oil supply under pressure

Fuel supply mode

Electric fuel pump, non-return oil


system

electric fuel pump non-return oil


system

Type of oil pump

Cycloidal gear pump.

Cycloidal gear pump.

Cooling system

Forced water cooling cycle

Forced water cooling cycle

Type of water pump

Centrifugal, impeller

Centrifugal, impeller

Number of valves

III. Characteristic curves of engine

Figure 2.6 Characteristic curves of engine, Model 4G13S-7L

Figure 2.7 Characteristic curves of engine, model 4G18S-7L

IV. Position of engine No.and cylinder No.

e.g:
4G13S Engine Model
Engine no. print area 7L 79A0001
79A0001production serial number
72007
9Septermber
A0001Production S/N
Identification sign of the engine model

Section II Use and maintenance of engine


I. Use of engine
1. Coolant
Checks to see whether the engine coolant is sufficient or not, if insufficient, adds the coolant
adequately.
Attention: The cooling system includes the water pump, water pipe and water jacket
etc.,.When the engine runs, the cooling system has to be sufficient of the coolant, to ensure
the normal operation of engine, otherwise the car will be boiling. The gasoline consumed
engine operating under the overheating condition will affect the service life and in serious
case, cause the malignant failure such as cylinder score.
2. Oil
Checks the level of engine oil. In case of oil shortage, the adding should be made in tiem.
Attention: The oil insufficience will cause the oil pressure of gasoline engine very low, poor
lubrication, worsen engine wear and bad cooling, which are easy to come about with the
failures and affect the service life of gasoline engine.
3. Fuel grade
Fuel uses the unleaded gasoline graded higher than RON93# and 93#.
4. Engine startup
When starting the engine, twists the ignition switch key on the Startup position. The engine is
activated by thestarter. Once the engine ignited, the key should be released, and the power
supply of starter cut off.
Attention: Do not let the starter running more than 5s per each duty time. If the gasoline
engine fails to start, try to restart in 10s, otherwise it will damage the starter. If failed to

startup after several attempts, please check the fuel system and electric system, or call on the
automobile manufacturer and our service station for maintenance.
5. Idle
After the engine started, you should keep it run at idle speed for several minutes for engine
preheating.
Attention: The idle emission level of our engine products prior to delivery is strictly limited
within the specified range by the national standard. The idle speeds of gasoline engine,
models 4G13S-7L/4G18S-7L are set at 75050r/min. The idle mechanism of the gasoline
engine delivered with the car has been properly adjusted, there is no need for user to change it.
In case of necessary adjustment, you should call on the special maintenance department for
assistance. When the emission is tested, the engine should be in warm state, i.e. the water
temperature over 80; the oil temperature over6 0 (Idle speed: 75050r/min). The idle
speed and emission level are changeable all time. During the usage, the engine should be
regularly inspected and adjusted at the testing point.
6. Drive
During the drive in the car, the coolant temperature should be kept at 8090. At the
moderate speed, be careful that the oil pressure be 54050kPa.
7. Stopping
When the engine is working, especially running at high speed under heavy duty, do not shut
down the engine, you should shut down the engine after it has run at the low speed for
5mins instead of doing it immediately.
8. Driving in rainy day or wading
When driving on the puddle in rainy day or wading, be sure that the air filter be well sealed,
otherwise it will cause the engine cylinder inflowed and the connecting rod etc. damaged.
Attention: The water can not be compressed liquid. After the cylinder inflowed, the
connecting rod will bear the pressure of several times under the inertia action of car and bend
or break up the connecting rod.
9. Preheating in winter
As the temperature in winter is lower, the viscosity of oil increases. For the time being, the
lubrication effect of engine is worser than in summer. Hence, the engine after started up can
not operate at high speed as well as under heavy duty, instead, you should preheat the engine
at idle speed for 10mins and start driving only after increasing the oil and coolant
temperatures and lubricating the engine sufficiently.
Attention: When the gasoline engine is driving without adequately lubricated in wintergine,
it will cause the parts such as camshaft excessively worn and even, locking.
10. Electric injection system
In case of the engine inspection, do not randomly modify the electrical devices or wiring,
otherwise it will cause the electric devices overloaded, short-circuited and sparking. When the
electric system is inpected, the neg. cable should be disconnected fron the battery terminal.
Prior to connect or disconnect the neg.cable, be sure to turn off the ignition switch and
lighting switch(If not, it will burn up the semiconductor elements).
II. Regular check and maintenance of engine
Table of the regular checkand maintenance of engine

Each item is expressed by the running distance and time (month), and whichever comes first
(distance or time) is taken as the check basis.
Maintenance job code: IInspection;

RReplacement; CCleaning;

Interval of maintenance(the odometer reading and month, whichever comes first)


Month
- 6 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 54 60
S/C
10
Odometer reading
1000km
1 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18

Checks the driving belt of A/C generator to see if


there is any crackles, flying debris and wears on the I I
driving belt and ajusts its tightening
Checks the ignition cable for any damages
General conditions of use
Replaces the engine
timing belt
Harsh conditions of use
Checks to see if the vapor control system of crankcase
is normal.
Replaces the spark plug
Replaces the engine coolant
Checks the air filter General conditions of use
elements for any chocks
Harsh conditions of use
and damages
Replaces the air filter General conditions of use
elements
Harsh conditions of use
API
General conditions of use
Oil
Class.
replacement
SJ
Harsh conditions of use
grade
General conditions of use
Replaces the
Oil filter
Harsh conditions of use
Checks the liquid level in the clutch hydraulic
reservoir
Checks the engine idle and carbon monoxide
Checks the ignition timing
Checks the crankcase air hoses
Checks if there is any leakage on the exhaust pipe
connectors
Throttle body
Injector
Checks the valve clearance

I
I
I
I
R: per 70,000km

I
I

I
R

I
R

I
R

I
I

I
I
I

I
I

R
R

I
R

I
R

I
I
I

I
I
I

I: per 5,000KM
I: More frequently
R R R R R
R: More frequently
R: per 5000KM
R: per 3001KM
R: per 5002KM
R: per 3003KM
I
I

I
I
I

I
I
I

I
I
I

C C C C C C C C C C
C* C* C* C* C* C* C* C* C* C*
I
I
I
I
I
I

Note:
C* for the cleaning and maintenance of the injection nozzle, it is recommended to use the
special cleaning analyzer of injection nozzlecheck once per 3months or per 5000km. the
failures such as vapor lock on the nozzle and block etc. are not considered as the quality
problems of product, the maintenance of which is charged by the user.
The Use speficiation under the harsh conditions is only applicable to the vehicles used under
the harsh conditions.
The harsh conditions of use include the following subjects:
(1) Driving in the dusty areas, or the car often at exposure to the salty air or seawater.

(2) Driving on the uneven road, puddle or hill road.


(3) Driving in the cold areas.
(4) The engine runs at idle for longtime or drives in short-distance in cold season
(5) Uses frequently the brake and often makes panic stops.
(6) Used as the tractor-trailer.
(7) Used as the taxi or rent car.
(8) At the temperature more than 32, the driving time in the city of heavy traffic exceeds
50% of the total driving time.
(9) At the temperature more than 30, the driving time at speed of 120km/h or higher
exceeds 50% of the total driving time.
(10) Overloaded driving
III. Internal inspection of engine
1. Checks the driving belt of A/C generator to see if there are anycrackles, flying debris and
wears and adjusts its tightening.
The driving belt condition of A/C generator: checks if there are anycrackles, flying debris and
wears while turning the driving belt of A/C generato.
The driving belt tightening of the A/C generator
Mode of bolt structure adjustment
(1) Unscrews the nuts of A/C generator bearing
bolt;
(2) Unscrews the locking nut of belt tensioner;
(3) Turns the adjusting bolt to adjust the belt
tightening
(4) Tightening locking nut.
(5) Tightens the nut of A/C generator bearing
bolt
(6) Checks the deflection of driving belt,
re-adjusts it if necessary.

Regulating bolt

Locking nut

Specifications
Check method
Check time
Driving belt deflection of A/C
generator
(under acting force of 100N)

When the new belt is fitted

On inspection

5.6~6.7(mm)

8.3~10.4(mm)

785~981(N)

392~588(N)

Driving belttension of A/C


generator

2. Checks any of damage on the ignition cable


(1) Checks the ignition cable and rubber lid, incl. the installing condition to see if there are
any damages or fragility.
(2) Checks if the ignition cable, spark plugs and ignition coil joints are condaminated by any
filths and dirt deposit etc.
(3) The dirts if any should be cleaned outany damages shoud necesit the replacement.
3. Replaces the timing belt of engine
Under the general conditions of use, one piece
replaced per 80,000km; Under rigorous conditions,
one piece replaced per 70,000km .
4. Checks if the vapor control system of crankcaseis
normal.
(1) Checks if there are any crackles or damages on
the channeling gas hose.
(2) If necessary, the interior of the channeling gas
hose should be cleaned out.
Check of the forced ventilation device of crankcase.
Forced vent valve of camshaft case

Removes the air hose from the forced ventilation


valve of crankcase
Removes the forced ventilation valve of
crankcase under the rocker arm cover.
Refixes the forced ventilation valve of crankcase
on the air hose.
Starts up the engine and keeps it run at idle
speed.

Forced vent valve of camshaft case

Fingers at the openture of the forced ventilation


valve of crankcase to prove if any vaccum inside the
intake manifold can be felt.
Note:
Now, the plunger in the forced ventilation valve
crankcase will move back and forth.
If no vaccum is felt, the forced ventilation valve
of crankcase should be cleaned or replaced.

Drainage valve of cylinder

Check of the PCV valve


Inserts, in general, a thin rod shown as in Figure (mounting side of the rocker chamber
cover) into the forced ventilation valve of crankcase, and moves it around to confirm if the
plunger is moving.
If the plunger is immobile, it means there is a chock inside the forced ventilation valve of
crankcase. In such case, the valve should be cleaned or replaced.
5. Replacement of spark plug
The replacement is to be made each time per 30,000km. In case of replacement, remember
that the model is BKR5E-11 or K7RF-11 with the thread M141.25
6. Replacement of engine coolant
(1) Shuts down the engine after it has been fully preheated.
(2) Adds the detergent for cleaning the cooling system of engine into the engine coolant
trough the radiator filler, then starts up the engine.
(3) Removes the drainage cover of radiator at the cold state of engine, and drains the coolant
out.
(4) Adds the clean water into the cooling system via the filler of radiator, then cleans the
cooling system. After the cooling system cleaned out, tightens the drainage cover of radiator.
(5) Determines, depending on the conditions of use, the amount of coolant of long service life,
antifreeze or antirust agent.
Attention: Uses neither alcohol or methanol antifreezer, nor the engine coolant mixed
with the alcohol or methanol antifreezer. Use of uncorrect antifreezer may cause
thecorrosion of aluminum parts.
(6) Slowly poors the the engine coolant through the filler of radiator into the radiator until it is
fully filled, while filling reserve tank with the engine coolant until the level reaches the mark
lime FULL(alternative dependint the availability of car).
(7) Fixes tightly the radiator lid.
(8) Starts up the engine and lets it run unti the thermostat turns on(touches by hands the
radiator hose to verify if the hot water is flowing).
(9) After the thermostat is turned on, keeps the engine run idle at the high speed for several
times, then shuts down the engine.
(10) After the engine cooled, fills the reserve tank with the engine coolant as long as the level
reaches the FULL line. If the level is still lower, please repeat the procedure from (9).

Attention: Do not open the coolant tank lid or radiator lid when the engine remains in
hot state. The cooling system in the hot state is under a certain pressure. If opening the
lid, the hot coolant will spray out and scald the people around.
Drains the engine coolant through thedrainage plug of cylinder.
1) Removes the drainage plug, then radiator lid, and drains out the coolant from the engine.
2) Removes the drainage plug of cylinder and drains the engine coolant.
3) Removes the reserve tank and drains out the engine coolant (alternative dependint the
availability of car)
4) After the engine coolant drained out, fills in the clean water through the radiator lid to clean
up the pipleline of engine coolant.
5) Applies the specified sealant on the drainage plug thread of cylinder and thghtens as per the
moment as specified.
6) Firmly tightens the drainage plug of radiator.
7) Fits the reserve tank (alternative dependint the availability of car).
8) Removes the bleed bolt and replaces the seal washer (alternative dependint the availability
of engine).
9) Fills the radiator with the engine coolant until it overflows from the bleed bolt. Then closes
the bleed bolt (alternative dependint the availability of engine)
10) Slowly poors the engine coolant through the filler of radiator into the radiator until it is
filled up, while filling the reserve tank with the engine coolant unti the level is up to the
FULL line (alternative dependint the availability of car).
11) Fits tightly the radiator lid.
12) Starts up the engine and lets it run unti the thermostat turns on(touches by hands the
radiator hose to verify if the hot water is flowing).
13) After the thermostat is turned on, keeps the engine run idle at the high speed for several
times, then shuts down the engine
14) After the engine cooled, fills the reserve tank with the engine coolant as long as the level
reaches the FULL line. If the level is still lower, please repeat the procedure from (13).
7. Checks if there are any blocks and damages on the air filter elements.
(1) Checks if there any blocks and damages on the filter elements
(2) Removes the dirt deposit on the filter elements as per the method as below.

Tpas one side of filter elements.

Blows the compressed air from the internal side of filter elements.

(3) Scraps out the dirts in the air filter.


(4) For the gasoline consumed vehicles, places, while installing, the dirty part of filter
elements at intake port of channeling gas (prevent the greasy dirt from spreading) if the old
filter elements are intended to be reused.
8. Replacement of air filter elements.
(1) Removes the air filter cover and filter elements. Scraps the filth in the filter.

(2) Fits the new air filter elements.


Procedure of replacement:
In the process of use, the air filter elements will get dirty and dusty, which significantly
reduces the filtering effect. In such time, they should be replaced by the new ones.
Releases the bucle of the air filler cap.
Removes the air filter elements and fits the new ones.
Be sure to keep the air filler cap fully closed when holding it down.
9. Oil replacement.
(1) Removes the filler lid set on the rocker chamber cover of engine.
(2) Removes the oil drain plug on the engineoil sump and drains out the oil.
(3) Renews the spacer of drainage bolt.
(4) Tightens the drainage bolt.
(5) Poors in the renewed oil through the filler into the crankcase.
(6) Pulls out the dipstick from the engine, and checks if the oil level remains between the
marks MAX and MIN.
(7) Fitss the filler cap.
(8) Checks the oil level after the road test.
Selection of oil:
SAE5W-30(in winter, north), SAE15W-40(through year, south or in summer, north)
Note: The quality class (API): SJ or higher than SJ.
10. Replacement of oil filter
(1) Starts up the engine and lets it preheating until the temperature of engine coolant is up to
80-90.
(2) Removes the filler cap on the rocker chamber cover.
(3) Removes the oil drain plug on the oil sump to drain out the oil. Be careful! The oil
temperature could be very high.
(4) Removes the oil filter of engine with special tools as shonw in Figure.below.

O-ring

Or marketed tools

(5) Cleans out the fitting side of filter bracket.


(6) Applies a few of oil on the O-ring of the oil filter.
(7) Once the O-ring of oil filter touches the flange, please use the special tool shown in Figure
to tighten it up to the specified moment.
(8) Fits the oil drain plug on the oil sump and poors in the oil through the filler on the rocker
chamber cover.
(9) Runs the engine at high speed for 2-3 times, then checks the fitting side of filter and be
sure no oil leakage is allowed.
11. Checks the idle of engine and the content of carbon monoxide.
(1) Prior to the check and adjustment, get the engine ready under the following conditions:

Temperature of engine coolant: 80-95

All car lamps, electric cooling fan and accessories: OFF

Gearbox: N-gear

(2) When making check on the ignition timing, adjusts it if necessary.


(3) Fits the tachometer after the ignition switch turned on the position OFF.
(4) Starts up the engine and let it run at idle speed.
(5) Keeps the engine running at idle for 2 mins.
(6) Checks the idle and accesses the reading of idle according to the tachometer.
Remark: The idle control system (ISC) will adjust the idle automatically.
(7) If there is any deviation from the standard value, please refer to the maintenance manual
for the check of MPI elements.
(8) Fits the tester of carbon monoxide.
(9) Keeps the engine running at 2000-3000r/min for more than 10s.
(10) Checks the mixture of idle.

12. Check of the ignition timing


(1) Prior to the check and adjustment, get the engine ready under the following conditions:

Temperature of engine coolant: 80-90

All car lamps, electric cooling fan and accessories: OFF

Gearbox: N-gear

(2) Inserts a paper clip along the wiring side into the connector between the primary side of
ignition coil and the tachometer.
(3) Connects a tachometer for the primary voltage to the paper clip.
(4) Fits the timing lamp.
(5) Starts up the engine and let it run at idle speed.
(6) Checks if the engine idle is within the range of standard value.
13. Check of the air hose of crankcase
(1) In case of need, checks with reflector the full peripheryand length.
(2) Checks if all clippers are well tightened, whether there are any leakages on the joints.
(3) If there are any clear signs of deterioration or damage, the replacement should be made at
once.
14.

Checks the valve clearance.


Timing indication panel

Notch

Side of timing belt

Identification sign

(1) Starts up the engine and preheats the engine until the coolant temperature is up to 80-90.
(2) In order to facilitate inspectio, removes all spark plugs from the cylinder head.
(3) Removes the cover of rocker chamber.

(4) Turns clockwise the crankshaft until the notch of pulley aligns with the markT on the
timing dashboard.
(5) Moves up and down the rocker arms of the 1st and 4th cylinders to be sure that the pistons
of both cylinders are located at the top dead center of compression stroke. If there are the
clearances between the rocker arms of both intake and exhaust valves, the pistons in the
cylinder correspongding to those rocker arms should be positioned in the top dead center of
the compression stroke
(6) When the pistion of the cylinder No.1 is sited at the top dead center of compression stroke,
The valve clearance can be checked and adjusted with the rocker arm indicated by the white
arrowand when the pistion of the cylinder No.4 is sited at the top dead center of compression
stroke, the valve clearance can be checked and adjusted with the rocker arm indicated by the
solid arrow;
(7) Check of valve clearance
If the valve clearance is non-conform to the specified requirements, you may unscrew the
locking nut of rocker arm, and turns the governing screw while measuring with a feeler gauge
the clearance and makes the adjustment.
Standard values:
Valve
Intake valve
Exhaust valve

Ambient temperature(C)
0~15
15~25
0.120.03mm
0.140.03mm
0.170.03mm
0.190.03mm

25~40
0.160.03mm
0.210.03mm

Engine in hot state


0.20mm
0.25mm

Note: The variation of the valve clearance against the external temperature: every 1 degree
rise in temperature , the valve clearance is added by 0.0018mm.
(8) Fixes the governing screw with the screwdriver to prevent it from turning, tightens the
locking nut up to the specified moment.
(9) Turn s the crankshaft by 360, and aligns the notches on the crankshaft pulley with the
markTon the timing dashboard.
(10) Repeats the procedures (7) and (8) and adjusts the clearances of other valves.
(11) Fits the cover of rocker chamber.
(12) Fits the spark plugs and tightens them as per the specified moment.
15. Checks if there are any leakage on the exhaust pipe joint.
(1) Be sure that the exhaust pipe cause no interferences on any parts of car.
(2) Checks if the exhaust pipe has been damaged due to the impact by the gravel etc.
(3) Starts up the engine, to check if there is any leakage on the exhaust pipe joint.
16 Cleaning of the throttle assembly
In case where the following cases occur in your car, you should clean the throttle assembly:
(1) After completed the travel of 10,000kms or 6 months, whichever comes the first.
(2) When the following problems occur to your car: insteady idle, throttle valve lock, high
idle and low idle.
The portion to be cleaned as below:

Ball head of stepping motor


Taper hole matching with the ball head
Throttle valve plate
The inner wall of the main chanel in the throttle valve
17. Check of water pump leakage
During the use of water pump, it is normal to see a few of water from the drainage hole of
water pump. When the water pump is mechanically sealed, the mechanical seal needs the
cooling waterto lubricate the sliding surface. Hence, in normal closing state, the coolant will
be drained out in form of steam or mist. In view of the water pump structure, the coolant
drained out needs to be discharged from the drain and steam holes.
Causes of leakage
1) The most cases of leakage are temporary instead of permanent. Such leakage should be
originated from the drain hole of water pump or the cooling water form the steam hole.
2) In addition, in terms of the water pump structure (mechanical seal), the temporary leakage
will not reduce the cooling performance (overheating etc.)(less or more cooling water etc.).
3) The after sales service will judge whether the water pump is qualified according to the
fowling methods and prevent the misjudgment of water pump leakageIn case of true leakage,
replaces the water pump.
Whether the water pump leaks or not will be determined as per the following procedures:

Drain hole

Leakage inspection of
water pump

NON

Identification of water leakage traces.


Visually confirms the leakage traces of drain hole, steam
hole and fitting surface.

YES

Hydraulic pressure testing


Pressure increased with the tester of the radiator
cover
Pressure1000kpa
Pressurizing time20min
Visually confirms whether there is any
water leakage

YES

NON

Turbine driver test

YES

Engine heater
Idle turbine driver20min

Visually confirms whether there is any


water leakage

Normal

NON

Pump replacement

Continues to use after wiping out the water


traces(normal)

IV. Tightening moment of main bolts of engine


Items

Nm

Intake manifold and exhaust manifold


Intake manifold stay bolt (M8)

15~20

Intake manifold stay bolt (M10)

27~34

Intake manifold bolt

15~20

Exhaust manifold stay bolt (M8)

15~20

Exhaust manifold stay bolt (M10)

27~33

Exhaust manifold housing bolt

27~33

Bolts of engine lugs

15~20

Rocker arm, rocker arm shaft and camshaft


Rocker chamber cover bolt

3~4

Items

Nm

assembly bolt, rocker arm shaft

28~34

governing screw

8~10

Cylinder head and valves

Cylinder headbolt

Tightens up to 49Nm
Releases
202
90 to 94
90 to 94

Oil pump and oil sump


Gearbox bracket bolt(1020-7T)

42~54

Gearbox bracket bolt(840-7T)

19~27

Oil drain plug

34~44

Oil sump bolt(M6)

6~8

Oil sump bolt(M8)

22~25

Oil filter

12~16

Front cover bolt

12~15

Connecting rod
Connecting rod nut

16.72.090 to 94

Crankshaft and cylinder body


Flywheel bolt

127~137

Backboard bolt

8~12

Flywheel shell bolt

8~12

Rear seal shell bolt

10~12

Bearing cap bolt

34.32.030 to 34

Engine and vehicle interface


Fitting bolts, exhaust manifold and exhaust front tube

40~50

Fitting nuts, engine right bracket and vehicle frame

575

A/C generator and ignition system


Pulley bolt, water pump

7~11

A/C generator stay bolt (side of the A/C generator)

20~25

Master-pin bolt, A/C generator

34~54

Dipstick guided-tube bolt

19~28

crankshaft bolt M141.5

176~186

Spark plug

20~29

A/C generator nut

34~54

Ignition coil

8~12

Camshaft position sensor bolt

7.5~8.5

Camshaft position sensor, bracket bolt

12~15

Camshaft position sensor, tooth plate bolt

17~26

Timing belt
Fitting bolt, timing belt shell,

10~12

Fitting bolt, timing belt tensioner

20~27

Fitting bolt, crankshaft, winkel-sensor (speed sensor)

6~10

Items

Nm

Nut and bolt, engine right bracket (M10)

30~42

Fitting bolt, engine right bracket (M8)

17~25

Fuel injection and control system


Sensor bolt, air intake temperature pressure

4~6

Fitting bolt, canister solenoid bracket

8~10

Fitting bolt, throttle assembly


Fitting bolt, oil rail assembly
Fitting bolt, , knock sensor

15~22
10~13
15~25

Water pump and intake pipe


Water thermostat

10~12

Joint, water pipe

17~26

Temperature sensor, cooling water

20~40

thermostat shell bolt

19~28

Intake pipe bolt

10~15

water pump bolt

12~15

V. Main failures of engine and troubleshooting


5.1 Difficult start-up of engine
Failure phenomenon and causes

The starter doent run

The spark plug fails to strike

The oil supply system fails to


work

The compression pressure of


cylinder weakens.

1. The terminal connection of


battery loosens or insufficient
power.
2. Some parts of circuit are
disconnected.
3. The starter is damaged
1. The ignition timing is not
well adjusted
2. Poor grounding
3. The ignition coil is damaged.
4. Inappropriate clearance
between the spark plugs or
burnt out.
5. Failures in the electronic
ignition system.
1. Insufficient supply of
gasoline pump
2. The gasoline hose and filter
are jammed.
1. The cylinder pads are broken
2. The valve clearance is poorly
adjusted or damaged.
3. The intake manifold loosens
and the air flows in.
4. The pistons, piston rings and
cylinder are worn.

Troubleshooting
Tightens or unscrews
Inspection and maintenance
Repair or replace
Adjustment
Repair
Replacement
Adjustment or replacement
Repair or replace
Repair or replace
Cleaning
Replacement
Adjustment, repair or replace
Tightening
Repair or replace

5.2 Insufficient power during the running


Failure phenomenon and causes
The throttle pedal and the throttle
valve are inappropriately
adjusted.
The compression pressure of
valve decreases
Insufficient rate during the
running.

The ignition timing is inaccurate.


Insufficient supply of gasoline
Insufficiency of air intake
Air exhaust jam
Inappropriate clearance between
the spark plugs or damage

Troubleshooting
Adjustment
1. Checks the valves, spark plugs
and valve pads for any leakages
2. Cylinder grinding
Adjustment
Adjustment or reparation
Checks the intake system
Checks the air exhaust system and
cleans out the carbon deposit
Adjustment or replacement

5.3 Piston clicks in the engine


Failure phenomenon and causes

There are the pistion clicks heard


from the engine.

Bearing, camshaft cam and rocker


arm worn
Crankshaft, connecting rod shaft
and piston pins seriously worn.
Piston ring damaged
Inappropriate valve clearance
Stop clearing of crankshaft too
large.

Troubleshooting
Replacement
Repair or replace
Replacement
Adjustment
Adjustment

5.4 Engine overheated


Failure phenomenon and causes

Engine overheated

Ignition timing not well adjusted


Inappropriate clearance between
the spark plugs or carbon deposit
The intake manifold loosens and
the exhaust manifold blocked
Insufficient tension of fan tape
Insufficient coolant or water pipe
blocked.
Inappropriate clearance of water
pump or damaged
Insufficient oil supply
Oil pipeline blocked or oil pump
damaged
Cylinder pad damaged
Clutch sliding
The radiator is blocked by scald
deposit.

Troubleshooting
Adjustment
Cleaning or adjustment
Tightening or cleaning
Adjustment
Adding orcleaning
Repair or Replace
Adding
Cleaning or replacement
Replacement
Repair or Replace
Cleaning or replacement

5.5 Excessive oil consumption


Failure phenomenon and causes
Excessive oil consumption

Oil seal of valve duct worn or


damaged
Oil ring worn or damaged
The interface of piston ring is not
staggered as per provision.

Rroubleshooting
Replacement
Replacement
Adjustment

Failure phenomenon and causes

Excessive oil consumption

Cylinder pad damaged


Valve and valve duct worn
Engine overheated, internal
pressure increased, a part of
lubricant is discharged through
the vent.

Rroubleshooting
Replacement
Replacement
Checks the relevant parts and
exclude them therefrom.

5.6 Noise in the clutch


S/N
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Failure phenomenon and causes


Release bearing worn or damaged
Output shaft bearing damaged
Clutch hub loosened
Crackles existing on the clutchplaten
Platen and diaphragm spring loosened
Clutch friction plate soaked with greasy stains
Glue stick or spring of clutch damping broken

Troubleshooting
Replacement
Replacement
Repair
Replacement
Maintenance or replacement
Cleaning or replacement
Replacement

VI. Engine sealed for safekeeping and seal removal


6.1 Storage of engine oil seal
1. Drains out the coolant of cylinder body.
2. Wipes out the apparent surface with the cleaning gasoline.
3. Wraps or seals, with plugs, the engine inlet port, In/outlet port of water pipes and all
sensors etc.
4. Puts the engine into the packing case.
6.2 Seal removal of engine
1. Cleans out the outer grease of engine.
2. Adds the oil.
3. Adds the coolant.
4. Removes all plugs.
VII. Engine maintenance
7.1 Maintenance rules
1) Prepares the spare parts kit and part rack used for the detached, disassembled parts. They
have to be disposed in order and marked if necessary to prevent the disorder and
misplacement.
2) Be very careful when overhauling the aluminum alloy parts so as to prevent the damage on
the process surface.
3) Gets ready with adequate auxiliary material so that they are readily accessible during the
overhaul.
4) Where there are the standard tightening moments imposed for the bolts and other fasteners,
the tightening has to be made with the special tool as per the specifieid values.
5) After the overhaul, the deposable parts should be rejected and replaced by new ones.
6) Uses the correct disassemble tools for assembly and disassembly.
7) Refers the maintenance manual during the work.

