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# Chapter 09

## True / False Questions

1. The level of significance refers to the probability of making a Type II
error.
True

False

error.
True

False

size.
True

False

## 4. The probability of rejecting a false null hypothesis increases as the

sample size increases, other things being equal.
True

False

## 5. When the probability of a Type I error increases, the probability of a

Type II error must decrease, ceteris paribus.
True

False

## 6. A false positive in a drug test for steroids is a Type II error.

True

False

7. If a judge acquits every defendant, the judge will never commit a Type I
error (H0 is the hypothesis of innocence).
True

False

8. When your sample size increases, the chance of both Type I and Type II
error will increase.
True

False

9. A Type II error can only occur when you fail to reject H0.
True

False

## 10 A Type I error can only occur if you reject H0.

.
True False
11 John rejected H0 so we know definitely that he did not commit Type II
. error.
True

False

## 12 In hypothesis testing we cannot prove a null hypothesis is true.

.
True False
13 For a given level of significance (), increasing the sample size will
. increase the probability of Type II error because there are more ways to
make an incorrect decision.
True

False

14 For a given sample size, reducing the level of significance will decrease
. the probability of making a Type II error.
True

False

## 15 The probability of a false positive is decreased if we reduce .

.
True False
16 A hypothesis test may be statistically significant, yet have little
. practical importance.
True

False

## 17 Compared to using = .01, choosing = .001 will make it less likely

. that a true null hypothesis will be rejected.
True

False

## 18 A two-tailed hypothesis test for H0: = 15 at = .10 is analogous to

. asking if a 90 percent confidence interval for contains 15.
True

False

19 For a given sample size and level, the Student's t value always
. exceeds the z value.
True

False

## 20 For a given level of significance, the critical value of Student's t

. increases as n increases.
True

False

21 For a sample of nine items, the critical value of Student's t for a left. tailed test of a mean at = .05 is -1.860.
True

False

## 22 Holding other factors constant, it is harder to reject the null hypothesis

. for a mean when conducting a two-tailed test rather than a one-tailed
test.
True

False

## 23 If we desire = .10, then a p-value of .13 would lead us to reject the

. null hypothesis.
True

False

24 The p-value is the probability of the sample result (or one more
. extreme) assuming H0 is true.
True

False

## 25 The probability of rejecting a true null hypothesis is the significance

. level of the test.
True

False

## 26 A null hypothesis is rejected when the calculated p-value is less than

. the critical value of the test statistic.
True

False

## 27 In a right-tailed test, the null hypothesis is rejected when the value of

. the test statistic exceeds the critical value.
True

False

## 28 The critical value of a hypothesis test is based on the researcher's

. selected level of significance.
True

False

29 If the null and alternative hypotheses are H0: 100 and H1: > 100,
. the test is right-tailed.
True

False

30 The null hypothesis is rejected when the p-value exceeds the level of
. significance.
True

False

31 For a given null hypothesis and level of significance, the critical value
. for a two-tailed test is greater than the critical value for a one-tailed
test.
True

False

32 For a given Ho and level of significance, if you reject the H0 for a one
. tailed-test, you would also reject H0 for a two-tailed test.
True

False

## 33 If the hypothesized proportion is 0 = .025 in a sample of size 120, it is

. safe to assume normality of the sample proportion p.
True

False

34 For a mean, we would expect the test statistic to be near zero if the null
. hypothesis is true.
True

False

## 35 In the hypothesis H0: = 0, the value of 0 is derived from the sample.

.
True False
36 In testing the hypotheses H0: 0, H1: > 0, we would use a right. tailed test.
True

False

## 37 To test the hypothesis H0: = .0125 using n = 160, it is safe to assume

. normality of p.
True

False

. n(1 - 0) 10.
True

False

## 39 Power is the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when it is false

. and is equal to 1 - .
True

False

## 40 Other things being equal, a smaller standard deviation implies higher

. power.
True

False

41 The power of a test is the probability that the test will reject a false null
. hypothesis.
True

False

42 The height of the power curve shows the probability of accepting a true
. null hypothesis.
True

False

43 The power curve plots on the Y axis and the test statistic on the X
. axis.
True

False

## 44 A smaller probability of Type II error implies higher power of the test.

.
True False
45 Varying the true mean is a movement along the power curve, not a shift
. in the curve.
True

False

46 Increasing the sample size shifts the power curve upward, ceteris
. paribus.
True

False

## 47 Increasing the level of significance shifts the power curve upward,

. ceteris paribus.
True

False

48 A power curve for a mean is at its lowest point when the true is very
. near 0.
True

False

.
True False

. sample size n.
True

False

## 51 In hypothesis testing, we are trying to reject the alternative hypothesis.

.
True False
52 In hypothesis testing, we are trying to prove the null hypothesis.
.
True False
53 When is unknown, it is more conservative to use z instead of t for the
. critical value.
True

False

## Multiple Choice Questions

54 For a given sample size, when we increase the probability of Type I
. error, the probability of a Type II error:

A.
remains unchanged.
B.
increases.
C.
decreases.
D. is impossible to determine without more information.
55 After testing a hypothesis regarding the mean, we decided not to reject
. H0. Thus, we are exposed to:

A.
B.
C.
D.

Type I error.
Type II error.
Either Type I or Type II error.
Neither Type I nor Type II error.

## 56 After testing a hypothesis, we decided to reject the null hypothesis.

. Thus, we are exposed to:

A.
B.
C.
D.

Type I error.
Type II error.
Either Type I or Type II error.
Neither Type I nor Type II error.

## 57 Which statement about is not correct?

.
A. It is the probability of committing a Type I error.
B.
It is the test's significance level.
C. It is the probability of rejecting a true H0.
D.
It is equal to 1 - .
58 Which of the following is correct?
.
A.
B.
C.
D.

## When sample size increases, both and may decrease.

Type II error can only occur when you reject H0.
Type I error can only occur if you fail to reject H0.
The level of significance is the probability of Type II error.

## 59 Which of the following is incorrect?

.
A. The level of significance is the probability of making a Type I error.
B. Lowering both and at once will require a higher sample size.
C. The probability of rejecting a true null hypothesis increases as n
increases.
D. When Type I error increases, Type II error must decrease, ceteris
paribus.

## 60 John rejected his null hypothesis in a right-tailed test for a mean at

. = .025 because his critical t value was 2.000 and his calculated t value
was 2.345. We can be sure that:

A.
John did not commit Type I error.
B.
John did not commit Type II error.
C. John committed neither Type I nor Type II error.
D. John committed both Type I and Type II error.
61 "My careful physical examination shows no evidence of any serious
. problem," said Doctor Morpheus. "However, a very costly lab test can
be performed to check for the rare condition known as estomalgia
fatalis. The test is almost invariably negative for persons with your age
and symptoms. My personal hypothesis is that the occasional stomach
pain you reported is due to indigestion caused by eating tacos with too
much hot sauce. But you must decide for yourself." As you consider
your doctor's hypothesis, what would be the consequence of Type I
error on your part?

## A. It can't be determined without knowing the type of test.

B. Your estomalgia fatalis will go undetected.
C. You will waste money on an unnecessary lab test.
D. Your survivors will enjoy a sizeable malpractice award.
62 Which of the following statements is correct?
.
A. Increasing will make it more likely that we will reject H0, ceteris
paribus.
B. Doubling the sample size roughly doubles the test statistic, ceteris
paribus.
C. A higher standard deviation would increase the power of a test for a
mean.
D. The p-value shows the probability that the null hypothesis is false.

63 "I believe your airplane's engine is sound," states the mechanic. "I've
. been over it carefully, and can't see anything wrong. I'd be happy to
tear the engine down completely for an internal inspection at a cost of
\$1,500. But I believe that engine roughness you heard in the engine on
your last flight was probably just a bit of water in the fuel, which passed
harmlessly through the engine and is now gone." As the pilot considers
the mechanic's hypothesis, the cost of Type I error is:

## A. the pilot will experience the thrill of no-engine flight.

B. the pilot will be out \$1,500 unnecessarily.
C. the mechanic will lose a good customer.
D. impossible to determine without knowing .
64 A study over a 10-year period showed that a certain mammogram test
. had a 50 percent rate of false positives. This indicates that:

A.
about half the tests indicated cancer.
B. about half the tests missed a cancer that exists.
C. about half the tests showed a cancer that didn't exist.
D. about half the women tested actually had no cancer.
65 You are driving a van packed with camping gear (total weight 3,500
. pounds including yourself and family) into a northern wilderness area.
You take a "short cut" that turns into a one-lane road, with no room to
turn around. After 11 miles you come to a narrow bridge with a faded
sign saying "Safe Up to 2 Tons." About a half-mile ahead, you can see
that your road rejoins the main highway. You consider the sign's
hypothesis carefully before making a decision. The cost of Type I error
is:

## A. you pass safely over the bridge and everyone's happy.

B. about \$23,900, not including medical bills.
C. you will find out just how cold that river actually is.
D.
your kids will think you're a chicken.

66 After lowering the landing gear, the pilot notices that the "gear down
. and locked" light is not illuminated. "It's probably just a burned out light
bulb," she says, as she proceeds on final approach for landing.
Considering the pilot's hypothesis, which is the result of Type I error?

## A. The sound of metal scraping on concrete will be heard upon landing.

B. The landing is delayed unnecessarily while the bulb and gear are
checked.
C. We cannot be sure without knowing whether or not the bulb is
actually faulty.
67 As you are crossing a field at the farm, your country cousin Jake assures
. you, "Don't worry about that old bull coming toward us. He's harmless."
As you consider Jake's hypothesis, what would be Type I error on your
part?

A.
B.
C.

## You will soon feel the bull's horns.

You will run away for no good reason.
Jake will not have any more visits from you.

