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27.02.

2015

Waterproofing and Drainage - building substructures enclose basements, parking garages, or other usable space | Engineering and Construction

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Waterproofing and Drainage - building substructures enclose


basements, parking garages, or other usable space
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Where building substructures enclose


basements, parking garages, or other
usable space, groundwater must be
kept out. Concrete alone is rarely
adequate for this purpose. Moisture
can migrate through its microscopic
pores, or through other pathways
created by shrinkage cracks, form tie
holes, utility penetrations, and the
joints between concrete pours. To
ensure a substructures resistance to
water entry,
two approaches are used: drainage
and waterproofing. Drainage draws
groundwater away from a foundation,
reducing the volume and pressure of water acting on the foundations walls and slabs.
Waterproofing acts as a barrier, stopping water that reaches the foundation from
passing though to the interior.
Drainage, consisting of some combination of drainage backfill (well-sorted crushed
stone or gravel), drainage mat, and perforated drain piping, is used with almost every
building substructure (Figure 2.60). Drainage mat is a manufactured component that
may be made of a loose mat of stiff, inert fibers, a plastic egg-crate structure, or some
other very open, porous material. It is faced on the outside with a filter fabric that
prevents fine soil particles from entering and clogging the drainage passages in the
mat. Any subterranean water that approaches the wall descends through the porous
material of the mat to the drain pipe at the footing. Perforated drain piping is
frequently laid around the outside perimeter of a building foundation. The pipes are 4
or 6 inches (100 or 150 mm) in diameter and provide an open channel in the crushed
stone bed through which water can flow by gravity either to day-light at a lower
elevation on a sloping site, to a municipal storm sewer system, or to a sump pit that
can be automatically pumped dry whenever it fills. The pipes are laid at least 6 inches
(150 mm) below the top of the basement floor slab tomaintain the groundwater level
safely below that of the slab. Perforations in the pipes face downward so that water is
drained from the lowest possible level. Where groundwater conditions are severe,
rows of perforated pipe may be installed under the basement slab as well (Figure
2.61).

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STEEL (169) CONSTRUCTION


(143)
FOUNDATIONS
(95)
BUILDINGS

(40) HEAVY TIMBER FRAME


CONSTRUCTION (22) PILE FOUNDATIONS (21)
SOILS (17) BRIDGES (16) RETAINING WALLS
(16)
EARTHQUAKES
(15)
WOOD
(12)
EXCAVATIONS
(11)
CONCRETE
(10)
STRUCTURAL
DAMAGE
(8)
DESIGN
AND
CONSTRUCTION
FOOTINGS

(6)

(5)

FOUNDATIONS
GEOLOGY

(5)
(4)

INSTRUMENTATION

FLOORS

(6)

COLUMNS

(5)

(5)

MAT

GEOSYNTHETICS
MOISTURE

(5)

BASEMENT
(3)

BEAMS

WALLS

METAL

(3)

(4)
(3)
PIER

FOUNDATIONS (3) PROJECT (3) SHEET PILE WALLS


(3) SITE EXPLORATION (3)

SUSTAINABILITY

(3)

EARTH MATERIAL (2) EQUIPMENT (2) GROUND (2)


HOLDING-DOWN SYSTEMS (2) PLATE GIRDERS (2)
ROCK (2)

Wood

Light

Frame

Construction

(2)

A NC HO RED WA LLS (1) Bas ement (1) C O MP ENSA T ED


FO U NDA T IO NS

(1)

C RIB

WA LL

(1)

FLO A T ING

FO U NDA T IO NS (1) GRO U NDWA T ER (1) SIT E WO RK (1)


T IMBER (1) T IMBER P ILES (1) Waterproofing and Drainage
(1)

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Waterproofing and Drainage - building substructures enclose basements, parking garages, or other usable space | Engineering and Construction
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Figure 2.60 T wo methods of relieving water pres s ure around a building s ubs truc ture by drainage.
T he gravel drain (left) is hard to do well bec aus e of the dif c ulty of depos iting the
c rus hed s tone and bac k ll s oil in neatly s eparated, alternating layers . T he drainage
mat (right) is eas ier and often more ec onomic al to ins tall.