8) In case of any technique problems difficult to resolve encountered during the overhaul, it is
recommended to consult with our Products Sale Department.
7.2 Materials necessary for the overhaul
The materials listed in the table below are indispensable for the overhaul of the engine.
Therefore, gets them prepared for readily accessible all times. In addition, the specified type
of washing liquid and lubricant should be applied as far as possible.
Table of the auxiliary materials for DA Engine:
S/N

Name

Inteded use

Specification and grade

Oil

Oil filling, oil for assembly

Mobil Super 9900 or Esso Superflo SJ/CF


5W30

Silica gel

Oil pump, water pump, oil sump

LT5699

Sealant

Oil pressure switch, water drain


screw plug, flywheel bolt

LT243

Sealant

Water temperature sensor

LT648

Silica gel

Rear seal shell, crankshaft

LT5699

Gasoline

Sealant

Unleaded gasoline 93# and higher


Stud bolt

LT271

Table of the auxiliary materials for gearbox:

AOS materials
and Model
Lubricant

Lubricant

Lubricant

Gear oil

Lubricant

Sealant TB1501

LT480

7
8
9

Anti-rust oil
Gear oil
Gear oil

Mobil Lama LT or Rust-Ban330

10

Sealant TB1303

LT243

Differentialbolt

11

Sealant TB1216

LT5699

Gearbox shell joint surface

12

Gear oil

Mobil HD80W-90 or Esso Gear


Oil GX 80W-90

13

Sealant TB1216

LT5699

S/N

Actually used materials and


model
Mobilith SHC220 or Spartan syn
EP 220
Mobil HD80W-90 or Esso Gear
Oil GX 80W-90

Mobil HD80W-90 or Esso Gear


Oil GX 80W-90

Assembly position
Shift fork
Release bearing
Input shaft oil seal
Gearbox assembly
Shifting block
Air respirator
Input shaft
Input shaft needle bearing
Input shaft needle bearing

Control shaft and shifting lever


Control box sub-assembly

Table of the auxiliary materials for cylinder head assembly:


S/N
1

Oil

Oil

Sealant TB1386D

Oil

Actually used materials and model


Mobil Super 9900 or Esso Superflo
SJ/CF 5W30
Mobil Super 9900 or Esso Superflo
SJ/CF 5W30
LT271
Mobil Super 9900 or Esso Superflo
SJ/CF 5W30

Assembly position
Valve head
Camshaft, rocker arm, rocker arm shaft
Stud bolt
Camshaft oil seal

S/N
5

Actually used materials and model


Sealant

LT962T

Assembly position
Spark plug guide bush, cylinder
body/cylinder head
Bowled expansion plug, filler neck

7.3 Signs of the lubricant, sealant and binder


-------------------When the lubricant has no trade mark(lable), it means
multi-puropose lubricant
------------------Sealant and adhesive
-----------------Brake fluid, automatic gearbox fluid or air compression oil

--------------------Engine or gear oil


7.4 Engine inspection tools
Tools

Number

Name

Intended use
When unscrewing or
tightening the bolt(clamps
the sprocket wheel of
camshaft with the tool
MD998715)

MB990767

Terminal fork clip

MD998718

Setting tool for the rear oil


seal of crankshaft

For fitting of the rear oil


seal of crankshaft

MD998054

Oil pressure switch wrench

Removal and fitting of oil


pressure switch

MD998304

Setting tool for the front


oil seal of crankshaft

For fitting of the front oil


seal of crankshaft

MD998305

Front oil seal guide bush


of crankshaft

Guided installation for the


fornt oil seal of crankshaft

Tools

Number

Name

Intended use

MD998713

Setting tools for the


camshaft oil seal

Fitting of the camshaft oil


seal

MD998719
or MD998754

Pins

When unscrewing or
tightening the bolt(clamps
the sprocket wheel of
camshaft with the tool
MD990767)

MD998727

Disassemble tool for the


oil sump

MD998772

Valve spring
compressor

MD991671

Setting tool for the oil seal


of valve rod

Fitting for the oil seal of


valve rod

MD998780

Positioning tool of the


piston pin

Removal and fitting of the


piston pin

MB991659

Guide bushD

Guide bush for the


removal and press-fitting
of the piston pin.

MD998735

Compressor of
valve spring

Compression of valve
spring

MD998781

Flywheel stopper

Locks the flywheel on the


fixed position

MB991653

Wrench for the cylinder


head bolts

Removal and fitting for


the cylinder head bolts

Removal of the oil sump

Compression valve
spring

Section III Disassembly of engine


I. Specifications of maintenance
Items

Standard value

Limit values

Camshaft
Air intake

37.298

36.8

Air exhaust

37.161

36.66

44.92544.94

Surface plainness of the cylinder pad in mm

Lower than 0.03

0.1

Total thickness of the cylinder head in mm

119.9120.1

Intake valve

1.35

0.85

Exhaust valve

1.85

1.35

Air intake
Air exhaust

5.5
0.020~0.036
0.030~0.045

0.1
0.15

45~45.5

Intake valve

53.21

53.71

Exhaust valve

54.1

54.6

Intake valve

111.56

111.06

Exhaust valve

114.71

114.21

Free height of the valve spring in mm

50.87

50.37

Load/fitting height of the valve spring in N/mm

216/44.2
588/34.7

verticality of the valve spring

Less than 2

Contact width of the valve seat in mm

0.9~1.3

Valve duct I/D

5.5

Extra.0.05
Extra.0.25

23
10.605~10.615
10.805~10.815

Extra.0.50

11.055~11.065

Extra.0.3

28.425~28.445

Extra.0.6

28.725~28.745

Extra.0.3

26.425~26.445

Extra.0.6

26.725~26.745

Extra.0.3

30.425~30.445

Extra.0.6

30.725~30.745

Extra.0.3

28.425~28.445

Extra.0.6

28.725~28.745

Tooth top clearance of the oil pump, in mm

0.06~0.18

Clearance of the oil pump, inmm

0.04~0.11

Clearance of the oil pump shell, in mm

0.100.18

0.35

Camshaft height in mm

Diameter of the camshaft journal in mm


Cylinder head and valve

Thickness of valve edge in


mm
Diameter of valve rod in mm
Clearance between the valve
rod and valve duct in mm
Coneangle of valve
Proturding of the valve rod in
mm
Total length of the valve in
mm

in mm

Protruding of the valve duct in mm


Aperture of the valve duct for oversized
cylinder head, in mm
Air intake
4G13S-7L
Hole diameter of
the housing
washer for the
oversized valve,
in mm

Air exhaust
4G18S-7L

Air intake
Air exhaust

Oil pump and oil sump

Item

Standard value

Limit value

4G13S-7L

71

4G18S-7L

Pistons and connecting rod


Reference O/D of the pistons,
in mm

76

st

0.03~0.07

0.1

nd

0.02~0.06

0.1

st

0.20~0.35

0.8

nd

0.35~0.50

0.8

4G13S-7L

0.20~0.50

1.0

4G18S-7L

0.10~0.40

1.0

O/D of the piston pin, in mm

18.0

Press-fitting load of the piston pin(at the room


temperature) N

4900~14700

Oil clearance of the crank pin(clearance of the connecting


rod journal), in mm

0.02~0.04

0.1

Clearance of the large head of connecting rod, in mm

0.10~0.25

0.4

Axial clearance of the crankshaft, in mm

0.05~0.18

0.25

Main journal diameter of crankshaft, in mm

48.0

Journal diameter of connecting rod, in mm

42.0

Main journal clearance of crankshaft, in mm

0.02~0.04

0.1

Surface plainness of the cylinder body spacer, in mm

Lower than 0.03

0.1

Overall height of cylinder body, in mm

256

Cylindricity of cylinder body, in mm

0.01

4G13S-7L

71.0

4G18S-7L

76.0

0.02~0.04

Lateral clearance of the piston


ring, in mm

1 ring
2 ring
1 ring

Opening clearing of the piston


ring, in mm

2 ring
Oil ring

Crankshaft and cylinder body

Reference I/D of the cylinder


body, in mm

Clearance of the pistons with the cylinder, in mm

II. Removal and breakdown procedure for each part


Removes firstly the starter, clutch and gearbox from the engine.The order of breakdown is
shown as below:
2.1 A/C generator and ignition system

Removal and installation procedures


Removal procedure:
1. Dipstick

9. Crankshaftpulley

2. Dipstick duct

10. Spark plug cable assembly No.1

3. O-RING

11. Spark plug cable assembly No.3

4. Timing belt

12. Spark plug

5. Water pumppulley

13. Camshaft position sensor

6. A/C generator bracket

A 14. CPS bracket

7. A/C generator

15. CPS tooth plate

AB 8. Pulley bolts of crankshaft

16. Ignition coil asssembly

Essentials of the removal operation:


A Removal of the crankshaft bolts. Uses the special tool shown in Figure to lock up the
flywheel or drive plate on the relevant places, then unscrews the crankshaft bolts.

Essentials for the installation operation


A CPS Bracket installation
Shown as in Figure., applies the field-shaping curl spacer in thickness of 3mm (FIPG).
Special sealant: LT5699

B Installation of the crankshaft bolt. Uses the special tool shown in figure to lock up the
flywheel or drive plate on the relevant position, then tightens the crankshaft bolts

2.2 Timing belt


Removal and installation procedures

Removal procedure
1.Timing belt upper cover

B A 7.Camshaft timing gear bolt

2. Timing belt lower cover

8.Camshaft timing gear

A C

3. Timing belt

9.Engine bracket

4. Tensioner spring

5. Timing belt tensioner


6. Crankshaft timing gear assembly

Essentials for the removal operation:


A Removal of the timing belt /tensioner spring/timing belt tensioner:
(1) Clamps the entended end of the tensioner spring with the pliers, removes it from the
stopping block of oil pump shell, then removes the tensioner spring.
(2) Removes the timing belt tensioner.
(3) If the timing belt is intened to be reused, draws an arrow with the chalk on the belt to
show the turning direction prior to the removal. This will ensure the correct installation of
timing belt when it is reused.

B Removal of the timing gear bolt of camshaft


(1) Uses the special tool shown in figure to lock up the timing gear of camshaft on the
relevant position.
(2) Unscrews the timing gear bolts of camshaft.

Essentials for installation operation:


A Installation of the timing gear bolts of camshaft
(1) Uses the special tool shown in Figure to lock up the timing gear of camshaft on the
relevant position.
(2) Tightens the timing gear of camshaft up to the specified moment.

B Installation of the timing belt tensioner /tensioner spring.


(1) Locks up the timing belt tensioner on the position shown in Figure

Tensionner of
the timing belt

(2) Hooks the one extended end of tensioner spring on the clevis part of the timing belt
tensioner and fits the tensioner on the oil pump shell.

(3) Clamps the other extended end of tensioner spring and hooks it on the lug of oil pump
shell shown as in Figure

(4) Removes the timing belt tensioner as shown in figure and tightens the belt in time.
C Installation of the timing belt
(1) Aligs the timing mark on the timing gear of camshaft with that on the cylinder head.

(2) Aligs the timing mark on the timing gear of camshaft with that on the front shell.

(3) Keeps the tension side of timing belt tightened, and fits orderly, the timing belt into the
timing gear of crankshaft and tensioner pulley.
Timing gear of the
camshaft

Belt pulley of
tensionner

Timing gear of
the crankhaft

(4) Unscrews the fitting bolts of tensioner pulley by the turn of 1/41/2, enabling the tension
effect of tensioner springto act on the timing belt.
(5) Turns the crankshaft for two cycles in the normal direction of rotation (clockwise) to
check if the timing marks is properly aligned.
Attention: by this method, the tension effect acts evenly on the timing belt by the driving

moment of the crankshaft. The crankshaft has to be turn as per the above-said direction
instead of turning counterclockwise the crankshaft.
(6) Tightens the fixing bolts of tensioner pulley.
2.3 Fuel control system
Removal and installation procedures

1. Engine sub-assembly

2. Throttle body assembly

3. Throttle spacer

4. Bolted spacer

5. Bolted spacer

6. Harness bracket

7. Flange bolt
Essentials for installation operation
A Installation of oil rail assembly

A 8. Oil rail assembly

(1) Prior to the injector installation, a layer of the clean oil should be applied on the surface of
the O-rubber ring for easy installation.
(2) Be careful not to damage the O-ring when fitting the injector.
(3) Fixes up the 8 with the bolt 5 on the intake manifold 1.
2.4 Water pump and cooling water hose
Removal and installation procedures

1. Cooling waterhose

7. Thermostat shell

2. Cooling waterhose

8. Thermostat spacer

E 3. Water temperaturesensor

B 9. Water inlet pipe

D 4. Water thermostat

B 10. O-RING

5. Water inlet pipe joint


C 6. Thermostat

B 11. O-RING
A12. Water pump essentials for installation operation

A Installation of water pump


Applies the 3mm field-shaping space (FIPG) on the mounting surface.
Specified sealant: LT5699

B Installation of O-ring/water inlet pipe


Replaces the O-ring of water inlet pipe with a new one, then applies the coolant on the O-ring,
so that it can be easily inserted in to the shells of water pump and thermostat.
Attention:
1. Be sure not to apply the engine oil or other greasy substances on the O-ring.
2. The water pipe behind the thermostat shell has to be firmly fitted.
C Installation of thermostat.
When fitting up the thermostat, the highest position of the beat vavle should be used.

D Installation of water thermostat.


If the water thermostat is intended to be reused, the specified coolant should be applied on its
threads.

Specified sealant: LT648


D Installation of water temperature sensor

If the water temperature sensor is intended to be reused, the specified coolant should be
applied on its threads.

Specified sealant: LT648


2.5 Intake manifold and exhaust manifold
Removal and installation procedures

Removal procedure
1. Engine sub-assembly

7. Intake manifold bracket

2. Intake manifold

8. Bolted spacer

3. Intake manifold spacer

9. Bolted spacer

4. Bolted spacer

10. Engine lugs

5. Nut

11. Air intake temperature pressure sensor

6. Spring spacer

12. Bolted spacer

13. Bolted spacer

14. Vacuum booster joint

15. Bolt spacer assembly

16. Canister control valve bracket

17. Canister control valve

18. Exhaust manifold spacer

19. Exhaust manifold

20. Flat spacer

21. Nut

22. Flat spacer

23. Nut

24. Oxygen sensor

25. Thermal shield of air exhaust

26. Flange bolt

27. Bolted spacer


2.6 Rocker arm and camshaft
Removal and installation procedures

Removal procedure
1. Air hoses

C 11. Rocker arm A

2. Oilfiller cap

12. Rocker arm B

3. PCV VALVE

A 13. Rocker arm shaft

4. PCV spacer

B 14. Governing screw

5. Rocker chamber cover

15. Adjusting nut

6. Rocker chamber cover pad

16. Rocker arm C

D 7. Oil seal

B 17. Rocker arm shaft

8. Oil seal

A 18. Governing screw

C 9. Rocker arm and rocker arm shaft assembly(air intake)

19. Adjusting nut

C10. Rocker arm and rocker arm shaft assembly(air exhaust) 20. Camshaft
Essentials for installation operation
A Installation of governing screw.
Places the screw into the rocker arm for a while. Puts it inside and keeps the the
bottom of screw in line with falling edge of rocker arm or slightly protruding (less
than 1mm)).
B Installation of rocker arm shaft
(1) Places the large inclined plane toward the side of timing belt.
Note: there are 8 oil holes on the rocker arm shaft of air intake valve.
(2) Faces the oil holes side of rocker arm shaft on the cylinder head.
C Installation of rocker arm/rocker arm shaft assembly
When assembling the rocker arm and rocker arm shaft, attentions should be paid on
the identification sign. Then, fits this assembly on the cylinder head.
Side of the timing belt

Identification sign

D Installation of camshaft oil seal


Drives the oil seal into the cylinder head with the tool shown in Figure

2.7 Cylinder head and valve


Removal and installation procedures

Removal procedure
A D 1. Cylinder headbolt
2. Cylinder head asssembly

9. Intake valve
10. Exhaust valve

3.Cylinder pad

11. Cylinder head

B C 4. Lock pin
5. Intake valve spring holder
B 6.Valve spring
C A 7.Valve duct
8.Valve housing washer
Essentials for removal operation:
A Removal of cylinder head bolts
Unscrews the cylinder head bolts with the special tool shown in Figure

B Removal of lock pin


Attaches the labels on the knocked down valves, springs and other parts, and marks out their
cylinder number and position for reassembly. Safekeeps those parts.

C Removal of valve oil seal

Essentials for installation operation


A Installation of valveoil seal
(1) Installation of valve spring seat
(2) Fits the new oil seal of valve with the special tool shown in Figure

Attention:
1. The valveoil seal can be reused.
2. The correct special tools has be used for installing the valveoil seal. Incorrect
installation may cause the oil leakage when passing through the valve guide bush.
B Installation of valve spring
When fitting up the valve spring, keeps the end to be painted position at the side of rocker
arm.

Printing side

Spring seat of valve

Oil seal of valve rod

Spring seat of valve

C Installation of lock pin

D Installation of cylinder head bolts


(1) Prior to reuse the cylinder head bolt, checks if its nominal length has exceeded the
specified limit value. If the measuring result is beyond the limit value, the bolt should be
replaced.
Limit values: 103.2mm
(2) Fits up the spacer as shown in Figure

(3) Applies the engine oil on the spacer of bolt thread.


(4) Tightens the bolt as per the order shown in figure until all bolts have reached the moment
49Nm(5kgf.m)

Side of timing belt

(5) Fully unscrews the bolt


(6) Retightens the bolt as per the order shown in figure until all bolts have reached the
moment 202Nm

(7) Marks the plaint signs on the cylinder head bolts and cylinder head(shown in figure )

Print mark
(8) Each bolt is screwed by a plus 90 as per the tightening order.
(9) Each bolt is tightened by 90 to check whether the paint mark on the bolt head is aligned
with that on the cylinder head.
Attention: If the tightening angle of bolts is less than 90, it is impossible for them to have
sufficient power to fasten theif the tightening angle of bolt is larger than 90, they should be
removed down and refixed.
(10) If the old cylinder head bolts have been replaced during the maintenance, the overhaul
should be carried out as per the sequence (2)~(9).
(11) If no used cylinder head bolts have been replaced, the overhaul should be effected
following the order of (2),(3),(6),(7),(8) and(9).
2.8 Oil pump and oil sump
Essentials for removal operation:
A Removal of oil sump
(1) Removes the fitting bolts of oil sump.
(2) As shown in figure drives the special tool between the oil sump and cylinder body.

(3) Taps the side of special tool and makes it move along the sealing side of oil sump
/cylinder body, than removes the oil sump.
Essentials for installation operation
A Installation of front oil seal shell (oilpump shell)
(1) Cleans out the sealant painted surface of cylinder body and front oil seal shell.

(2) Applies the 3mm field shaping curl spacer on the overall periphery of the oil sump fange.

Specified sealant: LT5699


B Installation of front oil seal

(1) Places the special tools in front of the crankshaft, and applies engine oil on its pheripher.
(2) Applies the engine oil on the sealing lips, then pushes by hands the oil seal along the guide
bush until it touches the oil seal shell. Taps the oil seal with the special tool to make it in
position

C Installation of oil sump


(1) Cleans out the fitting surface of the cylinder body and oil sump.
(2) Applies the field-shaping curled pearl spacer on the overall pheriphery of the oil sump
flange.

Specified sealant: LT5699


D Installation of oil drain plug spacer
Uses the new oil drain plug spacer, fits up the spacer as showin in figure
Attention: If the spacer is fitted in a wrong direction, it will cause the oil leakage.

Side of printing shell

E Installation of oil filter


(1) Cleans out the oil filter mounting surface on the oil pump shell.
(2) Applies the engine oil on the O-ring of oil filter.
(3) Tightens the oil filter until the O-ring sets on the mounting surface, then screws again the
oil filter by one cycle to tighten the moment up to 12~20Nm.
Attention: Th oil filter has to be tightened with the filter pliers sold in the market. If the filter
is tightened with hand, the leakage will occur due to the insufficient tightening moment.
2.9 Pistons and connecting rod
Removal and installation procedures

Removal procedure
1. Connecting rod nut

7. 2nd piston ring

A F 2. Connecting rod cap

8. Oil ring

3. Connecting rod bush

B A 9. Piston pin

4. Pistons and connecting rod assembly

10. Pistons

5. Connecting rod bush

11. Connecting rod

st

C 6. 1 piston ring

12. Connecting rodbolt

Essentials for removal operation:


A Removal of

onnecting rod cap

In favor of the re-installation, marks the cylinder number on the large head side of connecting
rod.

Cylinder no.

B Removal of piston pin


(1) Inserts the tappet from the side of the arrow sign in front (special tool), tten fits the guide
bush D.
(2) Puts upward the sing in front of piston, fits the pistons and connecting rod assembly on the
foot mounting of piston pin (special tool).
(3) Presses oug the piston pin with a press.
Push rod

Front sign

Front sign

Guide bush D

Base

Attention: After the piston pins removed, puts the pistons, piston pins and connecting
rod together. Do not put the pistons, piston pins and connecting rod of each cylinder
together.
Essentials for installation operation
A Installation of piston pins
(1) Measures the following lenghs (shown in figure )
A: Outer size between the pistons bosses
B: Inner size between the pistons bosses
C: Length of piston pin
D: Thickness of the small head of connecting rod
(2) Fills the measured values into the following formula:

L=

( A C ) ( B D)
2

Link rod
Piston pin
Piston

(3) Inserts the tappet (special tool) into the piston pin, then fits the guide bush A(special tool).
(4) When the pistons and connecting rod are installed, the signs in front of them should be
located in the same side.
(5) Applies the engine oil on the outer circle of piston pin.
(6) Started from the guide bush A, presses theguide bush A, piston pin and tappet into the side
of signs in front of the pistons.
(7) Screws the guide bush B into the guide bush A. the clearance between both guide bushes
is 3mm plus the value L approached from the calculation in Step 2.

Guide
bush B

Guide
bush A

(8) In case where the sign in front of the piston is down, fits the pistons and connecting rod on
the foot mounting of piston pin.
(9) Fits the piston pin by a press. If the load I overrated, replaces the piston pins, piston
assembly and connecting rod or both replaced.

Standard value: 1000500 kg.f

Push rod

Piston pin
Front sign
Front
sign

Guide-bush A

Base

Guide-bush B

A Installation of oil ring


(1) Fits up the spacing ring of oil ring into the piston ring groove, then fits the upper and
lower steel rings.
Steel
ring

Spacing
ring

Attention:
1. The spacing ring and steel ring may be fitted in any of directions. There is no
difference between the upper and lower steel rings
2. Color codes used for the spacing ring and steel ring sizes are shown as follows:
Sizes
Colors
Standard
None
Extra, 0.50mm
Blue
Extra, 1.00mm
Yellow
(2) In order to fit up the steel ring, fits the one end of steel ring into the groove as shown in
figure, then press-fits the other parts into the places.

Side of steel ring

Attention: Do not fit the steel ring with the expander of piston ring, otherwise they are
likelyto be broken.
(1) After the steel ring fitted up, checks whether they are slidable in both directions.
C Installation of the 2nd and 1st piston rings
Fits the 1st and 2nd piston rings with the expander of pistion ring. Their dentification signs
should face upward (top of the piston).
Identification sign:
The 1st piston ring: 1T
The 2nd piston ring: 2T

Expander of
pistion ring

Attention:
The following signs of size are marked on the piston rings:
Sizes
Standard
Extra, 0.50mm
Extra,1.00mm

Size sign
None
50
100

ID sign of 1T
ID sign of 2T

Sign of size

1st ring
2nd ring

D Installation of pistons and connecting rod assembly


(1) Applies the oil on the pistons, piston rings and piston pins.
(2) As shown in figure ains at the apentures of the air ring and oil ring (steel ring andspacing
ring).
Steel ring

1st ring

Piston pin

2nd ring and loop

Steel ring

(3) Ains the arrow sign in front of the top of piston at the side of timing belt, from the upper
side of cylinder, press-fits the pistons and connecting rod assembly into the cylinder.
(4) Presses tightly the piston ring with the suitable pressing tool of piston ring, then press-fits
the pistons and connecting rod together into the cylinder. Do not knock forcely the pistons,
otherwise, the piston ring will be broken and the connecting rod journal crackled.

E Installation of connecting rod bearing


Please confirm the identification signs on the crankshaft and connecting rod as shown in
figure selectsthe bearings as per the following table.

Crankshaft identification sign

Identification sign of connecting rod

Identification sign of bearings

White

None

Yellow

White

None

Yellow

White

None

Yellow

I.Yellow

II.None

III.White

Col.code position

3#

ID sign position

1#

Col.code position

1#

4#

3#

2#

2#

ID sign position
4#

2#
3#

4G13S-7L Crankshaft

ID color

1#

4#

2#
1#

4#
3#

4G18S-7L Crankshaft

F Installation of connecting rod cap


(1) Aimiing at the sign made at the time of break-down, fits the connecting rod bearing cap on
the connecting rod. If the connecting rod is a new one, there is no sign, the bearing locking
notches have to be on the same side.

Cylinder No.

Notch locking

(2) Checks whether the lateral clearance of the large head of connecting rod is conform to the
provisions.
Standard value: 0.100.25mm

G Installation of connecting rod nut


Attention: If the cylinder head has been fitted prior to the installation of connecting rod nuts,
the spark plugs have to be removed first.
(1) The connecting rod bolts and nuts are tightened by the tension method of plastic
deformation. Prior to the reinstallation, the bolts have to be checked to see there are any parts
crackled. In order to do such, screws with the hand the nut for a full length of thread. Only
when the nut has been screwed fully down to the end of thread than can prove there are no
scratches on the thread part, otherwise the bolt has to be replaced.
(2) Before the nut is installed, applies the engine oil on their threading part and mounting
surface.
(3) Fits the nuts on the bolts and screws then Tightlu. Afterward, the nuts have to be tightened
alternatively to ensure the correct installation of connecting rod cap.
(4) The tightening moment of nuts: 16.720Nm.
(5) As shown in figure the paint mark has to be made on the top of each nut.

Printing sign
Printing
sign

Nut

Bolt

(6) Starting from the paint mark on the nut, turns clockwise toward the angle 90~94, and
makes the paint mark on the bolt.
(7) Turns the nut until it is aligned with the paint mark on the bolt and that on the nut.
Attention:
1. If the turning angle of nut is less than 90, the fastening power of connecting rod cap will
be insufficient.
2. If the turning angle of nut is more than 94, they should be fully unscrewed, and renews the
tightening steps.
1.10 Crankshaft and cylinder body

Removal and installation procedures


1. Flywheelbolt
3. Flywheel

7. Lower partition

B 13. Main bearing (lower)

D 8. Crankshaft rear oil seal

6. Upper partition

14. Crankshaft

9. Crankshaft rear seal shell B 15. Main bearing (Upper)

C 11. Bearing cap bolt C 12. Main bearing cap AA16. Oil pressure switch
17. Cylinder body
Essentials for removal operation:
A Removal of oil pressure switch

(1) Disengages the terminal from the oil pressure switch.


(2) Removes the oil pressure switch with special tool
Attention: The sealant is painted on their threads. When the oil pressure switch is removed,
please be careful not to bend it.
Installation operating essentials
A Installation of oil pressure switch
Applies the specified sealant on the threads, then fits up the oil pressure switch with the
special tool as shown in Figure

Pushing direction

Specified sealant
Attention:
1. When the sealant is applied, do not let the sealant beyond the end do thread.
2. Do not overtighten the oil pressure switch. Moment: 15~22Nm.

