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by Arend Remmers
40 chapters

Author and Time of Writing

Purpose of Writing
Overview of Contents

Author and Time of Writing

What has been said to the book of Genesis also applies to Exodus. In Genesis Moses
depended on the revelations of God and possibly on the accounts of his ancestors while
he was mostly able to write down the happenings of Exodus to Deuteronomy by his own
view and experience under the guidance of the Holy Spirit (compare Ex. 17:14; Deut.
In the New Testament Moses is mentioned several times as author of Exodus (for
example Luke 20:37; Mark 7:10).
Between the happenings at the end of Genesis and the beginning of Exodus there are
nearly 300 years.

Purpose of Writing
In the book of Exodus we find no longer exclusively the dealings of God with individuals
mentioned. We are coming to know a redeemed people of God. The origin and
redemption of God's earthly people Israel is described. Israel is delivered from the
slavery in Egypt and is led on to the way into the promised land of Canaan. Therefore
Exodus is the book of redemption. Its landmarks are the Passover and the passage
through the Red Sea (see explanation in 1 Cor. 5:7; 10:1-2).
After the exodus out of Egypt the people of Israel received the law of Jehovah and
erected the tabernacle of congregation according to His command. Through that the new
relationship between the people and Jehovah were fixed:

God was now dwelling amidst His people

Israel was able to approach God and to worship Him (by means of the offerings)
the Glory of the Lord was typically revealed.

The epistles to the Romans and Galatians can be compared with the Book of Exodus,
there subjects being redemption and the relation of the Christian to the law.

a) Typology
The book of Exodus is especially rich in typical teachings. The following is of
importance: Egypt is a picture of this present world (Gal. 1:4), the Red Sea is a picture of
the death and resurrection of Christ and of the death of the old man with Christ (Rom.
6:6). The stay in the desert describes the earthly circumstances in which the believer has
to stand the test (John 17:14-15).

b) Date of Exodus out of Egypt

Most of today's scholars date the exodus of Israel in the 13th century BC, that is in the
time of the 19th Dynasty (Ramses I. to Merenphthah, under whose reign the name of
Israel is first mentioned in Egypt). This late date leaves much too little time for the period
of conquest of the land and for the time of the judges. The different indications of time in
the Bible also would be untrustworthy (see Jud. 11:26; 1 Kings 6:1; Acts 13:20). But if
we take the Biblical indications the time of the exodus can be dated to the year 1446 BC

Overview of Contents
I. Exodus 1-13: Israel in Egypt
Chapter 1 Israel's Oppression
Chapter 2 Moses' Birth, Upbringing and Flight to Midian
Chapter 3 God reveals Himself to Moses as Jehovah (Jahwe) at (Mount) Horeb
Chapter 4 God's Commission to Moses
Chapter 5 Moses speaks to Pharaoh
Chapter 6 God encourages Moses ; Pharaoh hardens his heart
Chapter 7 1st Plague : Water turned into blood
Chapter 8 2nd Plague : Frogs ; 3rd Plague: Lice (Gnats), 4th Plague: (Dog-) Flies

Chapter 9

5th Plague. Very grievous Murrain ; 6th Plague: Boils; God hardens Pharao's
heart; 7th Plague: Hail

Chapter 10 8th Plague : Locusts ; 9th Plague: Darkness

Chapter 11 Announcement of the 10th Plague and of Israel's Exodus
Chapter 12 Institution of the Passover and Killing of all Firstborn in Egypt
Chapter 13 Sanctification of the Firstborn of Israel and Beginning of the Exodus
II. Exodus 14-18: Israel's Journey to Mount Sina
Chapter 14 Jehovah saves Israel at the Red Sea
Chapter 15 The Song of Redemption
Chapter 16 The Manna (John 6 :31-59)
Chapter 17 The Water out of the Rock (1 Cor. 10:4); Battle against Amalek
Chapter 18 Jethro's Advice for Moses
III. Exodus 19-24: Covenant and Giving of the Law at Sina
Chapter 19 The Covenant of Jehovah with Israel
Chapter 20 The Ten Commandments
Chapter 21 The Law - Personal Rights
Chapter 22 The Law - Rights of Property
Chapter 23 The Law - Rights in Social and Religious Life
Chapter 24 The Covenant is concluded
IV. Exodus 25-31: Commandments for the Sanctuary and the Priesthood
Chapter 25 The Heave-Offering; the Ark of Covenant, the Table and Candle-stick

Chapter 26 The Tabernacle

Chapter 27 The Altar of Burnt Offering and the Court of Tabernacle
Chapter 28 Holy Garments for the Priests
Chapter 29 Hallowing of the Priests and the Continual Burnt Offering
Chapter 30

The Golden Altar of Incense; the Brazen Laver; the Oil of Holy Ointment and
the Incense

Chapter 31 Bezaleel and Aholiab

V. Exodus 32-34: Israel's Departure and the Grace of God
Chapter 32 The Golden Calf and the Broken Tables of Testimony
Chapter 33 Moses as Mediator
Chapter 34 The Second Law
VI. Exodus 35-40: The Building of the Sanctuary
Chapter 35 The Heave-Offering
Chapter 36 The Building of the Tabernacle
Chapter 37 The Ark of Covenant; the Table; the Candle-stick and the Altar of Incense
Chapter 38 The Altar of Burnt Offering and the Court
Chapter 39 The Holy Garments for the Priests
Chapter 40 The Setting-Up of the Tabernacle
Arend Remmers
Translation: Veronique Fries