## 68 Which is not true of p-values?

.
A. When they are small, we want to reject H0.
B. They measure the probability of an incorrect decision.
C. They show the chance of Type I error if we reject H0.
D. They do not require to be specified a priori.
69 For a test of a mean, which of the following is incorrect?
.
A. H0 is rejected when the calculated p-value is less than the critical
value of the test statistic.
B. In a right-tailed test, we reject H0 when the test statistic exceeds the
critical value.
C. The critical value is based on the researcher's chosen level of
significance.
D. If H0: 100 and H1: > 100, then the test is right-tailed.

70 Guidelines for the Jolly Blue Giant Health Insurance Company say that
. the average hospitalization for a triple hernia operation should not
exceed 30 hours. A diligent auditor studied records of 16 randomly
chosen triple hernia operations at Hackmore Hospital and found a mean
hospital stay of 40 hours with a standard deviation of 20 hours. "Aha!"
she cried, "the average stay exceeds the guideline." At = .025, the
critical value for a right-tailed test of her hypothesis is:

A.
B.
C.
D.

1.753
2.131
1.645
1.960

71 Guidelines for the Jolly Blue Giant Health Insurance Company say that
. the average hospitalization for a triple hernia operation should not
exceed 30 hours. A diligent auditor studied records of 16 randomly
chosen triple hernia operations at Hackmore Hospital and found a mean
hospital stay of 40 hours with a standard deviation of 20 hours. "Aha!"
she cried, "the average stay exceeds the guideline." The value of the
test statistic for her hypothesis is:

A.
B.
C.
D.

2.080
0.481
1.866
2.000

72 Guidelines for the Jolly Blue Giant Health Insurance Company say that
. the average hospitalization for a triple hernia operation should not
exceed 30 hours. A diligent auditor studied records of 16 randomly
chosen triple hernia operations at Hackmore Hospital, and found a
mean hospital stay of 40 hours with a standard deviation of 20 hours.
"Aha!" she cried, "the average stay exceeds the guideline." The p-value
for a right-tailed test of her hypothesis is:

A.
B.
C.
D.

## between .05 and .10.

between .025 and .05.
between .01 and .025.
less than .01.

## 73 For a right-tailed test of a hypothesis for a population mean with n =

. 14, the value of the test statistic was t = 1.863. The p-value is:

A.
B.
C.
D.

## between .05 and .025.

between .10 and .05.
greater than .10.
less than .01.

74 Hypothesis tests for a mean using the critical value method require:
.
A.
B.
C.
D.

## knowing the true value of .

sampling a normal population.

## 75 The level of significance is not:

.
A.
the probability of a "false rejection."
B.
a value between 0 and 1.
C. the likelihood of rejecting the null hypothesis when it is true.
D. the chance of accepting a true null hypothesis.
76 The critical value in a hypothesis test:
.
A.
is calculated from the sample data.
B. usually is .05 or .01 in most statistical tests.
C. separates the acceptance and rejection regions.
D. depends on the value of the test statistic.
77 Which is not a likely reason to choose the z distribution for a hypothesis
. test of a mean?

A.
B.
C.
D.

## The value of is known.

The sample size n is very large.
The population is normal.
The value of is very large.

## 78 Dullco Manufacturing claims that its alkaline batteries last at least 40

. hours on average in a certain type of portable CD player. But tests on a
random sample of 18 batteries from a day's large production run
showed a mean battery life of 37.8 hours with a standard deviation of
5.4 hours. To test DullCo's hypothesis, the test statistic is:

A.
B.
C.
D.

-1.980
-1.728
-2.101
-1.960

## 79 Dullco Manufacturing claims that its alkaline batteries last at least 40

. hours on average in a certain type of portable CD player. But tests on a
random sample of 18 batteries from a day's large production run
showed a mean battery life of 37.8 hours with a standard deviation of
5.4 hours. In a left-tailed test at = .05, which is the most accurate
statement?

A.
We would strongly reject the claim.
B. We would clearly fail to reject the claim.
C.
We would face a rather close decision.
D. We would switch to = .01 for a more powerful test.
80 Dullco Manufacturing claims that its alkaline batteries last at least 40
. hours on average in a certain type of portable CD player. But tests on a
random sample of 18 batteries from a day's large production run
showed a mean battery life of 37.8 hours with a standard deviation of
5.4 hours. To test DullCo's hypothesis, the p-value is:

A.
B.
C.
D.

## slightly less than .05.

exactly equal to .05.
slightly greater than .05.
uncertain without knowing .

81 For tests of a mean, if other factors are held constant, which statement
. is correct?

## A. The critical value of Student's t increases as n increases.

B. A test statistic tcalc = 1.853 with n = 16 leads to rejection at = .01
in a one-tailed test.
C. It is harder to reject the null hypothesis in a two-tailed test rather
than a one-tailed test.
D. If we desire = .10, then a p-value of .13 would lead us to reject the
null hypothesis.
82 For a sample size of n = 100, and = 10, we want to test the
. hypothesis H0: = 100. The sample mean is 103. The test statistic is:

A.
B.
C.
D.

1.645
1.960
3.000
0.300

83 When testing the hypothesis H0: = 100 with n = 100 and 2 = 100, we
. find that the sample mean is 97. The test statistic is:

A.
B.
C.
D.

-3.000
-10.00
-0.300
-0.030

## 84 Given a normal distribution with = 3, we want to test the hypothesis

. H0: = 20. We find that the sample mean is 21. The test statistic is:

A.
B.
C.
D.

1.000
1.645
1.960

## 85 In testing a proportion, which of the following statements is incorrect?

.
A. Using = .05 rather than = .01 would make it more likely that H0
will be rejected.
B. When the sample proportion is p = .02 and n = 150, it is safe to
assume normality.
C. An 80 percent confidence interval is narrower than the 90 percent
confidence interval, ceteris paribus.
D. The sample proportion may be assumed approximately normal if the
sample is large enough.
86 Which of the following is not a characteristic of the t distribution?
.
A.
B.
C.
D.

It is a continuous distribution.
It has a mean of zero.
It a symmetric distribution.
It is similar to the z distribution when n is small.

## 87 Which of the following is not a valid null hypothesis?

.
A.
B.
C.
D.

H0: 0
H0: 0
H0: 0
H0: = 0

88 Given that in a one-tail test you cannot reject H0, can you reject H0 in a
. two-tailed test at the same ?

A.
B.
C.

Yes.
No.
Maybe.

## 89 The process that produces Sonora Bars (a type of candy) is intended to

. produce bars with a mean weight of 56 gm. The process standard
deviation is known to be 0.77 gm. A random sample of 49 candy bars
yields a mean weight of 55.82 gm. Which are the hypotheses to test
whether the mean is smaller than it is supposed to be?

A.
B.
C.
D.

H0: 56, H1: < 56
H0: = 56, H1: 56
H0: < 56, H1: 56

## 90 The process that produces Sonora Bars (a type of candy) is intended to

. produce bars with a mean weight of 56 gm. The process standard
deviation is known to be 0.77 gm. A random sample of 49 candy bars
yields a mean weight of 55.82 gm. Find the test statistic to see whether
the candy bars are smaller than they are supposed to be.

A.
B.
C.

-1.636
-1.645
-1.677

## 91 The process that produces Sonora Bars (a type of candy) is intended to

. produce bars with a mean weight of 56 gm. The process standard
deviation is known to be 0.77 gm. A random sample of 49 candy bars
yields a mean weight of 55.82 gm. Find the p-value for a test to see
whether the candy bars are smaller than they are supposed to be.

A.
B.
C.
D.

## Between .05 and .10

Between .025 and .05
Between .01 and .025
Less than .01

## 92 A sample of 16 ATM transactions shows a mean transaction time of 67

. seconds with a standard deviation of 12 seconds. Find the test statistic
to decide whether the mean transaction time exceeds 60 seconds.

A.
B.
C.
D.

1.457
2.037
2.333
1.848

## 93 A sample of 16 ATM transactions shows a mean transaction time of 67

. seconds with a standard deviation of 12 seconds. State the hypotheses
to test whether the mean transaction time exceeds 60 seconds.

A.
B.
C.
D.

H0: 60, H1: < 60
H0: = 60, H1: 60
H0: < 60, H1: 60

## 94 A sample of 16 ATM transactions shows a mean transaction time of 67

. seconds with a standard deviation of 12 seconds. Find the critical value
to test whether the mean transaction time exceeds 60 seconds at = .
01.

A.
B.
C.
D.

2.947
2.602
2.583
2.333

95 Given H0: 18 and H1: < 18, we would commit Type I error if we:
.
A. conclude that 18 when the truth is that < 18.
B. conclude that < 18 when the truth is that 18.
C. fail to reject 18 when the truth is that < 18.

## 96 For a right-tailed test of a hypothesis for a single population mean with

. n = 10, the value of the test statistic was t = 1.411. The p-value is:

A.
B.
C.
D.

## between .05 and .025.

between .10 and .05.
greater than .10.
less than .001.

## 97 Last year, 10 percent of all teenagers purchased a new iPhone. This

. year, a sample of 260 randomly chosen teenagers showed that 39 had
purchased a new iPhone. The test statistic to find out whether the
percent has risen would be:

A.
B.
C.
D.

2.687
2.758
.0256
2.258

## 98 Last year, 10 percent of all teenagers purchased a new iPhone. This

. year, a sample of 260 randomly chosen teenagers showed that 39 had
purchased a new iPhone. To test whether the percent has risen, the
critical value at = .05 is:

A.
B.
C.
D.

1.645
1.658
1.697
1.960

## 99 Last year, 10 percent of all teenagers purchased a new iPhone. This

. year, a sample of 260 randomly chosen teenagers showed that 39 had
purchased a new iPhone. To test whether the percent has risen, the pvalue is approximately:

A.
B.
C.
D.

.0501
.0314
.0492
.0036

100 Ajax Peanut Butter's quality control allows 2 percent of the jars to
.
exceed the quality standard for insect fragments. A sample of 150 jars
from the current day's production reveals that 30 exceed the quality
standard for insect fragments. Which is incorrect?