August (4)
July (5)
June (3)
May (9)
UpDown Construction
Backfilling - Construction
SHALLOW FORST-PROTECTED
FOUNDATIONS
Basement Insulation

Figure 2.61 For a high degree of s ec urity agains t s ubs truc ture ooding, drainage both around and
under the bas ement is required, as s een here in a s ec tion view. A bove-s lab drainage is us ed
in buildings with mat foundations .

On most foundations, some form of water-repelling barrier is also used to protect


against the passage of groundwater. Dampproofing is a moisture-resistant cement plaster or asphalt
compound commonly applied to residential basement walls and to other substructures
where groundwater conditions are mild or waterproofing requirements are not critical.
Cement plaster dampproofing, or parge coating, is light gray in color and troweled on.
Asphalt or bituminous dampproofing is dark in color and is applied in liquid form by
spray, roller, or trowel. Dampproofing is less expensive and less resistant to water
passage than true waterproofing.

Waterproofing and Drainage - building


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UNDERPINNING - Stabilizing the
Foundations of a Bu...
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Waterproofing, unlike dampproofing, can prevent the passage of water even under
conditions of hydrostatic pressure. It is used where groundwater conditions are
severe or the need to protect subgrade space from moisture is critical. Waterproof
mem-branes are most commonly formulated from plastics, asphalt compounds, or
synthetic rubbers and come in a great variety of forms.

February (53)
January (270)

Liquid waterproofing is applied by spray gun, roller, or squeegee and then allowed
to cure in place. It is easy to install and easy to form around complex shapes. When
fully cured, the finished membrane is seamless and fully bonded to the underlying
substrate. However, because liquid membranes are formed in the field, they are
subject to uneven application, and the surfaces to which they are applied must be
clean, smooth, and dry to ensure reliable adhesion of the membrane.
Preformed sheet membrane waterproofing may be adhered or mechanically fastened
to substructure walls
or laid loosely over horizontal surfaces (Figure 2.62). Fabricated under controlled
factory conditions, sheet membranes are reliably uniform in material quality and
thickness.

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Waterproofing and Drainage - building substructures enclose basements, parking garages, or other usable space | Engineering and Construction

Figure 2.62 A diagrammatic repres entation of the plac ement of s heet membrane waterproo ng
around a bas ement. A mud s lab of low-s trength c onc rete was poured to s erve as
a bas e for plac ement of the horizontal membrane. Notic e that the vertic al and
horizontal membranes join to wrap the bas ement c ompletely in a waterproof enc los ure.

However, they can be more difficult to form around complex shapes, and the seams
between sheets, which are sealed in the field, may be subject to lapses in quality.
Sheet membranes that are loosely laid or mechanically fastened can be used over
substrates that will not bond with liquid-applied or adhered sheet membranes. They
are also a good choice where substrate cracking or movement may be expected,
because such movement is less likely to stress or damage the membrane. An
advantage of adhered membranes (both sheet and liquid) is that in the case of a
defect, water cannot travel far under the membrane, limiting the extent of water
damage that may occur and simplifying the tracing of leaks.
Bentonite waterproofing is made from sodium bentonite, a naturally occurring, highly
expansive clay. It is most often applied as preformed sheets consisting of dry clay
sand-wiched within corrugated card-board, geotextile fabric, or plastic sheets (Figure
2.63). When bentonite comes in contact with moisture, it swells to several times its
dry volume and forms an impervious barrier to the further passage of water. Bentonite
sheets can be placed directly on the soil under a concrete slab on grade or
mechanically attached to uncured, damp concrete walls. In slurry form, bentonite can
be sprayed even onto highly irregular, rough stone walls. The swelling behavior of
bentonite clay also allows it to adjust to cracking and movement in the substrate.

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Waterproofing and Drainage - building substructures enclose basements, parking garages, or other usable space | Engineering and Construction

Figure 2.63 Waterproo ng in progres s on a c onc rete foundation. Leftmos t: the


bare foundation wall remains expos ed. Middle: bentonite waterproo ng panels
are fas tened in plac e. T hes e panels are lined on the outer fac e with a blac kc olored, high-dens ity plas tic that adds to the waterproo ng qualities of the panel.
Right: drainage mat has been ins talled over the waterproo ng. T he mats outer
fac e of lter fabric is lightly dimpled, telegraphing the egg c rate s truc ture of
the underlying molded plas tic panel. T he top edge of the mat is s ec ured in
plac e with an aluminum termination bar that holds the panel in plac e and keeps
dirt and debris from falling behind the panel. Lower right: white perforated
drain piping c an be s een, temporarily s upported on wood bloc king and
running alongs ide the footing. (P hoto by Jos eph Iano)