B Installation of crankshaft bearing


(1) Selects the bearings according to the identification sign or color code of crankshaft (refer
to the following table). If they are not identied, the diameter of the crankshaft should be
measured and the suitable bearing selected to match it.
Aperture of the cylinder
bearing holes

Crankshaft journal

White

Identification sign

47.995~48.000

47.988~47.995

47.982~47.988

Identification sign

Class impact print


Axile diameter 1

Axile diameter 2

Class impact print

5th main shaft diameter

4th main shaft diameter

3rd main shaft diameter

2nd main shaft diameter

Axile diameter 3

Axile diameter4

2nd main shaft diameter


1st main shaft diameter

4th main shaft diameter

Axile diameter 4

Class impact print


Axile diameter 3

None

Diameter of journal

1st main shaft diameter

Yellow

Identification
sign

Axile diameter 1

Color
code

Axile diameter 2

Range

Bearing

4G18S-7L Crankshaft

3rd main shaft diameter

5th main shaft diameter

1st main shaft diameter

4G13S-7L Crankshaft

Side of timing belt

Hole dia.of cylinder journal

The shaft diameter level is classified as 5, 4, 3, 2 and 1 counted from front to back.
(2) The identification sign representing the bearing aperture of cylinder is the position
engraved by the number 1 in front of the engine. The selection and installation of bering have
to be made on the basisi of these identification signs have to be.
(3) On the basis of the verification of identification signs according to the steps (1) and (2),
the bearings are to be selected from the above table.
The example is given as below:
1. If the measured result of a journal is 48.000mm, it corresponds the class 1 in the above
table.
2. If the identification sign of the bearing aperture of a cylinder is the number, the bearing
with the identification sign 2 should be choosen.
(4) Except the intermediate bearing, all bearings are grooved. The intermediate bearings are
fitted with spport lugs instead of the grooves. The upper parts of the intermediate bearings are
identical.
(5) All lower bearings are without grooves.
Groove
Grooveless

lower axle bearing


(1#,2#,4#and 5#)

Upper axle bearing


(1#,2#,4#and 5#)
Grooveless

Up/lower axle bearings (intermediate)

C Installation of main bearing cap


(1) There the number and an arrow on the surface of each main bearing cap. Started from the
side of the timing belt, the bearing caps are to be fitted following the number sequence. The
arrow has to aim at the side of the timing belt.
The arrow refers to
the front of engine

Axle bearing cap no.

(2) After the bearing fitted up, the axial clearing of crankshaft is to be measured. If the
measured value exceeds the specified limit, the crankshaft bearing should be replaced.

Standard value: 0.05-0.18mm


D Installation of rear oil seal
Press-fits the rear oil seal with the special tool as shown in Figure
Oil seal

Oil seal shell

2.4 Inspection and maintenance operation


1) A/C generator and ignition system
2) Timing belt
1. Timing belt
Checks carfuly the timing belt. In case of the following defections shown, it should be

replaced by a new one:


(1) The vulcanization on the opposite side (the rubber in reverse is smooth and inelastic,
which is hardened to the extent that no traces are left when scratching with nails).

(2) The crackles are shown on the reverse side of rubber.


(3) The canvas is torn and (or) separated with the rubber.
(4) The tooth roots are crackled.
(5) The lateral sides of belt are crackled.
Crack

Crack

Separated
Crack side

Tooth root with crack

(6) The belt sides are abnormally worn .


Edged fillet

Abnormal wear
(Exposed core)

Attention: If the belt sides are as sharp as the knif cutting, it should be considered as
normal.
(7) Abnormal wear on the teeth
Initial phase:
(Canvas fibers loosened, rubber destructed, white faded, canvas texture unidenfied)
Final phase:

Canvas worn up, rubber exposed(the tooth width dimished)

Worn cancas and exposed rubber

Toothless

(8) Teeth disappeard


2. Tensioner pulley
Checks if the pulley rotates steadily and there are any clearances and abnormal noise. When
necessary, one or two pulleys should be replaced.

3) Fuel and emissioncontrol system


4) Water pump andcooling water hose
5) Intake manifold and exhaust manifold
6) Rocker arm and camshaft
1. Camshaft
Check of the cam height. If the height is over the limit value, the camshaft should be replaced.

Height limit of
camshaft, in mm

Air intake

36.8

Air exhaust

36.666

7) Cylinder head and valve


1. Cylinder head
(1) Prior to clean up the cylinder head, check it to see if there are any water/air leakage, any
crackles and other damages.
(2) Eliminates all oil, water scales, sealants and carbon deposits.
blows the compressed air to the oil rail to ensure it is free of jam.

After the oil rail cleaned,

(3) Checks with the ruller or clearance gauge to see if there are any deformations on the
surface of cylinder head spacer. If the degree of deformation exceeds the specified limit value,
the surface of spacer has to be ground according to the specification.
Standard value of spacer surface deformation: less than 0.03mm
Height of cylinder head (new): 1200.1mm

Attention: The grinding margin allowable for the fitting surface of cylinder head and
cylinder body is not larger than 0.2mm.
2. Valve
(1) Checks the valve surface to see if it is in correct contact. If the contact is not uniform or
complet, the surface of valve seat should be refixed.
(2) If the edge thickness is less than the fixed value, the valve should be replaced.

Contact
(within the
surface center)

Edge thickness

Standard value:

Limit values:

Intake valve: 1.35mm

Intake valve: 0.85mm

Exhaust valve: 1.85mm

Exhaust valve: 1.35mm

(3) Total length of measured valve. If the measured result is less than fixed value, the valve
should bereplaced.
Standard value:

Limit values:

Intake valve: 111.56mm

Intake valve: 111.06mm

Exhaust valve: 114.71mm

Exhaust valve: 114.21mm

3. Valve spring
(1) Measurement of the free height of valve spring. If the measured result is less than fixed
value, the valve spring should be replaced
Standard value: 50.87

Limit values: 50.37

(2) Measurement of the vertical height of valve spring. If the measured result is less than
fixed value, the valve spring should be replaced
Standard value : 2

Limit values : 4
Verticality

Free height

4. Valve duct
Measurement of the clearance between the valve guide bush and valve rod. If the clearance
exceeds the limit value, one or two parts should be replaced.
Standard value :
Intake valve guide bush: 0.0200.036mm
Exhaust valveguide bush : 0.0300.045mmm
Limit values :
Intake valve guide bush : 0.10mm
Exhaust valveguide bush : 0.15mm

Valce duct

Valce duct I/D

Valce rod O/D

3. Valve seat
Fits up the valve, then measures the protrusion height between the end surface of valve rod
and surface of valve spring seat. If the measured result is less than fixed value, the valve seat
should be replaced.
Standard value:

Limit value:

Intake valve: 53.21mm

Intake valve: 53.71mm

Exhaust valve: 54.10mm

Exhaust valve: 54.60mm

End face of valve rod

Extruding height of valve rod

Face of the valve spring seat

Operating essentials for the valve seat correction


(1) Prior to correct the valve seat, checks the clearance between the valve guide bush and
valve. When necessary, the valve duct should be replaced.
(2) Corrects the valve seat with the suitable special tools or valve seat grindert to reach the
specified width and angle of seat surface.
(3) After the valve seat revised, grinds the valve and valve seat with grinding paste. Afterward,
checks the flange height of valve rod (refer to the previous check procedure of valve seat).
Operating essentials for valve seat replacement
(1) To reduce the wall thickness, cuts out the replaced valve seat from the inner side, then
removes the valve seat.

Cut off

(2) Rebores the hole of valve seat on the cylinder boring head to match it with the
selected extra diameter of valve seat.
Aperture of intake valve seat (Extra. 0.3mm)
Intake valve 4G13S-7L : 28.425-28.445mm
Intake valve 4G18S-7L: 30.425-30.445mm
Aperture of intake valve (Extra. 0.6mm)
Intake valve 4G13S-7L : 28.725-28.745mm
Intake valve 4G18S-7L : 30.725-30.745mm
Aperture of exhaust valve seat (Extra. 0.3mm)
Exhaust valve 4G13S-7L: 26.425-26.445mm
Exhaust valve 4G18S-7L: 28.425-28.445mm
Aperture of exhaust valve seat (Extra. 0.6mm)
Exhaust valve 4G13S-7L: 26.425-26.445mm
Exhaust valve 4G18S-7L: 28.425-28.445mm

Heigh of the valve


seat

I/D of extra.aperture

(3) Prevents the cylinder head holes from being grazed by the valve seat cooled by liquid
nitrogen prior to assembly.
(4) Corrects the valve seat to match it with the specified width and angle(refer to the operating
essentials of valve seat)
Operating essentials for the valve duct replacement
(1) Pushes out the valve duct with a pressing machine from the side of cylinder body.
(2) Rebores the hole of valve duct on the cylinder boring head to match it with the extra-sized
valve duct .
Attention: Do not fit the valve guide bush of same size
Aperture of the valve duct:
Extra,0.05: 10.605-10.615mm
Extra,0.25: 10.805-10.815mm
Extra,0.50: 11.055-11.065mm
(3) Press-fits the valve duct until its flange height reaches the fixed value.
Standard value: 23.0mm

Extruding heigh

Attention:
1. The valve duct has to be fitted in from the upper side of cylinder head.
2. The duct length on the air intake side is different from that on the air exhaust side.
3. After the duct valve fitted in, inserts the new valve and checks if it slides smoothly.
8) Pump and oil sump
1. Pump
(1) Fits the rotor into the front cover.
(2) Checks the tooth top clearance with the thickness gauge

Standard value: 0.060.18mm


(3) Checks the lateral clearance with the ruler and clearance gauge.

Standard value: 0.040.11mm


(4) Checks the shell clearance with the clearance gauge.
Standard value: 0.100.18mm

Limit values: 0.35mm

9) Pistons and connecting rod


1. Piston ring
(1) Check of the piston ring clearance. If the clearance exceeds the specified limit, the
ring/pistion or both of them should be replaced.
Standard value:
st

Limit values :

The 1 ring: 0.030.07mm

The 1st ring: 0.1mm

The 2nd ring: 0.020.06mm

The 2nd ring: 0.1mm

(2) Places the piston ring into the cylinder hole, pushes it down with the piston. The top of
piston has to be used to contact the piston ring, so as to form an anle 90 between the ring and
the cylinder. Then measures the open clearance with the clearance gauge. If the open
clearance is too large, the piston ring has to be replaced.
Standard value:
The 1st ring: 0.200.35mm
The 2nd ring: 0.350.50mm
Oil ring 4G13S-7L: 0.200.50mm
Oil ring 4G18S-7L: 0.100.40mm
Limit value: The 1st ring: 0.8mm
The 2nd ring: 0.8mm
Oil rings 4G13S-7L and 4G18S-7L: 1.0mm
Push in with the piston

Pistion ring

Opening clearance

2. Clearance of the connecting rod bearing (plastic wire gauge)


(1) Wipes out all oil from the connecting rod journal and connecting rod bearing.
(2) Places on the connecting rod journal, the plastic wire gauge, which is cut in same width
with the bearing. The plastic wire gauge has to be sited in the center of the connecting rod
journal and parallel with its axial line.
(3) Gently places the connecting rod cap on its position and tightens the bolt till its specified
moment.
(4) Removes the bolt andslowly detaches the connecting rod cap.
(5) Measures with the marker printed on plastic wire gauge, the extruded part of the plastic

wire gauge at the widest point.


Standard value : 0.020.04mm
Limit values : 0.1mm

10) Crankshaft and cylinder body


1. The clearance of crankshaft can be easily measured out with the plastic wire gauge. In
order to measure the clearance of crankshaft with the plastic wire gauge, the procedure below
should observed:
(1) Wipes out all oil in or on the surfaces of the crankshaft journal and bearing.
(2) Fits the bearing.

Plastic wire guage

(3) Cuts the length of plastic wire gauge into that matching with the width of bearing.
Then places it on the journal along the axial line of journal.
(4) Softly fits the bearing cap of crankshaft and tightens the bolt till the specified moment.
(5) Removes the bolt and softly detaches the cap form the crankshaft bearing.
(6) Measures the extruding part of the plastic wire gauge with the ruler printed on the plastic
wire gauge bag.
Standard value: 0.020.04mm
Limit values: 0.1mm

Fillet rolling area

Attention: The connecting rod journal of crankshaft and main journal have
been subject to the rolling process, it is unnecessary to reduce the size by the
machine tool.
2. Cylinder body
(1) Vusually checks the crackles, rust and corrosion, and examins the cylinder body with the
defection tester. Repairs the defections as much as possible or replaces the cylinder body.
(2) No spacer debris and other dyed stuff are allowed on the top surface. Checks the
deformation on the top of cylinder with the ruler and clearance gauge.
Standard value: less than 0.03mm
Limit value: less than 0.1 mm

(3) Checks if there are signs of cylinder crackles or scors on the cylinder wall. If the defection
is distinct, all cylinders should be bored to the extra size or replaced.
(4) Measures the aperture of each cylinder and the cylindricity with the cylinder gauge. If any
of the cylinders is seriously worn, it should be bored to the extra size and the piston and
piston ring replaced accordingly. The measuring points are shown as below.

Standard value:
Cylinderaperture: 71.0mm(4G13S-7L)
76.0mm(4G18S-7L)
Cylindricity: less than 0.01mm

3. Boring hole of cylinder


(1) All extra-sized pistons should be determined as per the cylinder with the max. aperture
(2) Extra pistons with the following extra sizes: 0.25mm, 0.50mm, 0.75mm and 1.00mm.
Piston diameter for measurement. After the cylinder bored, the clearance between the piston
and cylinder has to meet the standard value. The points shown in Figure should be used to
measure the diameter of pistons

Piston O/D

Sealant
application

(3) Calculates the boring size according to the diameter of piston.

[ Boring size]=[Piston O/D][Clearance between the Piston and Cylinder(0.02


0.04)mm][Grinding Marge(0.02mm)]

(4) Bores each cylinder to the calcultated boring size. Attention: In order to prevent the
heating deformation, please proceed with the cylinder boring as per the following order: 2nd
cylinder, 4th cylinder, 1st cylinder, and 3rd cylinder.
(5) Grinds the cylinder to the final process size(piston O/Dclearance between the piston and
cylinder )
(6) Checks the clearance between the piston and the cylinder.
Standard value: 0.020.04mm

Section III OBD diagnosis and maintenance


The on-board diagnostic system (hereafter refered as to OBD) is referred to a diagnosis
system which is integrated in the engine control system and able to monitor and effect the

failure parts of exhaust emission as well as the engine state of primary performance. It has the
function of identifying, saving and dislaying the failure information through the
self-diagnostic malfunction indication lamps (MIL).
To guarantee the durability of the emission control performance during the use of vehicle, In
China, it is clearly stated in the Contaminant Emission Limits of Light-Duty Vehicles and
Measure Method (Phases III and IV in China)that All vehicles have to be fitted with OBD
system, which is able to ensure the identification of worsen of failure parts during the whole
service life of vehicle.
When the vehicle fitted with the OBD system is maintained, the service men are able to
rapidly and accurately locate the failure parts through the diagnostic set, which largely
increases the maintenance quality and efficiency.
The model Foton MP. Midi is equipped with the Kingtec Failure Diagnostic Set.
The OBD technology is involved with many brandnew concepts. The following pages will be
contributed to the introduction of same basic knowledge relevant to the OBD technology, so
as to facilitate the understanding of the follow-up content.
I

Failures

Once the following cases are detected by the OBD system, they are considered as Failures.

The conversion efficiency of catalytic converter decreases, and the emissions exceed the
OBD value.

The engine catches fire, the contaminants of air exhaust will surpass the OBD value, or
cause the catalyst temperature too high or damaged.

The oxygen sensor damaged or aged to the extent that the contaminants of air exhaust
will be higher than OBD value.

The parsts connecting the ECU and relevant to the emission are ineffective, and possibly
cause the contaminants of air exhaust over the OBD value.

The power train parts connecting the computer, including the abnormal circuit
communication of any sensors able to achieve the monitoring functions nitoring
functions.

1. Troubleshooting
After detecting the failure, the OBD system will proceed the following steps according to the
failure conditions:

By matching (lighten, flash or flame out) failure indicator.

In the ECU(Addition, Update and deletion of the relevant failure information), these
information can be accessed by the standard diagnostic set through the standard
diagnosis interface.

(1) Failure conditions


The failure process of the OBDsystem varies depending to the fault conditions. In order to
better understand the failure states,
Two concepts of the failure as Confirmation and Restoration have to be clarified.
The confirmation of failure is referred to the process from the initial discovery by the OBD
system of the failure to the confirmation by system and MI trigger as per the relevant strategy.

A failure prior to be confirmed is known as the Random Failureand then the Identified
Failuresafter it has been confirmed. In general, there are two method of confirmation of
failure:

The failure has been detected by three operating cycles of detection.


The alleged operating cycle refers to the process including the engine startup, relevant
operating duty (the failure of vehicle if any should be detected) and flame out of engine.
the most failures relevant to the emission are to be confirmed by this process.

The time, where the detected failure continues to exit, is more than 2.5s.
For the more reliable diagnosis function, this process will be applied, e.g. speed sensor
diagnosis.

The restoration of failure is referred to the fact, where the OBD system detects no existence
of failure after the failure has been eliminated. The failure restoration is also a process of
confirmation. In terms of the random failure. After the failure detected by the OBD has been
restored, the record of failure will be immediately cleaned upIn terms of the confirmed
failure, Only no such failure has been detected by three consequent operating cycles that the
OBD system can confirm the restoration of the failure, then operates accordingly the failure
indicator and failure according to the failure resolution strategy .
Depending to whether the failure has been confirmed, restored and restored by confirmation
or not, the failures can be devided into the following status:
Fault condition
Whether found
by detection
Whether
restored
Whether
confirmed
Whether
restored
Whether the
restoration
confirmed

Random and
non-confirmed

Random and
confirmed

Confirmed and
not restored

Confirmed but
restoration not
confirmed

Confirmed
with
restoration
confirmed

(2) Failure Processing Strategy


The followings are the failure processing strategies by the OBD system of different failure
status, which are established according to the regulation and the characteristics of failure part
and system.
Fault condition

MI CONTROL

Failure information memory operation


Continuously monitored failure code is output
through the Mode 7.
Non-continuous monitor result is output
through the Mode 6.
Cleans out the failure information stored
in the ECU memory.

Random and
non-confirmed

The MI state is not changed

Random and
restored

The MI state is not changed

Fault condition

MI CONTROL

Failure confirmed
but not restored
yet

MI lamp of the failures


relevant to the emission
activated.
Emission not affected, but
the failure needed for repair
doesnt activate the MI.
Catch-fire failure of the
damaged catalyst flashes MI.

Failure confirmed
prior to the
restoration
confirme

The MI state is not changed.

Failure confirmed
after the
restoration
confirmed

MI deactivated.

Failure information memory operation

The information of failure codes and its


corresponding blocked frames are output
through the Mode 2.
The failure codes are output through the
Mode 3.

If the same failure after delected, doesnt appear


for more than 40 cycles of engine preheating
operations, this failure code is to be cleaned out,
including the information of travel distance since
the failure dislay and blocked frames.

(3) Failure indicator(MI)


MI refers to a failure indicator, which can give hints to the driver when the MI is connected
with any of the parts relevant to the emission of the diagnosis system or when the OBD
system fails per se.
In general, MI are the lamps which can display on the dashboard and whose form is consistent
with the standard.
The activation of MI lamps complies with the following principle:

When the ignition switch is turned on and the engine has not started up or run, MI will
lighten.

If the confirmed failures relevant to the emission (except the catch-fire failures caused
by the catalyst damage) already exist in the system, the OBD system will light up the MI
lamp to remind the driver for check.

Once the engine caught on fire meets the level specifield by the manufacutrer, to the
extent that the catalytic converter risks to be burnt out, MI will immediately flash at the
frequency of 1Hz.

The deactivation of MI lamps(goes out) follows the principles below:

After engine started, MI will go out in 3s if no failures have been detected before.

If the fire rate of engine able to destroy the catalytic converter doent exist anymore or
the fire rate of engine is not to such an extent as to damage the catalytic converter after
the engine speed and load have been changed, MI should be switched to the original
state prior to the activation.

For all of other failures, during three consequent operating cycles, if the monitor system
of the activated MI detects no failures and other MI failures which can be individually
activated, MI will deactivate (go out).

(4) Failure code


According to the regulations, the OBD system has to be possessed of the function for
identifying eventual failure areas, and storing these information into the ECU memory in
manner of failure code. SAE(American Association of Engineers) and ISO(International

Standardization Organization) have standarized the diagnosis


composed of 5 characters, e.g.: P0112.

failure codes. They are

The 1st character of the failure codes is a letter, refleting the system, which the failure belongs
to:

Pxxxx

Transmission system failure

Bxxxx

Body failure

Cxxxx

Chassis failure

Uxxxx

Netword failure

The failures relevant to the OBD system are mainly expressed with the code P.
The 2nd character of failure codes represents the failure code maker:
P0xxx

in conformity with to the SAE definitions and applicable to the diagnosis system
and freely select the failure code, they comprises specific text description of
failures(From the model year 2000: P0xxx and P2xxx)

P1xxx

Effect involved in the exhaust emission is provided by the manufacturer, the


additional failure code which may be freely selected. They do not contain the
speciao text description of failure, but has to be registered at the legislator(From
the model year 2000: P1xxx and P3xxx)

The 3rd character of failure codes represents the type of failures, which are defined as follows:

Px0xx Fuel and air metering, emission control

Px1xx Fuel and air metering

Px2xx Fuel and air metering

Px3xx Ignition system or catch-fire

Px4xx Additional emission control

Px5xx Speed, idle control and input signal

Px6xx Computer and output signals

Px7xx Gearbox

Px8xx Gearbox

Px9xx Gearbox

PxAxx Combination propulsion

The 4th and 5th characters of failure codes represent the signs of failure part/system.
The failure code of random failure detected by continuous monitoring will be output in the
Mode 7 of scan tool throught the standard scan tool and diagnosis interface; the failure code
of the identified failure will be output through the Mode 3; the failure code corresponding to
the blocked frames (if any) will be output through the Mode 2.
II. Performance description of failure diagnostic set
The OBD system is able to provide many information relevant to the failure diagonse, which
are of reference value in terms of the maintenance of electric injection system. According to
the definitions of ISO/DIS15031-5, the information relevant to the OBD system may be

acquired in 9 different services/modes through the diagnosis


of ISO/DIS15031-4.

tool meeting the requirements

The main functions of each mode are listed as follows:

01 Reads out the current data of dynamic system diagnosis

02 Reads out the blocked data frames

03 Reads out the failure code by the power system diagnosis relevant to the emission.

04 Cleans out and resets the diagnosis information relevant to the emission.

05 Reads out the test result of the oxygen sensor monitoring

06 Reads out the OBD test result by the continuous monitoring system.

07 Reads out the OBD test result by the continuous monitoring system.

08 Recommendation instead of imposed requirements

09 Reads out the ID No. of vehicle and softwares

The output information under each mode is identical, which are described respectively in the
following text. It is worthy of noting that,
The different diagnostic sets vary in design and use, but the it is certain that the content to be
accessed be one of the above modes.
(1) Mode 1
The function of the Mode 1 is to allow the exteriour standard diagnosis set to get access to
some data values relevant to the current basic parameters of the emission according to the
requirements of regulations. These parameters include the information of some
system-simulated input/output, digital input/output and system states etc.
The International Standard ISP/DIS15031-5 has defined all parameters, which can be output
from the Mode 1. The definitions contain the Name, unit, format, text description of
parameters. The parameters between them are recognized by the parameter identifiers(PID).
In the output of the Mode 1, all parameters relevant to the emission of the OBD system,
including the PID, parameter values, unit and text description will be listed one by one.
According to the regulations, the output of the Mode 1 has to comprise at least the following
parameters (If the on-board ECU is fitted with, or determined via the on-board ECU):

PID 01Informaton of the OBD system status

PID 03Fuel control system status(Open/close loop and others)

PID 04Calculated load value

PID 05Temperature of engine coolant

PID 06, 07 Fuel revision of the cylinder 01and 03

PID 08, 09 Fuel revision of the cylinder 02and 03

PID 0A

Fuel pressure

PID 0B

Air pressure of manifold

PID 0C

Engine in rpm

PID 0D

Speed

PID 0EIgnition timing advance

PID 0F Air intake temperature

PID 10Airflow

PID 11 Output value of the thottle valve position sensor

PID 12State of secondary air(upstream, downstream or admosphere)

PID 1C

PID 21Drive mileage after the MIL has been activated.

Requirement of the OBD system

In addition, the output of the Mode 1 includes in general the information of the oxygen sensor
position (PID 13) and the voltage value of each oxygen sensor output (The oxygen sensors in
different types and positions correspond to different PID). The outcomes from the Mode 1 are
the current true values of the electric control system(In case of some failures, the system may
use the default or alternative value), these results provide important reference values to the
maintenance service.
It is particularly noteworthy that the PID 01 reflects the state of OBD system.
(2) Mode 2
According to the requirements of regulations, once the initial failure has been detected by the
ODB system on any of the parts or systems, the blocked data frame of the engine state has to
be stored into the ECU memory. The function of the Mode 2 is to output the information of
blocked frames of OBD system.
Each information of the blocked frames output by the Mode 2, same as the Mode 1, has to be
conform to the relevant definition of the International Standard ISO/DIS 15031-5. All states
of engine saved, include but not limited to the following parameters:

PID 03

Run under close/open ring state(If available)

PID 04

Calculated load value

PID 05

Coolant temperature

PID 06, 07 Fuel revision of the cylinders 01 and 03(if available)

PID 08, 09 Fuel revision of the cylinders 02 and 04(if available)

PID 0A

Fuel pressure(if available)

PID 0B

Manifold pressure of air intake(if available)

PID 0C

Engine in rpm

PID 0D

Speed(if available)

PID 02

The saved failure code of he above initiated data.

It is noteworthy that only one group of the blocked frame information can be saved in the
Mode 2. In case of multiple failures detected by the system, only the failure possessing the
higher priority of blocked frames will display in the output of Mode 2.
Higher priority

Catch-fire and oil supply system failure

Common failures relevant to the emission

Failures not affecting the emission, but necessary for


maintenance, e.g. A/C, fan and evaporator sensor.

Lower priority
(3) Mode 3
The function of the Mode 3 is allow the access of the exterior testing devices to the failure
codes of dynamic system relevant to the emission. Different from the Mode 2, the Mode 3 can
output multiple failure codes.
If the same failure doent show up during more than 40 operating cycles of engine preheating,
it can be delected by the on-board diagnosis system, including the information of travel
distance since the failure dislay and blocked frames.
The alleged the cycle of engine preheating refers to the vehicle fully driven to get the
temperature of engine coolant at least 22 K higher than that at the time of starting, and
achieve up to min.343K (70deg).
(4) Mode 4
The objective of the Mode 4 is to enable the exterior testing devices for deactivating the MIL,
clearing out the diagnosis information relevant to the emission in ECu. Those information
include:

The digital number of diagnosis


Mode 1)

failure codes(accessible through the PID01 under the

Codes ready for the failure diagnosis (accessible through the PID01 under the Mode 1)

Failure code confirmed by diagnosis (accessible through the Mode 3)

Random failure code by diagnosis (accessible through the Mode 7)

Data on failure code and blocked frames corresponding to the blocked frames(accessible
through the Mode 2)

Testing data on oxygen sensor(accessible through the Mode 5)

System monitoring state(accessible through the PID 01 of Mode 1)

On-board monitor result(accessible through the Modes 6 and 7)

Drive mileage after the MIL has been activated(accessible through PID 21 of Mode 1)

(5) Mode 5
The objective of the Mode 5 is to access to the monitor result of each oxygen sensor. The
information output includes the constant values predefined and some outcomes of
measurements/calculations. In terms of the results of the measurement /calculation, their
corresponding max./min.values will be output at the same time, the format of which is listed
as follows:

TID

Test Value

Min Limit

Max Limit

Predefined upper/lower boundaries of the


correspongding the index. If the test value is a
constantno result will be output from the
upper/lower boundary.

The test result is the outcome of system measurement/calculation or a


predefined constant used to the quantification and reflect a certain type
index corresponding the oxygen sensor,

The test ID signs reflect the different test projects of the oxygen sensorwhich are
defined as per the corresponding international standards.

