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1. The level of significance refers to the probability of making a Type II

error.

True

False

error.

True

False

size.

True

False

sample size increases, other things being equal.

True

False

Type II error must decrease, ceteris paribus.

True

False

True

False

7. If a judge acquits every defendant, the judge will never commit a Type I

error (H0 is the hypothesis of innocence).

True

False

8. When your sample size increases, the chance of both Type I and Type II

error will increase.

True

False

9. A Type II error can only occur when you fail to reject H0.

True

False

.

True False

11 John rejected H0 so we know definitely that he did not commit Type II

. error.

True

False

.

True False

13 For a given level of significance (), increasing the sample size will

. increase the probability of Type II error because there are more ways to

make an incorrect decision.

True

False

14 For a given sample size, reducing the level of significance will decrease

. the probability of making a Type II error.

True

False

.

True False

16 A hypothesis test may be statistically significant, yet have little

. practical importance.

True

False

. that a true null hypothesis will be rejected.

True

False

. asking if a 90 percent confidence interval for contains 15.

True

False

19 For a given sample size and level, the Student's t value always

. exceeds the z value.

True

False

. increases as n increases.

True

False

21 For a sample of nine items, the critical value of Student's t for a left. tailed test of a mean at = .05 is -1.860.

True

False

. for a mean when conducting a two-tailed test rather than a one-tailed

test.

True

False

. null hypothesis.

True

False

24 The p-value is the probability of the sample result (or one more

. extreme) assuming H0 is true.

True

False

. level of the test.

True

False

. the critical value of the test statistic.

True

False

. the test statistic exceeds the critical value.

True

False

. selected level of significance.

True

False

29 If the null and alternative hypotheses are H0: 100 and H1: > 100,

. the test is right-tailed.

True

False

30 The null hypothesis is rejected when the p-value exceeds the level of

. significance.

True

False

31 For a given null hypothesis and level of significance, the critical value

. for a two-tailed test is greater than the critical value for a one-tailed

test.

True

False

32 For a given Ho and level of significance, if you reject the H0 for a one

. tailed-test, you would also reject H0 for a two-tailed test.

True

False

. safe to assume normality of the sample proportion p.

True

False

34 For a mean, we would expect the test statistic to be near zero if the null

. hypothesis is true.

True

False

.

True False

36 In testing the hypotheses H0: 0, H1: > 0, we would use a right. tailed test.

True

False

. normality of p.

True

False

. n(1 - 0) 10.

True

False

. and is equal to 1 - .

True

False

. power.

True

False

41 The power of a test is the probability that the test will reject a false null

. hypothesis.

True

False

42 The height of the power curve shows the probability of accepting a true

. null hypothesis.

True

False

43 The power curve plots on the Y axis and the test statistic on the X

. axis.

True

False

.

True False

45 Varying the true mean is a movement along the power curve, not a shift

. in the curve.

True

False

46 Increasing the sample size shifts the power curve upward, ceteris

. paribus.

True

False

. ceteris paribus.

True

False

48 A power curve for a mean is at its lowest point when the true is very

. near 0.

True

False

.

True False

. sample size n.

True

False

.

True False

52 In hypothesis testing, we are trying to prove the null hypothesis.

.

True False

53 When is unknown, it is more conservative to use z instead of t for the

. critical value.

True

False

54 For a given sample size, when we increase the probability of Type I

. error, the probability of a Type II error:

A.

remains unchanged.

B.

increases.

C.

decreases.

D. is impossible to determine without more information.

55 After testing a hypothesis regarding the mean, we decided not to reject

. H0. Thus, we are exposed to:

A.

B.

C.

D.

Type I error.

Type II error.

Either Type I or Type II error.

Neither Type I nor Type II error.

. Thus, we are exposed to:

A.

B.

C.

D.

Type I error.

Type II error.

Either Type I or Type II error.

Neither Type I nor Type II error.

.

A. It is the probability of committing a Type I error.

B.

It is the test's significance level.

C. It is the probability of rejecting a true H0.

D.

It is equal to 1 - .

58 Which of the following is correct?

.

A.

B.

C.

D.

Type II error can only occur when you reject H0.

Type I error can only occur if you fail to reject H0.

The level of significance is the probability of Type II error.

.

A. The level of significance is the probability of making a Type I error.

B. Lowering both and at once will require a higher sample size.

C. The probability of rejecting a true null hypothesis increases as n

increases.

D. When Type I error increases, Type II error must decrease, ceteris

paribus.

. = .025 because his critical t value was 2.000 and his calculated t value

was 2.345. We can be sure that:

A.

John did not commit Type I error.

B.

John did not commit Type II error.

C. John committed neither Type I nor Type II error.

D. John committed both Type I and Type II error.

61 "My careful physical examination shows no evidence of any serious

. problem," said Doctor Morpheus. "However, a very costly lab test can

be performed to check for the rare condition known as estomalgia

fatalis. The test is almost invariably negative for persons with your age

and symptoms. My personal hypothesis is that the occasional stomach

pain you reported is due to indigestion caused by eating tacos with too

much hot sauce. But you must decide for yourself." As you consider

your doctor's hypothesis, what would be the consequence of Type I

error on your part?

B. Your estomalgia fatalis will go undetected.

C. You will waste money on an unnecessary lab test.

D. Your survivors will enjoy a sizeable malpractice award.

62 Which of the following statements is correct?

.

A. Increasing will make it more likely that we will reject H0, ceteris

paribus.

B. Doubling the sample size roughly doubles the test statistic, ceteris

paribus.

C. A higher standard deviation would increase the power of a test for a

mean.

D. The p-value shows the probability that the null hypothesis is false.

63 "I believe your airplane's engine is sound," states the mechanic. "I've

. been over it carefully, and can't see anything wrong. I'd be happy to

tear the engine down completely for an internal inspection at a cost of

$1,500. But I believe that engine roughness you heard in the engine on

your last flight was probably just a bit of water in the fuel, which passed

harmlessly through the engine and is now gone." As the pilot considers

the mechanic's hypothesis, the cost of Type I error is:

B. the pilot will be out $1,500 unnecessarily.

C. the mechanic will lose a good customer.

D. impossible to determine without knowing .

64 A study over a 10-year period showed that a certain mammogram test

. had a 50 percent rate of false positives. This indicates that:

A.

about half the tests indicated cancer.

B. about half the tests missed a cancer that exists.

C. about half the tests showed a cancer that didn't exist.

D. about half the women tested actually had no cancer.

65 You are driving a van packed with camping gear (total weight 3,500

. pounds including yourself and family) into a northern wilderness area.

You take a "short cut" that turns into a one-lane road, with no room to

turn around. After 11 miles you come to a narrow bridge with a faded

sign saying "Safe Up to 2 Tons." About a half-mile ahead, you can see

that your road rejoins the main highway. You consider the sign's

hypothesis carefully before making a decision. The cost of Type I error

is:

B. about $23,900, not including medical bills.

C. you will find out just how cold that river actually is.

D.

your kids will think you're a chicken.

66 After lowering the landing gear, the pilot notices that the "gear down

. and locked" light is not illuminated. "It's probably just a burned out light

bulb," she says, as she proceeds on final approach for landing.

Considering the pilot's hypothesis, which is the result of Type I error?

B. The landing is delayed unnecessarily while the bulb and gear are

checked.

C. We cannot be sure without knowing whether or not the bulb is

actually faulty.

67 As you are crossing a field at the farm, your country cousin Jake assures

. you, "Don't worry about that old bull coming toward us. He's harmless."

As you consider Jake's hypothesis, what would be Type I error on your

part?

A.

B.

C.

You will run away for no good reason.

Jake will not have any more visits from you.

.

A. When they are small, we want to reject H0.

B. They measure the probability of an incorrect decision.

C. They show the chance of Type I error if we reject H0.

D. They do not require to be specified a priori.

69 For a test of a mean, which of the following is incorrect?

.

A. H0 is rejected when the calculated p-value is less than the critical

value of the test statistic.

B. In a right-tailed test, we reject H0 when the test statistic exceeds the

critical value.

C. The critical value is based on the researcher's chosen level of

significance.