Integral waterproofing includes cementitious plaster or crystalline admixtures for


concrete or mortar
that react chemically to stop up the pores of these materials and render them
watertight. It may be applied
to the surface of existing concrete or masonry or used as an admixture in new
concrete. Unlike most other waterproofing materials, many integral waterproofing
materials can be applied as negative side waterproofing, that is, applied to the inner side of a concrete wall acting to resist water passage
from the opposite side.
Blind- side waterproofing is installed prior to the pouring of concrete walls. This
occurs most commonly when a substructure wall is built close to a propertys edge,
and excavation cannot be enlarged beyond the property line to permit workers access
to the outer face of the wall after its construction.
Drainage matting is first applied directly to the excavation sheeting, and then any of a
number of possible waterproofing membranes are applied over the drainage mat.
Later, the concrete wall is poured against the membrane. The sheeting remains
permanently in place (Figure 2.64).

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Waterproofing and Drainage - building substructures enclose basements, parking garages, or other usable space | Engineering and Construction

Figure 2.64
Blind-s ide waterproo ng is us ed where there is no working s pac e between a s heeted exc avation and the
outs ide of the foundation
wall. T he drainage mat and waterproof membrane are applied to the s heeting; then the bas ement wall is
poured agains t them.

Joints in construction require special attention to ensure water-tightness. Preformed


waterstops made of plastic, synthetic rubber, or metal can be cast into the mating
concrete edges of both moving and nonmoving joints to block the passage of water
(Figures 2.65 and 2.66). Waterstops for nonmoving joints such as between concrete
pours of a wall or slab can also be made of strips of bentonite or mastic that are
temporarily adhered to the edge of one pour. After the adjacent pour is complete,
these stops remain embedded in the joint, where they form a watertight barrier
(Figure 2.67).

Figure 2.65 A s ynthetic rubber waters top is us ed


to s eal agains t water penetration at
movement joints and at joints between
pours of c onc rete in a foundation. T he
type s hown here is s plit on one s ide s o
that its halves c an be plac ed at agains t
the formwork where another wall will join
the one being poured. A fter the c onc rete
has been poured and c ured and the
formwork has been removed from the
rs t wall, the s plit halves are folded bac k
together before the next wall is poured.

Most waterproofing systems are inaccessible once building construction is complete;


they are expected to perform for the life of the building, and even small defects in installation can
allow the passage of large volumes of water.
For

these

reasons,

waterproofing

membranes

are

inspected

carefully

during

construction and horizontal membranes are often flood tested (submerged for an
extended period time while leak-checking is performed) to detect the presence of
defects while repairs can still be easily made. Once inspection and testing are
complete, membranes are covered with a protection board, insulation board, or
drainage matting to shield the membrane from prolonged exposure to sunlight and to
prevent physical damage during soil backfilling or subsequent construction operations.

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Waterproofing and Drainage - building substructures enclose basements, parking garages, or other usable space | Engineering and Construction

Figure 2.66
A rubber waters top ready for the next pour of a c onc rete wall, as diagrammed in
Figure 2.65. (C ourtes y of V ulc an Metal P roduc ts , Inc ., Birmingham, A labama)

Figure 2.67
A bentonite waters top is adhered to
a c onc rete footing prior to c as ting
of the c onc rete wall above. Later,
if groundwater s eepage oc c urs , the
bentonite will s well to fully s eal the joint
between the two pours . T he waters top
is pos itioned to the s ide of the s teel
reinforc ing bars c los er to the walls
exterior, als o protec ting the reinforc ing
from mois ture and c orros ion. However,
bec aus e of bentonites expans ive forc e,
the waters top mus t not be pos itioned
too c los e to the s urfac e of the wall, or
when it s wells , it c ould c aus e portions of
c onc rete to s plit away or s pall.

Denison Hydraulic
Repair.
Denison Hydraulic Pump & Motor
Repair Experts. In-House Shop.

Categories: BUILDINGS, Waterproofing and Drainage

Related Post:
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