ISO/DIS 15031-5 provides the definitions for all accessible information of oxygen sensor.
Each information has a corresponding test identifier (TID)
In terms of the two-point oxygen sensor system, the commonly used TIDs are listed as
follows:

TID 01 Switching voltage from dense to thin (constant)

TID 02 Switching voltage from thin to dense (constant)

TID 07 Min. voltage of oxygen sensor

TID 08 Max. voltage of oxygen sensor

TID 09 Switching time required for two times from dense to thin

TID 30 Index of denser sign

TID 31 Index of thinner sign

TID 32 Average peiord of oxygen sensor

In terms of the widthbanded oxygen sensor at the upstream of catalyst, the output of the
Model 5 include the following TIDs:

TID 81 Ratio of chemical equivalent

TID 82 Control valve value of the front oxygen sensor

TID 83 Indication of dynamic characteristic of the front oxygen sensor

TID 84 Index of Lamda offset

Based on the information from the Mode 5, it is convenient to know the main index of each
oxygen sensor and its corresponding boundary, which enables for judging whether therea are
failures in the oxygen sensor, types of failures and the level of failure.
(6) Mode 6
The objective of the Mode 6 is to access to the result of non-continuous monitoring by the
on-board diagnosis system on a component/system. the alleged non-continuous monitoring
refers commonly to the single diagnosis completed by a cycle of drive, e.g. The diagnosis

result of catalyst and test result of evaporation control system.


The information output by the Mode 6 includes four parts, i.e. TID, CID, test values and
boundary(max. Or min.) values, which format and relevant description are given below:
TID

CID

Test Value

Min Limit

Max Limit

Test results and boundary values. Each information only


indicates one boundary. After eliminating the failure
information by the Mode 4they are initiated to zero.

ID number of part is used to identify the different items of the same


diagnosed objectwhich is defined by the automobile manufacturer.
After eliminating the failure information by the Mode 4CID is
initiated to zero.

The test ID number is classified as per the diagnosed objectwhich is definedby the automobile manufacturer.

In the current system, TID is defined as below:

TID $01 Catalyst monitoring

TID $02 Oxygen sensor monitoring(output from the Mode 5)

TID $03 Monitoring of secondary air

TID $04 EGR monitoring

TID $05 Evaporation and emission control monitoring

TID $06 Oxygen sensor heating monitoring

TID $07 Catalyst heating monitoring

TID $08 Camshaft control monitoring

TID $09 cooling system monitoring

The information accessed from the Mode 6 is the last diagnosis result of the OBD system,
which will be saved until the next diagnosis has been finished and will be not disappeared by
turning off the switch key.
According to the test result provided by the Mode 6, it is judgeable wheterh there are any
failures in the index corresponding to the component as well as the failure level.
After the maintenance, the determination on whether the failure has been correctly eliminated
or not can be made according to the test result from the Mode 6.
(7) Mode 7
The mode 7 is able to output the test result by continuous diagnosis , e.g.

Test on the drive class, circuit continuity diagnosis of the actuator.

Sensor voltage(rationality diagnosis )

Oil supply system diagnosis

The Mode 7 only displays the random failure. The random failure has been detected, but it is

not yet finally confirmed. The random failure is unable to activate the MIL.
Once the failure confirned, the record of failure will display in the Mode 3 instead of in the
Mode 7. The recorded result from the Mode 7does not necessarily indicate that the
corresponding failure still existing in the system.
The service men can confirm whether the failure has been truly cleaned out by accessing the
output of the Mode 7 after eliminated the failure and completed a cycle of drive, instead of
driving several cycles unti the failure has been confirmed and the MIL activated.
(8) Mode 8
The regulations in China and Europe do not require the function activation of the Mode 8 by
the OBD system.
(9) Mode 9
The objective of the Mode 9 is to allow the exterior devices for getting access to the
designated information, e.g. the Vehicle Identification Number(VIN), Calibration
Identification Number(CID or CVN) EOBD, which only requires that the Mode 9 outputs the
Calibration Identification Number(CID).
III. Inspection procedure of failure
For the vehicles fitted with the OBD function, the inspection of failures respects in general the
following procedure:
1. Connects the diagnosis device to the diagnosis interface to get through the diagnosis
device.
Position of diagnosis seat

Device connection

Connection method of J1962 joints

2. Gets through with the Ignition switch


3. Accesses the information of failures (failure code and blocked frames etc.)consults with
the maintenance manual to confirm the failure parts and typesEstablishes the maintenance
schedule according to the information and experience relvevant to the failures.
Main interface of the K81 Diagnostic Set

Function interface

Interface of car series

Interface of models

Interface of specific models

Interface of systems

4. Troubleshooting
5. Troubleshooting memoryDriving the car adequately, but in a way meeting the
conditions of failure diagnosisgets accesss to the failure information and confirms the
elimination of failure.
IV. Connection of diagnostic set
The system adopts the KLine Communication Protocol and applies the standard diagnosis
connector ISO 9141-2 as shown below in figure 2.5. This standard diagnosis connector is
perminently connected on the harness of engine. The standard diagnosis connectors used for
the Engine Management System (EMS) are the pins no. 4,7 and 16.
The pin number 4 of the standard diagnosis connector is connected to the grounding of the
vehiclethe pin number 7 to the pin no.71 of the ECU, i.e. the Kline of engine datathe pin
no.16 to the positive of the battery.

ISO9141-2

Standard diagnosis connector

Chapter III Clutch


Section I Outline
I. Structure parameters
Modes of clutch disc

Dry-type, single chip diaphragm spring

Distance from BHC to the surface of cover assembly clutch

37.9

Pressing load of assembly(N.m)

4150300

Leverage ratio of diaphragm spring

2.833 ( 51/18 )

Leverage of the diaphragm spring (mm)

31.51.0

O/D I/D( mm )

200130

Friction materials

B8805

Spline size

24/48-30 0 20NT

control mode

Operated directly by cable

Leverage ratio of release fork

2.87

Hydraulic cylinder size( mm )

None

release thrust bearing

Self-aligning type

Cover assembly clutch

Clutch disc

Clutch control mechanism

2. Basic specifications
Items

Specifications

Operating mode of clutch

Operated directly by cable

Mode of clutch disc

Dry-typed, single plate

Size of clutch disc

200130

Cap typed clutch

Diaphragm spring typed

3. Inspection specifications
Items

Specifications(limit value)

Riveting depth of clutch surface in mm

0.3

difference in height of the diaphragm spring, in mm


Clearance between the inner circle of slave cylinder and the outer circle
of piston

0.5
0.15

4. Specifications of tightening torque


Items

Specifications(N.m)

Connecting nuts of the hydraulic oil tube of clutch

15 ( 1.5 )

Hydraulic oil bracket of clutch

18 ( 1.9 )

Tube joints of the clutch slave cylinder

22 ( 2.3 )

Deflated plug of the clutch slave cylinder

11 ( 1.1 )

Fitting bolts of the slave cylinder

18 ( 1.9 )

Ball stud bolts

35 ( 3.6 )

Section II Break-down and assembly


Removal and assembly procedures

Removal procedures
1. Clutch cable bracket

6. Reset spring

2. Bolts

7. Release thrust bearing

3. Dust cover

8. Clutch cover assembly clutch

A A

4. Release fork assembly

5. Ball stud bolts


Essentials to the removal operation

9. Clutch disc

A Removal of the release fork


Removes the release fork as per the direction shown in figure .Removes the reset clip from the release
thrust bearing.
Essentials to the assembly operation

A Assembly of the release fork


Applies the grease on the position of release fork as shown in figure and packs with grease.
Specified grease: Esso Ronex, Esso Beacon EP2 or 3# calcium-based grease.

Section III Checks and maintenance


1. Clutch
1.1 Clutch platen
(1) Checks the diaphragm spring end to see if there are any wears and difference in height. If there are
remarkable wears or height difference over the limit valuethe clutch platen should be replaced. Limit
value: 0.5mm
(2) Checks the platen surface to see if there are any wears, fractures and discoloration on the surface.
(3) Checks to see whether the platen rivets are loosening or not. In loosened, the clutch platen should be
replaced.
1.2 Clutch driven disc
Attention:
The clutch driven disc can not be cleaned with the gasoline!
Checks to see if there are any deterioration and greasy contamination on the surface caused by looseness,
single faced contact and burn etc. If such problems detected, the clutch driven disc should be replaced.
Measures the riveting depth. If it exceeds the limit valuethe clutch driven disc should be replaced. Limit
value: 0.3mm

Checks the damping spring to see if there are any looseness and breakage. In such problems occurred,
the clutch driven disc should be replaced.
Fits up the clutch driven disc on the input shaft. Checks if the lubrication state and turning direction are
loosened. If they are sliding in poor state, then you should clean them up. Replacement after the assembly.
If obviously loosenedthe clutch driven disc or input shaft should be replaced or both replaced at the same
time.
1.3 Release thrust bearing of clutch
Attention: As the release thrust bearing is packed with the greasebe sure not to use the grease, Substances
to clean it
(1) Checks the bearing to see if there are burns, damages, abnormal noise and uneven revolution etc
(2) Checks the contact face between the release thrust bearing and diaphragm spring to see if there are any
wears. If any abnormal wears on the contact face, the replacement should be made.
(3) Checks the contact face between the release thrust bearing and release fork to see if there are any
abnormal wears on the contact face. If any abnormal wears on the contact face, the replacement should be
made.
1.4 Clutch release fork
(1) Checks he contact face between the release fork and release thrust bearing to see if there are any wears.
If such case, the replacement should be made.

Chapter IV Gearbox
Section I Summary
1. Baseline profile
Gearbox model

F5M41-7L

F5M41-71

Applicable engine

4G13

4G18

Mode

5 manual transmission , FWD

Final reduction gear ratio

4.333 (78/18)

4.052 (77:19)

Wheelbase (mm)

78 126 204

Full length(mm)

390

Outline dimension (L x W x H)( mm )

390543365

st

3.583 ( 43:12 )

nd

1.947 ( 37:19 )

rd

1.343 ( 43:32 )

th

0.976 ( 41:42 )

1 gear
2 gear
Gear ratio

3 gear
4 gear
th

5 gear

0.767 ( 33/43 )

0.804 ( 37:46 )

Reverse gear

3.416 ( 41:42 )

Differential gear size

No.4.2
1st gear

0.98

nd

0.98

rd

0.98

th

0.98

th

5 gear

0.98

Reverse gear

0.97

1st gear

71 bicone

2 gear
Transmission efficiency

3 gear
4 gear

nd

71 bicone

rd

71 bicone

th

71 monocone

th

5 gear

71 lever synchronizer

Reverse gear

Lever synchronizer

2 gear
Synchronous ring size (mm)
Synchronous ring mode

Shift control mechanism

Speed sensor

Lubricant oil

Net weight (excl. clutch)(kg)

3 gear
4 gear

Gearshift lever
ratio
Gear selecting
lever ratio

55/22.37
60/35

Gear ratio

31/36

mode

Electronic

SAE viscosity
classification
API
classification

80W-90 (summer in north) 75W-90 (winter in north ) 80W-90


or 85W-140 (through year in south)

Oil mass(L)

2.1

GL4 or higher than GL4

41

2. Table of the auxiliary materials for the gearbox assembly line:

Materials and
models used by AOS
Lubricant oil

Lubricant oil

Lubricant oil

S/N

Current materials and models

Assembly location

Mobilith SHC220 or Spartan syn EP


220

Shift fork
Clutch Bearing
Input shaft oil seal

MobilHD80W-90 or Esso Gear Oil


GX 80W-90

Gear oil

Gearbox assembly

Lubricant oil

Sealant TB1501

LT480

Air respirator

Anti-rust oil

Mobil LAMA LT or Rust-Ban330

Input shaft

Gear oil

Input shaft needle bearing

Gear oil

MobilHD80W-90 or Esso Gear Oil


GX 80W-90

Input shaft needle bearing

10

Sealant TB1303

LT243

Differential bolt

11

Sealant TB1216

LT5699

Gearbox shell joint surface

12

Gear oil

MobilHD80W-90 or Esso Gear Oil


GX 80W-90

Control shaft and shift lever

13

Sealant TB1216

LT5699

Control box sub-assembly

Gear selection block

3. Special tools
Tools

Numbers

Names

Intended uses

MD998812

Fitting tool caps

Uses together with the


joiners of fitting tool and
fitting tool

MD998813

Fitting tools100

Uses together with the


joiners of fitting tool and
fitting tool

MD998814

Fitting tool200

Uses together with the


joiners of fitting tool and
fitting tool

MD998817

Fitting tool joiners

Fitting of the front bearing of


input shaft

Tools

Numbers

Names

Intended uses

Fitting tool joiners

Fitting of the rear bearing


of input shaft, roller bearing
inner race and
reverse gear, needle bearing
and reverse gear shaft
bushing

Fitting tool joiners

5th gearfitting of the


reverse synchronizer, spline
hub, ball bearing and 4th gear

Fitting tool joiners

5th gearfitting of the gear


slide sleeve.
2nd gearfitting of the gear
slide sleeve

MD998822

Fitting tool joiners

1st gearfitting of the gear


slide sleeve.
1st and 2nd gearsfitting of
the synchronizer and spline
hub

MB990926

Fitting tool joiners

Fitting of the input shaft oil


seal of clutch shell

MB990927

Fitting tool joiners

Fitting of the sealing cap

MD990934

Fitting tool joiners

Fitting of the outer ring of


cylindrical roller bearings I

MD990935

Fitting tool joiners

Fitting of the bearing outer


ring of differential case ball

MD990938

Handle

MD998818

MD998819

MD998820

Used together with the fitting


tool joiners

Tools

Numbers

Names

Intended uses

MB998325

Fitting tool of
differential oil seal

Fitting of the differential oil


seal

MB998346

Dismantle tool of
bearing outer ring

Removal of the outer ring of


cylindrical roller bearings

MB998801

Dismantle tool of
bearing

Fitting and removal of


various gears, bearings and
sleeves

MD998826

Fitting tool joiners

Fitting of the gear hub of the


3 th-4th gears synchronizer

MD998917

Dismantle tool of
bearing

Fitting and removal of

4. Baseline profile
Model of gearbox

F5M41-7L

F5M41-71

Applicable engine

4G13

4G18

Final reduction gear ratio

4.333 ( 78/18 )

4.052 ( 77/19 )
th

mode

Cable shift of the 5 gear


1st gear

3.583

3.583

nd

1.947

1.947

rd

3 gear

1.343

1.343

4th gear

0.976

0.976

5 gear

0.767

0.804

Reverse gear

3.416

2 gear
Gear ratio

th

Gear ratio of the speedometer

3.416
31/36

5. Inspection specifications
Items
Front bearing clearance of Input shaft in mm

Tolerance range of tightness

Limit value

0 0.12

Rear bearing clearance of Input shaft in mm

0 0.09

Axial clearance of the 5th gears, input shaft mm

0 0.09

Items

Tolerance range of tightness

Limit value

Front bearing clearance of output shaft, in mm

0 0.12

Rear bearing clearance of output shaft, in mm

0 0.09

0 0.09

Axial clearance of the differential body, in mm

0.05 0.17

Pinion clearance of the differential body, in mm

0 0.150

0.5

rd

Axial clearance of the 3 gear, output shaft in mm

Clearance between the synchronous ring back and gear, in mm

Remark: standard clearance: 0mm


6. Regulating of the adjusting shims of snap ring, differential padding and differential gear.
Snap ring (used to the adjustment for the front bearing clearance of input shaft)
Thickness

Identifier

Mitsubishi-Part No.

Localization part No.

2.24

None

MD706537

BS15-1701037-1

2.31

Blue

MD706538

BS15-1701037-2

2.38

Brown

MD706539

BS15-1701037-3

Snap ring(used to regulate the rear bearing of input shaft)

7.

Thickness

Identifier

Mitsubishi-Part No.

Localization part No.

2.31

Black

MD747149

BS15-1701038-11

2.35

None

MD746561

BS15-1701038-1

2.39

Blue

MD746562

BS15-1701038-2

2.43

Brown

MD746563

BS15-1701038-3

2.47

Green

MD746564

BS15-1701038-4

2.51

White

MD746565

BS15-1701038-5

2.55

Yellow

MD746566

BS15-1701038-6

2.59

Black

MD746567

BS15-1701038-7

2.63

Orange

MD746568

BS15-1701038-8

2.67

Blue

MD746569

BS15-1701038-9

2.71

Brown

MD746570

BS15-1701038-10

Tightness torque specifications


Items

Nm( kgfm )

Spring group assembly

50 ( 5.1 )

Mounting bolt of the clutchgearbox shell

44 ( 4.5 )

Mounting bolts, Clutch bearing cage retainer

9.8 ( 1.0 )

Mounting bolts, control shaft shell

18 ( 1.9 )

Mounting bolts, shift cable bracket

18 ( 1.9 )

Mounting bolts, speed sensor

3.9 ( 0.4 )

Bracket mounting bolts

18 ( 1.8 )

Mounting bolts, gear selector

18 ( 1.8 )

Mounting nuts, gear selector

11 ( 1.2 )

Mounting bolts, gear, differential drive

132 ( 13.5 )

Switch, backup lamp

32 ( 3.3 )

Mounting bolts, front bearing, cage retainer

18 ( 1.8 )

spring group assembly

32 ( 3.3 )

Items

Nm( kgfm )

Limit ball assembly

32 ( 3.3 )

Mounting bolts, reverse gear

48 ( 4.9 )

Mounting bolts, reverse shift lever

18 ( 1.8 )

Mounting bolts, gearbox bracket

69 ( 7.0 )

Section II Break-down and assembly


Gearbox assembly

Break-down procedure:
1. Gearbox bracket

7. Gasket

2. Speedometer sensor

8. Limit ball assembly

3. Shift cable bracket

9. Gasket

M 4. Gear selector assembly

10. Spring group assembly

L 5. Speed sensor assembly

11. Gasket

6. Switch, backup lamp assembly

12. Bracket

In the reassembly, all inner


parts have to be lubricated
with gear lubricant.

13. Booster spring group assembly

21. Reverse intermediate gear assembly

K 14. Control shaft shell

22. Reverse shift lug call block

15. N-gear return spring

23. Reverse shift lug assembly

F24. Oil guided

16. Reverse intermediate gear screw

17. Gasket
A I 18. Sealing Cap
B H 19. Gearbox shell
C G 20. Reverse gear

25. Magnet holder


26. Magnet
E27. Gasket

In the reassembly, all inner


parts have to be lubricated with
gear lubricant.

Break-down procedure:
D 28. Spring pin

D C 37. Reverse interlock rail

29. 1-2 Shift fork shaft

D C 38. Steel ball

30. 1-2 Shift fork

D C 39. 3-4 Shift fork shaft

D 31. Spring pin

D C 40. 3-4 Shift fork

D 32. Spring pin

B 41. Cage retainer, front bearing

D C 33. 5- Reverse shift fork shaft

E A 42. Input shaft

D C 34. 5- Reverse shift fork

E A 43. Output shaft

D C 35. Reverse shift lug


D C 36. Snap ring

44. Differential assembly


45. Clutch shell

Essentials to the break-down procedures:

ARemoval of sealing cap

BRemoval of gearbox shell


Widens the snap ring and removes it from the snap ring of ball bearing.
Attention: If expanding the snap ringthe snap ring groove will deviate with the input shaft under the
effect of dead weight.

CRemoval of reverse gear


Laterally moves the synchronizer sleeve of the3rd 4th gears to the 4th gear.

DRemoval of the 34 shift fork shaft/34 shift rail/5reverse shift rail/elastic ring/reverse shift lug/5reverse shift fork shaft/steel ball/reverse interlock rail.
(1) Moves the reverse shift lug to the direction shown in the figure. while dismantling the sub-assembly of
5- reverse shift fork shaft and reverse gear arm snap ring, steel ball and reverse interlock rail.

(2) Moves the reverse shift lug to the direction shown in the figure. and removes it together with the fork.

ERemoval of the input/output shaft


Removes the Input/output shaft at the same time.
Adjustment prior to the reassembly:
Selects the gasket to adjust the axial clearance of differential case.

(1) On the position of gearbox shell as shown in figure., places soldering tin(Length ca. 10mmdiameter, ca.
1.6mm)then fits up the differential.
(2) Fits up the clutch shell and tightens the bolts to the specified moment.
If the soldering tin is not pressed flatuses the thicker soldering tin to repeat the procedure of (1) and (2).

(3) Measures with a micrometer the thickness(T) of flattened soldering tin and selects the gasket according
to the formula shown as below.
To select the thickness of gasket: (T 0.05mm) to (T 0.17mm).
Operating essentials to the reassembly.

AAssembly of the output/input shafts


Removes the Input/output shaft at the same time.

BFitting of the front bearing cage retainer


Applies the sealant on the mounting bolt (only countersunk screw) of front bearing cage retainer.
Specified sealant: LT243 (China)

CFitting of the reverse interlock rail/steel ball/5-reverse shift rail/reverse shift lug/snap ring /5-reverse
shift fork /34 shift fork /34 shift rail.
(1) Fitting of the 3th 4th shift rail and fork.
(2) Fitting of reverse interlock rail, steel ball, 5threverse shift rail. 5-reverse shift fork, reverse shift lug,
snap ring and positions them as shown in figure.
(3) Moves the reverse shift lug to the direction shown in figure. while fitting the 5-reverse shift fork, shift
rail and reverse shift lug, snap ring, steel ball, reverse interlock rail.

DFitting of spring pin


EFitting of gasket
Fits up the gasket selected from the step of the Adjustment prior to the reassembly.

FFitting of the oil guide

GFitting of the reverse gear


(1) Laterally moves the 3th 4th synchronizer sleeve to the 4th gear.

(2) Orients the bolt hole on the reverse gear to the direction shown in figure.

HFitting of the gearbox shell


Applies the sealant on the position of gearbox shell shown in figure.
Specified sealant: LT5699 (China)
Attention: Evenly extrudes the sealant without breaking off or over applied.

I Fitting of sealing cap


(1) Fits up the gearbox shell and expands the snap ring.

(2) Tightens the shell connected bolts with the specified moment.
Attention: Be sure of pressing down to the position shown in figure.

J Fitting of the reverse gear bolts


Uses the screwdriver etc (thickness 8mm ) and finds out the screw hole center.

K Fitting of the control shaft shell


Extrudes the sealant to apply on the position of gearbox shell shown in figure.
Specified sealant: LT5699 (China)
Attention: Evenly extrudes the sealant without breaking off or over applied.

LFitting of the speed sensor


Applies the gearbox oil on the O-ring of speed sensor.
Gearbox oil: gear oil Esso Gear Oil GX80W-90.

M Fitting of the gear selector


Applies the lubricant grease on the gear selector control shaft.
Specified grease: Esso Ronex . Esso Beacon EP 2 or 3# calcium-based grease.
2) Input shaft
Break-down and reassembly

Break-down procedure:
L1. Snap ring
A K2. ball bearing
3. Snap ring

D 15. Synchronizer spring


F 16. Synchronizer gear sleeve
E 17. 3-4 Gear, synchronizer hub

J4. Synchronizer sleeve


BI5.5- Reverse synchronizer hub
6. Synchronous ring
D7. synchronizer lever
8. 5 Gear, drive gear assembly
C I 9. Needle bearing
10. 5 Gear, drive gear sleeve
C H11. 4 Gear. drive gear assembly
12. Needle bearing
D G13. 4 Gear, drive gear sleeve
14. Synchronous ring
Essentials to the break-down procedures

18. Bicone outer ring


D 19. Synchronizer spring
20. Intermediate steel ring
21. Bicone inner race
22. 3 Gear, drive gear
23. Needle bearing
C 24. Snap ring
E B 25. Ball bearing
A 26. Oil seal
27. Input shaft

ARemoval of ball bearing

BRemoval of the 5reverse synchronizer hub


Mounts the special tools on the 5th gear, drive gear and removes the 5th reverse synchronizer hub.

CRemoval of the 5th gear, drive gear sleeve


Mounts the special tools on the 4th gear, drive gear and removes the 5th gear, drive gear sleeve.

DRemoval of the 4th gear, drive gear sleeve


Mounts the special tools on the 3rd gear, drive gear and removes the 4th gear, drive gear sleeve and
the 3th -4th gear synchronizer hubs

ERemoval of the ball bearing


Operating essentials to the reassembly

AFitting of the oil seal


Securely knocks into the position shown in figure.

BFitting of the ball bearing

CFitting of the snap ring


Selects and fits up the snap ringto achieve the standard value of the front bearing clearance of the
input shaft: 00.12mm

DFitting of the synchronizer spring


Securely fits up it to make it on the position shown in figure.

E Fitting of the 3th 4th synchronizer hub


Fits up the synchronizer hub to make it toward the direction shown in figure.

Attention: presses in the gear hub to push the synchronous ring in instead of meshing in.

FFitting of the synchronizer gear sleeve


(1) Fits up the gear sleeve to make it in the direction shown in figure.

(2) Aligns the deep groove of the synchronizer hub with the bump of the gear sleeve and fits up.

G4 Fitting of the drive gear sleeve

HFitting of the 5th gear, drive gear sleeve

IFitting of the 5th reverse synchronizer hub


Fits up the 5th R- synchronizer hub as per the direction shown in figure.

Attention: Pushes the hub in to prevent the synchronous ring from meshing up

JFitting of the synchronizer sleeve


(1) Fits up the gear sleeve to make it in the direction shown in figure.

(1) Aligns the deep groove of the synchronizer hub with the bump of the gear sleeve and fits up.

KFitting of the ball bearing

LFitting of the snap ring


Selects and fits up the snap ring to achieve the standard value of the front bearing clearance of the
input shaft: 00.09mm
3) Output shaft
Break-down and reassembly

Break-down procedure:
J 1. Snap ring
A I 2. Ball bearing
3. Snap ring
4. 5th gear, driven gear
th

5. 4 gear, driven gear


H 6. Snap ring
rd

7. 3 gear, driven gear


nd

8. 2 gear, driven gear


9. Needle bearing
B G10. 2nd gear, driven gear sleeve
11. Bicone inner race

E 14. Synchronizer spring


15. 1-2nd gear, synchronizer gear sleeve
D 16. 1-2nd gear, synchronizer hub
17. Synchronizer spring
18. Bicone outer ring
C C 19. Intermediate steel ring
B 20. Bicone inner race
D A 21.1st gear, driven gear
22. Needle bearing
23. 1st gear, driven gear sleeve
24. Snap ring

D 12. Intermediate steel ring

25. Bearing inner race

F 13. Bicone outer ring

26. Output shaft

Essentials to the break-down procedures

ARemoval of the ball bearing

BRemoval of the 2nd gear, driven gear sleeve


Mounts the special tools on the 1st gear, driven gear and removes the 1st -2nd gear synchronizer and
2nd gear, driven gear sleeve.

CRemoval of the 1st gear, driven gear sleeve

DRemoval of the inner race of cylindrical roller bearing


Operating essentials to the reassembly

A Fitting of the inner race of roller bearing.

BFitting of the snap ring


Selects and fits up the snap ringto achieve the standard value of the front bearing clearance of the
input shaft: 00.012mm.

CFitting of the 1st gear, driven gear sleeve

DFitting of the synchronizer spring


Securely mounts it on the position of synchronous ring shown in figure.

EFitting of the 1st 2nd gears, synchronizer hubs


Attention: Pushes the gear hub and prevents the synchronous ring from meshing up.

FFitting of the synchronizer gear sleeve

(1) Fits up the synchronizer gear sleeve to make it in the direction shown in figure.

(2) Aligns the deep groove of the synchronizer hub with the bump of the gear sleeve and fits up.

GFits up the 2nd gear, driven gear sleeve

HFitting of the snap ring


Selects and fits up snap ringto achieve the standard value of the axial clearance of the 3rd gear,
output shaft: 00.012mm.

IFitting of the ball bearing

J Fitting of the snap ring


Fits up the snap ringto achieve the standard value of the rear bearing clearance of the output shaft:
00.09mm.
4) Speed sensor
Break-down and reassembly
In the reassembly, all inner
parts have to be lubricated
with gear lubricant.

Break-down procedure:
1. E clip

3. O-race

2. Speedometer driven gear

4. Sleeve

5) Gear selector sub-assembly


Break-down and reassembly

Break-down procedure:
A 1. Dust cover

6. Select shaft shoe

2. Nuts

7. Select gear sub-assembly

3. Spring gasket

8. Gear selector sleeve

4. Gasket
5. Gear selector sleeve

Operating essentials to the reassembly

A Fitting of the dust cover

A 9. Dust cover
10. Gear selector shaft

6) Control shaft sub-assembly


Break-down and reassembly

Break-down procedure: :
A F 1. Lock pin

10. N-gear return spring

2. Interlock plate

11. Adjusting padding

3 Control arm

12. Control shaft

4 Pin
5 Return spring
6. Limiting plate
E 7. Spring pin
D 8. Spring pin
9. Limiting shoe

C 13. Aerator
14. Dust cover, control shaft
B 15. Oil seal
A 16. Needle bearing
17. Spring gasket
18. Limit show bracket
19. Control shaft shell

Essentials to the break-down procedures

A Fitting of the lock pin


Knocks out the lock pin along the direction shown in figure.
Operating essentials to the reassembly

AFitting of the needle bearing


Pushes it in to the size shown in figure. to make the model print in the direction shown in figure.