## A. Normality of p may safely be assumed in the hypothesis test.

B. A right-tailed test would be appropriate.
C. Common sense suggests that quality control standards aren't met.
D. Type II error is more of a concern in this case than Type I error.
101 In the nation of Gondor, the EPA requires that half the new cars sold
.
will meet a certain particulate emission standard a year later. A sample
of 64 one-year-old cars revealed that only 24 met the particulate
emission standard. The test statistic to see whether the proportion is
below the requirement is:

A.
B.
C.
D.

-1.645
-2.066
-2.000
-1.960

102 The hypotheses H0: .40, H1: < .40 would require:
.
A.
B.
C.

a left-tailed test.
a right-tailed test.
a two-tailed test.

103 At = .05, the critical value to test the hypotheses H0: .40, H1: <
.
.40 would be:

A.
- 1.645
B.
- 1.960
C.
- 2.326
D. impossible to determine without more information.

104 In a test of a mean, the reported p-value is .025. Using =.05 the
.
conclusion would be to:

A.
accept the null hypothesis.
B.
reject the null hypothesis.
C.
fail to reject the null hypothesis.
D. gather more evidence due to inconclusive results.
105 Which of the following decisions could result in a Type II error for a
.
test?

A.
B.
C.
D.

## Reject the alternative hypothesis

Reject the null hypothesis
Fail to reject the null hypothesis
Make no decision

106 The Melodic Kortholt Company will change its current health plan if at
.
least half the employees are dissatisfied with it. A trial sample of 25
employees shows that 16 are dissatisfied. In this problem:

## A. normality of the sample proportion should not be assumed.

B. normality of the sample proportion can be assumed.
C. normality of the sample proportion cannot be judged without
knowing .
107 The Melodic Kortholt Company will change its current health plan if at
.
least half the employees are dissatisfied with it. A trial sample of 25
employees shows that 16 are dissatisfied. The p-value for a right-tailed
test is:

A.
B.
C.
D.

.1337
.4192
.0901
.0808

108 The Melodic Kortholt Company will change its current health plan if at
.
least half the employees are dissatisfied with it. A trial sample of 25
employees shows that 16 are dissatisfied. For a right-tailed test, the
test statistic would be:

A.
B.
C.
D.

1.227
1.375
1.400
1.115

109 If sample size increases from 25 to 100 and the level of significance
.
stays the same, then:

## A. the risk of Type II error would decrease.

B. the risk of Type I error would decrease.
C. the risk of both Type I and Type II errors would decrease.
D. the risk of neither Type I nor Type II error would decrease.
110 "Currently, only 20 percent of arrested drug pushers are convicted,"
.
cried candidate Courageous Calvin in a campaign speech. "Elect me
and you'll see a big increase in convictions." A year after his election a
random sample of 144 case files of arrested drug pushers showed 36
convictions. For a right-tailed test, the p-value is approximately:

A.
B.
C.
D.

0.9332
0.0668
0.0435
0.0250

.
the p-value?

A.
B.
C.
D.

.4292
.0709
.0874
.9292

.
the p-value?

A.
B.
C.
D.

.4292
.0709
.0427
.0301

.
the p-value?

A.
B.
C.
D.

.0708
.1416
.0874
.0301

## 114 Which of the following statements is true?

.
A. Decreasing will increase the power of the test.
B. Doubling the sample size will double the power of the test.
C. A higher standard deviation would increase the power if we are
testing a mean.
D. Power of the test rises if the true mean is farther from the
hypothesized mean.
115 High power in a hypothesis test about one sample mean is likely to be
.
associated with:

A.
B.
C.
D.

low .
large .
small .

.
A.
B.
C.
D.

## concluding H1 when H1 is true.

concluding H1 when H0 is true.
concluding H0 when H0 is true.
concluding H0 when H1 is true.

.
A.
B.
C.
D.

## Formulate the hypotheses.

Specify the desired Type I error.
Find the test statistic from a table.
Formulate a decision rule.

.
A.
B.
C.
D.

H1: 18
H1: = 18
H1: > 18
H1: < 18

.
A.
B.
C.
D.

H0: 18
H0: = 18
H0: > 18
H0: < 18

.
A.
B.
C.
D.

## asking if the 90 percent confidence interval for contains .30.

asking if the 95 percent confidence interval for contains .30.
asking if the p-value (area in both tails combined) is less than .025.
asking if the p-value (area in both tails combined) is less than .10.

121 For a right-tailed test of hypothesis for a population mean with known
.
, the test statistic was z = 1.79. The p-value is:

A.
B.
C.
D.

.0367
.9633
.1186
.0179

## 122 If n = 25 and = .05 in a right-tailed test of a mean with unknown ,

.
the critical value is:

A.
B.
C.
D.

1.960
1.645
1.711
.0179

## 123 The researcher's null hypothesis is H0: 2 22. A sample of n = 25

.
items yields a sample variance of s2 = 28.5. The critical value of chisquare for a right-tailed test at = 05 is:

A.
B.
C.
D.

1.960
1.645
13.85
36.42

## 124 The researcher's null hypotheses is H0: 2 22. A sample of n = 25

.
items yields a sample variance of s2 = 28.5. The test statistic is:

A.
B.
C.
D.

31.09.
26.42.
must know if it is a one-tailed test.
must know to answer.

## 125 The researcher's null hypothesis is H0: 2 = 420. A sample of n = 18

.
items yields a sample variance of s2 = 512. The critical values of chisquare for a two-tailed test at = .05 are:

A.
B.
C.
D.

## 8.672 and 27.59

7.564 and 30.19
-1.960 and +1.960
9.390 and 28.87

## 126 The researcher's null hypotheses is H0: 2 = 420. A sample of n = 18

.
items yields a sample variance of s2 = 512. The test statistic is:

A.
B.
C.
D.

34.09
20.72
14.77
must know to answer.

.
A.
B.
C.
D.

## always set at 5 percent.

smaller than or equal to 5 percent.
the probability of rejecting H0 when H0 is true.
the probability of rejecting H0 when H1 is true.

## 128 In hypothesis testing, the value of is:

.
A. equal to 1 minus the probability of committing Type I error.
B. the probability of concluding H0 when H0 is true.
C. the probability of concluding H0 when H1 is true.
129 Regarding the probability of Type I error () and Type II error (), which
.
statement is true?

A.
B.
C.
D.

>
<
+=1
Power = 1 - .

## 130 In the hypothesis H0: = 0, the value of 0 is not derived from:

.
A.
B.
C.
D.

the sample.
past experience.
a target or benchmark.
a scientific theory.

## 131 In testing the hypotheses H0: 0, H1: > 0, we would use a:

.
A.
B.
C.
D.

two-tailed test.
left-tailed test.
right-tailed test.
breathalyzer test.

132 We can assume that the sample proportion is normally distributed if:
.
A. we have 10 successes in the sample.
B.
we have 10 failures in the sample.
C. we have both 10 successes and 10 failures in the sample.
D.
the population is known.

## Short Answer Questions

133 Julia hypothesizes that fewer than 90 percent of her Visa purchases are
.
under \$100. She examines a random sample of her recent purchases
and performs a test. The results shown below are from MegaStat. What
would Julia conclude from this test? Explain carefully.

134 Why is it better to say "fail to reject H0" instead of "accept H0"?
.

## 135 Mary examined a random sample of Friday withdrawals from a college

.
campus ATM. She hypothesized that the mean was less than \$100. The
results shown below are from MegaStat. What would Mary conclude
from this test? Explain carefully.

136 Bob hypothesizes that the average student at his university has to
.
take more than 130 credits to graduate. He takes a random sample of
his classmates and performs a test. The results shown below are from
MegaStat. What would Bob conclude from this test? Explain carefully.

137 Pedro hypothesizes that more than half of his classmates would prefer
.
a virtual web graduation ceremony, rather than sitting in the hot sun
during the commencement speech. He takes a random sample of his
classmates and performs a test. The results shown below are from
MegaStat. What would Pedro conclude from this test? Explain carefully.

1.

## The level of significance refers to the probability of making a Type II

error.
FALSE
The level of significance is the desired probability of Type I error.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.
Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

2.

## The level of significance refers to the probability of making a Type I

error.
TRUE
The level of significance is the desired probability of Type I error.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.
Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

3.

## A simultaneous reduction in both and will require a larger sample

size.
TRUE
In general, there is a trade-off between and , but with a larger n
we can reduce both.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.
Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

4.

## The probability of rejecting a false null hypothesis increases as the

sample size increases, other things being equal.
TRUE
Larger samples cut the chance of Type II error () and increase power
(1 - ).
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.
Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

5.

## When the probability of a Type I error increases, the probability of a

Type II error must decrease, ceteris paribus.
TRUE
For a given sample size, there is a trade-off between and .
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.
Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

6.

## A false positive in a drug test for steroids is a Type II error.

FALSE
A false positive is a Type I error.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.
Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

7.

## If a judge acquits every defendant, the judge will never commit a

Type I error (H0 is the hypothesis of innocence).
TRUE
If no one is convicted, there is no Type I error (but there can be Type II
error).
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.
Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

8.

When your sample size increases, the chance of both Type I and Type
II error will increase.
FALSE
There is a trade-off between and unless we can increase n.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.
Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

9.

A Type II error can only occur when you fail to reject H0.
TRUE
If you don't reject H0, you may commit Type II error.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.
Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

10.

## A Type I error can only occur if you reject H0.

TRUE
If you reject H0, a false positive can occur.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.
Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

11.

## John rejected H0 so we know definitely that he did not commit Type II

error.
TRUE
If you reject H0, you may commit Type I error but not Type II error.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.
Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

12.

## In hypothesis testing we cannot prove a null hypothesis is true.

TRUE
The null hypothesis could be falsified by a different sample.
AACSB: Analytic

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.
Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

13.

For a given level of significance (), increasing the sample size will
increase the probability of Type II error because there are more ways
to make an incorrect decision.
FALSE
Large sample size is beneficial in reducing error of either type.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.
Topic: Statistical Hypothesis Testing

14.

