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GE Energy

Fuel
Flexible Gas Turbines for Sustainable
Power Generation

Dr Suresh M V J J Regional Lead Application Engineer, GE India (Bengaluru)


Ranjith Malapaty Engineering Technical Leader, GE Power & Water (Hyderabad)
Indian Power Stations O & M Conference February 13-14, 2013 NTPC, India

2013,
2012,
General
General
Electric
Electric
Company.
Company.
Proprietary
Proprietary
Information.
Information.
AllAll
Rights
Rights
Reserved.
Reserved.

GE Power & Water

General Electric Company, 2013.


GE Proprietary Information - The information contained in this document is
General Electric Company (GE) proprietary information. It is the property of GE
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or regulatory approval to do so, if consent is given for reproduction in whole or
in part, this notice and the notice set forth on each page of this document shall
appear in any such reproduction in whole or in part. The information
contained in this document may also be controlled by the US export control
laws. Unauthorized export or re-export is prohibited.

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Outline
Introduction
Fuel Flexibility Options
Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)
Syngas
Oils

OpFlexTM Model Based Controls


Summary

3
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Introduction

Hydrocarbon consumption 2011


~85% of primary energy
Hydrocarbon consumption, 2011
Million Tonnes Oil Equivalent
41.2%

27.3%

31.5%

10,522
Total

Million Tonnes Oil Equivalent, 2011


5
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Industry drivers for fuel flexible solutions:


Diversified power generation mix (in terms of both fuel sources & suppliers)
Greater energy independence/autonomy
Efficient use of energy/emissions

Fuels experience broad range

6
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LNG & Natural gas variation

LNG & Natural gas variation

Variation poses gas turbine


operability challenges

Auto-ignition
Flashback
Combustion dynamics
Combustor lean-blowout
Emissions compliance (NOx, CO)

Addressed by OpFlex* offerings

Wobbe Number

Gas composition variation will


increase as more LNG is injected
into pipelines

1550

EU Harmonization

1500
1450
1400

Spain
France

Mexico
Florida

NGC+

UK

1350
1300
1250

California

1200

Potential NG/LNG compositional range (volume %)


Constituent
Nitrogen (N2) [%]
Carbon-Dioxide (CO2) [%]
Methane (C1) [%]
Ethane (C2) [%]
Propane (C3) [%]
Iso-Butane (IC4) [%]
n-Butane (NC4) [%]
Iso-Pentane (IC5) [%]
n-Pentane (NC5) [%]
LHV [BTU/scf]

Min
0
0
85
3
0
0
0
0
0
1045

Max
0.4
0.7
96
13
4
0.9
0.9
0.1
0
1170

Source: Tuning on the Fly, Turbomachinery


International, Sept/Oct 2007
*Trademark of General Electric Company.

2013, General Electric Company. Proprietary Information. All Rights Reserved.

Syngas

Syngas production in an IGCC plant

Gas clean-up

Gasification

Gas Turbine

Partial
oxidation

MNQC Combustor
Diluent (N 2, Steam)

Solid feedstock is
gasfied

H2 & CO
(syngas)
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42

Syngas to hydrogen (CO2 separation)

Gasification

Shift Process

Partial
oxidation

CO 2 Capture +
Compression

Steam/Syngas Reactor

AGR & CO 2 Compression

Solid feedstock is
gasfied

Catalyst based Water-Gas


converts CO to CO2

Acid Gas Reactor system removes


CO2, which is compressed and
piped off-site

H2 & CO

CO + H2O => CO 2 + H2

(syngas)

(H2 rich syngas)

CO 2
EOR or Storage

2013, General Electric Company. Proprietary Information. All Rights Reserved.