BFitting of the oil seal


Applies the gearbox on the oil seal lip.
Gearbox oil: gear oil Esso Gear Oil GX80W-90

C Fitting of the aerator


(1) Applies the sealant around the insert part.
Specified sealant: LT480(China)

(2) Start fitting up and making the bump in the direction shown in figure.

D Fitting of the spring pin

E Fitting of the spring pin

F Fitting of the lock pin


7) Clutch shell
Break-down and reassembly

Break-down procedure::
1. Cage retainer, clutch bearing
D 2. Oil seal
C 3. Oil seal

5. Oil guider
A 6. Sleeve
7. Clutch shell

A B 4. Cylindrical roller bearing

Installation operating essentials only referred when replacing the clutch shell.
Essentials to the break-down procedures

A Removal of the cylindrical roller bearing

Operating essentials to the reassembly


AFitting of the sleeve
Pushes the sleeve in the position shown in figure. Do not let its split ends touch on the air purge
groove.

BFitting of the cylindrical roller bearing


Pushes in the cylindrical roller bearing to make the model print in the direction shown in figure.

CFitting of the oil seal


Applies the gearbox oil on the oil seal lips.
Gearbox oil: Esso Gear Oil GX80W-90.

D Fitting of the oil seal


Applies the gear oil on the oil seal lips

8) Gearbox shell
Break-down and reassembly

Break-down procedure::
C 1. Oil seal
B 2. Needle bearing
3. Oil guider

4. Snap ring

A 5. Sleeve
6. Gearbox shell

Installation operating essentials only referred when replacing the gearbox shell.

Operating essentials to the reassembly


A Fitting of the sleeve
Keeps pushing the sleeve in the position shown in figure, and prevent it from touching on the split face.

BFitting of the needle bearing


Pushes it down to the dead end and makes it in the direction shown in figure.
CFitting of the oil seal
Applies the gearbox oil on the oil seal lips.
Gearbox oil: Esso Gear Oil GX80W-90

9) Differential
Break-down and reassembly

Break-down procedure::
D 1. Gear, driven gear
A C 2. Ball bearing
B 3. Lock pin
A 4. Shaft, planet pinion
A 5. Planet pinion
Essentials to the break-down procedures

A Removal of the ball bearing

A 6. Gasket
A 7. Differential gear
A 8. Gasket
9. Differential case

Operating essentials to the reassembly

A Fitting of the gasket/differential gear/gasket/planet pinion/planet pinion.


(1) Fits up the gasket on the back of the differential gearthen the differential gear in the differential case.
Remark: When fitting up the new differential gearplease select the gasket in the medium thickness
(0.931.00mm).
(2) Fits up the gasket on the back of the planet pinion to mesh in with the differential gear when it is in the
position 7, and fits up on the specified position while turning it.
(3) Inserts the planet pinion shaft.
(4) Measures the teeth clearance between the differential gear and the planet pinion. Standard value:
00.150mm.

(5) If the teeth clearance exceeds the standard valueyou should select the suitable gasket and measures the
teeth clearance.
Remark: Adjusts to make even the teeth clearances at both sides.
BFitting of the lock pin
Fits it up to make it in the direction shown in figure.

CFitting of the ball bearing

DFitting of the gear, driven gear


Applies the sealant on the overall threads of the bolt. Specified sealant: LT243(China )

Tightens it up to the specified moment as per the order shown in figure.

2.2.3 Inspection and maintenance


1) Gearbox assembly

Switch, backup lamp:


Checks the conductivity among various terminals.
Items

Conductivity

Presses down the switch

Non-conductive

Releases the switch

Conductive

2) Input shaft
1. Input shaft
(1) There should be no damage on the outer circle of the needle bearing mounting as well as abnormal
wears and scalds.
(2) Checks the splines to see whether there are damages or wears,
2. Needle bearing
(1) Combines the input shaft, sleeve and the gears and let them run to verify if they run smoothly and with
any abnormal noise.
(2) Whether the cage retainer is deformed.
3. Synchronous ring
(1) The teeth face of the synchronous ring should have no damages and breakages
(2) On the conical inner surface, there should be no damages, wears or no breakage on the thread teeth.
(3) Pushes the synchronous ring toward the gear to check the clearance A. When the clearance A is
lower than the limit value, it should be replaced. Limit value: 0.5mm

4. Synchronizer sleeve and hub


(1) When combining the synchronizer sleeve with the synchronizer hub to let them skiddingthey should be
able to skid smoothly with no retardation.
(2) On the front/rear end of the inner surface of gear sleeve, there should be no damages
Attention: In replacementthe synchronizer sleeve and synchronizer hub should be replace as one group.
5. Synchronizer spring
The spring elasticity should not decay and there are no deformation and breakages.
6. Speed gear at each gear
(1) Helical gear and the teeth face of outer gear should have no damages or wears.
(2) On the conical surface of outer gear, there should be no roughness, damages and wears.
(3) On the inside peripheral and front/rear surface of gear, there should be no damages and wears.

3) Output shaft
1. Output shaft
Checks the damage and wear of the spline.
2. Needle bearing
(1) When combining the input shaft sleeve with the gears for running together, checks to see if they run
smoothly and with any of abnormal noise
(2) Whether the cage retainer is deformed.
3. Synchronous ring
(1) The teeth face of the synchronous ring should have no damages and breakages.
(2) On the conical inner surface, there should be no wears or no breakages on the thread teeth.

(3) Pushes the synchronous ring toward the gear to check the clearance A. When the clearance A is
lower than the limit value, it should be replaced. Limit value: 0.5mm.
4. Synchronizer sleeve and hub
(1) When combining the synchronizer sleeve with the synchronizer hub to let them skiddingthey should be
able to skid smoothly with no retardation.
(2) On the front/rear end of the inner surface of gear sleeve, there should be no damages.
Attention: In replacementthe synchronizer sleeve and synchronizer hub should be replace as one group.
5. Synchronizer spring
The spring elasticity should not decay and there are no deformation and breakages.
6. Speed gear at each gear
(1) Helical gear and the teeth face of outer gear should have no damages or wears.
(2) On the conical surface of outer gear, there should be no roughness, damages and wears.
(3) On the inside peripheral and front/rear surface of gear, there should be no damages and wears.

Chapter V Steering system


The models series C2 apply the pinion racked mechanical/booster steering system.

Section I Introduction to the structure of the models series C2


During the drive in the car, you need often to change the direction of drive (i.e. steering). Thus, the driver
will make, through the automotive steering system, the deflection at a certain angle of the wheel (steering
wheel)on the steering axle(front axle) relative to the vertical axis. In addition, when the car drive straight,
the steering wheel will deviate automatically under the effect of lateral disturbance of the road, and change
the original direction. Hence, the driver may also make, through the automotive steering system, the
steering wheel deflect in reverse direction and regain the initial direction.
The automotive steering system mainly includes three basic parts, i.e. the steering control mechanism,
steering gear and steering linkage device.
The steering control mechanism is basically composed of the steering wheel, steering shaft and steering
column. The automotive power system is made up of the power steering, steering oil pump, steering
reservoir and steering pipeline, where the power steering is the hydraulic booster actuator of the steering
system;
The steering oil pump is connected with the engine to build up the hydraulic power supply of system; and
the steering reservoir serves as the roles of storage, cooling, filter and oil supply.

I. Description of the steering system structure, Main technical parameters


1. Mechanical steering
Items

Description

Types of the steering column and steering connecting shaft

Energy-absorbinguniversal joint connection(2 joints) with


adjustable inclination of steering column

Type of steering

Pinion and rack

Rack trip

148mm

Total circles of steering wheel

4.64 circles

Free path of steering wheel

Max. rotating angle of wheel

Inner: 37; Outer: 31

2. Electric Power Steering (EPS)


Items

Description

Types of the steering column and steering connecting shaft

Energy-absorbinguniversal joint connection(2 joints) with


adjustable inclination of steering column

Type of steering

Pinion and rack

Rack trip

143mm

Total circles of steering wheel

(3.34 circles)

Free path of steering wheel

Max. rotating angle of wheel

Inner: 37; Outer: 31

Type of oil pump

Vane typed

Theoretical discharge capacity of oil pump

7.5mL/r

open pressure of oil pump pressure valve

1.52.0MPa

Section II

Operation principle, maintenance and use of the steering


system

I. Operation principle and structure diagram of the steering System


1. Operation principle of mechanical steering: the steering wheel is turned manually by the driver, Which
deflects the steering wheel through the process of steering column and transfer shaft, pinion and rack
steering.

Steering wheel

Steering column and drive shaft

Meachnical steering

2. Operation principle of steering booster: Under the control of driver, the change of direction of the wheel
is actualized by the hydraulic pressure produced from the power steering pump driven by the engine.

Steering oil
reservoir
Steering
wheel

Steering oil
pump

Steering coloumn and


drive shaft

Steering
device

Steering oil pipe

3. Maintenance and use of the steering system


3.1 Regularly checks whether the steering hydraulic oil is at shortage. If in such case, you should add in
time. At the same timeregularly cleans out the hydraulic oil cup and filter elements to prevent the
hydraulic oil from contamination or deterioration. It is recommended to replace the hydraulic oil one time
per 30000km,
3.2 During the maintenanceyou should check the tightness of the steering pump belt for any fractures. If in
such case, you should replace it in time. About 1cm pressed down by finger is considered as the appropriate
tightness;
3.3 Regularly checks the pipe joint of hydraulic system to see if there are any oil leakages. The hydraulic
oil pipe should be kept as far as possible away from the friction of other parts to prevent the air leakage. At
the mean timethe hydraulic hose should be replaced regularly to prevent the rubber hose from peeling and
blocking the pipe;
3.4 During the maintenance of steeringthe installation and adjustment should be properly made and the
hydraulic oil distribution valve and piston cavity cleaned out. Chooses the qualified and type matching oil
seal to prevent the hydraulic oil leakage;
3.5 When making the steeringthe time of steering to the dead end can not longer than 5sespecially
when turning in the spota certain margin should be reserved to ensure the normal operation state of the
hydraulic steering system.

Section III Common faults and troubleshooting


Any of the failures in the steering system is possible to affect the drive safety and cause the driving faults.
Hence, the steering System has to be often checked.
Troubles

Too large free path


steering wheel

of the

Heavy steering(mechanical
steering)

Heavy
booster)

steering(steering

Driving deflection

Abnormal noise after filling


with the power steering fluid.

Possible reasons of failures

Solutions

The fastening bolts on the universal joint of


steering column are loosened

Tightens the fastening bolt of universal joint


as per the specified moment.

The bolts on the fitting part of steering


gear.

Tightens the fitting bolts of the steering gear


as per the specified moment.

Linkage tire rod worn

Replaces the ball stud or tie rod.

Too large backlash of the steering

Adjusts the backlash of the steering

Lower air pressure in the

Charges the tire pressure as per the range of


specification.

front wheel

Ball stud of steering is at oil shortage

Fills with the grease.

Too small backlash of the steering

Adjusts the backlash of the steering.

Steering mechanically damaged

Replaces the steering.

steering rod bent, deformed or all ball studs


assembled too tightly

Replaces the

Too small toe-in of front wheel

Adjusts the toe-in value of the


front wheel.

Drive belt loosened

Adjusts or replaces the drive belt of the power


steering pump (A/C compressor belt).

Insufficient hydraulic oil or air leaked into


the hydraulic oil

Drives out the air in the oil pipeline and adds


the hydraulic oil.

Poor performance of oil pump (insufficient


pump oilunable to supply adequate flow
or pressureinner damage)

Checks and replaces the power steering pump.

Oil leakage in the hydraulic system

Replaces the oil leakage parts.

Tire pressure inconsistent at the L/R front


wheel or the inconsistent tire sizes

Checks the tire pressure to keep both sides


consistent

Steering rod deformed

Replaces or corrects in time.

Inaccurate positioning of the front wheel

Tests the wheel positioning.

The brake of front wheel at one side biting


or the hub bearing over tightened

Adjusts the brake clearance or the reserved


tightness of the hub bearing.

When adding the power steering fluidthe


air leaked into the steering system and
caused the abnormal noise.

Opens the oil cap on the top of the steering


reservoir and turns the steering wheel on the
spot at engine idle to drive out the air from
the system.

tie rod or ball stud.

Chapter VI Transmission shaft


The transmission shaft is also known as the universal driving device. Whose function is mainly to
connect two non-parallel shafts, and transfer the power along with its change of position. The axial line of
the gearbox output shaft intersects with that of the drive gear of rear axle with change in the relative
position. The power transfer between both units have to be made in the application of the universal driving
device. The universal driving device is in general composed of the universal joint, spline shaft, bushing
fork and transmission shaft body, sometimes added with the intermediate mounting parts.

Section I Introduction to the transmission shaft, model C2


I. Inspection and reparation of the transmission shaft
1) Checks the dust cover on the drive shaft to see if there are any fissure, damage, oil leakage and looseness
of dust cover clamp etc. If any damages detected, the dust cover and clamp should be replaced.
2) Checks the ball cage to see if there are any wears and moves.
3) Turns by hand the drive shaft, no looseness is allowed between the axle and ball cage.
4) Checks the shaft splines to see if there are any wears or damages.
5) Be sure of no distortion or fissure on the drive shaft. If in such case, the replacement has to be made.
6) Checks the grease on the universal joints to see whether it is contaminated or not. It is just done by
rubbing it between two fingers. If sand grains felt, it indicates the CS universal joint has been contaminated
and needs to be replaced.

II. Assembly and adjustment of the CS axle shaft


The CS drive shaft assembly, model C2 applies the mode AC+GI, i.e.: the outer ball cage is the AC type,
ball caged universal joint; the ball cage is the GI typed, axle movable three-ball pin universal joint (See
figure 1.1)

CS drive shaft, LH

CS drive shaft, RH

Figure 1.1
1) Applies the gear oil on the surfaces of drive shaft splines and gearbox shell.
2) Be sure that the opening of snap spring faces down prior to the assembly of drive shaft.
3) Inserts the sliding end 2 of CS axle shaft, LH into in the left end of differential, and fits the fixing end

1in the front wheel hub LHInserts the sliding end 2 of CS axle shaft, RH into in the right end of
differential, and fits the fixing end 1in the front wheel hub LH (See figure 1.1).
Attention: be sure to insert the ends 2 and 3 of differential on the position until a Click from the snap
spring is heard. There is a clearance in 3-5mm on the outermost face of gearbox in the sections 4 and 5 of
the universal joint at the sliding end (See figure 1.1)
4) Checks by hand the drive shaft after the assembly.
5) Fits up the axle nuts and locks the nut caps and lock pins (See figure 1.2)
6) Fits up the wheel assembly.

Lock pin

Locking nut cap

Shaft head nut

Figure 1.2

Section II Common faults of transmission shaft and troubleshooting


I. Abnormal noise of front drive shaft
1) If the Click sounds from the front drive shaft when turning off, it indicates that the CS universal joint
at the outer side has been seriously worn
Solution: Replace the CS universal joint at the outer side.
2) When the car accelerates, decelerates or turns off, the abnormal metal knocking sounds from the drive
shaft, then, this indicates the CS universal joint at the inner side has been seriously worn.
Solution: Replace the CS universal joint at the inner side.
3) Whatever you turn off, accelerate or decelerate, there is always the abnormal noise from the drive shaft
at some of sides, this indicates there is defection in the front wheel bearing at the side concerned.
Solution: Replaces the front wheel hub bearing.

II. Vibration of the front drive shaft


If driving by acceleration, the vibration or turning run-out occurs on the drive shaft, it is possibly caused by
the excessive wear on the liquid channel surface of inner sided universal joint.
Solution: Replaces the inner sided CS universal joint.

Chapter VII Suspension


Section I Introduction to the structure of suspension system
The axle is divided into the front axle and rear axle. It is a device between the frame and wheels intended to
load various weights and transfer the forces and moments from every aspect.
The suspension system refers to the generic terms of a device, which joints the resilience and used between
the frame and axles. It absorbs and moderates the impacts and vibrations from all forces and moments on
the road so as to ensure the safety drive.
The model MP Midi is a brand new sedan independently developed and designed by BEIJING FOTON
MOTOR CO.LTD.
The front suspension of the model has adopted the McPherson independent suspension of high technology
maturity and the rear suspension the trailing arm typed, torsion rod independent suspension.

I. Structure of suspension system


1. The front suspension uses the McPherson independent suspension of high technology maturity, which is
characterized by less space occupation, compact structure and Medium load capacity. The front suspension
assembly is shown in figure 1.

L/R sliding column assembly

Lower swing arm assembly LH

Sub-frame assembly

Lower swing arm assembly RH

Front cross stabilizer assembly

2. The rear suspension uses the trailing arm typed, torsion rod independent suspension, which is
characterized by less space occupation, compact structure and strong load capacity. It is fitted with the
torsion bar stabilizer assembly, which is able to control effectively body heeling and increase the safety.
The rear suspension assembly is shown in figure 2.

Rear PU aux. spring


Rear cross stabilizer

Rear axle tube bracket assembly

Rear axle tube bracket assembly


Rear axle support cushion

Rear shock absorber assembly

II. Maintenance of the axles and suspension system


1. Maintenance of the front suspension
(1) Checks to see if the helical spring has any fissure, scratch and damage. Replaces it when necessary.
(2) Checks the stabilizer bushing and slip-pillared cushion to see if there are any ageing and damage.
Replaces it when necessary.
(3) Checks the column linkage ball pin and lower swing arm joint pin see if there are any looseness, and
whether the front/rear bushings of swing arm are aged and cracked. Replaces it when necessary.
(4) Uses a 4W locator to check the front wheel positioning
2. Maintenance of rear suspension
(1) Checks the shock absorber to see whether there are any oil leakages, any ageing and cracking on the
rubber bushing of lifting lug. Replaces it when necessary.
(2) Checks to see if there are any damage and fall-off on the rear PU aux. spring. Replaces it when
necessary.
(3) Checks to see if there are any deformation and damage on the rear axle support cushion. Replaces it
when necessary.
(4) Checks to see if there are any fissures and scratches on the rear torsion rod stabilizer. Replaces the rear
axle assembly when necessary.

III. Failure diagnosis of the axles and suspension system


1. Failure symptom: the rear suspension produces abnormal noise and swing etc., prior to the drive.
Causal analysis: Fitting parts loosenedthe front suspension lower ball joint pin, the stabilizer
column linkage ball hinge, the stabilizer clamp, the upper support cushion of
sliding pole, the rear axle fastening bolts, the support cushion fastening bolts, the
rear shock absorber fastening bolts and the rear backing plate bolts etc. loosened.
Solution:

Tightens the loosened bolts

2. Failure symptom: Oil leakage on the front/rear shock absorbers accompanied with abnormal noise.
Causal analysis: Hydraulic oil leakage in the shock absorber due to the failure of shock absorber
gasket, abnormal noise caused by the absorbing performance degradation of the
shock absorber.
Solution:

Replaces the shock absorber.

3. Failure symptom: drive-line deflection, eccentric wear on tires.


Causal analysis: Too large deviation of toe-in between the L/R front wheels, difference in the
pressure on the L/R tires, lower ball joint deformation and ball pin loosened.
Solution:

Tests the front wheel positioning, adjusts the toe-in, supplements the tire pressure.
Replaces the lower ball joint when necessary.

Positioning parameter of the MIDI wheels


1.

Front wheels
Steering angle of
front wheels

Positioning parameter of front wheels


Model of product

Front axle
type

Introversion
of master pin

Backward
tilt of master
pin

Camber of
wheels

Toe-in of
front wheels

Internal
corner

Outer
corner

Steering
booster

10830

23030

1530

13 mm
(1510)

37

31

Mechanical
steering

10830

130

1530

13 mm
(1510)

37

31

BJ6438MC6VA-1
BJ6438MC6VA-2
BJ6438MC6VA-P1
BJ6438MC6VA-P2
BJ6438MC6VA-P1
BJ6438MC6VA-P2

2.

Rear wheels
Model of product

Main deceleration ratio

BJ6438MC6VA-1

4.052

BJ6438MC6VA-2

4.333

BJ6438MC6VA-P1

4.052

BJ6438MC6VA-P2

4.333

Positioning parameter of rear wheels


Camber of wheels

-12530

Toe-in of rear wheels

-2010 or
-1-3mm

Chapter VIII Brake system


Section I Introduction to the brake system structure
I. Structure description:
The brake systems may be divided into the service brake system, parking brake system, emergency brake
system and assistant brake system etc. The brake system intended to decelerating and even parking in the
use process of the car is referred as to the Service Brake System; The brake system intended to park the
stopped car on the place is referred as to the Parking Brake System; The brake system, which can ensure
the car for decelerating or parking in case of the failure of service brake system, is referred as to the
Emergency Brake System; The brake system. Which assists the service brake system to reduce the speed or
maintain the steady speed in the use process, but unable to make an emergency brake, is referred as to the
Assistant Brake System. In terms of the above-describe brake systems, the service brake and parking brake
systems are necessarily required for every vehicle. Their functions are intended to force a car, as per the
requirement of driver, in the running process for deceleration and even stop, steadily park a stopped car on
different road conditions (incl. on the slope) and keep the stable speed of a car driving on down-hill road.
The model MP Midi is fitted with two sets of independent brake systems including the service brake system
action on the front/rear wheels; the hydraulic controlled dual braking system with the vacuum booster; the
front disc and rear drum brake and the rear wheel brake attached with the parking brake.
The service brake system is to be used during the driving in the car. It is food-operated and serves as the
master brake. The parking brake system is used during the parking and moving up on the slope. It is
manually controlled.
In case of emergency brake, the parking brake system is applied together with the service brake systems. In
case of the failure of service brake system, you should drive the car immediately , with the assistance of the
parking brake system, to a safe area or a service station for the inspection and maintenance.

II. Main specifications of the brake system


S/N
1

Items

Data
Hydraulic operated with vacuum booster,
double-loop-wheel brake system and front disc and rear
drum brake.

Service brake system modes


Front wheel

Disc brake

Rear wheel

Drum brake

Brake disc(mm)

Standard thickness

22 01

Friction plate(mm)

Standard thickness

18 0.2

Brake drum I/D(mm)

Standard value

228.6

Brake shoe friction liner


(mm)

Standard thickness

Brake master cylinder


size(mm)

Cylinder diameter

23.81

Stroke

35.68

Brake

+02

Diameter of rear brake sub-cylinder(mm)

22.22

brake liquid

HYZ4 rated synthetic brake liquid

10

Parking brake system mode

Pull-wired and hand-wheel brake

11

Free stroke of brake pedal(mm)

166

12

Braking distance for the road test (cement pavement in


80Km/h)

50m

III. Inspection and reparation


1. Checks the height of the brake pedal. The ground height of brake pedal should be 140mm. If incorrect,
the adjustment should be made at once.
2. Free stroke of brake pedal. Steps down the brake pedal until the resistance is felt. The free stroke of
brake pedal is to be 10~12mm.
3. The front disc brake clearance is automatically adjusted while the rear drum brake clearance manually
adjusted.
4. Performance test of vacuum booster
1) Steps down several times the brake pedal prior to start up the engine and checks to see that no change
should take place in the stroke margin of brake pedal;
2) Steps down the brake pedal and starts up the engine. If the pedal continues to move slightly down a little
bit, it indicates a sound operation.
3) Shuts down the engine after started up in 1~2mins. Slowly steps down the brake pedal for several times.
If the stroke of pedal for the first step is the largest, but is lifting gradually for the 2nd or the 3rd time, it
shows a proper performance of vacuum booster.
4) Steps down the brake pedal during the running of engine. Foots down the brake pedal and shuts down
the engine while keeping the pedal stepped down. If there is no change in the stroke margin of pedal within
30s, it represents a healthy seal quality of vacuum booster.
5. Inspection of the parts of brake master cylinder;
1) Blows clean with the compressed air the parts of brake master cylinder after break-down and cleaning.
2) Checks the cylinder wall to see whether there are any rusts or scratches.
3) If there are any wears or damages on the cylinder tube, it should be replaced.
4) Checks if there are any scratches on the pistons and sealing rings and replaces them when necessary.
5) After the brake master cylinder fitted up, adjusts the length of tappet before it is mounted on the vacuum
booster(right side)
6. Inspection of the front disc brake
1) The standard thickness of brake disc: 22mm, the wear limit: 19.5mm.
2) Measures the radial bounces within 10mm of the outer edge of brake disc. If the bounces are larger than
0.12mm, it should be replaced by the new part.
3) The max. increment of the cylinder diameter is not allowed to be exceeded by 0.05mm.
7. Inspection of the rear drum brake
1) The standard I/D of the brake drum: 228.6mm, the max I/D: 230mm
2) The wears or scratches of the brake drum may be repaired by the lathe polishing.
3) The contact area of the friction plate of brake shoe with the brake drum should reach more than 85%,
otherwise subject to the grinding process.
4) When the distance from the friction plate surface of brake shoe to the rivet head is lower than 0.8mm, it
has to be replaced.

IV. Reassembly, adjustment and inspection


1. Reassembly of brake lines
1) Proceeds in reverse order of the removal.

2) In reassembly, takes care of the cleanness of each brake connector. The oil pipe has to be securely
clamped with the clip and joints fastened. The oil pipe should be free of obstruction and the joints without
leakage.
2. Exhaust adjustment of the brake lines system
The brake system is fitted with the ABS, type MK60.
In terms of the air exhaust of line, please refer to the specifications of the ABS liquid filling and air exhaust
3. Inspection of the brake performance
The automotive brake performance may be inspected on the brake tester. Drives the car onto the test-bed
and tests respectively the weight of front axle and rear axle. Then drives the tested car on the brake tester
and keeps it in straight position. Operates as per the operating instructions of equipment. Only one
inspector is allowed in the car.

60%
15%
20%

Percentage(%) between the front axle brake power and the shaft load
Ratio between the R/L difference of the front axle and the greater (%)
Brake
performance
testing

Ratio between the R/L difference of the rear axle and the
Greater (%)
Ratio (%) between the max. value of the brake power difference and the rear axle load
when the rear axle brake power is 60% lower than the rear axle load.

7%

Ratio (%) between the sum of the parking brake power and the vehicle weight.

20%
60%

Percentage (%) between the total brake power and the vehicle mass.

Section II Common Faults of Brake system and Troubleshooting


1. Common Faults of Brake system and Troubleshooting
(1) Brake failure. When stepping down continuously on the brake pedal, no brake effect is available on the
wheels.
Causes

Troubleshooting

None or insufficient brake liquid in the master pump

Fills with full brake liquid

Master pump cylinder badly worn or the leather cuff of the


master/sub-cylinder worn

Replacement

Brake pipe broken or joints badly worn

Repairs or replaces the brake line

Tappet pin of the master pump fallen off.

Reassembly

(2) Ineffective brake. The car is unable to stop immediately when the brake pedal is stepped down, even
with poor effect followed by several steps.
Causes

Troubleshooting

Air or oil leakage in the brake lines

Drains out the air and eliminates the oil leakage


failure.

Excessive gap between the brake pedal and the free stroke

Adjusts the free stroke of brake pedal

Excessive gap between the brake drum and friction plate clearance

Adjusts the clearance

Leather cuff of brake blocked due to expansion

Replaces the leather cuff

Friction plate excessively worn, poor contact or oil fouling

Polishes or replaces the friction plates

Brake drum out of round, friction coefficient disqualified

Repairs the brake drum or replaces it

Brake hose aged and expanded

Replaces the hose

(3) Brake deviation. When making the brake, the brake power at both side is unbalanced or asynchronous
which deviates the car during the brake process.

Causes

Troubleshooting

The clearance of the brake shoe plate on the right wheel is inconsistent

Adjusts the clearance

Joint of some brake hose jammed. Air leaked into the pipeline

Dredges the line and bleeds the line

Some sub-cylinder blocked due to the leather cuff expansion

Replaces the leather cuff

Friction plate of brake shoe on a certain wheel is contaminated by oil


stains or the rivet exposure due to severe wear

Polishes or replaces the shoe plate

Unbalanced air pressure between the R/L tires

Fills up the pressure

Some of the brake drum out of round

Repair

Brake drum deformed after assembled with the tires

Measures and checks after the assembly of the


brake drum with the tire, polishes if necessary.