## For a given sample size, reducing the level of significance will

decrease the probability of making a Type II error.
FALSE
For fixed n, reducing would tend to increase .
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.
Topic: Statistical Hypothesis Testing

15.

## The probability of a false positive is decreased if we reduce .

TRUE
By definition, is the chance of a false positive.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.
Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

16.

## A hypothesis test may be statistically significant, yet have little

practical importance.
TRUE
Small effects may be unimportant in some applications.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 09-06 Perform a hypothesis test for a mean with known using z.
Topic: Testing a Mean: Known Population Variance

17.

## Compared to using = .01, choosing = .001 will make it less likely

that a true null hypothesis will be rejected.
TRUE
Smaller makes it harder to reject the null hypothesis (but may
increase ).
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 09-08 Use tables or Excel to find the p-value in tests of .
Topic: Statistical Hypothesis Testing

18.

## A two-tailed hypothesis test for H0: = 15 at = .10 is analogous to

asking if a 90 percent confidence interval for contains 15.
TRUE
Only in a two-tailed hypothesis test is this statement true.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-06 Perform a hypothesis test for a mean with known using z.
Topic: Testing a Mean: Known Population Variance

19.

For a given sample size and level, the Student's t value always
exceeds the z value.
TRUE
As n increases, t approaches z, but t is always larger.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-07 Perform a hypothesis test for a mean with unknown using t.
Topic: Testing a Mean: Unknown Population Variance

20.

## For a given level of significance, the critical value of Student's t

increases as n increases.
FALSE
As n increases, t declines and approaches the corresponding z.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-07 Perform a hypothesis test for a mean with unknown using t.
Topic: Testing a Mean: Unknown Population Variance

21.

For a sample of nine items, the critical value of Student's t for a lefttailed test of a mean at = .05 is -1.860.
TRUE
Use Appendix D or Excel's function =T.INV(.05,8).
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-05 Find critical values of z or t in tables or by using Excel.
Topic: Testing a Mean: Unknown Population Variance

22.

## Holding other factors constant, it is harder to reject the null

hypothesis for a mean when conducting a two-tailed test rather than
a one-tailed test.
TRUE
For a two-tailed test, the critical value is farther out in the tail.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.
Topic: Testing a Mean: Known Population Variance

23.

## If we desire = .10, then a p-value of .13 would lead us to reject the

null hypothesis.
FALSE
Reject the null if the p-value is less than .
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 09-08 Use tables or Excel to find the p-value in tests of .
Topic: Testing a Mean: Known Population Variance

24.

The p-value is the probability of the sample result (or one more
extreme) assuming H0 is true.
TRUE
This is the definition of a p-value.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 09-08 Use tables or Excel to find the p-value in tests of .
Topic: Testing a Mean: Known Population Variance

25.

## The probability of rejecting a true null hypothesis is the significance

level of the test.
TRUE
This is the definition of .
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.
Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

26.

## A null hypothesis is rejected when the calculated p-value is less than

the critical value of the test statistic.
FALSE
No, the p-value is compared with (not with the critical value from a
table).
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-08 Use tables or Excel to find the p-value in tests of .
Topic: Testing a Mean: Known Population Variance

27.

## In a right-tailed test, the null hypothesis is rejected when the value of

the test statistic exceeds the critical value.
TRUE
For example, we would reject H0 if zcalc > 1.645 at = .05.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 09-05 Find critical values of z or t in tables or by using Excel.
Topic: Statistical Hypothesis Testing

28.

## The critical value of a hypothesis test is based on the researcher's

selected level of significance.
TRUE
The level of significance is the desired tail area, which dictates the
critical value.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 09-05 Find critical values of z or t in tables or by using Excel.
Topic: Statistical Hypothesis Testing

29.

If the null and alternative hypotheses are H0: 100 and H1: >
100, the test is right-tailed.
TRUE
The direction of the test is always revealed by the direction of the
inequality in H1.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 09-04 Formulate a null and alternative hypothesis for or .
Topic: Statistical Hypothesis Testing

30.

The null hypothesis is rejected when the p-value exceeds the level of
significance.
FALSE
Reject the null if the p-value is less than .
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 09-08 Use tables or Excel to find the p-value in tests of .
Topic: Testing a Mean: Known Population Variance

31.

For a given null hypothesis and level of significance, the critical value
for a two-tailed test is greater than the critical value for a one-tailed
test.
TRUE
For a two-tailed test, we have to go farther into the tails to put /2 in
the tail.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-05 Find critical values of z or t in tables or by using Excel.
Topic: Statistical Hypothesis Testing

32.

For a given Ho and level of significance, if you reject the H0 for a one
tailed-test, you would also reject H0 for a two-tailed test.
FALSE
The opposite is true because the two-tailed critical value is bigger.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-05 Find critical values of z or t in tables or by using Excel.
Topic: Statistical Hypothesis Testing

33.

## If the hypothesized proportion is 0 = .025 in a sample of size 120, it

is safe to assume normality of the sample proportion p.
FALSE
We can assume normality of p if n0 10 and n(1 - 0) 10, which is
not true here.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 09-09 Perform a hypothesis test for a proportion and find the p-value.
Topic: Testing a Proportion

34.

For a mean, we would expect the test statistic to be near zero if the
null hypothesis is true.
TRUE
The difference between the sample mean and the hypothesized
mean would be small.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 09-06 Perform a hypothesis test for a mean with known using z.
Topic: Testing a Mean: Known Population Variance

35.

## In the hypothesis H0: = 0, the value of 0 is derived from the

sample.
FALSE
The hypothesized proportion is a target or historical benchmark.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-09 Perform a hypothesis test for a proportion and find the p-value.
Topic: Testing a Proportion

36.

In testing the hypotheses H0: 0, H1: > 0, we would use a righttailed test.
TRUE
The direction of the test is always revealed by the direction of the
inequality in H1.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 09-09 Perform a hypothesis test for a proportion and find the p-value.
Topic: Testing a Proportion

37.

## To test the hypothesis H0: = .0125 using n = 160, it is safe to

assume normality of p.
FALSE
We can assume normality of p if n0 10 and n(1 - 0) 10, which is
not true here.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 09-09 Perform a hypothesis test for a proportion and find the p-value.
Topic: Testing a Proportion

38.

## In testing a proportion, normality of p can be assumed if n0 10 and

n(1 - 0) 10.
TRUE
This is a conservative rule of thumb.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-09 Perform a hypothesis test for a proportion and find the p-value.
Topic: Testing a Proportion

39.

## Power is the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when it is

false and is equal to 1 - .
TRUE
High power (small chance of Type II error) is desirable.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.
Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

40.

## Other things being equal, a smaller standard deviation implies higher

power.
TRUE
Higher variance makes it harder to detect a departure from H0.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 09-10 Interpret a power curve or OC curve (optional).
Topic: Power Curves and OC Curves (Optional)

41.

The power of a test is the probability that the test will reject a false
null hypothesis.
TRUE
High power (small chance of Type II error) is desirable.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.
Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

42.

## The height of the power curve shows the probability of accepting a

true null hypothesis.
FALSE
Power is the chance of correctly rejecting a false null hypothesis.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 09-10 Interpret a power curve or OC curve (optional).
Topic: Power Curves and OC Curves (Optional)

43.

The power curve plots on the Y axis and the test statistic on the X
axis.
FALSE
A power curve plots the true parameter value on the X-axis and 1 -
on the Y-axis.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-10 Interpret a power curve or OC curve (optional).
Topic: Power Curves and OC Curves (Optional)

44.

## A smaller probability of Type II error implies higher power of the test.

TRUE
By definition, power is 1 - .
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.
Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

45.

Varying the true mean is a movement along the power curve, not a
shift in the curve.
TRUE
The power curve shows how power varies with the true mean.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-10 Interpret a power curve or OC curve (optional).
Topic: Power Curves and OC Curves (Optional)

46.

Increasing the sample size shifts the power curve upward, ceteris
paribus.
TRUE
Larger n would raise the power curve at all points along the X-axis.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 09-10 Interpret a power curve or OC curve (optional).
Topic: Power Curves and OC Curves (Optional)

47.

## Increasing the level of significance shifts the power curve upward,

ceteris paribus.
TRUE
For a given n, increasing would decrease and hence raise power
(1 - ).
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 09-10 Interpret a power curve or OC curve (optional).
Topic: Power Curves and OC Curves (Optional)

48.

A power curve for a mean is at its lowest point when the true is
very near 0.
TRUE
This is why it is hard to detect small departures from H0.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-10 Interpret a power curve or OC curve (optional).
Topic: Power Curves and OC Curves (Optional)

49.

## Larger samples lead to increased power, ceteris paribus.

TRUE
Larger n would raise the power curve at all points along the X-axis.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-10 Interpret a power curve or OC curve (optional).
Topic: Power Curves and OC Curves (Optional)

50.

## In graphing power curves, there is a different power curve for each

sample size n.
TRUE
Larger n would raise the power curve at all points along the X-axis.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-10 Interpret a power curve or OC curve (optional).
Topic: Power Curves and OC Curves (Optional)

51.

## In hypothesis testing, we are trying to reject the alternative

hypothesis.
FALSE
We are trying to reject the null hypothesis H0.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 09-02 Explain the difference between H0 and H1.
Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

52.

## In hypothesis testing, we are trying to prove the null hypothesis.

FALSE
We cannot prove the null hypothesis, for H0 could be falsified by a
different sample.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 09-02 Explain the difference between H0 and H1.
Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

53.

## When is unknown, it is more conservative to use z instead of t for

the critical value.
FALSE
Because z is smaller than t we would reject too often if we use z (not
conservative).
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 09-07 Perform a hypothesis test for a mean with unknown using t.
Topic: Testing a Mean: Unknown Population Variance

54.