Gas Turbine
MNQC Combustor
Diluent (N 2, Steam)

H2

11

Syngas turbine controls and accessories


Inlet filter house

Ventilation modifications
Inlet duct &
plenum

Syngas fuel skid with N2 purge


Gas fuel
module

Static
starter

Optional air extraction skid*

Enclosure
modifications:
Piping for syngas, diluent, etc.
Explosion proofing
Hazardous gas detection
Fire protection

IGCC Controls
with added I/O
Controls hardware
and software
Water injection skid

Accessory module
Liquid fuel and atomizing air

Exhaust system

N2/Steam injection skid*


*Fuel and diluent skids/modules may need to be customized for specific fuel/plant configurations

2013, General Electric Company. Proprietary Information. All Rights Reserved.

12

MNQC for E/F Syngas Turbines


MNQC (Multi Nozzle Quiet
Combustor) Diffusion (Not DLN)

Same combustor architecture for


6FA, 7EA, 9E, 7F Syngas, and 9F
Syngas turbines
End cover/fuel nozzle assembly
nearly identical, except for minor
scaling
Combustor liner and cap designs
similar, scaled to different
operating conditions

Typical modifications on 9E gas turbine for low calorific value gases

Air
extraction
N2/Steam

Fuel nozzle
Syngas

Air from
compressor

Diluent N2 or Steam or a blend


Air extraction available for
integration with process

Natural gas/
syngas

Liner
Flow sleeve Transition piece

2013, General Electric Company. Proprietary Information. All Rights Reserved.

13

Oils

Biofuels field tests ready when opportunity is right


Biodiesel
Fuel used met ASTM D-6751 & GE liquid fuel specification
Operated from start-up to full power on a range of fuel mixtures
Confirmed that NOx emissions were comparable to turbine running on
distillate fuel

Ethanol
Successful test performed on a 6B Gas Turbine in 2008
Commonalities with naphtha: high volatility, poor lubricity, miscible
6B Gas Turbinestandard combustor
Fuel: B20 B100
Fuel: Ethanol

7EA Gas TurbineDLN1 combustor


Fuel: B20 B100

LM6000* SAC
Fuel: B100

* LM6000 is a trademark of General Electric Company.

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Crudes decreasing OpEx; increasing availability


Shift to heavier oils and sour gas
Field reserves and refinery ends
Leads to corrosion, ash deposition and
emissions concerns
Impacts CapEx (Capital Expenditure)
and OpEx (Operational Expenditure)
Sulfur concerns:
Acidity of oceans
environmental
standards

Technical solutions Heavy fuel oil


(HFO) availability package

4 key attributes
Smart cool down
Automated water wash
Model based control
Open S1 nozzle
Decreases offline time to perform water
wash (from 48 to <16 hours)
Reduce degradation and maintain Tfire
25% reduction in output degradation rate
More power, better efficiency

Heavy Metal concerns:


Preventing vanadium
corrosion
Efficiency/
maintenance impact

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OpFlexTM Model Based Controls

IGV

Splits

Today: Indirect (Tx Space) Boundary Control

TTRF ~ Tx

Approximate Boundary Protection


No Explicit Accommodation Of Machine
Deterioration

CPR
TCD

(New & Clean / Mean Machine Assumption)

Fuel
Splits

IBH

TTRF

Tx
Control
Curve
Iso-Therm

MINIMUM

(Calculated Off-line to Accommodate Worst-Case Condition)

IGV

IBH

OpFlexTM Model Based Controls Overview

Tx_req +

P+I

W_fuel
/ IGV

Tx

Coupled Effectors Prohibit Optimization


(Part-Load Exhaust Temperature & Fuel Splits)

Limit Scheduling

Model Based Controls : Direct (Boundary Space) Boundary Control


+_
+_
+_

+_

Loop-InControl

+_
+_
+_

Loop-InControl

+_
+_

W * e 6.394*SH
3.95

T3

1.25
270
P3 * e

0.16

W_fuel
/ IGV

Loop-InControl

Direct Boundary Protection


(In The Boundaries Physical Space)