D. If H0: 100 and H1: > 100, then the test is right-tailed.

70 Guidelines for the Jolly Blue Giant Health Insurance Company say that

. the average hospitalization for a triple hernia operation should not

exceed 30 hours. A diligent auditor studied records of 16 randomly

chosen triple hernia operations at Hackmore Hospital and found a mean

hospital stay of 40 hours with a standard deviation of 20 hours. "Aha!"

she cried, "the average stay exceeds the guideline." At = .025, the

critical value for a right-tailed test of her hypothesis is:

A.

B.

C.

D.

1.753

2.131

1.645

1.960

71 Guidelines for the Jolly Blue Giant Health Insurance Company say that

. the average hospitalization for a triple hernia operation should not

exceed 30 hours. A diligent auditor studied records of 16 randomly

chosen triple hernia operations at Hackmore Hospital and found a mean

hospital stay of 40 hours with a standard deviation of 20 hours. "Aha!"

she cried, "the average stay exceeds the guideline." The value of the

test statistic for her hypothesis is:

A.

B.

C.

D.

2.080

0.481

1.866

2.000

72 Guidelines for the Jolly Blue Giant Health Insurance Company say that

. the average hospitalization for a triple hernia operation should not

exceed 30 hours. A diligent auditor studied records of 16 randomly

chosen triple hernia operations at Hackmore Hospital, and found a

mean hospital stay of 40 hours with a standard deviation of 20 hours.

"Aha!" she cried, "the average stay exceeds the guideline." The p-value

for a right-tailed test of her hypothesis is:

A.

B.

C.

D.

between .025 and .05.

between .01 and .025.

less than .01.

. 14, the value of the test statistic was t = 1.863. The p-value is:

A.

B.

C.

D.

between .10 and .05.

greater than .10.

less than .01.

74 Hypothesis tests for a mean using the critical value method require:

.

A.

B.

C.

D.

sampling a normal population.

specifying in advance.

specifying in advance.

.

A.

the probability of a "false rejection."

B.

a value between 0 and 1.

C. the likelihood of rejecting the null hypothesis when it is true.

D. the chance of accepting a true null hypothesis.

76 The critical value in a hypothesis test:

.

A.

is calculated from the sample data.

B. usually is .05 or .01 in most statistical tests.

C. separates the acceptance and rejection regions.

D. depends on the value of the test statistic.

77 Which is not a likely reason to choose the z distribution for a hypothesis

. test of a mean?

A.

B.

C.

D.

The sample size n is very large.

The population is normal.

The value of is very large.

. hours on average in a certain type of portable CD player. But tests on a

random sample of 18 batteries from a day's large production run

showed a mean battery life of 37.8 hours with a standard deviation of

5.4 hours. To test DullCo's hypothesis, the test statistic is:

A.

B.

C.

D.

-1.980

-1.728

-2.101

-1.960

. hours on average in a certain type of portable CD player. But tests on a

random sample of 18 batteries from a day's large production run

showed a mean battery life of 37.8 hours with a standard deviation of

5.4 hours. In a left-tailed test at = .05, which is the most accurate

statement?

A.

We would strongly reject the claim.

B. We would clearly fail to reject the claim.

C.

We would face a rather close decision.

D. We would switch to = .01 for a more powerful test.

80 Dullco Manufacturing claims that its alkaline batteries last at least 40

. hours on average in a certain type of portable CD player. But tests on a

random sample of 18 batteries from a day's large production run

showed a mean battery life of 37.8 hours with a standard deviation of

5.4 hours. To test DullCo's hypothesis, the p-value is:

A.

B.

C.

D.

exactly equal to .05.

slightly greater than .05.

uncertain without knowing .

81 For tests of a mean, if other factors are held constant, which statement

. is correct?

B. A test statistic tcalc = 1.853 with n = 16 leads to rejection at = .01

in a one-tailed test.

C. It is harder to reject the null hypothesis in a two-tailed test rather

than a one-tailed test.

D. If we desire = .10, then a p-value of .13 would lead us to reject the

null hypothesis.

82 For a sample size of n = 100, and = 10, we want to test the

. hypothesis H0: = 100. The sample mean is 103. The test statistic is:

A.

B.

C.

D.

1.645

1.960

3.000

0.300

83 When testing the hypothesis H0: = 100 with n = 100 and 2 = 100, we

. find that the sample mean is 97. The test statistic is:

A.

B.

C.

D.

-3.000

-10.00

-0.300

-0.030

. H0: = 20. We find that the sample mean is 21. The test statistic is:

A.

B.

C.

D.

1.000

1.645

1.960

impossible to find without more information.

.

A. Using = .05 rather than = .01 would make it more likely that H0

will be rejected.

B. When the sample proportion is p = .02 and n = 150, it is safe to

assume normality.

C. An 80 percent confidence interval is narrower than the 90 percent

confidence interval, ceteris paribus.

D. The sample proportion may be assumed approximately normal if the

sample is large enough.

86 Which of the following is not a characteristic of the t distribution?

.

A.

B.

C.

D.

It is a continuous distribution.

It has a mean of zero.

It a symmetric distribution.

It is similar to the z distribution when n is small.

.

A.

B.

C.

D.

H0: 0

H0: 0

H0: 0

H0: = 0

88 Given that in a one-tail test you cannot reject H0, can you reject H0 in a

. two-tailed test at the same ?

A.

B.

C.

Yes.

No.

Maybe.

. produce bars with a mean weight of 56 gm. The process standard

deviation is known to be 0.77 gm. A random sample of 49 candy bars

yields a mean weight of 55.82 gm. Which are the hypotheses to test

whether the mean is smaller than it is supposed to be?

A.

B.

C.

D.

H0: 56, H1: < 56

H0: = 56, H1: 56

H0: < 56, H1: 56

. produce bars with a mean weight of 56 gm. The process standard

deviation is known to be 0.77 gm. A random sample of 49 candy bars

yields a mean weight of 55.82 gm. Find the test statistic to see whether

the candy bars are smaller than they are supposed to be.

A.

B.

C.

-1.636

-1.645

-1.677

. produce bars with a mean weight of 56 gm. The process standard

deviation is known to be 0.77 gm. A random sample of 49 candy bars

yields a mean weight of 55.82 gm. Find the p-value for a test to see

whether the candy bars are smaller than they are supposed to be.

A.

B.

C.

D.

Between .025 and .05

Between .01 and .025

Less than .01

. seconds with a standard deviation of 12 seconds. Find the test statistic

to decide whether the mean transaction time exceeds 60 seconds.

A.

B.

C.

D.

1.457

2.037

2.333

1.848

. seconds with a standard deviation of 12 seconds. State the hypotheses

to test whether the mean transaction time exceeds 60 seconds.

A.

B.

C.

D.

H0: 60, H1: < 60

H0: = 60, H1: 60

H0: < 60, H1: 60

. seconds with a standard deviation of 12 seconds. Find the critical value

to test whether the mean transaction time exceeds 60 seconds at = .

01.

A.

B.

C.

D.

2.947

2.602

2.583

2.333

95 Given H0: 18 and H1: < 18, we would commit Type I error if we:

.

A. conclude that 18 when the truth is that < 18.

B. conclude that < 18 when the truth is that 18.

C. fail to reject 18 when the truth is that < 18.

. n = 10, the value of the test statistic was t = 1.411. The p-value is:

A.

B.

C.

D.

between .10 and .05.

greater than .10.

less than .001.

. year, a sample of 260 randomly chosen teenagers showed that 39 had

purchased a new iPhone. The test statistic to find out whether the

percent has risen would be:

A.

B.

C.

D.

2.687

2.758

.0256

2.258

. year, a sample of 260 randomly chosen teenagers showed that 39 had

purchased a new iPhone. To test whether the percent has risen, the

critical value at = .05 is:

A.

B.

C.

D.

1.645

1.658

1.697

1.960

. year, a sample of 260 randomly chosen teenagers showed that 39 had

purchased a new iPhone. To test whether the percent has risen, the pvalue is approximately:

A.

B.

C.

D.

.0501

.0314

.0492

.0036

100 Ajax Peanut Butter's quality control allows 2 percent of the jars to

.

exceed the quality standard for insect fragments. A sample of 150 jars

from the current day's production reveals that 30 exceed the quality

standard for insect fragments. Which is incorrect?