## For a given sample size, when we increase the probability of Type I

error, the probability of a Type II error:

A.
remains unchanged.
B.
increases.
C.
decreases.
D. is impossible to determine without more information.
For a given sample size, there is a trade-off between and .
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.
Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

55.

## After testing a hypothesis regarding the mean, we decided not to

reject H0. Thus, we are exposed to:

A.
B.
C.
D.

Type I error.
Type II error.
Either Type I or Type II error.
Neither Type I nor Type II error.

Failure to reject H0 could lead to Type II error (but not Type I error).
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.
Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

56.

## After testing a hypothesis, we decided to reject the null hypothesis.

Thus, we are exposed to:

A.
B.
C.
D.

Type I error.
Type II error.
Either Type I or Type II error.
Neither Type I nor Type II error.

## Rejecting H0 could lead to Type I error (but not Type II error).

AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.
Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

57.

## A. It is the probability of committing a Type I error.

B.
It is the test's significance level.
C. It is the probability of rejecting a true H0.
D.
It is equal to 1 - .
There is an inverse relationship between and , but it is not a
simple equation.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.
Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

58.

A.
B.
C.
D.

## When sample size increases, both and may decrease.

Type II error can only occur when you reject H0.
Type I error can only occur if you fail to reject H0.
The level of significance is the probability of Type II error.

## Only a larger sample can allow a reduction in both and (ceteris

paribus).
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.
Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

59.

## A. The level of significance is the probability of making a Type I error.

B. Lowering both and at once will require a higher sample size.
C. The probability of rejecting a true null hypothesis increases as n
increases.
D. When Type I error increases, Type II error must decrease, ceteris
paribus.
The critical value for the desired takes the sample size into
consideration.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.
Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

60.

## John rejected his null hypothesis in a right-tailed test for a mean at

= .025 because his critical t value was 2.000 and his calculated t
value was 2.345. We can be sure that:

A.
John did not commit Type I error.
B.
John did not commit Type II error.
C. John committed neither Type I nor Type II error.
D. John committed both Type I and Type II error.
John could have committed Type II error only if he failed to reject H0.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.
Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

61.

## "My careful physical examination shows no evidence of any serious

problem," said Doctor Morpheus. "However, a very costly lab test can
be performed to check for the rare condition known as estomalgia
fatalis. The test is almost invariably negative for persons with your
age and symptoms. My personal hypothesis is that the occasional
stomach pain you reported is due to indigestion caused by eating
tacos with too much hot sauce. But you must decide for yourself." As
you consider your doctor's hypothesis, what would be the
consequence of Type I error on your part?

## A. It can't be determined without knowing the type of test.

B. Your estomalgia fatalis will go undetected.
C. You will waste money on an unnecessary lab test.
D. Your survivors will enjoy a sizeable malpractice award.
Type I error is rejecting the doctor's advice when it was correct.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.
Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

62.

## Which of the following statements is correct?

A. Increasing will make it more likely that we will reject H0, ceteris
paribus.
B. Doubling the sample size roughly doubles the test statistic, ceteris
paribus.
C. A higher standard deviation would increase the power of a test for
a mean.
D. The p-value shows the probability that the null hypothesis is false.
A larger will make it easier to reject H0 (e.g., z.05 = 1.645 versus z.01
= 2.326).
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.
Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

63.

"I believe your airplane's engine is sound," states the mechanic. "I've
been over it carefully, and can't see anything wrong. I'd be happy to
tear the engine down completely for an internal inspection at a cost
of \$1,500. But I believe that engine roughness you heard in the
engine on your last flight was probably just a bit of water in the fuel,
which passed harmlessly through the engine and is now gone." As
the pilot considers the mechanic's hypothesis, the cost of Type I error
is:

## A. the pilot will experience the thrill of no-engine flight.

B. the pilot will be out \$1,500 unnecessarily.
C. the mechanic will lose a good customer.
D. impossible to determine without knowing .
Type I error is rejecting the mechanic's advice when it was correct.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.
Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

64.

## A study over a 10-year period showed that a certain mammogram

test had a 50 percent rate of false positives. This indicates that:

A.
about half the tests indicated cancer.
B. about half the tests missed a cancer that exists.
C. about half the tests showed a cancer that didn't exist.
D. about half the women tested actually had no cancer.
This is a 50 percent chance of Type I error.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.
Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

65.

You are driving a van packed with camping gear (total weight 3,500
pounds including yourself and family) into a northern wilderness
area. You take a "short cut" that turns into a one-lane road, with no
room to turn around. After 11 miles you come to a narrow bridge with
a faded sign saying "Safe Up to 2 Tons." About a half-mile ahead, you
can see that your road rejoins the main highway. You consider the
sign's hypothesis carefully before making a decision. The cost of Type
I error is:

## A. you pass safely over the bridge and everyone's happy.

B. about \$23,900, not including medical bills.
C. you will find out just how cold that river actually is.
D. your kids will think you're a chicken.
Type I error is rejecting the sign's message when it was correct.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.
Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

66.

After lowering the landing gear, the pilot notices that the "gear down
and locked" light is not illuminated. "It's probably just a burned out
light bulb," she says, as she proceeds on final approach for landing.
Considering the pilot's hypothesis, which is the result of Type I error?

## A. The sound of metal scraping on concrete will be heard upon

landing.
B. The landing is delayed unnecessarily while the bulb and gear are
checked.
C. We cannot be sure without knowing whether or not the bulb is
actually faulty.
Type I error is concluding there is a problem when there was not.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.
Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

67.

As you are crossing a field at the farm, your country cousin Jake
assures you, "Don't worry about that old bull coming toward us. He's
harmless." As you consider Jake's hypothesis, what would be Type I
error on your part?

A.
B.
C.

## You will soon feel the bull's horns.

You will run away for no good reason.
Jake will not have any more visits from you.

## Type I error is rejecting Jake's advice when he was right.

AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.
Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

68.

## A. When they are small, we want to reject H0.

B. They measure the probability of an incorrect decision.
C. They show the chance of Type I error if we reject H0.
D. They do not require to be specified a priori.
The p-value tells the likelihood of the sample assuming that H0 is
true.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-08 Use tables or Excel to find the p-value in tests of .
Topic: Testing a Mean: Known Population Variance

69.

## A. H0 is rejected when the calculated p-value is less than the critical

value of the test statistic.
B. In a right-tailed test, we reject H0 when the test statistic exceeds
the critical value.
C. The critical value is based on the researcher's chosen level of
significance.
D. If H0: 100 and H1: > 100, then the test is right-tailed.
We compare the p-value with (not with the critical value).
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-08 Use tables or Excel to find the p-value in tests of .
Topic: Testing a Mean: Known Population Variance

70.

Guidelines for the Jolly Blue Giant Health Insurance Company say that
the average hospitalization for a triple hernia operation should not
exceed 30 hours. A diligent auditor studied records of 16 randomly
chosen triple hernia operations at Hackmore Hospital and found a
mean hospital stay of 40 hours with a standard deviation of 20 hours.
"Aha!" she cried, "the average stay exceeds the guideline." At = .
025, the critical value for a right-tailed test of her hypothesis is:

A.
B.
C.
D.

1.753
2.131
1.645
1.960

## Using Appendix D with d.f. = 16 - 1 = 15, we get t.025 = 2.131.

AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-05 Find critical values of z or t in tables or by using Excel.
Topic: Testing a Mean: Unknown Population Variance

71.

Guidelines for the Jolly Blue Giant Health Insurance Company say that
the average hospitalization for a triple hernia operation should not
exceed 30 hours. A diligent auditor studied records of 16 randomly
chosen triple hernia operations at Hackmore Hospital and found a
mean hospital stay of 40 hours with a standard deviation of 20 hours.
"Aha!" she cried, "the average stay exceeds the guideline." The value
of the test statistic for her hypothesis is:

A.
B.
C.
D.

2.080
0.481
1.866
2.000

## tcalc = (40 - 30)/[(20)/161/2] = 2.000.

AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-07 Perform a hypothesis test for a mean with unknown using t.
Topic: Testing a Mean: Unknown Population Variance

72.

Guidelines for the Jolly Blue Giant Health Insurance Company say that
the average hospitalization for a triple hernia operation should not
exceed 30 hours. A diligent auditor studied records of 16 randomly
chosen triple hernia operations at Hackmore Hospital, and found a
mean hospital stay of 40 hours with a standard deviation of 20 hours.
"Aha!" she cried, "the average stay exceeds the guideline." The pvalue for a right-tailed test of her hypothesis is:

A.
B.
C.
D.

## between .05 and .10.

between .025 and .05.
between .01 and .025.
less than .01.

## Use Appendix D with tcalc = 2.000 or Excel =T.DIST.RT(2.000,15) = .

0320.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 09-08 Use tables or Excel to find the p-value in tests of .
Topic: Testing a Mean: Unknown Population Variance

73.

## For a right-tailed test of a hypothesis for a population mean with n =

14, the value of the test statistic was t = 1.863. The p-value is:

A.
B.
C.
D.

## between .05 and .025.

between .10 and .05.
greater than .10.
less than .01.

## For d.f. = 13, t.025 = 2.160 and t.05 = 1.771 or Excel

=T.DIST.RT(1.863,13) = .0426.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-08 Use tables or Excel to find the p-value in tests of .
Topic: Testing a Mean: Unknown Population Variance

74.

Hypothesis tests for a mean using the critical value method require:

A.
B.
C.
D.

## knowing the true value of .

sampling a normal population.

## You cannot find the critical value without specifying .

AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-05 Find critical values of z or t in tables or by using Excel.
Topic: Testing a Mean: Known Population Variance

75.

## The level of significance is not:

A.
the probability of a "false rejection."
B.
a value between 0 and 1.
C. the likelihood of rejecting the null hypothesis when it is true.
D. the chance of accepting a true null hypothesis.
The level of significance is the risk of rejecting a true null hypothesis.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.
Topic: Statistical Hypothesis Testing

76.