IBH

Accommodation Of Machine
Deterioration

Fuel
Splits

(Adaptive Model Ensures Accurate Surrogates)

Implicitly De-Coupled Effectors

Physics-Based
Boundary Models

(Automatic Performance Optimization)

Surrogates

ARES - Parameter
Estimation

Robust / Flexible / Expandable


(Additional Boundaries / Loops)

Engine Model

Proven GT Control Technology 18

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Model-Reference Adaptive Control


Gas Turbine
Commands

Boundary
Scheduling
Logic

Boundary
Targets

Errors
+_

Model-Based
Control Structure

Effectors

(Loop Selection Logic)


Combustion Dynamics
Measurement

TF Tuning
Estimated
Boundary
Levels

Boundary
Transfer
Functions

Surrogates

ARES - Parameter
Estimation

Boundary Transfer
Functions

Engine Model
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Fuel Flexibility with OpFlexTM MBC


Model-Based Control
Limit Scheduling

+_

+_

Loop-InControl

+_
+_
+_

Loop-InControl

+_
+_

W
* e 6 . 394 * SH
3 . 95
T3

NOx@

1 . 25
15%O2
270
P3 * e

0 . 16

IBH

Loop-InControl

+_
+_

Fuel
Splits

NOxref * e
*e

9.5( SH SH ref )

1st : Fuel Splits


2nd : Fuel Temperature
3rd : Load Reduction

W_fuel
/ IGV

ARES - Param eter


Estimation

Physi cs-Based
Boundary Model s
.006*(Tfl Tflref )

Prioritized Dynamics Control

Surrogates

*Q

Engine Model

Fuel Flexibility
NOx [ppm@15%O2]

(Simulated +/- 10% WI over 30sec)


10

120
NOx
Load

110

100

90

80
100

-20

20

40

60

80

Time [sec]

Gas Turbine Output [%]

Combustor Capability Unleashed


Wide-Wobbe Capability

GEI-41040
5% 7FA
20%
9FA
30
(-44%)

35

40

45

50

55

60

Modified Wobbe Index (MWI)

65
(22%)

Wide Wobbe
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Automated DLN Tuning with OpFlexTM MBC


46.5

9.0
MW I

45.5

MW I

8.8

NOx

8.6

45.0

8.4

44.5

8.2

44.0

8.0

43.5

7.8

43.0

7.6

42.5

7.4

42.0

7.2

41.5

NOx (ppm @ 15% O2)

46.0

7.0

11:24 AM

11:38 AM

11:52 AM

12:07 PM

12:21 PM

Time

Combustion Dynamics
Amplitude (% Target)

90
80

47

Frequency 1
Frequency 2
MWI

46
46

70

45

60

45

50

44

40

44

30

43

20

43

10

42

0
11:24 AM

42
11:38 AM

11:52 AM

12:07 PM

MWI

100

LNG terminal less than 200 km from


207FA combined-cycle power plant
LNG storage tank originally purged
with CO2 not all CO2 removed
before LNG was introduced to tank
CO2 / LNG entered pipeline and
reached site at 11:24 am
Initial Modified Wobbe Index (MWI)
value decreased 5.6% due to
presence of CO2 in fuel
MWI increased 8.7% due to LNG
Maximum rate of change in MWI
reached 9.5%/minute
Modular control maintained
acceptable emissions and dynamics
levels throughout event

12:21 PM

Time
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Summary
Regional trends, design/operational
constraints and fuel availability will
continue to drive the power generation
industry towards non-traditional fuels
Gas turbines have demonstrated
capability to operate on a wide variety
gaseous and liquid fuels
GE has successfully tested/operated
many of these fuels and decreased
OpEx and CapEx impacts to the heavy
duty gas turbine goal is for
performance like it is operating on
natural gas

Powering the World Responsibly


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2013, General Electric Company. Proprietary Information. All Rights Reserved.

Thank You. Questions?