B. A right-tailed test would be appropriate.

C. Common sense suggests that quality control standards aren't met.

D. Type II error is more of a concern in this case than Type I error.

101 In the nation of Gondor, the EPA requires that half the new cars sold

.

will meet a certain particulate emission standard a year later. A sample

of 64 one-year-old cars revealed that only 24 met the particulate

emission standard. The test statistic to see whether the proportion is

below the requirement is:

A.

B.

C.

D.

-1.645

-2.066

-2.000

-1.960

102 The hypotheses H0: .40, H1: < .40 would require:

.

A.

B.

C.

a left-tailed test.

a right-tailed test.

a two-tailed test.

103 At = .05, the critical value to test the hypotheses H0: .40, H1: <

.

.40 would be:

A.

- 1.645

B.

- 1.960

C.

- 2.326

D. impossible to determine without more information.

104 In a test of a mean, the reported p-value is .025. Using =.05 the

.

conclusion would be to:

A.

accept the null hypothesis.

B.

reject the null hypothesis.

C.

fail to reject the null hypothesis.

D. gather more evidence due to inconclusive results.

105 Which of the following decisions could result in a Type II error for a

.

test?

A.

B.

C.

D.

Reject the null hypothesis

Fail to reject the null hypothesis

Make no decision

106 The Melodic Kortholt Company will change its current health plan if at

.

least half the employees are dissatisfied with it. A trial sample of 25

employees shows that 16 are dissatisfied. In this problem:

B. normality of the sample proportion can be assumed.

C. normality of the sample proportion cannot be judged without

knowing .

107 The Melodic Kortholt Company will change its current health plan if at

.

least half the employees are dissatisfied with it. A trial sample of 25

employees shows that 16 are dissatisfied. The p-value for a right-tailed

test is:

A.

B.

C.

D.

.1337

.4192

.0901

.0808

108 The Melodic Kortholt Company will change its current health plan if at

.

least half the employees are dissatisfied with it. A trial sample of 25

employees shows that 16 are dissatisfied. For a right-tailed test, the

test statistic would be:

A.

B.

C.

D.

1.227

1.375

1.400

1.115

109 If sample size increases from 25 to 100 and the level of significance

.

stays the same, then:

B. the risk of Type I error would decrease.

C. the risk of both Type I and Type II errors would decrease.

D. the risk of neither Type I nor Type II error would decrease.

110 "Currently, only 20 percent of arrested drug pushers are convicted,"

.

cried candidate Courageous Calvin in a campaign speech. "Elect me

and you'll see a big increase in convictions." A year after his election a

random sample of 144 case files of arrested drug pushers showed 36

convictions. For a right-tailed test, the p-value is approximately:

A.

B.

C.

D.

0.9332

0.0668

0.0435

0.0250

.

the p-value?

A.

B.

C.

D.

.4292

.0709

.0874

.9292

.

the p-value?

A.

B.

C.

D.

.4292

.0709

.0427

.0301

.

the p-value?

A.

B.

C.

D.

.0708

.1416

.0874

.0301

.

A. Decreasing will increase the power of the test.

B. Doubling the sample size will double the power of the test.

C. A higher standard deviation would increase the power if we are

testing a mean.

D. Power of the test rises if the true mean is farther from the

hypothesized mean.

115 High power in a hypothesis test about one sample mean is likely to be

.

associated with:

A.

B.

C.

D.

low .

large .

small .

.

A.

B.

C.

D.

concluding H1 when H0 is true.

concluding H0 when H0 is true.

concluding H0 when H1 is true.

.

A.

B.

C.

D.

Specify the desired Type I error.

Find the test statistic from a table.

Formulate a decision rule.

.

A.

B.

C.

D.

H1: 18

H1: = 18

H1: > 18

H1: < 18

.

A.

B.

C.

D.

H0: 18

H0: = 18

H0: > 18

H0: < 18

.

A.

B.

C.

D.

asking if the 95 percent confidence interval for contains .30.

asking if the p-value (area in both tails combined) is less than .025.

asking if the p-value (area in both tails combined) is less than .10.

121 For a right-tailed test of hypothesis for a population mean with known

.

, the test statistic was z = 1.79. The p-value is:

A.

B.

C.

D.

.0367

.9633

.1186

.0179

.

the critical value is:

A.

B.

C.

D.

1.960

1.645

1.711

.0179

.

items yields a sample variance of s2 = 28.5. The critical value of chisquare for a right-tailed test at = 05 is:

A.

B.

C.

D.

1.960

1.645

13.85

36.42

.

items yields a sample variance of s2 = 28.5. The test statistic is:

A.

B.

C.

D.

31.09.

26.42.

must know if it is a one-tailed test.

must know to answer.

.

items yields a sample variance of s2 = 512. The critical values of chisquare for a two-tailed test at = .05 are:

A.

B.

C.

D.

7.564 and 30.19

-1.960 and +1.960

9.390 and 28.87

.

items yields a sample variance of s2 = 512. The test statistic is:

A.

B.

C.

D.

34.09

20.72

14.77

must know to answer.

.

A.

B.

C.

D.

smaller than or equal to 5 percent.

the probability of rejecting H0 when H0 is true.

the probability of rejecting H0 when H1 is true.

.

A. equal to 1 minus the probability of committing Type I error.

B. the probability of concluding H0 when H0 is true.

C. the probability of concluding H0 when H1 is true.

129 Regarding the probability of Type I error () and Type II error (), which

.

statement is true?

A.

B.

C.

D.

>

<

+=1

Power = 1 - .

.

A.

B.

C.

D.

the sample.

past experience.

a target or benchmark.

a scientific theory.

.

A.

B.

C.

D.

two-tailed test.

left-tailed test.

right-tailed test.

breathalyzer test.

132 We can assume that the sample proportion is normally distributed if:

.

A. we have 10 successes in the sample.

B.

we have 10 failures in the sample.

C. we have both 10 successes and 10 failures in the sample.

D.

the population is known.

133 Julia hypothesizes that fewer than 90 percent of her Visa purchases are

.

under $100. She examines a random sample of her recent purchases

and performs a test. The results shown below are from MegaStat. What

would Julia conclude from this test? Explain carefully.

134 Why is it better to say "fail to reject H0" instead of "accept H0"?

.

.

campus ATM. She hypothesized that the mean was less than $100. The

results shown below are from MegaStat. What would Mary conclude

from this test? Explain carefully.

136 Bob hypothesizes that the average student at his university has to

.

take more than 130 credits to graduate. He takes a random sample of

his classmates and performs a test. The results shown below are from

MegaStat. What would Bob conclude from this test? Explain carefully.

137 Pedro hypothesizes that more than half of his classmates would prefer

.

a virtual web graduation ceremony, rather than sitting in the hot sun

during the commencement speech. He takes a random sample of his

classmates and performs a test. The results shown below are from

MegaStat. What would Pedro conclude from this test? Explain carefully.

1.

error.

FALSE

The level of significance is the desired probability of Type I error.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.

Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

2.

error.

TRUE

The level of significance is the desired probability of Type I error.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.

Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

3.

size.

TRUE

In general, there is a trade-off between and , but with a larger n

we can reduce both.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.

Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

4.

sample size increases, other things being equal.

TRUE

Larger samples cut the chance of Type II error () and increase power

(1 - ).

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.

Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

5.

Type II error must decrease, ceteris paribus.

TRUE

For a given sample size, there is a trade-off between and .

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.

Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

6.

FALSE

A false positive is a Type I error.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.

Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

7.

Type I error (H0 is the hypothesis of innocence).

TRUE

If no one is convicted, there is no Type I error (but there can be Type II

error).

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.

Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

8.

When your sample size increases, the chance of both Type I and Type

II error will increase.

FALSE

There is a trade-off between and unless we can increase n.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.

Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

9.

A Type II error can only occur when you fail to reject H0.

TRUE

If you don't reject H0, you may commit Type II error.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.

Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

10.

TRUE

If you reject H0, a false positive can occur.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.

Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

11.

error.

TRUE

If you reject H0, you may commit Type I error but not Type II error.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.

Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

12.

TRUE

The null hypothesis could be falsified by a different sample.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.

Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

13.