Inconsistent friction coefficient between R/L brake drum

Replaces with brake drum of consistent friction


coefficient

Time difference in the effects between the R/L brake power

Checks the causes and adjusts

The car Frame seriously deformed. The wheelbase is not parallel

Measures and adjusts

(4) Brake biting (Brake drum heating)


The brake effect can not be relieved in time after releasing the brake pedal, which overheats the brake drum.
The normal operating temperature of brake drum should not be higher than 70 of the ambient
temperature (the temperature will be even higher when driving on the long slope in the mountain area.).
The detection of cause for the brake drum heating may be carried out by the ways of the free driving path
and non-braking drive.The free loaded vehicle starts free driving on the Plain and dry road from the initial
speed of 30km/h to fully stop. The free-driving distance value (calculated as per the average value of two
round-trips) for the ordinary vehicle should be not less than 220m and for the FWD vehicle not less than
180m. If the slickness occurs between the brake drum and brake friction plate, the free wheel drive will
largely shorten and the brake drum will heat up.
The car drives 3-5km without stepping on the brake pedal.If the brake drum is heating, it is resulted by the
causes such as the brake friction plate rubbed with the brake drum or the looser hub bearing, rear axle
bending etc.To make further adjustment, you may lift the heating axles with the jack and rotate the
wheels.If the brake friction plate does not rub the brake drum, it should be determined that the hub bearing
is too loose the rear axle bent.
1. Biting up between each wheel
Causes

Troubleshooting

Slow return of the master pump

Repairs the master pump

Too short free stroke of brake pedal

Adjusts the free stroke

Pipeline jammed and difficult oil loop

Dredges the oil line

2. Some of individual wheel biting


Causes

Troubleshooting

Too narrow clearance between the brake drum and friction plate

Adjusts the clearance

The reset spring of brake shoe weakens or support pin of brake shoe and
eccentric resistances too large

Replacement spring or adjusts the support pin


and the eccentricity

The leather cuff of sub-cylinder bloated or the pistons locked

Replace or repair

Brake hose bloated and jammed

Replaces the brake hose

3. Abnormal brake noise. When making the brake, you often hear the squeak noise or discontinuous
friction.
Causes

Troubleshooting

Brake drum out of round or uneven friction

Repairs or replaces the brake drum

Friction plate dirty or rivet loosened

Polishes or repairs by riveting

Brake shoe impact with the brake drum

Repairs and adjusts

Friction plate excessively worn. Brake drum rubbed by the


rivet head

Replaces the brake shoe with the friction plate assembly

4. Gradual depression of brake pedal. When braking during the drive, it suddenly happens to step down
brake pedal to the end or not rebound sufficiently by continuous steps on the brake pedal.
Causes

Troubleshooting

Oil leakage of the brake line or air leaked into the system

Reparation and deflation

The leather cuff race of master pump worn


Oil channeling at both ends when braking

Repairs and replaces the parts

Leather cuff of sub-cylinder overturned by stepping

Reparation

5. Brake pedal gradually raised up. When braking in the drive, the brake pedal raises up gradually by
several continuous steps
Causes

Troubleshooting

Fill hole of master pump jammed or blocked by


the rubber ring, which keep the redundant brake liquid from
returning to the storage cup

Dredges or readjusts the fill hole

The free clearance of the piston tappet of master pump is too


narrow

Readjustment

6. Brake pedal too ponderous. It feels difficult with poor braking effect when stepping down the brake
pedal due to the vacuum booster failure.
Causes

Troubleshooting

Air leakage in the diaphragm of vacuum booster or the spring


broken

Checks and repairs the damaged part of vacuum booster

Oil leakage in the diaphragm of control valve

Checks and repairs the damaged part of vacuum booster

Vacuum valve of control valve badly closed

Checks and repairs the damaged part of vacuum booster

Air leakage in the vacuum line

Replaces the hose or tightens the joints

Failure of the non-return valve

Replaces the non-return valve

Appendix: Test method to prove whether the brake drum is in normal heating process or not:
Drives the car on a plain road for 10km and uses the brake properly, then touches the brake drum. If the
temperature is tolerable, it is considered that the brake drum is in normal temperature.
Attention:
1. Under the above state, it is allowable that the temperature difference exists between the front/rear brake
drums or R/L brake drums.
2. In case where the temperature of brake drum is intolerable by hand touch when several emergency
brakes have been tried on the road test path, it is considered that the brake drum is in abnormal temperature.

Chapter IX Electric equipment


The body electric system refers to power supply, powered devices,connection conductors, various
switches and different protective equipment etc., fitted in the body. The system is characterized by a large
variety of parts, complex structure, interconnection, interaction and at the meantime opposition to each
other. The power supply is composed of the battery, charger, fuse group and harness etc,. The vehicle line
is made up primarily with four harness divisions such as chassis, body, front dashboard and door.
During the process of reparation, you may refer to the wiring schematic of the vehicle electric equipment
(See the Wiring Schematic of Electric Equipment in the end of manual).

Section I Battery
I. Introduction to the product structure of battery
z This is afully service-free lead-acid battery.
z The positive/negative grids of battery are made on the lead-calcium alloy. The grid applies the
intermediate plate lugs and radial-grided frame in lesser thickness.
z The battery uses the PE bag-partition.
z The polar group of battery is made in general, through the forge welding.
z The positive/negative plates of battery are made in the application of the active substances in most
rational formular and painted by machine, the substance of positive/negative nature are formulated
through calculation in best ratio.
z The plastic enclosure of battery adopted the seal structure.
z The plastic grooved bottom is designed in fixed structure.
z The plastic cover is in double layers, two covered rooms are designed in the structure of labyrinthed
acid reflux and air exhaust.
z In the host exhaust port are fitted the hydrophobic air filter plates, which, in case of no acid leakage do
not restrict the air overflow, but once the acid exhaust into the system, it will reflow into the battery.
z The air filter plates in the exhaust system also perform the effect of antiflame device, which is able to
prevent
z The battery explosion due to the exterior open fire or the entry of sparks into the battery.
z The battery applies the sulfuric acid of higher purity and strictly controls the quantity of electrolyte in
the battery.
z The battery is fitted with the charge indicator,
z Through the sight hole of indicator, you may keep track of three states such as the adequate charge,
shortage of charge and insufficient electrolyte.

II. Installation of battery:

The battery is located near the gearbox at the left side of the engine compartment. In application of the
following fixing method, it is press-fixd on the battery bracket by the battery platen.
Precautions to the installation: The battery grooves have to match up with the bumps on the battery bracket.
When fixing the platen, Places first the bump into the groove, then, tightens the nut.After the completion of
installation, the battery must be ensured with any shakes.

Operation note of battery


Description of Indicator:
On the top of battery, there is a charge indicator positioned as showin in Figure . below:

Charge
indicator

Color description:

Green

Good

Black

Charge required
Liquid insufficient and
necessary for replacement

None

Description of warning signs:

Keep the children away from the battery and electrolyte

The battery contains the highly corrosive dilute sulfuric acid. Wear the protective gloves and
safety goggle during operation. Care for protecting your eyes and face. Once exposed to the
skin, rinses it with plenty of water for several minutes, then calls on the doctor for medical
treatment.

The battery belongs to the dangerous parts. Reads carefully the operating instruction manual
prior to the operation!

The battery is able to produce flammable and explosive gases. The cigarettes, sparks or sparkle
are possilbe to cause the battery explosion, thus, use of open flame, coverless lamp and
smoking are strictly prohibited near the battery

When operating the battery, it is necessary to wear the safety goggle.

The charge of battery can easily produce flammable and explosive gases, hence the charge
should be carried out in a well ventilated place.

Sing of recycle. The material of value of the battery may be reused. Therefore, it is prefereable
to give the used or damaged battery to the Dealership or service station of Foton Company

The battery also contains the toxic substances e.g. sulfuric acid and lead etc. The are the
special garbage harmful to the environment. Be sure not to handle it as household waste.
Operation notes and cautions:
z Chechs the voltage of battery measuring terminal prior to the loading. If the voltage at terminal is lower
than 12.5V, the charge is necessaire.
z Handls the battery with care during the loading. In the process of handling and use, the battery inclined
should be less than 30. Be careful of the polarity and positive anchoring when loading. Avoid the
mechanical shock during the use.
z De sure not to disconnect the battery when the ignition switch is turned on the engine runs, otherwise it
may damage the electric system or parts.

z When a metal part comes into contact with two polarities of battery electrical wiring, or the
positive of battery with the body, the short-circuit will come about and cause the fire and serious burns
z Prior to operating the electric system, you have to shut down the engine and all powered devices,
disconnect the negative cable of battery.
z When disconnecting the battery with the vehicle electric system, the negative cable has to be cut off,
then the positive. The reverse order is required when encasing.
z Do not keep the battery under direct sunshine for longtime, to avoid the damage of the battery shell by
strong ultraviolet ray.
z It is recommended to disconnect the battery when the car is going to leave unused more than 1 month.
z Provided the car is not used at low temperature for longtime, the proper measures for battery protection
should be taken to prevent the frozen damage.
z Be sure not to charge the frozen or defrost battery, otherwise it is likely to cause explosion. The frozen
battery has to be replaced. The empty battery is likely to freeze at about 0.
z In storage of battery, be sure that no large difference of temperature between the upper and lower parts,
otherwise the free discharge will come about.
Maintenance and testing
z The ambient temperature for battery storage is at 5-40, the heating or cooling measure should be
taken in excess of this rage.
z The environment of battery storage should be kept clean and dry, and the protective measures from
dust, rain and moisture should be available.
z If the storage of battery is longer than 90 days, it should be charged, the charge is to be made by the
ways as follows:
(1) The current at the rate capacity of 0.1 time for 20 hours (e.g. 6-QW-70: the charge current
=0.170=7A): After the battery voltage charged with the constant current reached to 14.40V,
continues to charge it for 1-2hours.
(2) Before the sale of car, the voltage should be measured. If the terminal voltage is lower than 12.50V,
the charge should be supplemented as per the above method.
z Visually checkes the outlook to observe if the battery shell shows any expansions or fractures. In case
of such expansion or fracture, be sure not to use again.
z Checks if there are any corrosions and contaminations on the connections of battery cable and the
cables. If contaminated, loosens them and wipes out.
z Checks through dropping the voltage of battery poles, and judges by the voltage dropout if there are
poor contacts at the joints. If the voltage dropout is higher than 0.1V, it indicates that extra-high
resitance exists at the pole connection, the joints need to be cleaned out.
z Leak detection of battery: connects the negative lead of voltmeter to the negative column of battery;
moves the positive lead to different position of battery shell. If no leakage of battery, there is no votage
display.
z This is the maintenance-free battery. With an interscope, the rough judgment can be made: when the
battery is of adequate charge (over 65%), it displays in green, when the charge is lower than 65%, it
displays in black. If colorless, it means the shortage of electrolyte. For the time being, the battery has to
be replaced.
z The voltage tesing by open circuit may substitutes the gravity testing: Bridges two test leads of
voltmeter over two pole columns of battery to measure the open-circuit voltage. The corresponding
relation between the test value of open-circuit voltage and the power state are shown as below:

Open-circuit voltage/V
12.6
12.4
12.2
12.0
11.9

Power state /%
100
75
50
25
Fully discharged

Battery charge:
Additional charge of battery
z Storage period: three months for the storage of battery with liquid. When using in excess of the time
limit, the charge should be supplemented by the ways as follows:
In terms of maintenance-free battery: the charge applies the method of constant voltage: constant
voltage at 16V; max. tolerance current: 0.25C20A, until the charge current approaches the zero, and
keep continuousely steady for 2-3hours without change.
Description: C20 refers to the nominal rate capacity of battery for 20hours, e.g. the nominal rate
capacity for 20hrs of the battery in 54Ah: 54Ah, max. tolerance charge of current: 0.2554=14A
z When charging the battery, the temperature should not be higher than 45, otherwise the measures
such as the water bath should be used to reduce the temperature to temporarily lower the charge current
or voltage.
z During the first 3 hours of the charge process, be sure to observe in time and adjust the charge current,
so as to prevent the burnout of charger due to the overcurrent or other accidents.
Difference of supplementary charges between the fully free-service battery and open battery
z Because of the structural difference of the maintenance-free battery from the open typed battery, the
former one requires no water supplementary supply during the usage, thus the different charge method
is applied for the routine maintenance and application.
z In the maintenance and charge of open typed battery, the actual interior of the battery can be visible
because of the openable stopper, which enables the density measurement of each cell. While testing the
battery, each cell can be individually checked by the methods of constant voltage limit and constant
current charge; the distilled water can be supplemented during the use and maintencance, while the
service-free battery is different instead.
z When charging the maintenance free battery, the constant voltage limit should be applied, the voltage
at each terminal of battery in average should not exceed 16V(12V battery, same as below). If the
voltage is over 16V, large amount of air will exhaust from the air outlet, and cause the loss of
electrolyte. During the use, the battery can not be added with water. The overdissipated air will
premature the failure of battery. Therefore, the charge voltage of the service-free battery has to be
strictly controlled during the use and maintenance.
z In normal cases, the service-free battery doesnt require the charge by constant current, for the
temperature of battery will increase at the later period of the constant-current charge, most electrolyte
water from electric power will cause the loss of electrolyte. The repetition of constant current charge
will loosen too much of electrolyte and affect the starting performance of battery as well as the
premature of service life.

Causes of battery common defects(failures) and solution of testing and determination


Problems due to the customer use. The last two are attributed to the responsibility of manufacturer. The
specific defects are listed as below

Table of causes of battery common defects(failures) and solution of testing and determination

Defects

Analysis of cause

1. Overcharged
Battery bulging
2. Air outlet blocked
and deformation
3. Pole plate seriously bended

Battery leakage

Insufficient
charge

1. Mechanical shock
2. Batter explosion due to the
overcharge.
3. Fracture at the heat sealing
part
4. Terminal crept and seepted
with acid liquid
1. The set value of voltage
regulator is lower sited
2. Pole columns and wires
corroded
3. Failures of generator or lines.

Over charged

1. The set value of voltage


regulator is higher sited.
2. Overcharge of current and
overtime.

1. Longtime shortage of charge


Over discharge

Short-circuit

2. Short-circuit and electric


leakage
3. The electrice devices not
turned off after parking
Partition damaged

welding through the partition


sealed-off
Pole columns droped and
broken
Terminal false welded. Basbar
Open-circuit
broken
Connection of busbar with the
plate lug is broken up. The
electrolyte is lower than the
lugs.
Inverse pole of Wrong connection of positivie
charge
pole when charging the battery.
1. The state of discharge lasted
overtime.
Carbonatization
2. Insufficient charge for
longtime
1. Decreased level of liquid due
Indicator shows to over charge
Liquid used out
2. Failure of indicator
Board drop

False welding

Solution for testing and


determination
Battery coupled with dry
electrolyte.
Visual inspection
Normal electrolyte, teardown
analysisi
Visual inspection
Battery coupled with dry
electrolyte.

Handle of defects

Responsi
bility

Renew supply
for customer

Company claims

Renew supply
for customer

Air tightness testing


Quality problem if the terminal
intact
1. Voltage Ca. 12V.
2. Indicator shows insufficient
charge
3. Hard startup
1. Indicator color darkened and
yellowed
2. Electrolyte dried or liquid level
lower and muddy
3. After teardown, the active
substances on the pole plates fall
off
1. Voltage under 10V
2. Indicator shows insufficient
charge
3. Unable to startup the vehicle
Terminal voltage lower than 10V,
supplementary charge invalid

Company claims
Check and
adjustement
Supplementary
charge
Renew supply
for customer
Check and
adjustement
Renew supply
for customer

Supplementary
charge
Check and
adjustement
Renew supply
for customer

Company claims

Company claims
1. Voltage abnormal and insteady
2. Terminal damaged by solution
3. Unable to charge and discharge
Bad use condition

Voltage in negative display


1. Discharge capacity lower
2. High charge voltage and battery
heating
Electrolyte liquid muddy and
indicator darkened and yellowed
Normal again after the indicator
changed
Teardonw analyisis

Renew supply
for customer

Inverse charge by
customer or renew

Repeated charge
Renew supply
for customer
Renew supply
for customer
Indicator
replacement
Company claims

Common battery defects and analysis of causes


z The pole plate sulfitation of battery is one of commonly seen defects. The major cause is the fact that
the battery is short of the charge for longtime or the battery is left unused in state of insufficient power.
The heavy pole plate sulfitation causes the much lower voltage of battery, the concentration of
electrolyte reaches or approaches to that of water, which leads the larger inner resistance of battery and
difficult charge. The worser case may cause the battery discarded.
z Treatment of the pole plate sulfitation of battery:
Charges the battery with the current at 0.1C20A until the terminal voltage reaches to 15V, then
continues to charge by the current at 0.05C20A until the terminal voltage reaches again to 15V,
afterward, keeps charging for 5hours. Discharges the charged battery with the current at 0.05C20A
until the terminal voltage reaches to 10.8V. If the battery suffers from heavy sulfitation, the voltage
will surpass 15V once it is power-supplied, thus, charges the battery with the current at 0.05C20A until
the terminal voltage is lower than 15V. Afterward, follows up the above method for subsequent
treatment.
z The blockout of pole plate is another defect. The major reason thereof is that the battery is kept for
longtime in state of overcharge during the usage, due to higher voltage output from the voltage
regulator of car, which increases the water consumption of battery and furtherly raises the temperature
in the battery. This leads to fast blockout of pole plates as well as much lower capacity.
z This kind of loss of capacity is perminant, there is no alternatives for the battery remedy.

Section II Audio system


I. Audio configuration and operating description
CD player

Cassette player

II. CD player failures in vehicle system and solutions


Functions S/N

Vehicle
function

Failure
modes

Definition of failure modes

Possible reason of
failures
Poor contact of fuse
tube
Poor contact of wire
with the host
Poor contact of the
ignition switch

When turning on the ignition


switch by inserting the key and
No power or pressing down the power supply
no display
switch, neither the radio reacts,
nor the screen lamp lightens and
displays
Damage in the
audio-system

Bad/few
broadcasting
stations

When you press down the search


button or tune the station
selection knob, the wavebands
of frequency modulation (FM)/
amplitude modulation (AM) are
unable to receive any stations

Antenna not
pulled out
Antenna feeder
broken/short-circuit
Poor contact of
antenna with the host
Audio-system failure

If the balancer is sited


in the middle
Speaker line
When receiving the broadcasting
falloff/poor contact
Mute in one station or playing the CD, no
side
audio output available on the Speaker damaged
left/right channel.
Unhealthy in
audio-system
Electricity shortage of
battery

No memory
of timer

Each time after turning on, the


Lines of B+and ACC
timer on the main dashboard
power supply in
displays
inverse position
12: 00
Unhealthy in
audio-system

Division of
Responsibili
ties

Solution
Replug-in

Not
determined

Replug-in
Lock-pin
replaced
Audio
replacement and
retry
Pulls out the
antenna
Antenna
replacement
Replug-in

Spare part
supplier
Not
determined
Use
Spare part
supplier
Automobile
manufacturer

Audio
replacement and
retry

Not
determined

Reset

Use

Re-solding or
connecting
Speaker
replacement
Audio
replacement and
retry
Trial run after
adequately
charged
readjusts the
connection
position
Audio
replacement and
retry

Spare part
supplier
Not
determined
Use

Not
determined

III. Judgment of CD Player failures per se in the vehicle system and solutions
Functions S/N

Failure
modes

Definition of failure
modes

Possible reason of
failures
Main power
supply/fuse tube
burnt

Partial
function

When turning on the


ignition switch by
inserting the key and
Unable to turn pressing down the
power supply switch,
on
neither the radio reacts,
nor the screen lamp
lightens and displays

Solution
Replaces the fuse
tube(due to the
conductor inserted
into the device)

Poor contact of the


host connection with Replug-in connector
the body
The power supply of
radio-cassette players Reconnect
disconnects/falls off
Buttons on dashboard
Readjusts the bottons
lock up
Others

Division of
Responsibilities

Not determined

Use

Contact with the


special service station
not determined
of R/C player
manufacturer

Functions S/N

Failure
modes

Screen has
no
display/show
insufficiency

Botton
function
lost/wrong
function

Definition of failure
modes
No display: when
You turn on the radio
set, the display lamp
lightens, but no digital
display; Insufficient
dislay: On the screen,
there are number of
missing strokes or
overstrokes.
All bottons ineffective:
whenn pressing any of
the bottons on the
dashboard, no one is
active;
A certain botton
ineffective: if some
botton can not performs
its function;
Wrong butoon function:
the function of button is
not consistent with the
actual performance;

Possible reason of
Solution
failures
Screen is damaged by
Displayer replacement
impact
Contact with the
Displayed IC pin is special service station
false welded
of R/C player
manufacturer
Contact with the
special service station
Others
of R/C player
manufacturer
Wrong operation

Mute speaker
in one side

A group of
front or rear
speakers
mute.

Not determined

Cleans out the wrong


memory by pressing
the RESET button.

Poor contact/false
welding of dashboard Replug-in/reweld
wiring

Poor contact of the


host connection with
the body

Mute speaker

Product
manufacturer

Buttons on dashboard
Readjusts the bottons
lock up

Other problems

Use

Use

Control panel wiring


damped and with
leakance

Partial
function

Division of
Responsibilities

Contact with the


special service station
of R/C player
manufacturer
Not determined
Contact with the
special service station
of R/C player
manufacturer
Replug-in the
connecting wire

Cancels the mute


Stay in mute state
function
Under the normal state
of Radio/CD play, the Amplifier IC
Rewelds the IC pins
speaker is fully mute.
burnt/false welded
One speaker
Speaker replacement
grouding/short-circuit

The balance(BAL) is
not set in the middle
When receiving the
Speaker wire fall
broadcasting or playing
off/speaker burnt
CD, no audio output
from the left or right
side.
Others

Product
manufacturer

Not determined
Use
Product
manufacturer
Spare part
supplier

Retunes to the middle


Use
position
Spare part
Speaker replacement
supplier
Contact with the
special service station
Not determined
of R/C player
manufacturer

Front/rear
Retunes to the middle
balance(FAD) is not
position
Whatever playing CD
tuned on the middle
or broadcasting, only
Speaker wire fall
one of front/rear group
Speaker replacement
off/speaker burnt
of speakers has audio
Contact with the
output, the other group
special service station
mute.
Other problems
of R/C player
manufacturer

Use
Spare part
supplier
Not determined

Functions S/N

9
Radio

Failure
modes

No
broadcasting
stations
received

FM or AM
receives not
stations

Radio or
FM/AM mute

Definition of failure
modes
When you press down
the search button or
tune the station
selection knob, the
wavebands of
frequency modulation
(FM)/ amplitude
modulation (AM) are
unable to receive any
stations

Some of the waveband


normal while another
band receives no
stations

Radio mute: FM/AM


has no audio output,
while the audio or CD
play is normal;
FM/AM mute: some of
waveband has audio
output while another
no audio output

Possible reason of
failures
Radio antenna falls
off
Radio antenna is
short-circuited
Broadcast station
pause

Division of
Responsibilities
Automobile
Replug-in the antenna
manufacturer
Spare
part
Antenna replacement
supplier
Solution

Normal condition

Mis-judgment

Contact with the


special service station
Not determined
Others
of R/C player
manufacturer
Radio antenna falls
Automobile
Replug-in the antenna
off(poor contact)
manufacturer
RFH of FM/AM or
Product
Antenna replacement
circuit damaged
manufacturer
Contact with the
special service station
Not determined
Others
of R/C player
manufacturer
Antenna falls
off(poor contact)
Bad switching of
Receiving/playing
RFH of radio or
circuit damaged

Others

Replug-in the antenna

Automobile
manufacturer

Contact with the


special service station
of R/C player
Product
manufacturer
manufacturer
Contact with the
special service station
of R/C player
manufacturer
Contact with the
special service station
Not determined
of R/C player
manufacturer
Automobile
Replug-in the antenna
manufacturer

Radio antenna falls


off
RFH OF FM/AM OR
CIRCUIT
Antenna replacement
DAMAGED
After you press down
the search button or
LO/DX(far/near
Few stations tune the station
distance)button
Reset is in DX state
10 received or
selection button, the
setting
with noise
FM/AM waveband only inappropriately
receives rare stations or All environmental
normal condition
with stronger noise.
influences
Contact with the
special service station
Others
of R/C player
manufacturer
Contact with the
Failure of radio
special service station
After the radio receives
output circuit
of R/C player
a staion,
Radio mute at
manufacturer
11
the speakers at one side
one side
Contact with the
are mute, but
special service station
normal in play/CD state Others
of R/C player
manufacturer

Product
manufacturer
Use
Mis-judgment
Not determined

Product
manufacturer

Not determined

Functions S/N

Failure
modes

No disc
reading/poor
12
reading
performance

Definition of failure
modes

After you placed CD


disc, the scrren displays
no CD timer or only
reads out some tracks,
and can not continue to
play normally.

When inserting the CD


disc into the tray
Disc unable to
13
mouth, the CD player is
get-in.
unable to take in
automatically the disc.

CD
14 No disc out

Disc
15
auto-In/Out

16

17

Lack of
anti-shocking

CD mute or
L/R mute

When you press down


the Disc Out button,
the CD player is unable
to reject the CD disc.

After you inserted the


CD disc, the CD can
not play, and reject it
after a while.

With the car driving on


the plain road, the CD
disc plays
discontinuously or with
pauses.

When the time of disc


reading runs
normall, but without
audio or L/R
output or, the audio is
normal.

Possible reason of
Solution
failures
Heavy taps/scratches on
CD disc replacement
CD disc
Inconsistent CD format
CD disc replacement
(MP3/VCD etc)
Cleans out the laser
Laser head dirty (dusty)
head with swab.
Aged laser head
Laser head
(Tapping disc use for
replacement
longtime)
Contact with the
special service station
Others
of R/C player
manufacturer
Presses down the
CD disc already in the
Disc Out button to
core
reject the disc.
The press-dish sinks
Presses Disc Out
down in the playing
button and resets the
state
disc dish.
The core wiring loosens Replugs in the
off
pin-socket
Contact with the
special service station
Others
of R/C player
manufacturer
Multi-discs or disc in
Takes out the disc
wrong format inserted
Disc tray mouth
Replaces the core of
deformed by prying
CD player
Contact with the
The Disc Out button
special service station
ineffective (No EJECT
of R/C player
display)
manufacturer
Contact with the
special service station
Others
of R/C player
manufacturer
Contact with the
The core structure
special service station
dislocated
of R/C player
manufacturer
Contact with the
special service station
Others
of R/C player
manufacturer
Driving continuously on
Pauses the CD playing
the uneven road (45S)
CD track tapping
Replaces the CD disc
Contact with the
special service station
Others
of R/C player
manufacturer
Contact with the
The core wiring loosens special service station
off
of R/C player
manufacturer
Contact with the
special service station
Others
of R/C player
manufacturer

Division of
Responsibilities

Use

Not determined

Use

Product
manufacturer
Not determined

Use

Not determined

Use

Not determined

Product
manufacturer

Unot determined

IV. Precautions to the use and maintenance of CD player


1. Please be sure to use the correct D/C voltage (1214V) instead of the positive grounding;
2. During the interior cleaning and maintenance of car, do not let water and detergent etc. on the panel of or
into the R/C player, to prevent the the PCB from corrosion and short-circuit.
4. Keeps the product as far as possible away from the dirty, dusty or highly damp and excessively worn
places;
5. Maintains the R/C player panel and disc tray entry clean and wipes them regularly with the wet towel.
6. When driving in the car on bumpy road and passing by the speed limit, try not to change the disc, for it is
easy for the disc to get misplaced.
7. Using the deformed, shaped, too thin or thick, punched and labeled discs are likely to cause the grip
socket failed;
8. Do not use heavily scratched discs. When hearing of the staccato and Clatter from disc knocking
during the disc playing, the laser head is aged and damaged.
9. When inserting the CD disc, please be sure that there is no disc in the player, and do not insert two or
more CD discs at the same time.
10. Do not place the CD disc directly on the dashboard or sun visor, to prevent the disc scratch,
deformation or large dust deposit.
11. Do not expose the CD disc to a heat source or under the sunshine to prevent from deformation.
12. When parking the car under strong light without use for longtime, it is best to take out the CD disc prior
to turn off the audio-system, to prevent the deformation under the high temperature for longtime;
13. Prior to insert the CD disc, please be sure if the surface of CD data recording is clean to prevent the
dust from entering into the CD player, which affects the CD player reading performance;
14. When taking out the CD disc, do not get in touch with the CD data recording surface to prevent the
finger prints left on the disc surface and effect on the reading capability.
15. When cleaning the disc, please use the special cleaning cloth/brush with the wiping direction starting
from the inner ring to the outer, and avoid the wiping on the same position.
16. Forcely inserting or taking out the disc causes the CD player failed;
17. Unauthorized external high power loudspeaker is strictly prohibited to avoid damaging the host;
18. In case of failures, be sure to have it repaired at the designated service station instead of arbitrarily
dismantling, to prevent expanding the scope of failures due to the man-made causes;

V. Judgment of Cassette Players failures per se in the vehicle system and solutions
Functions

Vehicle
function

S/N

Failure
modes

No power
supply or
display

Bad/feu
stations
received

Definition of failure
modes
When turning on the
ignition switch by
inserting the key and
pressing down the
power supply switch,
neither the radio
reacts, nor the screen
lamp lightens and
displays
When you press down
the search button or
tune the station
selection knob, the

Possible reason of
failures
Poor contact of
fuse tube
Poor contact of car
connecting wire
with the host
Poor contact of
ignition switch
Damage inside
audio -system
Antenna not pulled
out
Antenna feeder
broken/short-circuit

Solution

Division of
Responsibilities

Replug-in
Not determined
Replug-in
Lock-pin replaced
Audio replacement
and retry
Pulls out again the
antenna
Antenna replacement

Spare part
supplier
Not determined
use
spare part
supplier

Functions

S/N

Failure
modes

Vehicle
function

Definition of failure
modes
wavebands of
frequency modulation
(FM)/amplitude
modulation (AM) are
unable to receive any
stations

When receiving the


No sound in station or playing CD,
one side
the L/R audio channel
mute.