## The critical value in a hypothesis test:

A.
is calculated from the sample data.
B. usually is .05 or .01 in most statistical tests.
C. separates the acceptance and rejection regions.
D. depends on the value of the test statistic.
We can specify whatever we wish to set the desired tail area(s).
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-05 Find critical values of z or t in tables or by using Excel.
Topic: Statistical Hypothesis Testing

77.

## Which is not a likely reason to choose the z distribution for a

hypothesis test of a mean?

A.
B.
C.
D.

## The value of is known.

The sample size n is very large.
The population is normal.
The value of is very large.

## We use z any time is known.

AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-06 Perform a hypothesis test for a mean with known using z.
Topic: Testing a Mean: Known Population Variance

78.

## Dullco Manufacturing claims that its alkaline batteries last at least 40

hours on average in a certain type of portable CD player. But tests on
a random sample of 18 batteries from a day's large production run
showed a mean battery life of 37.8 hours with a standard deviation of
5.4 hours. To test DullCo's hypothesis, the test statistic is:

A.
B.
C.
D.

-1.980
-1.728
-2.101
-1.960

## tcalc = (37.8 - 40)/[(5.4)/181/2] = -1.72848.

AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-07 Perform a hypothesis test for a mean with unknown using t.
Topic: Testing a Mean: Unknown Population Variance

79.

## Dullco Manufacturing claims that its alkaline batteries last at least 40

hours on average in a certain type of portable CD player. But tests on
a random sample of 18 batteries from a day's large production run
showed a mean battery life of 37.8 hours with a standard deviation of
5.4 hours. In a left-tailed test at = .05, which is the most accurate
statement?

A.
We would strongly reject the claim.
B. We would clearly fail to reject the claim.
C. We would face a rather close decision.
D. We would switch to = .01 for a more powerful test.
tcalc = (37.8 - 40)/[(5.4)/181/2] = -1.728, while for d.f. = 18 - 1 = 17 we
get t.05 = -1.740, so it is a close decision.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-07 Perform a hypothesis test for a mean with unknown using t.
Topic: Testing a Mean: Unknown Population Variance

80.

## Dullco Manufacturing claims that its alkaline batteries last at least 40

hours on average in a certain type of portable CD player. But tests on
a random sample of 18 batteries from a day's large production run
showed a mean battery life of 37.8 hours with a standard deviation of
5.4 hours. To test DullCo's hypothesis, the p-value is:

A.
B.
C.
D.

## slightly less than .05.

exactly equal to .05.
slightly greater than .05.
uncertain without knowing .

## tcalc = -1.728, t.05 = -1.740 or Excel =T.DIST(-1.72848,17,1) = .0511.

AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-08 Use tables or Excel to find the p-value in tests of .
Topic: Testing a Mean: Unknown Population Variance

81.

## For tests of a mean, if other factors are held constant, which

statement is correct?

## A. The critical value of Student's t increases as n increases.

B. A test statistic tcalc = 1.853 with n = 16 leads to rejection at = .01
in a one-tailed test.
C. It is harder to reject the null hypothesis in a two-tailed test rather
than a one-tailed test.
D. If we desire = .10, then a p-value of .13 would lead us to reject
the null hypothesis.
Rejection in a two-tailed test implies rejection in a one-tailed test, but
not vice versa.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 09-07 Perform a hypothesis test for a mean with unknown using t.
Topic: Testing a Mean: Unknown Population Variance

82.

## For a sample size of n = 100, and = 10, we want to test the

hypothesis H0: = 100. The sample mean is 103. The test statistic
is:

A.
B.
C.
D.

1.645
1.960
3.000
0.300

## zcalc = (103 - 100)/[(10)/1001/2] = 3.000.

AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-06 Perform a hypothesis test for a mean with known using z.
Topic: Testing a Mean: Known Population Variance

83.

When testing the hypothesis H0: = 100 with n = 100 and 2 = 100,
we find that the sample mean is 97. The test statistic is:

A.
B.
C.
D.

-3.000
-10.00
-0.300
-0.030

## zcalc = (97 - 100)/[(10)/1001/2] = -3.000.

AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-06 Perform a hypothesis test for a mean with known using z.
Topic: Testing a Mean: Known Population Variance

84.

## Given a normal distribution with = 3, we want to test the

hypothesis H0: = 20. We find that the sample mean is 21. The test
statistic is:

A.
B.
C.
D. impossible to find

1.000
1.645
1.960

## The sample size is needed to calculate the z test statistic.

AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-06 Perform a hypothesis test for a mean with known using z.
Topic: Testing a Mean: Known Population Variance

85.

## In testing a proportion, which of the following statements is

incorrect?

A. Using = .05 rather than = .01 would make it more likely that H0
will be rejected.
B. When the sample proportion is p = .02 and n = 150, it is safe to
assume normality.
C. An 80 percent confidence interval is narrower than the 90 percent
confidence interval, ceteris paribus.
D. The sample proportion may be assumed approximately normal if
the sample is large enough.
We want at least 10 "successes," but np = 3 in this example.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-09 Perform a hypothesis test for a proportion and find the p-value.
Topic: Testing a Proportion

86.

## Which of the following is not a characteristic of the t distribution?

A.
It is a continuous distribution.
B.
It has a mean of zero.
C.
It a symmetric distribution.
D. It is similar to the z distribution when n is small.
Student's t resembles z most closely for a large sample size.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 09-07 Perform a hypothesis test for a mean with unknown using t.
Topic: Testing a Mean: Unknown Population Variance

87.

A.
B.
C.
D.

H0:
H0:
H0:
H0:

0
0
0
0

## The null hypothesis cannot contain a two-tailed inequality.

AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-04 Formulate a null and alternative hypothesis for or .
Topic: Statistical Hypothesis Testing

88.

Given that in a one-tail test you cannot reject H0, can you reject H0 in
a two-tailed test at the same ?

A.
B.
C.

Yes.
No.
Maybe.

## Rejection in a two-tailed test implies rejection in a one-tailed test, but

not vice versa.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-04 Formulate a null and alternative hypothesis for or .
Topic: Statistical Hypothesis Testing

89.

## The process that produces Sonora Bars (a type of candy) is intended

to produce bars with a mean weight of 56 gm. The process standard
deviation is known to be 0.77 gm. A random sample of 49 candy bars
yields a mean weight of 55.82 gm. Which are the hypotheses to test
whether the mean is smaller than it is supposed to be?

A.
B.
C.
D.

H0:
H0:
H0:
H0:

=
<

56,
56,
56,
56,

H1:
H1:
H1:
H1:

>
<

56
56
56
56

## We want a left-tailed alternative hypothesis.

AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 09-04 Formulate a null and alternative hypothesis for or .
Topic: Testing a Mean: Known Population Variance

90.

## The process that produces Sonora Bars (a type of candy) is intended

to produce bars with a mean weight of 56 gm. The process standard
deviation is known to be 0.77 gm. A random sample of 49 candy bars
yields a mean weight of 55.82 gm. Find the test statistic to see
whether the candy bars are smaller than they are supposed to be.

A.
B.
C.

-1.636
-1.645
-1.677

## zcalc = (55.82 - 56)/[(0.77)/491/2] = -1.63636.

AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-06 Perform a hypothesis test for a mean with known using z.
Topic: Testing a Mean: Known Population Variance

91.

## The process that produces Sonora Bars (a type of candy) is intended

to produce bars with a mean weight of 56 gm. The process standard
deviation is known to be 0.77 gm. A random sample of 49 candy bars
yields a mean weight of 55.82 gm. Find the p-value for a test to see
whether the candy bars are smaller than they are supposed to be.

A.
B.
C.
D.

## Between .05 and .10

Between .025 and .05
Between .01 and .025
Less than .01

## zcalc = (55.82 - 56)/[(0.77)/491/2] = -1.63636 and z.05 = -1.645, or find

the exact p-value as =NORM.S.DIST(-1.63636,1) = .0509.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 09-08 Use tables or Excel to find the p-value in tests of .
Topic: Testing a Mean: Known Population Variance

92.

## A sample of 16 ATM transactions shows a mean transaction time of

67 seconds with a standard deviation of 12 seconds. Find the test
statistic to decide whether the mean transaction time exceeds 60
seconds.

A.
B.
C.
D.

1.457
2.037
2.333
1.848

## tcalc = (67 - 60)/[(12)/161/2] = 2.333.

AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-07 Perform a hypothesis test for a mean with unknown using t.
Topic: Testing a Mean: Unknown Population Variance

93.

## A sample of 16 ATM transactions shows a mean transaction time of

67 seconds with a standard deviation of 12 seconds. State the
hypotheses to test whether the mean transaction time exceeds 60
seconds.

A.
B.
C.
D.

H0:
H0:
H0:
H0:

=
<

60,
60,
60,
60,

H1:
H1:
H1:
H1:

>
<

60
60
60
60

## We want a right-tailed test in this case.

AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 09-04 Formulate a null and alternative hypothesis for or .
Topic: Testing a Mean: Unknown Population Variance

94.

## A sample of 16 ATM transactions shows a mean transaction time of

67 seconds with a standard deviation of 12 seconds. Find the critical
value to test whether the mean transaction time exceeds 60 seconds
at = .01.

A.
B.
C.
D.

2.947
2.602
2.583
2.333

## For d.f. = 15, use Appendix D to find t.01 = 2.602.

AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 09-05 Find critical values of z or t in tables or by using Excel.
Topic: Testing a Mean: Unknown Population Variance

95.

Given H0: 18 and H1: < 18, we would commit Type I error if we:

## A. conclude that 18 when the truth is that < 18.

B. conclude that < 18 when the truth is that 18.
C. fail to reject 18 when the truth is that < 18.
Rejecting a true null hypothesis is Type I error.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.
Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

96.

## For a right-tailed test of a hypothesis for a single population mean

with n = 10, the value of the test statistic was t = 1.411. The p-value
is:

A.
B.
C.
D.

## between .05 and .025.

between .10 and .05.
greater than .10.
less than .001.