For a given level of significance (), increasing the sample size will

increase the probability of Type II error because there are more ways

to make an incorrect decision.

FALSE

Large sample size is beneficial in reducing error of either type.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.

Topic: Statistical Hypothesis Testing

14.

decrease the probability of making a Type II error.

FALSE

For fixed n, reducing would tend to increase .

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.

Topic: Statistical Hypothesis Testing

15.

TRUE

By definition, is the chance of a false positive.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.

Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

16.

practical importance.

TRUE

Small effects may be unimportant in some applications.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 09-06 Perform a hypothesis test for a mean with known using z.

Topic: Testing a Mean: Known Population Variance

17.

that a true null hypothesis will be rejected.

TRUE

Smaller makes it harder to reject the null hypothesis (but may

increase ).

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 09-08 Use tables or Excel to find the p-value in tests of .

Topic: Statistical Hypothesis Testing

18.

asking if a 90 percent confidence interval for contains 15.

TRUE

Only in a two-tailed hypothesis test is this statement true.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-06 Perform a hypothesis test for a mean with known using z.

Topic: Testing a Mean: Known Population Variance

19.

For a given sample size and level, the Student's t value always

exceeds the z value.

TRUE

As n increases, t approaches z, but t is always larger.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-07 Perform a hypothesis test for a mean with unknown using t.

Topic: Testing a Mean: Unknown Population Variance

20.

increases as n increases.

FALSE

As n increases, t declines and approaches the corresponding z.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-07 Perform a hypothesis test for a mean with unknown using t.

Topic: Testing a Mean: Unknown Population Variance

21.

For a sample of nine items, the critical value of Student's t for a lefttailed test of a mean at = .05 is -1.860.

TRUE

Use Appendix D or Excel's function =T.INV(.05,8).

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-05 Find critical values of z or t in tables or by using Excel.

Topic: Testing a Mean: Unknown Population Variance

22.

hypothesis for a mean when conducting a two-tailed test rather than

a one-tailed test.

TRUE

For a two-tailed test, the critical value is farther out in the tail.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.

Topic: Testing a Mean: Known Population Variance

23.

null hypothesis.

FALSE

Reject the null if the p-value is less than .

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 09-08 Use tables or Excel to find the p-value in tests of .

Topic: Testing a Mean: Known Population Variance

24.

The p-value is the probability of the sample result (or one more

extreme) assuming H0 is true.

TRUE

This is the definition of a p-value.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 09-08 Use tables or Excel to find the p-value in tests of .

Topic: Testing a Mean: Known Population Variance

25.

level of the test.

TRUE

This is the definition of .

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.

Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

26.

the critical value of the test statistic.

FALSE

No, the p-value is compared with (not with the critical value from a

table).

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-08 Use tables or Excel to find the p-value in tests of .

Topic: Testing a Mean: Known Population Variance

27.

the test statistic exceeds the critical value.

TRUE

For example, we would reject H0 if zcalc > 1.645 at = .05.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 09-05 Find critical values of z or t in tables or by using Excel.

Topic: Statistical Hypothesis Testing

28.

selected level of significance.

TRUE

The level of significance is the desired tail area, which dictates the

critical value.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 09-05 Find critical values of z or t in tables or by using Excel.

Topic: Statistical Hypothesis Testing

29.

If the null and alternative hypotheses are H0: 100 and H1: >

100, the test is right-tailed.

TRUE

The direction of the test is always revealed by the direction of the

inequality in H1.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 09-04 Formulate a null and alternative hypothesis for or .

Topic: Statistical Hypothesis Testing

30.

The null hypothesis is rejected when the p-value exceeds the level of

significance.

FALSE

Reject the null if the p-value is less than .

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 09-08 Use tables or Excel to find the p-value in tests of .

Topic: Testing a Mean: Known Population Variance

31.

For a given null hypothesis and level of significance, the critical value

for a two-tailed test is greater than the critical value for a one-tailed

test.

TRUE

For a two-tailed test, we have to go farther into the tails to put /2 in

the tail.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-05 Find critical values of z or t in tables or by using Excel.

Topic: Statistical Hypothesis Testing

32.

For a given Ho and level of significance, if you reject the H0 for a one

tailed-test, you would also reject H0 for a two-tailed test.

FALSE

The opposite is true because the two-tailed critical value is bigger.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-05 Find critical values of z or t in tables or by using Excel.

Topic: Statistical Hypothesis Testing

33.

is safe to assume normality of the sample proportion p.

FALSE

We can assume normality of p if n0 10 and n(1 - 0) 10, which is

not true here.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 09-09 Perform a hypothesis test for a proportion and find the p-value.

Topic: Testing a Proportion

34.

For a mean, we would expect the test statistic to be near zero if the

null hypothesis is true.

TRUE

The difference between the sample mean and the hypothesized

mean would be small.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 09-06 Perform a hypothesis test for a mean with known using z.

Topic: Testing a Mean: Known Population Variance

35.

sample.

FALSE

The hypothesized proportion is a target or historical benchmark.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-09 Perform a hypothesis test for a proportion and find the p-value.

Topic: Testing a Proportion

36.

In testing the hypotheses H0: 0, H1: > 0, we would use a righttailed test.

TRUE

The direction of the test is always revealed by the direction of the

inequality in H1.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 09-09 Perform a hypothesis test for a proportion and find the p-value.

Topic: Testing a Proportion

37.

assume normality of p.

FALSE

We can assume normality of p if n0 10 and n(1 - 0) 10, which is

not true here.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 09-09 Perform a hypothesis test for a proportion and find the p-value.

Topic: Testing a Proportion

38.

n(1 - 0) 10.

TRUE

This is a conservative rule of thumb.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-09 Perform a hypothesis test for a proportion and find the p-value.

Topic: Testing a Proportion

39.

false and is equal to 1 - .

TRUE

High power (small chance of Type II error) is desirable.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.

Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

40.

power.

TRUE

Higher variance makes it harder to detect a departure from H0.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 09-10 Interpret a power curve or OC curve (optional).

Topic: Power Curves and OC Curves (Optional)

41.

The power of a test is the probability that the test will reject a false

null hypothesis.

TRUE

High power (small chance of Type II error) is desirable.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.

Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

42.

true null hypothesis.

FALSE

Power is the chance of correctly rejecting a false null hypothesis.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 09-10 Interpret a power curve or OC curve (optional).

Topic: Power Curves and OC Curves (Optional)

43.

The power curve plots on the Y axis and the test statistic on the X

axis.

FALSE

A power curve plots the true parameter value on the X-axis and 1 -

on the Y-axis.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-10 Interpret a power curve or OC curve (optional).

Topic: Power Curves and OC Curves (Optional)

44.

TRUE

By definition, power is 1 - .

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.

Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

45.

Varying the true mean is a movement along the power curve, not a

shift in the curve.

TRUE

The power curve shows how power varies with the true mean.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-10 Interpret a power curve or OC curve (optional).

Topic: Power Curves and OC Curves (Optional)

46.

Increasing the sample size shifts the power curve upward, ceteris

paribus.

TRUE

Larger n would raise the power curve at all points along the X-axis.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 09-10 Interpret a power curve or OC curve (optional).

Topic: Power Curves and OC Curves (Optional)

47.

ceteris paribus.

TRUE

For a given n, increasing would decrease and hence raise power

(1 - ).

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 09-10 Interpret a power curve or OC curve (optional).

Topic: Power Curves and OC Curves (Optional)

48.

A power curve for a mean is at its lowest point when the true is

very near 0.

TRUE

This is why it is hard to detect small departures from H0.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-10 Interpret a power curve or OC curve (optional).

Topic: Power Curves and OC Curves (Optional)

49.

TRUE

Larger n would raise the power curve at all points along the X-axis.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-10 Interpret a power curve or OC curve (optional).

Topic: Power Curves and OC Curves (Optional)

50.

sample size n.

TRUE

Larger n would raise the power curve at all points along the X-axis.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-10 Interpret a power curve or OC curve (optional).

Topic: Power Curves and OC Curves (Optional)

51.

hypothesis.

FALSE

We are trying to reject the null hypothesis H0.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 09-02 Explain the difference between H0 and H1.

Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

52.

