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River Basin Organizations

Study case from Brazil


Vitor Vieira Vasconcelos, Ph.D.
Ayeyarwady Futures Team
Stockholm Environment Institute
Stakeholder Consultation Meeting on Chindwin Futures Assessment
Monywa, 4th May 2015

CONTENT
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Water management regulation in Brazil


Case studies of RBOs in Brazil
History of the RBOs
Structure and Members
Government levels responsibility for RBOs
Institutional scheme
Roles of the RBO
Funding scheme
Some lessons learnt

Water Management Regulation in


Brazil
Water Law approved in 1997
Structure of River Basin Organizations

Challenges in 1997:
Little financial and human resources
Population and institutions were not used to
participatory governance, such as the water
councils and RBO committees proposed in
the new water law
Starting a cycle of fast development from
2001 to 2010, increasing pressure on water
resources

Per Capita GDP - Brazil

10,000.00
5,000.00
0.00

2013

Source: World Bank Database

2011

2009

2007

2005

2003

2001

1999

1997

Myanmar may face similar challenges and


experiences that Brazil faced in the
development cycle

USD

15,000.00

Case studies of RBOs


in Brazil
Paracatu RBO

Verde Grande RBO


Water Commission of Minas
Gerais State Parliament from
2013-2014
Assessment of achievements and
challenges of the 36 RBO in the state

History of the RBOs


Paracatu RBO

Verde Grande RBO

Establishment

1998

2003

Master Plans approved in

2006

2010

Water Quality Standards

Proposed in 2006
(awaiting approval of
Water Council)

Proposed in 2010
(awaiting approval of
Water Council)

Charge for Water Use

Implementing

In discussion

Water Agencies under


RBOs

Articulated with So
Francisco Basin

Articulated with So
Francisco Basin

Sources:ANA. Enquadramento Bases Legais. Available at: http://portalpnqa.ana.gov.br/enquadramento-bases-legais.aspx, accessed on 16 Apr 2015
ANA (2014). Cobrana pelo uso de recursos hdricos no Brasil. Informe 2013. Available at:
http://arquivos.ana.gov.br/institucional/sag/CobrancaUso/Estudos/Informativo2013_CobrancapeloUsodeRecursosHidricosnoBrasil.pdf
ALMG (2014). Relatrio Final da Comisso das guas. Available at: http://www.cbhdoce.org.br/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/Veja-aqui-o-relat%C3%B3rio.pdf
CBH Paracatu website. Available at: http://agbpeixevivo.org.br/index.php/comites/cbhs-estaduais/cbh-rio-paracatu.html, accessed on 16 Apr 2015
CBH Verde Grande websites . Available at: http://www.verdegrande.cbh.gov.br/, accessed on 16 Apr 2015
IGAM (2015) 2o relatrio de gesto e situao dos recursos hdricos em Minas Gerais. Available at: portalinfohidro.igam.mg.gov.br/publicacoes-tecnicas/relatorios-degestao/8837-/download
INFOHIDRO website. Availabe at: http://portalinfohidro.igam.mg.gov.br/publicacoes-tecnicas/enquadramento/, accessed on 16 Apr 2015

Structure and Members


Underlying Principle of Parity in member composition
Example:

Government Institutions
Equally
divided
among

Members of Verde Grande RBO

Then equally
divided among

Ex: Water management institutions


Agriculture development institutions
Environmental institutions

Water Users

National government
State
Municipality

Ex: Irrigated farmers associations


Hydropower companies
Water supply institutions

Civil society
Ex: Local NGOS
Community associations

Internal elections for members and direction roles


Enables rotation and renovation

Internal structure with sub-committees and working groups


6

Government levels responsibility


for RBOs
State A

State B
Intra-state sub-basin:
State A can assume
responsibility
Responsibility of State B

Inter-state sub-basin:
National government can
establish RBO

Responsibility of
National Government
Ocean

Institutional Scheme
National Level
National Level

State Level
National
Water Council

National
Water Council

National
Water Agency

State Water
Regulations
Councilpropositions from RBOs
Approves
Water Use Permits
National InformationState
System
Water
Agency
Surveillance

National
Water Agency

Non-government nature
A member of each RBO
RBO
Experience sharing
RBO
Forum
Consultative role
RBO
Forum

Water
Agency

RBO

Water
Agency

RBO
RBO

RBO

RBO RBO
Forum

Water
Water
Water
Water
Agency
Agency
Agency
Agency
Technical body to be implemented after
Water Use Charge starts in the basin

RBO

Propositions to Water Council


RBO
RBO

Water Gradually
Water assumeWater
the roles of
Agency
Agency theAgency
National Water Agency

Roles of the RBO


Progressive roles of an RBO
1st - Water Basin Plan
2nd - Water Quality Standards
3rd - Rules for charging water use
4th - Establishment of Water Agency in the basin

On demand roles
1st instance for water conflict resolution
Water use permit for big users
(in Minas Gerais State)

Funding Scheme

Tax on hydropower profit

Rationale: compensation for impacts of hydropower reservoirs


Main fund source for water management policy in the country
Part of the tax is source for the Water Fund in Minas Gerais State
Environmental projects in river basins
Administrative costs of RBOs, mainly
Transportation for meetings
Administrative staff

Charge for Water Use


Gradually implemented in some basins
All money collected must be invested in the same basin
Projects, studies and infrastructure according to criteria proposed by RBO
and approved by the Water Council
Technical and administrative maintenance of RBO and Water Agency
10

Some lessons learnt

The RBO always need to have some important task to be


done
People need to see that their participation is useful

Government reliability with public budget is crucial to


maintain the credibility of people in the RBOs
Misuse of money to be invested in basins
Delay or cancellation of promised investments

It is difficult to
recover credibility
after it is lost

RBO role is not only for water policy planning:


supervise investments by government institutions
mobilize society

Industries pressure on Water Council made it difficult to


approve Water Quality Standards proposed by RBOs
11

Thanks to the Blue Moon Fund, DWIR, MEI and


all stakeholders and partners in Myanmar
Contact:
Chayanis KRITTASUDTHACHEEWA, Ph.D.(Ms)
chayanis.k@sei-international.org

Louis LEBEL, Ph.D.


louis@sea-user.org
Eric KEMP-BENEDICT, Ph.D.
eric.kemp-benedict@sei-international.org
Bernadette (Babette) RESURRECCIN, Ph.D.
bernadette.resurreccion@sei-international.org
Chusit APIRUMANEKUL, Ph.D.
chusit.apirumanekul@sei-international.org
Vitor Vieira VASCONCELOS, Ph.D.
vitor.vasconcelos@sei-international.org
Website: http://sei-international.org/

Contact in Myanmar
Program Coordinator:
Ms. Cho Cho Win, MB: 95-9428128900,
chochowin47@gmail.com