## From Appendix D with d.f. = 9, t.05 = 1.833 and t.10 = 1.383.

AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-08 Use tables or Excel to find the p-value in tests of .
Topic: Testing a Mean: Unknown Population Variance

97.

## Last year, 10 percent of all teenagers purchased a new iPhone. This

year, a sample of 260 randomly chosen teenagers showed that 39
had purchased a new iPhone. The test statistic to find out whether
the percent has risen would be:

A.
B.
C.
D.

2.687
2.758
.0256
2.258

## p = 39/260 = .15, 0 = .10, zcalc = (.15 - .10)/[(.10)(1 - .10)/260]1/2 =

2.68742.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-09 Perform a hypothesis test for a proportion and find the p-value.
Topic: Testing a Proportion

98.

## Last year, 10 percent of all teenagers purchased a new iPhone. This

year, a sample of 260 randomly chosen teenagers showed that 39
had purchased a new iPhone. To test whether the percent has risen,
the critical value at = .05 is:

A.
B.
C.
D.

1.645
1.658
1.697
1.960

z.05 = 1.645.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 09-05 Find critical values of z or t in tables or by using Excel.
Topic: Testing a Proportion

99.

## Last year, 10 percent of all teenagers purchased a new iPhone. This

year, a sample of 260 randomly chosen teenagers showed that 39
had purchased a new iPhone. To test whether the percent has risen,
the p-value is approximately:

A.
B.
C.
D.

.0501
.0314
.0492
.0036

## p = 39/260 = .15, 0 = .10, zcalc = (.15 - .10)/[(.10)(1 - .10)/260]1/2 =

2.68742, so from Appendix C we get P(Z > 2.69) = .0036 or from
Excel =1-NORM.S.DIST(2.68742,1) = .0036.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 09-09 Perform a hypothesis test for a proportion and find the p-value.
Topic: Testing a Proportion

100. Ajax Peanut Butter's quality control allows 2 percent of the jars to
exceed the quality standard for insect fragments. A sample of 150
jars from the current day's production reveals that 30 exceed the
quality standard for insect fragments. Which is incorrect?

## A. Normality of p may safely be assumed in the hypothesis test.

B. A right-tailed test would be appropriate.
C. Common sense suggests that quality control standards aren't met.
D. Type II error is more of a concern in this case than Type I error.
n0 = (150)(.02) = 3, so normality of p is doubtful.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-09 Perform a hypothesis test for a proportion and find the p-value.
Topic: Testing a Proportion

101. In the nation of Gondor, the EPA requires that half the new cars sold
will meet a certain particulate emission standard a year later. A
sample of 64 one-year-old cars revealed that only 24 met the
particulate emission standard. The test statistic to see whether the
proportion is below the requirement is:

A.
B.
C.
D.

-1.645
-2.066
-2.000
-1.960

## p = 24/64 = .375, 0 = .50, zcalc = (.375 - .50)/[(.50)(1 - .50)/64]1/2 = 2.000.

AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-09 Perform a hypothesis test for a proportion and find the p-value.
Topic: Testing a Proportion

102. The hypotheses H0: .40, H1: < .40 would require:

A.
B.
C.

a left-tailed test.
a right-tailed test.
a two-tailed test.

## The inequality in the alternative hypothesis points to the direction of

the test.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 09-04 Formulate a null and alternative hypothesis for or .
Topic: Testing a Proportion

103. At = .05, the critical value to test the hypotheses H0: .40, H1:
< .40 would be:

A.
- 1.645
B.
- 1.960
C.
- 2.326
D. impossible to determine without more information.
z.05 = - 1.645.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 09-09 Perform a hypothesis test for a proportion and find the p-value.
Topic: Testing a Proportion

104. In a test of a mean, the reported p-value is .025. Using =.05 the
conclusion would be to:

A.
accept the null hypothesis.
B.
reject the null hypothesis.
C.
fail to reject the null hypothesis.
D. gather more evidence due to inconclusive results.
Reject the null hypothesis if the p-value is smaller than .
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 09-08 Use tables or Excel to find the p-value in tests of .
Topic: Testing a Mean: Known Population Variance

105. Which of the following decisions could result in a Type II error for a
test?

A.
B.
C.
D.

## Reject the alternative hypothesis

Reject the null hypothesis
Fail to reject the null hypothesis
Make no decision

Failing to reject H0 could lead to Type II error (but not Type I error).
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.
Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

106. The Melodic Kortholt Company will change its current health plan if at
least half the employees are dissatisfied with it. A trial sample of 25
employees shows that 16 are dissatisfied. In this problem:

## A. normality of the sample proportion should not be assumed.

B. normality of the sample proportion can be assumed.
C. normality of the sample proportion cannot be judged without
knowing .
n0 = (25)(.50) = 12.5, so we expect at least 10 "successes" and 10
"failures" (be careful to use 0 instead of p to check for normality).
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-09 Perform a hypothesis test for a proportion and find the p-value.
Topic: Testing a Proportion

107. The Melodic Kortholt Company will change its current health plan if at
least half the employees are dissatisfied with it. A trial sample of 25
employees shows that 16 are dissatisfied. The p-value for a righttailed test is:

A.
B.
C.
D.

.1337
.4192
.0901
.0808

## p = 16/25 = .64, 0 = .50, zcalc = (.64 - .50)/[(.50)(1 - .50)/25]1/2 =

1.400, so from Appendix C we get P(Z > 1.40) = .0808 or from Excel
=1-NORM.S.DIST(1.400,1) = .08076.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 09-09 Perform a hypothesis test for a proportion and find the p-value.
Topic: Testing a Proportion

108. The Melodic Kortholt Company will change its current health plan if at
least half the employees are dissatisfied with it. A trial sample of 25
employees shows that 16 are dissatisfied. For a right-tailed test, the
test statistic would be:

A.
B.
C.
D.

1.227
1.375
1.400
1.115

## p = 16/25 = .64, 0 = .50, zcalc = (.64 - .50)/[(.50)(1 - .50)/25]1/2 =

1.400.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-09 Perform a hypothesis test for a proportion and find the p-value.
Topic: Testing a Proportion

109. If sample size increases from 25 to 100 and the level of significance
stays the same, then:

## A. the risk of Type II error would decrease.

B. the risk of Type I error would decrease.
C. the risk of both Type I and Type II errors would decrease.
D. the risk of neither Type I nor Type II error would decrease.
We are holding constant so the larger sample will reduce .
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.
Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

## 110. "Currently, only 20 percent of arrested drug pushers are convicted,"

cried candidate Courageous Calvin in a campaign speech. "Elect me
and you'll see a big increase in convictions." A year after his election
a random sample of 144 case files of arrested drug pushers showed
36 convictions. For a right-tailed test, the p-value is approximately:

A.
B.
C.
D.

0.9332
0.0668
0.0435
0.0250

## p = 36/144 = .25, 0 = .20, zcalc = (.25 - .20)/[(.20)(1 - .20)/144]1/2 =

1.500, so from Appendix C we get P(Z > 1.50) = .0668 or from Excel
=1-NORM.S.DIST(1.500,1) = .0668.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 09-09 Perform a hypothesis test for a proportion and find the p-value.
Topic: Testing a Proportion

## 111. In a right-tailed test, a statistician got a z test statistic of 1.47. What

is the p-value?

A.
B.
C.
D.

.4292
.0709
.0874
.9292

From Appendix C we get P(Z > 1.47) = .0708 or from Excel =1NORM.S.DIST(1.47,1) = .0708.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-08 Use tables or Excel to find the p-value in tests of .
Topic: Testing a Proportion

## 112. In a left-tailed test, a statistician got a z test statistic of -1.720. What

is the p-value?

A.
B.
C.
D.

.4292
.0709
.0427
.0301

From Appendix C we get P(Z < -1.72) = .0427 or from the Excel
function =NORM.S.DIST(-1.720,1) = .0427.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-08 Use tables or Excel to find the p-value in tests of .
Topic: Testing a Proportion

the p-value?

A.
B.
C.
D.

.0708
.1416
.0874
.0301

## From Appendix C we get 2 P(Z > 1.47) = 2 .0708 = .1416. The

Excel version of this calculation is =2*(1-NORM.S.DIST(1.47,1)) =
0.14156.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-08 Use tables or Excel to find the p-value in tests of .
Topic: Testing a Mean: Known Population Variance

## A. Decreasing will increase the power of the test.

B. Doubling the sample size will double the power of the test.
C. A higher standard deviation would increase the power if we are
testing a mean.
D. Power of the test rises if the true mean is farther from the
hypothesized mean.
A test becomes more sensitive (greater power) when the truth differs
greatly from H0.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 09-10 Interpret a power curve or OC curve (optional).
Topic: Power Curves and OC Curves (Optional)

115. High power in a hypothesis test about one sample mean is likely to
be associated with:

A.
B.
C.
D.

low .
large .
small .

## Less variation in the population makes the test more sensitive

(greater power).
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-10 Interpret a power curve or OC curve (optional).
Topic: Power Curves and OC Curves (Optional)

A.
B.
C.
D.

concluding
concluding
concluding
concluding

H1
H1
H0
H0

when
when
when
when

H1
H0
H0
H1

is
is
is
is

true.
true.
true.
true.

## Review the definition of power.

AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.
Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

A.
B.
C.
D.

## Formulate the hypotheses.

Specify the desired Type I error.
Find the test statistic from a table.
Formulate a decision rule.