FALSE

We cannot prove the null hypothesis, for H0 could be falsified by a

different sample.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 09-02 Explain the difference between H0 and H1.

Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

53.

the critical value.

FALSE

Because z is smaller than t we would reject too often if we use z (not

conservative).

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 09-07 Perform a hypothesis test for a mean with unknown using t.

Topic: Testing a Mean: Unknown Population Variance

54.

error, the probability of a Type II error:

A.

remains unchanged.

B.

increases.

C.

decreases.

D. is impossible to determine without more information.

For a given sample size, there is a trade-off between and .

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.

Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

55.

reject H0. Thus, we are exposed to:

A.

B.

C.

D.

Type I error.

Type II error.

Either Type I or Type II error.

Neither Type I nor Type II error.

Failure to reject H0 could lead to Type II error (but not Type I error).

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.

Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

56.

Thus, we are exposed to:

A.

B.

C.

D.

Type I error.

Type II error.

Either Type I or Type II error.

Neither Type I nor Type II error.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.

Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

57.

B.

It is the test's significance level.

C. It is the probability of rejecting a true H0.

D.

It is equal to 1 - .

There is an inverse relationship between and , but it is not a

simple equation.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.

Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

58.

A.

B.

C.

D.

Type II error can only occur when you reject H0.

Type I error can only occur if you fail to reject H0.

The level of significance is the probability of Type II error.

paribus).

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.

Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

59.

B. Lowering both and at once will require a higher sample size.

C. The probability of rejecting a true null hypothesis increases as n

increases.

D. When Type I error increases, Type II error must decrease, ceteris

paribus.

The critical value for the desired takes the sample size into

consideration.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.

Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

60.

= .025 because his critical t value was 2.000 and his calculated t

value was 2.345. We can be sure that:

A.

John did not commit Type I error.

B.

John did not commit Type II error.

C. John committed neither Type I nor Type II error.

D. John committed both Type I and Type II error.

John could have committed Type II error only if he failed to reject H0.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.

Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

61.

problem," said Doctor Morpheus. "However, a very costly lab test can

be performed to check for the rare condition known as estomalgia

fatalis. The test is almost invariably negative for persons with your

age and symptoms. My personal hypothesis is that the occasional

stomach pain you reported is due to indigestion caused by eating

tacos with too much hot sauce. But you must decide for yourself." As

you consider your doctor's hypothesis, what would be the

consequence of Type I error on your part?

B. Your estomalgia fatalis will go undetected.

C. You will waste money on an unnecessary lab test.

D. Your survivors will enjoy a sizeable malpractice award.

Type I error is rejecting the doctor's advice when it was correct.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.

Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

62.

A. Increasing will make it more likely that we will reject H0, ceteris

paribus.

B. Doubling the sample size roughly doubles the test statistic, ceteris

paribus.

C. A higher standard deviation would increase the power of a test for

a mean.

D. The p-value shows the probability that the null hypothesis is false.

A larger will make it easier to reject H0 (e.g., z.05 = 1.645 versus z.01

= 2.326).

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.

Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

63.

"I believe your airplane's engine is sound," states the mechanic. "I've

been over it carefully, and can't see anything wrong. I'd be happy to

tear the engine down completely for an internal inspection at a cost

of $1,500. But I believe that engine roughness you heard in the

engine on your last flight was probably just a bit of water in the fuel,

which passed harmlessly through the engine and is now gone." As

the pilot considers the mechanic's hypothesis, the cost of Type I error

is:

B. the pilot will be out $1,500 unnecessarily.

C. the mechanic will lose a good customer.

D. impossible to determine without knowing .

Type I error is rejecting the mechanic's advice when it was correct.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.

Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

64.

test had a 50 percent rate of false positives. This indicates that:

A.

about half the tests indicated cancer.

B. about half the tests missed a cancer that exists.

C. about half the tests showed a cancer that didn't exist.

D. about half the women tested actually had no cancer.

This is a 50 percent chance of Type I error.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.

Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

65.

You are driving a van packed with camping gear (total weight 3,500

pounds including yourself and family) into a northern wilderness

area. You take a "short cut" that turns into a one-lane road, with no

room to turn around. After 11 miles you come to a narrow bridge with

a faded sign saying "Safe Up to 2 Tons." About a half-mile ahead, you

can see that your road rejoins the main highway. You consider the

sign's hypothesis carefully before making a decision. The cost of Type

I error is:

B. about $23,900, not including medical bills.

C. you will find out just how cold that river actually is.

D. your kids will think you're a chicken.

Type I error is rejecting the sign's message when it was correct.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.

Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

66.

After lowering the landing gear, the pilot notices that the "gear down

and locked" light is not illuminated. "It's probably just a burned out

light bulb," she says, as she proceeds on final approach for landing.

Considering the pilot's hypothesis, which is the result of Type I error?

landing.

B. The landing is delayed unnecessarily while the bulb and gear are

checked.

C. We cannot be sure without knowing whether or not the bulb is

actually faulty.

Type I error is concluding there is a problem when there was not.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.

Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

67.

As you are crossing a field at the farm, your country cousin Jake

assures you, "Don't worry about that old bull coming toward us. He's

harmless." As you consider Jake's hypothesis, what would be Type I

error on your part?

A.

B.

C.

You will run away for no good reason.

Jake will not have any more visits from you.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.

Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

68.

B. They measure the probability of an incorrect decision.

C. They show the chance of Type I error if we reject H0.

D. They do not require to be specified a priori.

The p-value tells the likelihood of the sample assuming that H0 is

true.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-08 Use tables or Excel to find the p-value in tests of .

Topic: Testing a Mean: Known Population Variance

69.

value of the test statistic.

B. In a right-tailed test, we reject H0 when the test statistic exceeds

the critical value.

C. The critical value is based on the researcher's chosen level of

significance.

D. If H0: 100 and H1: > 100, then the test is right-tailed.

We compare the p-value with (not with the critical value).

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-08 Use tables or Excel to find the p-value in tests of .

Topic: Testing a Mean: Known Population Variance

70.

Guidelines for the Jolly Blue Giant Health Insurance Company say that

the average hospitalization for a triple hernia operation should not

exceed 30 hours. A diligent auditor studied records of 16 randomly

chosen triple hernia operations at Hackmore Hospital and found a

mean hospital stay of 40 hours with a standard deviation of 20 hours.

"Aha!" she cried, "the average stay exceeds the guideline." At = .

025, the critical value for a right-tailed test of her hypothesis is:

A.

B.

C.

D.

1.753

2.131

1.645

1.960

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-05 Find critical values of z or t in tables or by using Excel.

Topic: Testing a Mean: Unknown Population Variance

71.

Guidelines for the Jolly Blue Giant Health Insurance Company say that

the average hospitalization for a triple hernia operation should not

exceed 30 hours. A diligent auditor studied records of 16 randomly

chosen triple hernia operations at Hackmore Hospital and found a

mean hospital stay of 40 hours with a standard deviation of 20 hours.

"Aha!" she cried, "the average stay exceeds the guideline." The value

of the test statistic for her hypothesis is:

A.

B.

C.

D.

2.080

0.481

1.866

2.000

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-07 Perform a hypothesis test for a mean with unknown using t.

Topic: Testing a Mean: Unknown Population Variance

72.

Guidelines for the Jolly Blue Giant Health Insurance Company say that

the average hospitalization for a triple hernia operation should not

exceed 30 hours. A diligent auditor studied records of 16 randomly

chosen triple hernia operations at Hackmore Hospital, and found a

mean hospital stay of 40 hours with a standard deviation of 20 hours.

"Aha!" she cried, "the average stay exceeds the guideline." The pvalue for a right-tailed test of her hypothesis is:

A.

B.

C.

D.

between .025 and .05.

between .01 and .025.

less than .01.

0320.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 09-08 Use tables or Excel to find the p-value in tests of .

Topic: Testing a Mean: Unknown Population Variance

73.

14, the value of the test statistic was t = 1.863. The p-value is:

A.

B.

C.

D.

between .10 and .05.

greater than .10.

less than .01.

=T.DIST.RT(1.863,13) = .0426.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-08 Use tables or Excel to find the p-value in tests of .

Topic: Testing a Mean: Unknown Population Variance

74.

Hypothesis tests for a mean using the critical value method require:

A.

B.