Each time after


No memory turning on, the timer
of timer
on the main dashboard
displays

Possible reason of
Solution
failures
Poor contact of
Replug-in
antenna with the
host
Audio-system
damaged
Whether the
balance R/L is not
set at the middle
point
Speaker connection
wire falloff/poor
contact
Speaker damaged
Unhealthy in
audio-system
Battery short of
charge
Lines of B+and
ACC power supply
in inverse position
Unhealthy in
audio-system

Division of
Responsibilities
automobile
manufacturer

Audio replacement
and retry

Not determined

Reset

Use

re-solding or
connecting

Spare part
supplier

Speaker replacement
Audio replacement
Not determined
and retry
Trial run after
Use
adequately charged
readjusts the
connection position

Not determined

Audio replacement
and retry

VI. Judgment of the cassette player failures per se and solution


Functions

S/N

Failure
modes

Definition of failure
modes

Possible reason of
failures
Main power
supply/fuse tube
burnt

Unable to
turn on

When turning on the


ignition switch by
inserting the key and
pressing down the
power supply switch,
neither the radio reacts,
nor the screen lamp
lightens and displays

Poor contact of the


host connection
with the body
The power supply
of radio-cassette
players
disconnects/falls off
Buttons on
dashboard lock up

Function

No display: when you


turn on the radio set,
the display lamp
Screen has
lightens, but no digital
no
display; Insufficient
display/show
display: On the screen,
incompletly
there are number of
missing strokes or
extra-strokes.
Button
function
lost/wrong
function

Solution

Division of
Responsibilities

Replaces the fuse


tube (due to the
conductor inserted
into the device)
Replug-in the
connecting wire

Not determined

Reconnect
Readjusts the bottons Use

Others

Contact with the


special service station
Not determined
of R/C player
manufacturer

Screen is damaged
by impact

Displaer replacement Use

Displayed IC pin is
false welded

Others

All buttons ineffective:


When pressing any of
the buttons on the
Wrong operation
dashboard, no one is
active;

Contact with the


special service station Product
manufacturer
of R/C player
manufacturer
Contact with the
special service station
Not determined
of R/C player
manufacturer
Cleans out the wrong
memory by pressing Use
the RESET button.

Functions

S/N

Failure
modes

Function

Definition of failure
modes
A certain button
ineffective: if some
button can not performs
its function;
Wrong button function:
the function of button is
not consistent with the
actual performance;

Possible reason of
failures
Buttons on
dashboard lock up

Readjusts the bottons

Poor contact/false
welding of
dashboard wiring

Replug-in/reweld

Control panel
wiring damped and
with leakance
Other problems

Playback

Solution

Product
manufacturer

Contact with the


special service station
of R/C player
manufacturer
Not determined
Contact with the
special service station
of R/C player
manufacturer

Poor contact of the


host connection
with the body

Replug-in the
connecting wire

Not determined

Stay in mute state

Cancels the mute


function

Use

Amplifier IC
Rewelds the IC pins
burnt/false welded
One speaker
grounding/short-circ Speaker replacement
uit
Contact with the
special service station
Others
of R/C player
manufacturer
The balance(BAL)
Retunes to the middle
is not set in the
position
middle
When receiving the
broadcasting or playing Speaker wire fall
Mute
Speaker replacement
speaker
in CD, no audio output
off/speaker burnt
from the left or right
one side
Contact with the
side.
special service station
Others
of R/C player
manufacturer
Front/rear
Retunes to the middle
balance(FAD) is not
position
Whatever playing CD
tuned on the middle
A group of or broadcasting, only
Speaker wire fall
front or rear one of front/rear group
Speaker replacement
off/speaker burnt
speakers
of speakers has audio
Contact with the
mute.
output, the other group
special service station
mute.
Other problems
of R/C player
manufacturer
Silent
Available audio output Laser head
Laser head cleaning
dirty(dusty)
playback
in radio state; no
speaker in cassette
Switch of laser head
Adjusts the switch
playback.
damaged
Mute switch
Adjusts the switch
short-circuited
Tape in wrong drop Adjusts the tape room
position(deformatio or takes out the
n or foreign matters) foreign matter
Motor burnt
Motor replacement
Core belt falls off
Belt replacement
Mute
speaker

Division of
Responsibilities

Under the normal state


of Radio/CD play, the
speaker is fully mute.

Core

pin-socket Re-inserts the plug

Product
manufacturer
spare part supplier

Not determined

Use
Spare part
supplier
Not determined

Use
Sare part supplier
Not determined
Use
Product
manufacturer
Product
manufacturer
Use
Product
manufacturer

Functions

S/N

Failure
modes

Definition of failure
modes

Playback
8

10

Playback
sounds
small/tonal
modulation

No tape -in

No tape-out

In playback state,
speaker output smaller
or tonal modulation

The tape can not get


smoothly into the tape
room, and leads to the
ineffective playback

After the tape moved


into the
tape room, the tape can
not
eject smoothly by
pressing
the tape-out button,

Audio

11

12

Tape continues to shift


No stop of frin the side A to B or
side shifting from the side B to A
without stop.

13

Playback
with
abnormal
sound

In playback state,
There are other sounds
combined except the
soft tape tracking noise.

Radio
available, but
no stations
received

When you press down


the search button or
tune the station
selection knob, the
wavebands of
frequency modulation

14
Radio

In state of tape normal


No
side playback, the playback
shifting
from the side A to B or
side B to A smouthly

Possible reason of
Solution
failures
falls off
line.
Contact with the
special service station
Others
of R/C player
manufacturer
Core magnetic head
Laser head cleaning
(dirty)
Core guide pulley
Guide pulley
dirty (dusty)
cleaning
Broken tape on the Takes out the broken
guide pulley
tape
Contact with the
special service station
Others
of R/C player
manufacturer
Tape deformed
Tape replacement
Tape room
Tape room
deformed
adjustment
Contact with the
special service station
Others
of R/C player
manufacturer
Tape
room
Tape deformed
adjustment
Tape label locking Takes out the tape
Foreign matters into Takes out foreign
the core.
matters
Tape eject button Adjusts the tape eject
deformed/locked
button
Contact with the
special service station
Others
of R/C player
manufacturer
Foreign matters
Takes out foreign
locked in the core
matters
Shift button
Regulates the shift
deformed/locked
button.
Contact with the
special service station
Others
of R/C player
manufacturer
The chassis pully of
Takes out the foreign
core is locked by
matters
foreign matters.
Tape too tight due
Tape replacement
to moisture.
Cleans out the pully
Pully in the core
dust or
dirty or with foreign
takes out foreign
matters
matters
Guide pulley of core Cleanss out the guide
dirty
pulley
Probleme of tape
Tape replacement
Radio antenna falls Replug-in the
off
antenna
Radio antenna is
Antenna replacement
short-circuited
Broadcast station
Normal condition
pause

Division of
Responsibilities

Not determined

Use

Not determined

Use

Not determined

Use

Not determined

Use

Not determined

Use

Automobile
manufacturer
spare part supplier
Mis-judgment

Functions

S/N

15

16

Radio

17

18

Failure
modes

FM or AM
unable to
receive
stations

Definition of failure
modes
(FM)/ amplitude
modulation (AM) are
unable to receive any
stations

Some of wavebands
normal, but another
waveband unable to
receive stations.

Radio mute: both


FM/AM hasno audio
output, while the
playback or CD audio
outputis normal
FM/AM mute: some of
wavebands has the
audio output while
another waveband has
none.

Possible reason of
failures

Solution

Division of
Responsibilities

Contact with the


special service station
not determined
Others
of R/C player
manufacturer
Radio antenna falls Replug-in the
automobile
off (poor contact)
antenna
manufacturer
RFH OF FM/AM
Product
OR CIRCUIT
Antenna replacement
manufacturer
DAMAGED
Contact with the
special service station
Others
not determined
of R/C player
manufacturer
Antenna falls off
(poor contact)

Replug-in the
antenna

automobile
manufacturer

Contact with the


special service station
of R/C player
Radio mute
Product
manufacturer
or FM/AM
mute
manufacturer
Contact with the
RFH OF radio OR
special service station
CIRCUIT
of R/C player
DAMAGED
manufacturer
Contact with the
special service station
not determined
Others
of R/C player
manufacturer
Radio antenna falls Replug-in the
automobile
off
antenna
manufacturer
Rfh of fm/am or
Product
Antenna replacement
circuit damaged
manufacturer
After you press down
the search button or
Lo/dx(far/near
tune the station
distance)buttons
Few stations
Reset is in DX state use
selection button, the
setting
or with
FM/AM waveband can inappropriately
interference
only receive few
All environmental
normal condition
Mis-judgment
stations or with larger
influences
interference.
Contact with the
special service station
not determined
Others
of R/C player
manufacturer
Contact with the
Failure of radio special service station Product
After the radio received
output circuit
manufacturer
of R/C player
Radio has no station, the speaker at
manufacturer
sound at
one side has no sound,
Contact with the
one side
and normal in
special service station
playback/CD.
not determined
Others
of R/C player
manufacturer
Bad switching of
Receiving/playing

VII. Precautions to the use and maintenance of cassette player


The car audio-system is the product made by the special design and the optimal process. If you follow the
recommendation shown as below, you may enjoy your car audio-system for long lasting time.
1. Please be sure to use the correct D/C voltage(1214V) instead of the positive grounding;
2. The product should be used or stored under normal temperature. Over high temperature may shorten the
service life of electric elements, and deform or melt the plastic parts;
3. Be sure to handle with cares. Falling from height may damage the circuit board, and cause the
malfunction of product;
4. Keeps the product dried. If drenched inadvertently, drys it at once; If contaminated by the liquid
containing the mineral substance, the electronic circuit is likely to be subject of corrosion;
5. Uses sometime with the wet cloth to clean the product and keep it clean, but do not use the chemical
drugs containing the impurity or the solubable detergent to clean the product;
6. Keeps the product as far as possible away from the dirty, dusty or highly damp and excessively worn
place;
7. The good grounding may eliminate much of electronic noise. Hence, makes good contact between the
grounding terminal of audio-system with the metal chassis of car;
8. Before the speaker has been securely connected, be sure not to turn on the power supply switch, so as to
prevent the speaker line from burning up the elements by the inter-contact and short-circuit.
9. Bad-quality or damaged, deformed, broken and scratched tapes will impact the effect of use and service
life of audio system.
10. During the normal use, the magnetic head of playback will get in direct touch with the tape. The dirts
and filths etc., will deposit on the magnetic head after use for longtime, this will directly affect the playback
effect of R/C player(sound lower and muffle etc.), therefore, Cleans the magnetic head with head cleaning
tape for each 10 hours of tape run, so as to maintain the quality sound.
11. Do not leave the tape in the tape room without use, to prevent the dust from attaching on the head and
guide pulley and affecting the sound effect.
12. Unauthorized external high power loudspeaker is strictly prohibited to avoid damaging the host.

Section III

Combination instrument

The instrument includes the engine tachometer(max. speed 7500), speedometer (max. speed 200), water
thermometer, fuel gauge and L/R turn indicators, rear fog lamp, high-beam light as well as indicators such
as the oil charge pressure, safety belt, safety airbag, ABS, engine failures, water temperature alarm, brake
failure, handbrake, door opening indication, coolant level, oil level alarm, process water, backup, vacuum
alarm, failure lamp, SVS, rear defroster etc.
22 Indicators 4 reserved indicator:
S/N

Indicator

Legends

Description

L turn indicator

Controlled by the combination turn switch

R turn indicator

Controlled by the combination turn switch

Service lamp

In case of no failures, if the engine fails to startup within 4s, it


will flame out automatically in 4s; If the engine starts up within
4s, it will go out automatically; In case of the failures of
conventional engine parts except the EOBD, the lamp lightens.

3
4
5

High-beam
indicator
Rear fog lamp
indicator

Controlled by the combination headlight switch


Controlled by the switch of rear fog lamp

Backup indicator

Lights up when back up

Water
temperature alarm
indicator

Oil level alarm


indicator

Brake
indicator

10

ABS indicator
Handbrake
indicator
Preheating
indicator

After the ignition, the indicator lightens for 3s and goes


out; when the water temperature exceeds 1052.5,
the lamp lightens and flashes.
After the ignition, the indicator lightens for 3s and goes
out; when the oil amount is less than 10ls(pointer within the red
zone), the lamp lightens and flashes.
After the ignition, the indicator lightens for 3s and goes; when
the brake liquid level is too low, the indicator lightens.
When the ABS starts up, it lights up for 1.6s, then goes out; In
case of ABS failure or disconnection, the lamp lights up
Pulls out the handbrake, the lamp lights up; pulls down the
handbrake, it goes out.
Available for the model with preheating function. It
lights up when heating.

13

Charge indicator

In case of the generator failure, it lights up.

14

Enginefailure
indicator

11
12

15
16
17

failure

Safety belt alarm


indicator
Rear defroster
indicator
Door
opening
indicator

It lights up constantly before the engine startup, and goes


out in 2-3s after the engine started up; In case of EOBD
failures relevant to the emission es, it lights up.
It keeps lightened and goes out after the driver has fastened
the safetey belt
It lights up by pressing down the rear defroster switch, and
goes out after lasted for 8min2min.
It lights up when the doors are closed and goes out when
the door are opened.

S/N
18
19
20
21
22

Indicator
Safety airbag
indicator
Oil
pressure
indicator
Coolan
level
indicator
Vacuum
alarm
indicator
Process
water
indicator

Legends

Installation of combination instrument:

Description
It lights up in case of the safety airbag failure or disconnection.
After the ignition, the indicator lightens for 3s. It lights up when
the oil pressures is too low.
It lights up when the coolanl level is too low.
It lights up when the vacuum degree is too low.
It lights up when the water-oil ratio is too high.

Section IV Safety airbag


I Outline
1.1 Product profils
When the car is subject to a serious frontal collision, the drivers safety airbag(DAB) is used to mitigate the
possible injury of driver. The safety airbag(DAB) of the passenger in front row is used to reduce the
eventual of the passenger in front row
The present product is a positive single-point electronic airbag system characterized by integration of
sensor and control circuit(in the control box). The gas agent is pyrotechnic.
1.2 Environment of use and operation condition
a. Ambient temperature (-35+85).
b. Operating voltage (123)V.
c. In case of failure in the system self-detection, the system will stop working.
d. Within the time of self-detection (ca. 4s), the system doesnt make analysis on the collision information
and issue the ignition command; Only after the completion of self-detection that the system starts its
normal work.
e. To enable the safety airbag system for realizing the ideal and safe effect, it is imperative for the driver
and passenger in front row to sit right and properly fasten the safety belt.
1.3 Effect on the environment and safety
After the safety airbag system activated, it will not cause any harmful effect to the interior air, environment
and atmosphere, and there is no healty hazard when the passenger gets in touch with the air from the airbag.

II Techique profil
a. When the strength of the front collision is less than that of a car impacting at the speed of (131)km/h, on
a rigid fixed wall perpendicular to the direction of vehicles, the airbag system will not activate.
b. When the strength of the front collision is stronger than that of a car impacting at the speed of
(231)km/h, on a rigid fixed wall perpendicular to the direction of vehicles, the airbag system shoud
activate reliably and in time.
c. When the strength of the front collision is stronger than that of a car impacting at the speed between
(131)km/h and (231)km/h, on a rigid fixed wall perpendicular to the direction of vehicles, the system
remains in a fuzzy control state and the airbag system may either activate or disactivate. Both cases are
normal.
d. In case of occurrence of the collisions as below, the safety airbag provides the driver and passenger in
front row with effective protection and confoms to the relevant regulations:
Equal to a collision by a car at the speed of 23Km/h on a rigid fixed wall perpendicular to the
direction of vehicles;
Equal to a collision by a car at the speed of 30Km/h on a rigid fixed wall at 30(or smaller than
30)perpendicular to the direction of vehicles;
Equal to a collision by a car at the speed of 30Km/h on a rigid fixed column wall of 250mm
perpendicular to the direction of vehicles;
Equal to a collision by a car at the speed of 56Km/h on a 40%bias wall perpendicular to the
direction of vehicles;

III. Structure and operation principle


a System structure
The safety airbags system is made up by the drivers airbag components(to protect the driver. The
drivers airbag components are located in the steering wheel, with which it is connected), the safety
airbag components of the front row passenger(to protect the front row passenger. the safety airbag
components of the front row passenger are sited in the dashboard, to which, it is connected, and
positioned on the right side of the dashboard), spiral cable(continuously connecting the drivers airbag
system with the car system), harness(various parts connecting the airbag system), controler (control
center of airbag system).
b Work schematic. See Figure .1.

Driver safety airbag


components
(fitted in the steering wheel)

Spiral cable

Front row passengers safety


airbag components
(fitted on the dashboard)

Indicator light
(fitted on the combination
instrument)

Safety airbage harness

Controller(ECU)

Figure 1 Work schematic


When the switch is turned on the IG by the key, the safety airbag system activates. The ECU performs the
self-diagnosis as per preset program. If the indicator lights up for 4s, then goes out, It indicates that the
self-diagnosis is okey and the system normal. The ECU passes into the monitor state; If the indicator
flashes discontinuously or keeps lighting perminently, it indicates the the self-diagnosis failed and the
system abnormal.
During the normal drive (including on various road conditions and interferences), the ECU will not give
any IG order, the airbag will not activate;
In case of serious frontal collision, the ECU motivates the ignition in time, to stimulate the airbag
components for opening the airbag, and to absorbe the partial collision energy from the driver and front
row passenger, this will mitigate the eventual injury of the passenger and thus play its protective effect.

IV. Precautions
4.1 The assembly, disassembly and maintenance personnel have to receive the special training.
4.2 The safety airbag is relevant to the parameters of delivery car. Do not modify the Front bumper
configuration or add the bumper without permission.
4.3 When removing the steering wheel for maintenance, the wheel has to be in right position, as only such
enables the spiral cable assembly for locking at the proper position, otherwise it will damage the spiral
cable assembly.

4.4 Special danger! If fitted with the safety airbag assembly of passenger, allow the chidren neither for
sitting on the front row seat, nor for using the faceback child seat!
4.5 Prior to fit up the product on the car, it is forbidden for non-professional personnel to power up so as to
prevent the accidents.
4.6 During the drive, it is required to fasten the safety belt. The safety airbag should be used in combination
with the safety belt. In order to obtain the optima protection effect in case of the accident. Do not mistake
that the airbag may replace the airbag.
4.7 The ECUtechnique specification matches with the parameters of airbag components, they should be use
in match-up way. Do not substitute the airbag component or ECU by other types of ECU or airbag
components.
4.8 After turning on the power supply, both permanent lighting or non-lighting of safety airbag indicator
indicates a failure in the safety airbag system. Such a failure means that the ECU per se is damaged or not
powered on (or harness in open circuit)
4.9 The failure of power supply voltage can be repaired by the user, but others failures have to be
maintained at the special service station.
4.10 Disassembly and reparation at the unauthorized service station are strictly prohibited
4.11 In case of failure alarm, the reparation has to be made. If continue to use instead of repair, the damage
due to the collision will be born on own responsibility
4.12 When repairing the car (especially welding), you have to turn off the switch (1st gear), and disconnect
completely the positive of battery.
4.13 In case of the reparation of car, the special tools have to be used to remove the airbag assembly. After
the airbag explosion, the airbag components, spiral cable controller, main and short harnesses should be
completely replaced.
4.14 In case of failure of safety airbag assembly, it is unrepairable and has to be replaced.
4.15 When removing or handling the airbag components, the trim cover should be faced up. The airbag
components can not be piled up so as to prevent the airbag from unintentional explosion and the accident.
4.16 Airbag components should be kept under the ambient temperature lower than 93, relative humidity
75% and far awary from the interference by electric field.
4.17 Be sure not to test the ignition resistance of safety airbag with the analog multimeter, otherwise it will
cause the unintentional airbag explosion.
4.18 Special danger!
prohibited!

Disassembly of airbag components and its inside air generator are strictly

4.19 To prevent the damage, it is strictly prohibited for the controller to connect with the A/C or D/C higher
than 20V
4.20 StatementIn case of the following collisions occurred, the safety airbag system stays in the state
between folding and unfolding phases. We do not undertake any responsibility for the personnel injury and
property damage caused therefrom.

The car A is the mode fitted with our safety airbag system.

Re-impact after the airbag has been defolded


Front collision at the angle more than 30

Side-collision

Collision into the bottom of the truck carriage

Tail -collision

Lateral fall dwon and cross overturn

V Causes of failures and maintenance


The failures of safety airbagsystem are divided into the exterior and interior parts, which may be displayed
through the indicator flashing of combination instrument. The safety airbag indicator is driven by the ECU.
The indication of all information is controlled by the ECU. By flashing of the indicator, the information
output of system may be classified into three types: i.e. Failures of power supply failures, installation of
airbag components and ECU interior, where the failures of power supply and installation of airbag
components belong to the exterior failures.
a. Exterior failures
Power supply failure
ECU normal working voltage: 915V, Rated working voltage:12V.
0V

12 V

In normal cases, the safety airbag system is powered on. The indicator lights up for 4s, then goes
out. It indicates that the system passes by the self-diagnosis.
Indicator lightens up
Indicator goes out

4S

When the battery voltage is lower than 9V, powers on , the indicator flashes 2 times, and keeps
lighting. This indicates that the battery needs the charge of replacement instead of repairing.

Indicator
lightens up

1.5 S

4S
Indicator
goes out

3S

1.2 S

Indicator
lightens up

Failure of airbag component installation


Before the airbag component installation is completed, the indicator flashes and gives the
info-tips. Information, codes and failure states hinted by the airbag indicator flashing from the
combination instrument are tabled as follows:
S/N

State of failures

1
2
3
4

Low resistance of the drivers side igniter


High resistance of the drivers side igniter
The drivers side igniter grounds up
Low resistance of the front row passengers
side igniter
High resistance of the front row passengers
side igniter
The front row passengers side igniter
grounds up

5
6

Codes of information(Flash times/group


number)
3
4
5
7
8
9

To take, for an example, the low resistance of the drivers side igniter and 3times of flashing,
the flash sequence of the indicator is given as below:
Indicator
lightens up

Flasing for 3 times

4S
Indicator
goes out

3S

1.2 S

1.5 S

Indicator
lightens up

In case where the above state occurs in the safety airbag system, you have to send it to the
special service station for reparation.
b. Failure in the controller
In case of failures in the controller, the indicator keeps flashing, while the ECU interior is locke
up and stops working.
Indicator
lightens up

4S
Indicator goes
out

3S

1.2 S

1.5 S

Indicator
flashes out

In case where the above state occurs in the safety airbag system, you should turn off the key
switch, then turn it on again to restart. If the information hint can not relieved, then you should
have the ECU replaced by the special service station.

Section V Accessories of electric equipment


I. How to use the cigar-ligher and precautions:
1. Presses down the handle of cigar-lighter to enable the electric pot for mashing up with the bimetallic
strip. For the time being, the circuit is powered on and the cigar-lighter starts working.
2. In 14s 4s, the inner bushing assembly of cigar-lighter will bounce up. Pulls up the inner bushing
assembly to enkindle the cigarette.
Note: In use, takes out the inner bushing assembly within 10s to enkindle the cigarette. If overdelayed, the
heating wire temperature is not powerful enough to enkindle the cigarette.
Precautions:
1. When using the cigar-lighter, the rated voltage is 12V, the max. working current 10A. the cigar-lighter is
of the overheating protection function. The time of overheating is 90S, i.e. when failed to bounce up by
continuous heating for 90s, the cigar-lighter will jump out between the positive and negative poles and burn
out the fuse of the cigar-lighter and break up the power supply in the circuit(hazard of consequence: as the
cigar-lighter, power supply socket, rear electric mirror and power sunruuf are shared with the same fuse. If
it is burnt out, the powered devices in the circuit can not work, thus, it is necessary to replace the
cigar-lighter in time).
2. When using the cigar-lighter, heavy objects loaded on the top are not allowed, for this will hinder the
inner bushing of cigar-lighter to bounce out and burn ou the cigar-lighter by overheating. In severer case, it
may cause the panel catching fire.

3. In the outer bushing assembly of cigar-lighter, no other parts except the inner bushing assembly are
allowed to insert, such as the power supply socket. The cigar-lighter can not be use as the power supply
socket.
4. After powered on, the inner bushing assembly of cigar-lighter is very high in temperature. In usage, the
user must pay attention to the safety. Do not hand directly the metal surface, to prevent from scald.
5. After use, the inner bushing assembly of cigar-lighter should be inserted in time into the outer bushing
assembly instead of other place to prevent the objects from burn out
The
cigar-ligher
after pressed
down

The
cigar-lighter
boucns out

Use method of power supply socket and precautions:


1. In use of the power supply socket, the rated voltage is 12V, the max. current 10A. With the end cap
opened, the around of metal shell is negative and the center positive. If the conductor falls inside, it will
lead to the short-circuit between the positive and negative, and burn out the fuse of power supply socket.
2. In use, inserts the power supply plug into the power supply socket. In the inserting process, Do not insert
the power supply plug obliquely into the outer bushing assembly, and try to make the metal head of power
supply plug fully contact with the positive plate of power supply socket. After completing the charge, it is
necessary to cover the cap of power supply socket, to prevent other parts from enter into the power supply
socket inadvertently.
Power
supply
socket cap

Use method of central lock controller and precautions:


1. Unlocking/locking function(Unlocking/locking by key, unlocking/locking switch)
With the battery has power and the ignition switch is on the OFF position, uses the key or presses down
the concaved unlock mark on the Unlock/Lock switch of door master control switch to completes the
unlocking process. Uses the key or presses down the concaved lock mark on the Unlock/Lock switch of
door master control switch to completes the locking process.
2. Remote-control function (Unavailable if without the remote-control function)
With the battery has power and the ignition switch is on the OFF position, presses down the R/C unlock
switch. For the time being, the R/L turn lamp flashes 2 times to complete the unlock process. Presses
down the R/C lock switch, the R/L turn lamp flashes 1 time to complete the lock process.
3. LH power window lifting (Manual up and down, auto-down)
Manual liftup: With the battery has power and the ignition switch is on the ON position, Pulls up the LH
button of door master control switch, the The LH window lifter raises up; releases the button, The LH

window lifter stops.