## Review the steps in hypothesis testing.

AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-01 List the steps in testing hypotheses.
Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

A.
B.
C.
D.

H1:
H1:
H1:
H1:

=
>
<

18
18
18
18

## You cannot have an equality in the alternative hypothesis.

AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-04 Formulate a null and alternative hypothesis for or .
Topic: Statistical Hypothesis Testing

A.
B.
C.
D.

H0:
H0:
H0:
H0:

=
>
<

18
18
18
18

## The null hypothesis cannot have < or > or .

AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-04 Formulate a null and alternative hypothesis for or .
Topic: Statistical Hypothesis Testing

## A. asking if the 90 percent confidence interval for contains .30.

B. asking if the 95 percent confidence interval for contains .30.
C. asking if the p-value (area in both tails combined) is less than .
025.
D. asking if the p-value (area in both tails combined) is less than .10.
This statement is true for a two-tailed test only.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-09 Perform a hypothesis test for a proportion and find the p-value.
Topic: Testing a Proportion

121. For a right-tailed test of hypothesis for a population mean with known
, the test statistic was z = 1.79. The p-value is:

A.
B.
C.
D.

.0367
.9633
.1186
.0179

From Appendix C we get P(Z > 1.79) = .0367 or from Excel =1NORM.S.DIST(1.79,1) = .0367.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 09-08 Use tables or Excel to find the p-value in tests of .
Topic: Testing a Mean: Known Population Variance

## 122. If n = 25 and = .05 in a right-tailed test of a mean with unknown ,

the critical value is:

A.
B.
C.
D.

1.960
1.645
1.711
.0179

## Using d.f. = 24, t.05 = 1.711 from Appendix D.

AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 09-05 Find critical values of z or t in tables or by using Excel.
Topic: Testing a Mean: Unknown Population Variance

## 123. The researcher's null hypothesis is H0: 2 22. A sample of n = 25

items yields a sample variance of s2 = 28.5. The critical value of chisquare for a right-tailed test at = 05 is:

A.
B.
C.
D.

1.960
1.645
13.85
36.42

## From Appendix E with d.f. = 24 we get 2.05 = 36.42.

AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-11 Perform a hypothesis test for a variance (optional).
Topic: Tests for One Variance (Optional)

## 124. The researcher's null hypotheses is H0: 2 22. A sample of n = 25

items yields a sample variance of s2 = 28.5. The test statistic is:

A.
B.
C.
D.

31.09.
26.42.
must know if it is a one-tailed test.
must know to answer.

## 2.calc = (n - 1)s2/2 = (25 - 1)(28.5)/(22) = 31.09.

AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 09-11 Perform a hypothesis test for a variance (optional).
Topic: Tests for One Variance (Optional)

## 125. The researcher's null hypothesis is H0: 2 = 420. A sample of n = 18

items yields a sample variance of s2 = 512. The critical values of chisquare for a two-tailed test at = .05 are:

A.
B.
C.
D.

## 8.672 and 27.59

7.564 and 30.19
-1.960 and +1.960
9.390 and 28.87

From Appendix E with d.f. = 17 we get 2.025 = 7.564 (left tail) and
30.19 (right tail).
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-11 Perform a hypothesis test for a variance (optional).
Topic: Tests for One Variance (Optional)

## 126. The researcher's null hypotheses is H0: 2 = 420. A sample of n = 18

items yields a sample variance of s2 = 512. The test statistic is:

A.
B.
C.
D.

34.09
20.72
14.77
must know to answer.

## 2calc = (n - 1)s2/2 = (18 - 1)(512)/(420) = 20.72.

AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 09-11 Perform a hypothesis test for a variance (optional).
Topic: Tests for One Variance (Optional)

## 127. In hypothesis testing, Type I error is:

A.
always set at 5 percent.
B.
smaller than or equal to 5 percent.
C. the probability of rejecting H0 when H0 is true.
D. the probability of rejecting H0 when H1 is true.
Rejecting a true null hypothesis is Type I error.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.
Topic: Statistical Hypothesis Testing

## A. equal to 1 minus the probability of committing Type I error.

B. the probability of concluding H0 when H0 is true.
C. the probability of concluding H0 when H1 is true.
Failing to reject a false null hypothesis is Type II error.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember

Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.
Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

129. Regarding the probability of Type I error () and Type II error (),
which statement is true?

A.
B.
C.
D.

>
<
+=1
Power = 1 - .

## Although and are related, there is no simple equation relating

and .
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 09-03 Define Type I error; Type II error; and power.
Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

## 130. In the hypothesis H0: = 0, the value of 0 is not derived from:

A.
B.
C.
D.

the sample.
past experience.
a target or benchmark.
a scientific theory.

## The hypothesized value of the mean is a target or from past

experience.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-04 Formulate a null and alternative hypothesis for or .
Topic: Statistical Hypothesis Testing

## 131. In testing the hypotheses H0: 0, H1: > 0, we would use a:

A.
B.
C.
D.

two-tailed test.
left-tailed test.
right-tailed test.
breathalyzer test.

## The inequality in H1 always points to the direction of the test.

AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 09-09 Perform a hypothesis test for a proportion and find the p-value.
Topic: Testing a Proportion

132. We can assume that the sample proportion is normally distributed if:

A.
we have 10 successes in the sample.
B.
we have 10 failures in the sample.
C. we have both 10 successes and 10 failures in the sample.
D.
the population is known.
As a guideline, we want at least 10 successes and 10 failures to
assume a normal p.
AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 09-09 Perform a hypothesis test for a proportion and find the p-value.
Topic: Testing a Proportion

## Short Answer Questions

133. Julia hypothesizes that fewer than 90 percent of her Visa purchases
are under \$100. She examines a random sample of her recent
purchases and performs a test. The results shown below are from
MegaStat. What would Julia conclude from this test? Explain carefully.

## The p-value says that p = 108/130 = .8308 might be expected about

4 times in 1000 samples, assuming that the true proportion is .90, so
the sample convinces us to reject the hypothesis that = .90 even at
= .01. Normality can be assumed because n(1 - 0) = (130)(.10) =
13 exceeds 10.
Feedback: The z-value is more than two standard errors below zero,
indicating that the sample proportion is well below the hypothesized
= .90. The p-value says that a sample proportion such as p =
108/130 = .8308 might be expected about 4 times in 1000 samples
by chance, assuming that the true proportion is .90, so the sample
would convince us to reject the hypothesis that = .90 even at = .
01. Normality can be assumed since n(1 - 0) = (130)(.10) = 13
exceeds 10. The sample of n = 130 is fairly large, so Julia seems to
have proven her case.
AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Blooms: Evaluate
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-09 Perform a hypothesis test for a proportion and find the p-value.
Topic: Testing a Proportion

134. Why is it better to say "fail to reject H0" instead of "accept H0"?

## A different sample could lead to rejection of H0 so we must allow the

possibility that H0 could be rejected at a later time, or that a different
researcher might get a different result.
Feedback: If the sample evidence is insufficient to reject H0, a
different sample could lead to rejection of H0. Thus, we must allow
the possibility that H0 could be rejected at a later time, or that a
different researcher might get a different result. Although a sample
could contradict H0 strongly enough to make H0 seem to be false,
there is no way to show conclusively that it is true. That said, many
hypotheses are provisionally accepted because they have never been
proved false, despite rigorous efforts to do so.
AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Blooms: Evaluate
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-02 Explain the difference between H0 and H1.
Topic: Logic of Hypothesis Testing

## 135. Mary examined a random sample of Friday withdrawals from a

college campus ATM. She hypothesized that the mean was less than
\$100. The results shown below are from MegaStat. What would Mary
conclude from this test? Explain carefully.

The p-value says that a sample mean such as this might be expected
about 25 times in 100 samples, assuming that the true mean is \$100,
so we are not convinced to reject the hypothesis that = 100 even
at = .10.
Feedback: The t-value is within one standard error of zero, indicating
that the sample mean does not differ very much from the
hypothesized mean. The p-value says that a sample mean such as
this might be expected about 25 times in 100 samples by chance
alone, assuming that the true mean is \$100, so the sample mean of
\$85.88 does not convince us to reject the hypothesis that = 100
even at = .10. A t-test is used because the population standard
deviation is unknown.
AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Blooms: Evaluate
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-07 Perform a hypothesis test for a mean with unknown using t.
Topic: Testing a Mean: Unknown Population Variance

136. Bob hypothesizes that the average student at his university has to
take more than 130 credits to graduate. He takes a random sample of
his classmates and performs a test. The results shown below are from
MegaStat. What would Bob conclude from this test? Explain carefully.

The p-value says that a sample mean such as this might be expected
only 1 or 2 times in 100 samples, assuming that the true mean is
130, so we would reject the hypothesis = 130 at = .025 but not
quite at = .01.
Feedback: The t-value is almost two standard errors above zero. The
p-value says that a sample mean such as this might be expected
about 1 or 2 times in 100 samples by chance, assuming that the true
mean is 130, so the sample would convince us to reject the
hypothesis = 130 at = .025 but not quite at = .01. A t-test is
used since the population standard deviation is unknown.
AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Blooms: Evaluate
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-07 Perform a hypothesis test for a mean with unknown using t.
Topic: Testing a Mean: Unknown Population Variance

137. Pedro hypothesizes that more than half of his classmates would
prefer a virtual web graduation ceremony, rather than sitting in the
hot sun during the commencement speech. He takes a random
sample of his classmates and performs a test. The results shown
below are from MegaStat. What would Pedro conclude from this test?
Explain carefully.

## The p-value says that a sample proportion such as p = 15/25 = .60

might be expected about 16 times in 100 samples, assuming that the
true proportion is .50, so Pedro would not reject the hypothesis that
= .50 even at a weak level of significance such as = .10. Normality
can be assumed because n0 = (25)(.50) = 12.5 exceeds 10.
Feedback: The z-value is only one standard error above zero,
indicating that the sample proportion does not differ much from the
hypothesized = .50. The p-value says that a sample proportion
such as p = 15/25 = .60 might be expected about 16 times in 100
samples by chance, assuming that the true proportion is .50, so
Pedro would not reject the hypothesis that = .50 even at a weak
level of significance such as = .10. Normality can be assumed
because n0 = (25)(.50) = 12.5 exceeds 10. If Pedro wants to pursue
his theory, he could take a larger sample than n = 25.
AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Blooms: Evaluate
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 09-09 Perform a hypothesis test for a proportion and find the p-value.
Topic: Testing a Proportion