C.

D.

sampling a normal population.

specifying in advance.

specifying in advance.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-05 Find critical values of z or t in tables or by using Excel.

Topic: Testing a Mean: Known Population Variance

75.

A.

the probability of a "false rejection."

B.

a value between 0 and 1.

C. the likelihood of rejecting the null hypothesis when it is true.

D. the chance of accepting a true null hypothesis.

The level of significance is the risk of rejecting a true null hypothesis.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.

Topic: Statistical Hypothesis Testing

76.

A.

is calculated from the sample data.

B. usually is .05 or .01 in most statistical tests.

C. separates the acceptance and rejection regions.

D. depends on the value of the test statistic.

We can specify whatever we wish to set the desired tail area(s).

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-05 Find critical values of z or t in tables or by using Excel.

Topic: Statistical Hypothesis Testing

77.

hypothesis test of a mean?

A.

B.

C.

D.

The sample size n is very large.

The population is normal.

The value of is very large.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-06 Perform a hypothesis test for a mean with known using z.

Topic: Testing a Mean: Known Population Variance

78.

hours on average in a certain type of portable CD player. But tests on

a random sample of 18 batteries from a day's large production run

showed a mean battery life of 37.8 hours with a standard deviation of

5.4 hours. To test DullCo's hypothesis, the test statistic is:

A.

B.

C.

D.

-1.980

-1.728

-2.101

-1.960

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-07 Perform a hypothesis test for a mean with unknown using t.

Topic: Testing a Mean: Unknown Population Variance

79.

hours on average in a certain type of portable CD player. But tests on

a random sample of 18 batteries from a day's large production run

showed a mean battery life of 37.8 hours with a standard deviation of

5.4 hours. In a left-tailed test at = .05, which is the most accurate

statement?

A.

We would strongly reject the claim.

B. We would clearly fail to reject the claim.

C. We would face a rather close decision.

D. We would switch to = .01 for a more powerful test.

tcalc = (37.8 - 40)/[(5.4)/181/2] = -1.728, while for d.f. = 18 - 1 = 17 we

get t.05 = -1.740, so it is a close decision.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-07 Perform a hypothesis test for a mean with unknown using t.

Topic: Testing a Mean: Unknown Population Variance

80.

hours on average in a certain type of portable CD player. But tests on

a random sample of 18 batteries from a day's large production run

showed a mean battery life of 37.8 hours with a standard deviation of

5.4 hours. To test DullCo's hypothesis, the p-value is:

A.

B.

C.

D.

exactly equal to .05.

slightly greater than .05.

uncertain without knowing .

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-08 Use tables or Excel to find the p-value in tests of .

Topic: Testing a Mean: Unknown Population Variance

81.

statement is correct?

B. A test statistic tcalc = 1.853 with n = 16 leads to rejection at = .01

in a one-tailed test.

C. It is harder to reject the null hypothesis in a two-tailed test rather

than a one-tailed test.

D. If we desire = .10, then a p-value of .13 would lead us to reject

the null hypothesis.

Rejection in a two-tailed test implies rejection in a one-tailed test, but

not vice versa.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 09-07 Perform a hypothesis test for a mean with unknown using t.

Topic: Testing a Mean: Unknown Population Variance

82.

hypothesis H0: = 100. The sample mean is 103. The test statistic

is:

A.

B.

C.

D.

1.645

1.960

3.000

0.300

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-06 Perform a hypothesis test for a mean with known using z.

Topic: Testing a Mean: Known Population Variance

83.

When testing the hypothesis H0: = 100 with n = 100 and 2 = 100,

we find that the sample mean is 97. The test statistic is:

A.

B.

C.

D.

-3.000

-10.00

-0.300

-0.030

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-06 Perform a hypothesis test for a mean with known using z.

Topic: Testing a Mean: Known Population Variance

84.

hypothesis H0: = 20. We find that the sample mean is 21. The test

statistic is:

A.

B.

C.

D. impossible to find

1.000

1.645

1.960

without more information.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-06 Perform a hypothesis test for a mean with known using z.

Topic: Testing a Mean: Known Population Variance

85.

incorrect?

A. Using = .05 rather than = .01 would make it more likely that H0

will be rejected.

B. When the sample proportion is p = .02 and n = 150, it is safe to

assume normality.

C. An 80 percent confidence interval is narrower than the 90 percent

confidence interval, ceteris paribus.

D. The sample proportion may be assumed approximately normal if

the sample is large enough.

We want at least 10 "successes," but np = 3 in this example.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-09 Perform a hypothesis test for a proportion and find the p-value.

Topic: Testing a Proportion

86.

A.

It is a continuous distribution.

B.

It has a mean of zero.

C.

It a symmetric distribution.

D. It is similar to the z distribution when n is small.

Student's t resembles z most closely for a large sample size.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 09-07 Perform a hypothesis test for a mean with unknown using t.

Topic: Testing a Mean: Unknown Population Variance

87.

A.

B.

C.

D.

H0:

H0:

H0:

H0:

0

0

0

0

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-04 Formulate a null and alternative hypothesis for or .

Topic: Statistical Hypothesis Testing

88.

Given that in a one-tail test you cannot reject H0, can you reject H0 in

a two-tailed test at the same ?

A.

B.

C.

Yes.

No.

Maybe.

not vice versa.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-04 Formulate a null and alternative hypothesis for or .

Topic: Statistical Hypothesis Testing

89.

to produce bars with a mean weight of 56 gm. The process standard

deviation is known to be 0.77 gm. A random sample of 49 candy bars

yields a mean weight of 55.82 gm. Which are the hypotheses to test

whether the mean is smaller than it is supposed to be?

A.

B.

C.

D.

H0:

H0:

H0:

H0:

=

<

56,

56,

56,

56,

H1:

H1:

H1:

H1:

>

<

56

56

56

56

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 09-04 Formulate a null and alternative hypothesis for or .

Topic: Testing a Mean: Known Population Variance

90.

to produce bars with a mean weight of 56 gm. The process standard

deviation is known to be 0.77 gm. A random sample of 49 candy bars

yields a mean weight of 55.82 gm. Find the test statistic to see

whether the candy bars are smaller than they are supposed to be.

A.

B.

C.

-1.636

-1.645

-1.677

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-06 Perform a hypothesis test for a mean with known using z.

Topic: Testing a Mean: Known Population Variance

91.

to produce bars with a mean weight of 56 gm. The process standard

deviation is known to be 0.77 gm. A random sample of 49 candy bars

yields a mean weight of 55.82 gm. Find the p-value for a test to see

whether the candy bars are smaller than they are supposed to be.

A.

B.

C.

D.

Between .025 and .05

Between .01 and .025

Less than .01

the exact p-value as =NORM.S.DIST(-1.63636,1) = .0509.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 09-08 Use tables or Excel to find the p-value in tests of .

Topic: Testing a Mean: Known Population Variance

92.

67 seconds with a standard deviation of 12 seconds. Find the test

statistic to decide whether the mean transaction time exceeds 60

seconds.

A.

B.

C.

D.

1.457

2.037

2.333

1.848

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-07 Perform a hypothesis test for a mean with unknown using t.

Topic: Testing a Mean: Unknown Population Variance

93.

67 seconds with a standard deviation of 12 seconds. State the

hypotheses to test whether the mean transaction time exceeds 60

seconds.

A.

B.

C.

D.

H0:

H0:

H0:

H0:

=

<

60,

60,

60,

60,

H1:

H1:

H1:

H1:

>

<

60

60

60

60

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 09-04 Formulate a null and alternative hypothesis for or .

Topic: Testing a Mean: Unknown Population Variance

94.

67 seconds with a standard deviation of 12 seconds. Find the critical

value to test whether the mean transaction time exceeds 60 seconds

at = .01.

A.

B.

C.

D.

2.947

2.602

2.583

2.333

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 09-05 Find critical values of z or t in tables or by using Excel.

Topic: Testing a Mean: Unknown Population Variance

95.

Given H0: 18 and H1: < 18, we would commit Type I error if we:

B. conclude that < 18 when the truth is that 18.

C. fail to reject 18 when the truth is that < 18.

Rejecting a true null hypothesis is Type I error.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.

Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

96.

with n = 10, the value of the test statistic was t = 1.411. The p-value

is:

A.

B.

C.

D.

between .10 and .05.

greater than .10.

less than .001.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-08 Use tables or Excel to find the p-value in tests of .

Topic: Testing a Mean: Unknown Population Variance

97.

year, a sample of 260 randomly chosen teenagers showed that 39

had purchased a new iPhone. The test statistic to find out whether

the percent has risen would be:

A.

B.

C.

D.

2.687

2.758

.0256

2.258

2.68742.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-09 Perform a hypothesis test for a proportion and find the p-value.

Topic: Testing a Proportion

98.

year, a sample of 260 randomly chosen teenagers showed that 39

had purchased a new iPhone. To test whether the percent has risen,

the critical value at = .05 is:

A.

B.

C.

D.

1.645

1.658

1.697

1.960

z.05 = 1.645.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 09-05 Find critical values of z or t in tables or by using Excel.

Topic: Testing a Proportion

99.

year, a sample of 260 randomly chosen teenagers showed that 39

had purchased a new iPhone. To test whether the percent has risen,

the p-value is approximately:

A.

B.

C.

D.

.0501

.0314

.0492

.0036

2.68742, so from Appendix C we get P(Z > 2.69) = .0036 or from

Excel =1-NORM.S.DIST(2.68742,1) = .0036.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 09-09 Perform a hypothesis test for a proportion and find the p-value.

Topic: Testing a Proportion

100. Ajax Peanut Butter's quality control allows 2 percent of the jars to

exceed the quality standard for insect fragments. A sample of 150

jars from the current day's production reveals that 30 exceed the

quality standard for insect fragments. Which is incorrect?

B. A right-tailed test would be appropriate.

C. Common sense suggests that quality control standards aren't met.

D. Type II error is more of a concern in this case than Type I error.

n0 = (150)(.02) = 3, so normality of p is doubtful.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-09 Perform a hypothesis test for a proportion and find the p-value.

Topic: Testing a Proportion

101. In the nation of Gondor, the EPA requires that half the new cars sold

will meet a certain particulate emission standard a year later. A

sample of 64 one-year-old cars revealed that only 24 met the

particulate emission standard. The test statistic to see whether the

proportion is below the requirement is:

A.

B.

C.

D.

-1.645

-2.066

-2.000

-1.960

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-09 Perform a hypothesis test for a proportion and find the p-value.

Topic: Testing a Proportion

102. The hypotheses H0: .40, H1: < .40 would require:

A.

B.

C.

a left-tailed test.

a right-tailed test.

a two-tailed test.

the test.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 09-04 Formulate a null and alternative hypothesis for or .

Topic: Testing a Proportion

103. At = .05, the critical value to test the hypotheses H0: .40, H1:

< .40 would be:

A.

- 1.645

B.

- 1.960

C.

- 2.326

D. impossible to determine without more information.

z.05 = - 1.645.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 09-09 Perform a hypothesis test for a proportion and find the p-value.

Topic: Testing a Proportion

104. In a test of a mean, the reported p-value is .025. Using =.05 the

conclusion would be to:

A.

accept the null hypothesis.

B.

reject the null hypothesis.

C.

fail to reject the null hypothesis.

D. gather more evidence due to inconclusive results.

Reject the null hypothesis if the p-value is smaller than .

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 09-08 Use tables or Excel to find the p-value in tests of .

Topic: Testing a Mean: Known Population Variance

105. Which of the following decisions could result in a Type II error for a

test?

A.

B.

C.

D.

Reject the null hypothesis

Fail to reject the null hypothesis

Make no decision

Failing to reject H0 could lead to Type II error (but not Type I error).

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.

Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

106. The Melodic Kortholt Company will change its current health plan if at

least half the employees are dissatisfied with it. A trial sample of 25

employees shows that 16 are dissatisfied. In this problem:

B. normality of the sample proportion can be assumed.

C. normality of the sample proportion cannot be judged without

knowing .

n0 = (25)(.50) = 12.5, so we expect at least 10 "successes" and 10

"failures" (be careful to use 0 instead of p to check for normality).

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-09 Perform a hypothesis test for a proportion and find the p-value.

Topic: Testing a Proportion

107. The Melodic Kortholt Company will change its current health plan if at

least half the employees are dissatisfied with it. A trial sample of 25

employees shows that 16 are dissatisfied. The p-value for a righttailed test is:

A.

B.

C.

D.

.1337

.4192

.0901

.0808

1.400, so from Appendix C we get P(Z > 1.40) = .0808 or from Excel

=1-NORM.S.DIST(1.400,1) = .08076.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 09-09 Perform a hypothesis test for a proportion and find the p-value.

Topic: Testing a Proportion

108. The Melodic Kortholt Company will change its current health plan if at

least half the employees are dissatisfied with it. A trial sample of 25

employees shows that 16 are dissatisfied. For a right-tailed test, the

test statistic would be:

A.

B.

C.

D.

1.227

1.375

1.400

1.115

1.400.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-09 Perform a hypothesis test for a proportion and find the p-value.

Topic: Testing a Proportion

109. If sample size increases from 25 to 100 and the level of significance

stays the same, then:

B. the risk of Type I error would decrease.

C. the risk of both Type I and Type II errors would decrease.

D. the risk of neither Type I nor Type II error would decrease.

We are holding constant so the larger sample will reduce .

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.

Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

cried candidate Courageous Calvin in a campaign speech. "Elect me

and you'll see a big increase in convictions." A year after his election

a random sample of 144 case files of arrested drug pushers showed

36 convictions. For a right-tailed test, the p-value is approximately:

A.

B.

C.

D.

0.9332

0.0668

0.0435

0.0250

1.500, so from Appendix C we get P(Z > 1.50) = .0668 or from Excel

=1-NORM.S.DIST(1.500,1) = .0668.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 09-09 Perform a hypothesis test for a proportion and find the p-value.

Topic: Testing a Proportion

is the p-value?

A.

B.

C.

D.

.4292

.0709

.0874

.9292

From Appendix C we get P(Z > 1.47) = .0708 or from Excel =1NORM.S.DIST(1.47,1) = .0708.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-08 Use tables or Excel to find the p-value in tests of .

Topic: Testing a Proportion

is the p-value?

A.

B.

C.

D.

.4292

.0709

.0427

.0301

From Appendix C we get P(Z < -1.72) = .0427 or from the Excel

function =NORM.S.DIST(-1.720,1) = .0427.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-08 Use tables or Excel to find the p-value in tests of .

Topic: Testing a Proportion

the p-value?

A.

B.

C.

D.

.0708

.1416

.0874

.0301

Excel version of this calculation is =2*(1-NORM.S.DIST(1.47,1)) =

0.14156.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-08 Use tables or Excel to find the p-value in tests of .

Topic: Testing a Mean: Known Population Variance

B. Doubling the sample size will double the power of the test.

C. A higher standard deviation would increase the power if we are

testing a mean.

D. Power of the test rises if the true mean is farther from the

hypothesized mean.

A test becomes more sensitive (greater power) when the truth differs

greatly from H0.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 09-10 Interpret a power curve or OC curve (optional).

Topic: Power Curves and OC Curves (Optional)

115. High power in a hypothesis test about one sample mean is likely to

be associated with:

A.

B.

C.

D.

low .

large .

small .

(greater power).

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-10 Interpret a power curve or OC curve (optional).

Topic: Power Curves and OC Curves (Optional)

A.

B.

C.

D.

concluding

concluding

concluding

concluding

H1

H1

H0

H0

when

when

when

when

H1

H0

H0

H1

is

is

is

is

true.

true.

true.

true.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.

Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

A.

B.

C.

D.

Specify the desired Type I error.

Find the test statistic from a table.

Formulate a decision rule.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-01 List the steps in testing hypotheses.

Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

A.

B.

C.

D.

H1:

H1:

H1:

H1:

=

>

<

18

18

18

18

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-04 Formulate a null and alternative hypothesis for or .

Topic: Statistical Hypothesis Testing

A.

B.

C.

D.

H0:

H0:

H0:

H0:

=

>

<

18

18

18

18

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-04 Formulate a null and alternative hypothesis for or .