Manual down: With the battery has power and the ignition switch is on the ON position, presses
downdoor master control switch the LH button(half-way), the The LH window lifter drops down;
Releases the button, the The LH window lifter stops.
Auto-down: With the battery has power and the ignition switch is on the ON position, presses down the
LH button door master control switch (full way), the The LH window lifter drops down; releases the
button, The LH window lifter continues to drop down until the window lifter reaches the end. The LH
window lifter stops.
4. RH power window lifting(Manual up and down)
Manual up : With the battery has power and the ignition switch is on the ON position, presses down the
RH button of door master control switch or the side window lifting switch of assitant driver, the RH side
window lifter drops down; releases the button, the RH side window lifter stops.
Manual down: With the battery has power and the ignition switch is on the ON position, presses
downdoor master control switchRH button or the side window lifting switch of assitant driver, the RH
side window lifter drops down, releases the button, the RH side window lifter stops.
5. Child lock function
With the battery has power and the ignition switch is on the ON position, by releasing the child lock
button of door master control switch, the side switch of assitant driver possesses the function of the RH
side window lifter. When pressing down the child lock button of door master control switch, the side
switch operation of assitant driver is ineffective.
6. Auto-closing window function
With the battery has power and the ignition switch is on the ON position, the doors are closed up. 2s
after the key locking or R/C locking finished, the power window will complete the auto-closing window
in turn from left to right.

R/L doors
unlocking

Lifting
button of the
left
power
window

R/L
doors
locking

Child
lock
Lifting
button of the
right power
window

Lifting
button of the
right power
window

Use method of door state controller and precautions:


1. Rated load: 21W;
2. Beep tone: 80dB;
3. With the key on the position ACC or ON, the controller alarms when the door is opened or left opened.
4. With the key on the position OFF, the controller alarms when the small light is left turn off.
5. With the dome light switch on the Door position, it lights up when the door is opened and lasts lighting
for 15s 1s after the door is closed up.

Relay
and
controller
inspection cap

Door
state
controller

Cnetro lock
controller

Bulb replacement
Long bodied car
Headlamp :

Low/high-beam lamp

Position lamp

Turn light

Note: In some of use condition, a


thin layer of water vapor will emerge
on the headlamp glass.

2
3

Attention
The replacement of halogen bulb should be made a few minutesafter the headlamp goes outotherwise
there is a serious risk of burns. Do not hand touch the bulband wrap it with lint free cloth.
Signed by:

Low beam/high-beam light


Pulls out the connector;
Takes out the rubber sheath;
Presses the head of steel clip and release
it
Takes out the bulb for replacement.

Bulb typeH4 (55W/60W)


1

Note: If necessary to adjust the


headlight (it is best to use a chemical
tester): Inserts a special screwdriver
in6, respectively through the hole I
reserved by the sheet metal and the gap
II between the sheet metal and
headlight on the manually adjusting of
headlight for the vertical and R/L
dimming.

Positioning lamp:
Do not pull out the connector. Tuns the lamp
holder by 1/4 circle, then takes it out from the
holder, then pulls out bulb for replacement.
Bulb type: W5W.
Front turn lamp:
Do not pull out the connector. Tuns the lamp
holder by 1/4 circle, Then refit it and checks to
see if it is well fitted in place.

Bulb type: P21W.

2
Side-turn lamp:
Pushes forward or rearward the side-turn lamp,
pulls it out after releasing it. Turns by 1/4 cicle to
take out the lamp holder, then pulls out bulb for
replacement.
Note: Do not let the lamp and other connectors,
locked in the metal sheet hole, otherwise it is not
convenient for taking it out.
Bulb type: W5W

Front fog lamp:


Turns counterclockwise the black cap behind the
lamp shell to remove it. Presses the press-spring to
take out the bulb for replacement.
Bulb type: H3(55W)

Front dome lamp:


Takes out the front dome lamp from the
trim ring of dome lamp and replace the
bulb
Bulb type: W5W

Side dome lamp:


Takes out the dome lamp from the trim
ring of dome lamp to replace the bulb.
Bulb type: W5W

Rear tail lamp:


Marks the failure bulb.
Bulb:
Rear position/brake lamp: P21/5W
Turn light: P21W
Back light: P21W

Dismantle:
Emoves the screw fixing the lamp;
Oves the lamp outward to take the
buckle locked on the metal plate
from the hole and remove the lamp

Behind lamp shell:


Turns by 1/4 circle the failed bulb
counterclockwise from the lamp holder,
and take out the lamp holder and change
the failed bublt
Assembly:
Fits the lamp buckle on the metal sheet,
then fixe the lamp with the bolt

Rear fog lamp:


Takes out the lamp holder by turning 1/4
cicl and replace the failed bulb.
Bulb type: P21W

License lamp:
Takes out the license lamp from the
guard board of license lamp.
Replaces the failed bulb.
Bulb type: W5W

Bulb replacement
Short bodied car

Headlamp :
Low/high-beam lamp
Position lamp
Turn light
Note: In some of use condition, a
thin layer of water vapor will emerge
on the headlamp glass.

Attention
The replacement of halogen bulb should be made a few minutesafter the headlamp goes outotherwise
there is a serious risk of burns. Do not hand touch the bulband wrap it with lint free cloth.
Signed by:

Low beam/high-beam light


Pulls out the connector;
Takes out the rubber sheath;
Presses the head of steel clip and release
it
Takes out the bulb for replacement.

Bulb typeH4 (55W/60W)


1

II
I

Note: If necessary to adjust the


headlight (it is best to use a chemical
tester): Inserts a special screwdriver
in6, respectively through the hole I
reserved by the sheet metal and the gap
II between the sheet metal and
headlight on the manually adjusting of
headlight for the vertical and R/L
dimming.

Positioning lamp:
Do not pull out the connector. Tuns the lamp
holder by 1/4 circle, then takes it out from the
holder, then pulls out bulb for replacement.
Bulb type: W5W.
Front turn lamp:
Do not pull out the connector. Tuns the lamp
holder by 1/4 circle, Then refit it and checks to
see if it is well fitted in place.

Bulb type: P21W.

Side-turn lamp:
Pushes forward or rearward the side-turn lamp,
pulls it out after releasing it. Turns by 1/4 cicle to
take out the lamp holder, then pulls out bulb for
replacement.
Note: Do not let the lamp and other connectors,
locked in the metal sheet hole, otherwise it is not
convenient for taking it out.
Bulb type: W5W

Front fog lamp:


Turns counterclockwise the black cap behind the
lamp shell to remove it. Presses the press-spring to
take out the bulb for replacement.
Bulb type: H3 (55W)

Front dome lamp:


Takes out the front dome lamp from the
trim ring of dome lamp and replace the
bulb
Bulb type: W5W

Side dome lamp:


Takes out the dome lamp from the trim
ring of dome lamp to replace the bulb.
Bulb type: W5W

Rear tail lamp:


Marks the failure bulb.
Bulb:
Brake lamp: P21W
Turn light: PY21W
Back light: P21W
Positioning lamp: W5W

Dismantle:
Emoves the screw fixing the lamp;
Oves the lamp outward to take the
buckle locked on the metal plate
from the hole and remove the lamp

Behind lamp shell:


Turns by 1/4 circle the failed bulb
counterclockwise from the lamp holder,
and take out the lamp holder and change
the failed bublt
Assembly:
Fits the lamp buckle on the metal sheet,
then fixe the lamp with the bolt

Rear fog lamp:


Takes out the lamp holder by turning 1/4
cicl and replace the failed bulb.
Bulb type: P21W

Third brake lamp:


Opens the back door. Presses 6 buckles,
and remove the cover behind the brake
lamp. Removes 3 bolts with wrench and
takes out the lampholder
Bulb type: LED

License lamp:
Takes out the license lamp from the
guard board of license lamp.
Replaces the failed bulb.
Bulb type: W5W

Section VI A/C system


I. Sound use of A/C system and precautions:
When starting the engine, the A/C switch should be on the OFF position.
After the engine flamed out, sets the A/C airflow switch on the OFF, turns off the A/C switch to save the
battery power.
Try to avoid parking the car directly exposed under sunshine for longtime in summer. After parking for
longtime, the car gets very hot inside. In such case, you should open the windows first and turns on the
blower to max. level(i.e. blower outer circulation mode instead of A/C) to exhaust the hot air inside. Turns
off again and sets the fresh air circulation damper to inner circulation for turning on the A/C.
Adjusts the outlet to orient the airflow to the upper body or face, instead of facing the cool air directly
on the headback or knees. If the airflow is stronger, do not blow it directly to the body.
When overtaking a car, turns off the A/C to ensure the optimal overtaking performance.
When driving on hill road for a long distance, you should turn off the A/C for a while to prevent the
water tank boiled.
When driving at rainy night, do not set the A/C at too much lower temperature and try to lower the
airflow of blower.
The overheating level of expansion valve has been set before the delivery, it is not advisable to adjust it.
Regularly cleans out the condenser (rinse with the compressed air or cool water instead of injecting with
steam).
During non-use period in winter, you should frequently operate the compressor to prevent the
compressor shaft seal from oil dried leakage and axis locking due to the oil dry. En general, the compressor
should run 1-2 times per month, ca. 10mins per time. Try to prevent the compressor shaft seal from oil
dried leakage and axis locking due to the oil dry. When the temperature is too low in winter (ca. 5), the
A/C may fail to start due to the low temperature, thus, turns on the heater first and then the A/C after the
temperature inside raises up.
During the A/C operation, turns off it when hearing the abnormal noise in the A/C device(e.g.
compressor, blower, tube cracks etc.) or any other abnormality and calls on the maintenance personnel for
inspection.
The temperature the most healthy inside temperature differs around 57 from the outside air
temperature.
It is not allowed to add the liquefied coolant from the low pressure end. When filling with the coolant
from the high pressure end, do not turn on the compressure. The charge of coolan should be operated by the
special maintenance personnel.
The temperature inside lower than 25 or inappropriate operation (compressor speed too high or
airflow of blower too low) are very likely to freeze the evaporator. Once the frosted evaporator detected,
one of the following methods may be taken for defrosting: 1. The A/C system will automatically turn off
once frosted. In case of any changes inside the control parts, pauses the A/C switch for a while. 2. Opens
wider the outer circulation vent to introduce fresh aire for defrosting, while the blower is turned on to the
max. speed.
In comparison of the use of the Green World type R134asystem with the R12 system, two types of
coolant media can not Mix with the system and each parts not substitutable. Hence, this model can not
added with the coolant type R12.
In case of the coolant addition by maintenance, the coolant should be added appropriately and the type
of coolant matching with the compressor to be used. The mixed use of coolant will cause it spoiled. E.g.
Chongqing JIANSHE compressor-JSS120 uses the lubricant type RS20.

In case of failures, please contact with the special service station, be sure not to make any disassembly
and adjustmeng individually.

II. Maintenance of automotive A/C


2.1 Routine maintenance of automotive A/C
1. Prior to departure, makes regular check on the A/C system and cleans out the carriage to prevent the
miscellanies, paper scraps from jamping the exchanger port and catching fire. Before the summer comes,
you should more carefully check the A/C system and correctly use it.
2. Checks frequently the operation of oil line system to prevent from leakage.
2.2 Cleaning and maintenance of dual air system
1. Clean condenser. Regularly checks the condenser faade to see if there are any curved fins and foreign
matters. In caseof fins if any, pulls them straight with the nose pliers, If any foreign matters, you should use
the hard brush to remove them.
2. Checks the coolant to see if there are any leakages, for the compressor oil and coolant are conveyed
together through the system. therefore, when the coolant leaks, it will bring out the oil and leave the oil
traces on the leakage place. Checks especially if there are any greasy stains on the joints of various hoses
and connectors. If any greasy stains discovered, it means that there aer leakages in the system and needs to
repare it.
3. Checks the tightness of the compressor belt, and regularly examins the belt tension and its use condition.
In case where the contact surface between the belt and belt pully shimmers, it indicates the belt is skidding.
You should check if the belt is too looser. For the check operation, uses the finger to forcibly press down
the middle part of the belt tensionner, the belt should bend down ca. 1215mm.
4. Regularly runs the A/C at a rate of 5min/week to lubricate the interior of parts and prevent the hosed
from aging.
5. After the new car has been used for a half year, some items of A/C system of new car should be made in
combinatntion the complete vehicle.
6. After the new car has been used for one year, some items of A/C system of new car should be made in
combinatntion the complete vehicle.
Table Regular check subjects
Check schedule
Check subject

Piping
Bolts

Subjects and objcets


Badly fixed and cracks
Joints and screw cap loosened

Condenser
A/C switch.
Temperature
control
Coolant leakage
(incl. oil leakage)
Noise
(In startup state)

Loosened, cracked and felt off


Loosened and bent

Belt

Routine

6 months or mileage
of 5, 000km

12months or initiao
mileage of 10, 000km

Worsen: worn, scar and cracking

Glide combined with burning smell


and warm

Heat sinks damaged

Blocked by foreign matters

Startup check: airblow, temperature


control

Outlet vent shifting etc.

Leakage from the piping joints

Leakage from the parts (compressor,


condenser and evaporator etc.)

Compressor

Idle pulley

Check schedule
Check subject

Subjects and objcets

Routine

6 months or mileage
of 5, 000km

Airblow motor

12months or initiao
mileage of 10, 000km

Expansion valve
Air leakage

Outer air reversing entry(blower)

Heat invasion from the heater

8. Regular check of the refrigerant leakage


Check schedule
Check subject

Coolan media
leakage
(incl.oil leakage)

Subjects and objcets


Leakage from the piping connection
Leakage
from
the
parts
connection(compressor, condenser and
evaporator etc..)

Routine

6 months or
mileage of 5,
000km

12months or initiao
mileage of 10, 000km

2.3 Adds the refrigerant


After the refrigeration system of automobile A/C has been assembled or disassemble for maintenance, the
system can be vacuumized and added with coolant media. To use the coolant meida, the characteristics
should be thouroughly understood. Be careful of the operation environment (rare dust, gabbage, well
ventilated and dry) and the following precautions should be taken to the safety opertion
Refrigerant specification: R-134a
Filling volume of refrigerantR-134a: (45025)g
Use of the refrigerant Oil of A/C system limited to RS20, weight: 20010ml (supplied with compressor )
Adds appropriately the refrigerant oil each time when filling the system or at the time of system
maintenance with the refrigerant

Maintenance as per table 1

Failure position determined as per table 1


Listens the compressor sound with the
connecting rod

A/C switch OFF

Tests the pressure state with pressure


gauge(at low pressure send)

Stationary state check

Checks the refrigerant flow and liquid


reservoir

Checks if the compressor picks up(sucking)

Failures infos

Checks if the blower and condenser work


properly

Listens whether the belt pulley has any


abnormal sound or not

Checks whether there are any oil stains on


the joints of system pipeline or not

Checks if there is any worn damage on the


exterior of A/C system pipeline

Checks the state of compressor belt

Checks the cleaning states of condenser and


evaporator

Figure 1Maintenance practice


Failure car

User infor-collection

A/C use info.

Vehicle check

Engine startup check

A/C switch ON

3.2 Maintenance of system


3.2.1 Diagnosis of A/C failures
For the maintenance of automotive A/C system, it is necessary to adequately understand the objective and
function composing such a system, which include the roles and reactions of the mechanical and electronic
and sub-systems.
The A/C systems vary from the years and models of manufacturing. Thus, there are no standard diagnosis
procedures. All automotive A/C systems share only one part of common knowledge, which include:
1) Determines whether the failure belongs to the electric or mechanical or both parts.
2) Determines if the filling volume of system refrigerant is adequate, whether it is inadequately filled or
over filled.
Maintenance advice: It may be determined by a test phase so-called Fast Check of Insufficient
Refrigeration.
3) Determines the type of system: cycle working clutch or non-cycle working clutch.
4) Makes a function test on the air supply system to determine whether it runs in sound performance or not.
This can be completed prior to the diagnosis process. The air supply sub-system includes the following
parts: fan generator, switch, vacuum tube, airway and status door.
5) Makes a functional test on the system to determine if it is normal depending to the temperature, and
whether the low pressure curve and high- side pressure are regular or not.
Attention: Have the ambient temperature and relative humidity under consideration.
Basic Tools: basic mechanical tools; manifold pressure gauge ;open nut wrench ; spring-lock connector
tool; vacuum motor;
3.2.2 Check of system
If the failure of A/C system is caused by the abnormality of the low/high pressure of system. the following
check subjects should made:
1) Visually tests the condenser to be sure that the airflow is jammed by no filth and debris or others foreign
matters.
2) Checks the space between the condenser and radiator, if there are foreign matters. Eliminates them when
necessary.
3) Visually tests if the pipe and line are blocked or twisted. Checks the hoses and connecting pipe of the
condenser and refrigerant.
4) Uses the suitable leak detector to check the leakage of refrigerant.
It is the best way to make leak check of the insufficient filling of A/C system or suspicious leakage. In case
of the system necessary to open for maintenance, the leak check is also required.
Attention: The leak detector should be used as per special need.
5) Leak test made on the air supply system. Bond inspection of the throttle valve or state door. The
insufficient airflow of blower will be expressed in the jam or throttle of evaporator core.
6) Visually test whether the clutch works properly or not. The clutch skidding is likely originated from the
low voltage of looser belt pulley or controller failure.
7) Uses the belt tension gauge to check the tension of driving belt in reference to the adequate belt tightness
set out in the technique index of the manufacturer. Failures are often discovered by visual checks.
3.2.3 Diagnosis and testing of electric parts
3.2.4 Failures of parts
The followings are the summary on whether the A/C system parts have failures, which the technicians wish
to know.

1. Evaporator
Cool air supply insufficient caused by the evaporator failure due to the center leakage of evaporator. Other
reasons include:
1) The evaporator core has been jammed by the filth or debris which needs to be eliminated.
2) The cracks or fractures on cases. Replaces or repairs the box cracks.
3) Leakage of seals or O-ring. Replaces them.
2. Compressor
The failed compressor will show one or several features as below:
1) The noise indicates the premature of failure.
2) Locking(cylinder sticking)commonly due to the leakage.
3) Leakage due to the failure of sealing, air cushion or O-ring.
4) The low pressure of the in/outlet port is commonly caused by the insufficient filling of refrigerant or the
throttle at the low pressure side.
5) High pressure at the inlet port and low pressure at the outlet port are normally due to the failure of the
compressor valve disc or sealing packing assembly.
Most noises during the operation are considered as normal. The abnormal chocks and noises are caused by
the premature of failure of leakage or part damage. When the refrigeration is required by the A/C system
control, the compressor fails to work. The determination should be done to verify if the voltage on the
clutch joint is normal. Checks if the compressor is jammed.
1) Shuts down the engine
2) Disconnects the power supply of compressor and clutch and adjusts the tension pulley to fall off the belt
3) Manually turns the drive disc
Attention: If the drive disc doesnt run or painfully, it means the compressor is blocked.
The low pressure at the outlet port is originated either from the bad sealing of the compressor, e.g. valve
disc or valve sealing pad group ineffective, or from the throttle at the low pressure side of compressor or
system. the insufficient filling of refrigerant may also result in the low pressure at the outlet. All possible
reasons should be determined through the failure diagnosis.
Checks if there is a leakage of the compressor.
3. Condenser
There are three possible failures of condenser as below:
1) Due to the rust, corrosion or leakage resulted from the impact of sharp object and stones.
2) Throttle due to the pipes bent by the impact of foreign matters. E.g. when the leakage of pipe is caused
by the stone beating in weak force and the pipe bent or broken when the force is sufficiently powerful.
Maintenance advice: the throttle of condenser will induce the overpressure at the compressor outlet. The
partial throttle will lead to the change of temperature and frost or frozen case at the throttle.
3) Air throttled due to the filth, debris or foreign matters through the condenser. When the airflow is
jammed or throttled, it will result in the overpressure at the outlet.
Attention: Although uneasy to detect, but in normal operation, the outlet pipe of condenser is slightly
cooler than the inlet pipe.
To determine the throttle by searching the frosted section.
4. Throttle pipe
The low pressure at the in/outlet port occurs normally due to the throttle failure, which leads to the
insufficient cool air supply in the evaporator.

The common factors of throttle pipe failures are the blockage. The others are the inefficiency of the liquid
reservoir , the filth , corroded grains in the refrigerant system or the inner strainer jammed due to the looser
dryer agent in the refrigerant. For whatever reasons, it is recommended to replace the throttle pipe at the
time of maintenance.
5. Thermal expansion valve (TXV)
The failure feature is same as that of the throttle. The failures of many thermal expansion valves are caused
by the ineffective dynamic elements, which are able in general to shut down the valves and keep the
refrigerant from entry into the evaporator. For whatever reasons of failures, it is suggested to replace it in
time at the time of the maintenance is except the jammed inner strainer.
The blockage of the inner strainer of thermal expansion valve occurs due to the failure the liquid storage
dryer, which loosens the filth and corrosive grain in the system or the refrigerant drying agent.
6. Refrigerant piping
The throttle of the refrigerant piping has one or several features as below:
1) The throttle of the inlet pipe causes the low pressure in the in/outlet ports, insufficient refrigeration or no
refrigeration available. The evaporator is short of refrigerant.
2) The outlet throttle leads to the opening of relief valve. When the pressure drops down to the design value,
the relief valve will sit down automatically.
3) The throttle feature of liquid pipe is same as that of the inlet throttle. The low pressure of in/outlet ports,
insufficient refrigeration or no refrigeration available.
The inlet pipe is normally the largest horse or pipe, while the liquid pipe the smallest horse or pipe
3.2.5 Causes of failures
1) Leakage: Insufficient volume of refrigerant.
2) High pressure: Refrigerant surplus, air entry into the system and oil surplus in the system etc.
3) Poor connection.
4) Throttle
5) Contamination
6) Humidity
7) Failure of parts
3.2.6 Functional testing
The functional testing is able to determine the operating state of the A/C control panel and air supply
system. The functional testing includes the subjects of the knob operating states of the fan, heater, A/C
control components. It also comprises the air supply state of the comparison status knob and switch when
they are in different places.
The fast testing on the system may determine whether the refrigerant volume of A/C system is suitable.
This testing can be effected only when the ambient temperature is higher than 21.
The fast testing is able to simplify the system diagnosis through the determination of the failure of
insufficient refrigerant, and also to eliminate the failure source of the insufficient refrigerant. The fast
testing is to be made as per the following procedures:
1) Starts up the engine and preheat it at idle speed.
2) Opens the engine hood and doors.
3) Selects the standard (NORM) state.
4) Adjusts the knob to the full position COLD.
5) Selects the max. fan speed (4th level)
6) Measures the inlet temperature of evaporator behind the throttle pipe.

7) Measures the temperature of the liquid storage level while the compressor is operating.
Maintenance advice: If the compressor recycles, waits until the clutch meshes up.
Both temperatures [(6) and7)] should be at same level. If different, checks the other failure
If the inlet temperature of evaporator is lower than the inlet level of the storage, or there is frost
accumulation on the inlet, it indicates the shortage of refrigerant.
8) If the volume of refrigerant is at shortage, adds 120ml of refrigerant and repeats the procedures of
(6)and(7).
9) Adds the 120ml of refrigerant until the temperatures on both levels are same.
Maintenance advice: Every time when adding the refrigerant, be sure to allow the time for the system to
be stabilized, e.g. about 5mins.
Warning: By using the method to add the refrigerant, you should know perfectly the system and besides,
the system has no leakage. To fill the leak system with the refrigerant may cause greater damage.
3.3 Maintenance of system parts
3.3.1 Preparations
Prior to any maintenances, some preparations have to be made. Whatever it is practical or not, the
following processes should be taken as the reference during the various maintenance.
1) The ignition switch on the position (OFF).
2) Puts the protective cover to protect the car surface.
3)

Pulls out the battery lead. Carries out the operation as per the relevant maintenance manual.

4) Drains out the refrigerant from the system. Uses the suitable recycle equipment and operates as per the
relevant maintenance manual.
5)

Finds out the parts to be maintained or replaced .

6) Takes out from the observation panel, the metal parts or others imperative to be detached, so as to get
access to the parts.
Be especially careful when pulling out the battery leads.
3.3.2 Maintenance of refrigerant horse and connectors
There are many types of other pars used to connect the refrigerant hoses and A/C system(this model
classified to the 2nd case).
1) SAE flaring typed connectors
2) Bump flange connectors commonly referred as to O-ring connectors
3) Spring-locking connectors
4) Insert typed connectors.
Checks to verify if there are the following modes of failures and repairs.
1) If the O-ring has any broken damages or serious aging deformation. If in such case, you should replace
then with the same type of O-ring.
2) If there are any signs of leakage at the pressed hoses and hard tubes. If in such case, you should replace
them with one ones.
3) If the threads of connector joints have any tripping disengagement. If in such case, you should replace
them with one ones.
4) If the hoses have any aging damage and leakage. If in such case, you should replace them with one ones.
5) When reconnecting the pipeline, applies the specified brand of refrigerant oil on the connector joints of
pipeline.

Uses the special tools: nut spanner;1/4in socket wrench; torque wrench; hacksaw and saw blade in 32tpi;
pliers; spring lock assembly tools ;single-blade scraper. Keeps them away from your body when they are
used.
3.3.3 Replacement of A/C system parts
The followings are the elementary procedure guide for the replacement of A/C system parts. For the more
detailed operation of replacement, the maintenance manuals relevant to the specific year, model and date of
manufacturing should be referred.
3.3.4 Removal and replacement of thermal expansion valve (TXV)
The maintenance of thermal expansion valve is not recommended.
This practice rules are divided into the maintenance standard TXV and H valve maintenance(H-LOCK)
Special tool: Horn-shaped wrench.
H-valve TXV
1) Carries out the items as per the section Preparation.
2) Takes out the conductor of the pressure stop switch or pressure differential switch.
3) Takes out the seal disc bolt between the inlet pipe and liquid pipe.
5) Covers the pipe opening to prevent the foreign matter from entry.
6) Takes out and rejects the seal padding between the coil and H-valve.
7) Removes two screws from the H-valve.
8) Removes the H-valve from the evaporator bracket.
9) Removes and rejects the seal padding between the H-valve and evaporator bracket.
10) Fits up the new H-valve with new seal padding.
11) Fits up two screws and tightens them to 20~26Nm
12) Replaces the seal padding between the coil and H-valve
13) Fits up the pipe to its original position and tightens the bolts to 20~26N-m.
14) Fits up the observing plate and detached parts.
15) Reconnects the battery as per the requirements of Maintenance Manual.
16) Checks the leakage and the vacuum pumping, and fills the system with refrigerant as per the Chapter19
of the Manual.
17) Makes the functional testing when necessary. Be careful not to scratch the fitting surface.
3.3.5 Removal and replacement of the compressor
1) Completes the Preparation.
2) Removes the in/outlet hoses or service valve of the compressor.
Attention: the in/outlet pipes of many systems use a common manifold to connect the compressor.
3) Removes the lead of the clutch.
4) Loosens and removes the belt.
5) Removes the fixing bolt from the compressor bracket or socket.
6) Removes the compressor from the car.
7) Positions the new or repaired compressor.
8) Fits up the bolts to the compressor bracket and socket.
9) Positions and fits up the belt.

10) Fits up the clutch lead.


11) Fits up the new seal padding or O-ring as per the inverse order of 2) and installs the in/outlet pipes.
12) Checks the system leakage.
13) Vacuum pumping.
14) Fills up the refrigerant.
15) Functional testing.
Attention: contents relevant to 12) and14)
Removes other leads from the compressor, e.g. overheating switch lead etc.
3.3.6 Removal and replacement of the
1) Carries out the items as per the section Preparation.
Attention: To carry out the process, it is unnecessary to pull out the power supply cable.
2) Removes the fixe body of cap and any leads and parts which prevent the removal of condenser.
3) Removes the thermal tube on the top of condenser.
4) Removes and rejects the O-ring.
5) Removes the liquid pipe on the bottom of condenser.
6) Removes and rejects the O-ring.
7) Removes and preserves the connecting bolts or nuts supporting the condenser.
8) Takes out the condenser from the car.
9) Fits up the condenser as per the inverse order of 2).3).5) and 7).
Attention: Fits up the new O-rings on the thermal tube and liquid pipe.
10) Checks the leakage of system.
11) Vacuum-pumping.
12) Fills up the system with refrigerant.
Use of special tools: nut wrench; torque wrench; do not use the removed O-rings
3.3.7 Removal and replacement of evaporator
This process is divided into two parts, i.e. Assemblies by auto-parts market and manufacturer s/ suppliers.
Prior to work on the two parts, the first step is to complete the items set out in the section "Preparation".
After this process, the check of system leakage, vacuum pumping and filling of refrigerant should be
followed.
Special tools: nut wrench, torque wrench.