Topic: Statistical Hypothesis Testing

B. asking if the 95 percent confidence interval for contains .30.

C. asking if the p-value (area in both tails combined) is less than .

025.

D. asking if the p-value (area in both tails combined) is less than .10.

This statement is true for a two-tailed test only.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-09 Perform a hypothesis test for a proportion and find the p-value.

Topic: Testing a Proportion

121. For a right-tailed test of hypothesis for a population mean with known

, the test statistic was z = 1.79. The p-value is:

A.

B.

C.

D.

.0367

.9633

.1186

.0179

From Appendix C we get P(Z > 1.79) = .0367 or from Excel =1NORM.S.DIST(1.79,1) = .0367.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 09-08 Use tables or Excel to find the p-value in tests of .

Topic: Testing a Mean: Known Population Variance

the critical value is:

A.

B.

C.

D.

1.960

1.645

1.711

.0179

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 09-05 Find critical values of z or t in tables or by using Excel.

Topic: Testing a Mean: Unknown Population Variance

items yields a sample variance of s2 = 28.5. The critical value of chisquare for a right-tailed test at = 05 is:

A.

B.

C.

D.

1.960

1.645

13.85

36.42

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-11 Perform a hypothesis test for a variance (optional).

Topic: Tests for One Variance (Optional)

items yields a sample variance of s2 = 28.5. The test statistic is:

A.

B.

C.

D.

31.09.

26.42.

must know if it is a one-tailed test.

must know to answer.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 09-11 Perform a hypothesis test for a variance (optional).

Topic: Tests for One Variance (Optional)

items yields a sample variance of s2 = 512. The critical values of chisquare for a two-tailed test at = .05 are:

A.

B.

C.

D.

7.564 and 30.19

-1.960 and +1.960

9.390 and 28.87

From Appendix E with d.f. = 17 we get 2.025 = 7.564 (left tail) and

30.19 (right tail).

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-11 Perform a hypothesis test for a variance (optional).

Topic: Tests for One Variance (Optional)

items yields a sample variance of s2 = 512. The test statistic is:

A.

B.

C.

D.

34.09

20.72

14.77

must know to answer.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 09-11 Perform a hypothesis test for a variance (optional).

Topic: Tests for One Variance (Optional)

A.

always set at 5 percent.

B.

smaller than or equal to 5 percent.

C. the probability of rejecting H0 when H0 is true.

D. the probability of rejecting H0 when H1 is true.

Rejecting a true null hypothesis is Type I error.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.

Topic: Statistical Hypothesis Testing

B. the probability of concluding H0 when H0 is true.

C. the probability of concluding H0 when H1 is true.

Failing to reject a false null hypothesis is Type II error.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.

Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

129. Regarding the probability of Type I error () and Type II error (),

which statement is true?

A.

B.

C.

D.

>

<

+=1

Power = 1 - .

and .

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Understand

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.

Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

A.

B.

C.

D.

the sample.

past experience.

a target or benchmark.

a scientific theory.

experience.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-04 Formulate a null and alternative hypothesis for or .

Topic: Statistical Hypothesis Testing

A.

B.

C.

D.

two-tailed test.

left-tailed test.

right-tailed test.

breathalyzer test.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 09-09 Perform a hypothesis test for a proportion and find the p-value.

Topic: Testing a Proportion

132. We can assume that the sample proportion is normally distributed if:

A.

we have 10 successes in the sample.

B.

we have 10 failures in the sample.

C. we have both 10 successes and 10 failures in the sample.

D.

the population is known.

As a guideline, we want at least 10 successes and 10 failures to

assume a normal p.

AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Apply

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 09-09 Perform a hypothesis test for a proportion and find the p-value.

Topic: Testing a Proportion

133. Julia hypothesizes that fewer than 90 percent of her Visa purchases

are under $100. She examines a random sample of her recent

purchases and performs a test. The results shown below are from

MegaStat. What would Julia conclude from this test? Explain carefully.

4 times in 1000 samples, assuming that the true proportion is .90, so

the sample convinces us to reject the hypothesis that = .90 even at

= .01. Normality can be assumed because n(1 - 0) = (130)(.10) =

13 exceeds 10.

Feedback: The z-value is more than two standard errors below zero,

indicating that the sample proportion is well below the hypothesized

= .90. The p-value says that a sample proportion such as p =

108/130 = .8308 might be expected about 4 times in 1000 samples

by chance, assuming that the true proportion is .90, so the sample

would convince us to reject the hypothesis that = .90 even at = .

01. Normality can be assumed since n(1 - 0) = (130)(.10) = 13

exceeds 10. The sample of n = 130 is fairly large, so Julia seems to

have proven her case.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Evaluate

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-09 Perform a hypothesis test for a proportion and find the p-value.

Topic: Testing a Proportion

134. Why is it better to say "fail to reject H0" instead of "accept H0"?

possibility that H0 could be rejected at a later time, or that a different

researcher might get a different result.

Feedback: If the sample evidence is insufficient to reject H0, a

different sample could lead to rejection of H0. Thus, we must allow

the possibility that H0 could be rejected at a later time, or that a

different researcher might get a different result. Although a sample

could contradict H0 strongly enough to make H0 seem to be false,

there is no way to show conclusively that it is true. That said, many

hypotheses are provisionally accepted because they have never been

proved false, despite rigorous efforts to do so.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Evaluate

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-02 Explain the difference between H0 and H1.

Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

college campus ATM. She hypothesized that the mean was less than

$100. The results shown below are from MegaStat. What would Mary

conclude from this test? Explain carefully.

The p-value says that a sample mean such as this might be expected

about 25 times in 100 samples, assuming that the true mean is $100,

so we are not convinced to reject the hypothesis that = 100 even

at = .10.

Feedback: The t-value is within one standard error of zero, indicating

that the sample mean does not differ very much from the

hypothesized mean. The p-value says that a sample mean such as

this might be expected about 25 times in 100 samples by chance

alone, assuming that the true mean is $100, so the sample mean of

$85.88 does not convince us to reject the hypothesis that = 100

even at = .10. A t-test is used because the population standard

deviation is unknown.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Evaluate

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-07 Perform a hypothesis test for a mean with unknown using t.

Topic: Testing a Mean: Unknown Population Variance

136. Bob hypothesizes that the average student at his university has to

take more than 130 credits to graduate. He takes a random sample of

his classmates and performs a test. The results shown below are from

MegaStat. What would Bob conclude from this test? Explain carefully.

The p-value says that a sample mean such as this might be expected

only 1 or 2 times in 100 samples, assuming that the true mean is

130, so we would reject the hypothesis = 130 at = .025 but not

quite at = .01.

Feedback: The t-value is almost two standard errors above zero. The

p-value says that a sample mean such as this might be expected

about 1 or 2 times in 100 samples by chance, assuming that the true

mean is 130, so the sample would convince us to reject the

hypothesis = 130 at = .025 but not quite at = .01. A t-test is

used since the population standard deviation is unknown.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Evaluate

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-07 Perform a hypothesis test for a mean with unknown using t.

Topic: Testing a Mean: Unknown Population Variance

137. Pedro hypothesizes that more than half of his classmates would

prefer a virtual web graduation ceremony, rather than sitting in the

hot sun during the commencement speech. He takes a random

sample of his classmates and performs a test. The results shown

below are from MegaStat. What would Pedro conclude from this test?

Explain carefully.

might be expected about 16 times in 100 samples, assuming that the

true proportion is .50, so Pedro would not reject the hypothesis that

= .50 even at a weak level of significance such as = .10. Normality

can be assumed because n0 = (25)(.50) = 12.5 exceeds 10.

Feedback: The z-value is only one standard error above zero,

indicating that the sample proportion does not differ much from the

hypothesized = .50. The p-value says that a sample proportion

such as p = 15/25 = .60 might be expected about 16 times in 100

samples by chance, assuming that the true proportion is .50, so

Pedro would not reject the hypothesis that = .50 even at a weak

level of significance such as = .10. Normality can be assumed

because n0 = (25)(.50) = 12.5 exceeds 10. If Pedro wants to pursue

his theory, he could take a larger sample than n = 25.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Blooms: Evaluate

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 09-09 Perform a hypothesis test for a proportion and find the p-value.

Topic: Testing a Proportion

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