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Stephan Ten Brink - Convergence of Iterative Decoding

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mouth animation is chosen as long as the tracked mouth shape in

the original scene has some resemblance to the textured mouth

shape. Whenever the tracker encounters a dramatic change in the

mouth shape (typically after 10-15 frames, when the NCC coeficient falls below a given threshold), the new mouth shape or the

index of an old shape is transmitted, and then the algorithm

switches back to the semantic animation until another shape

change is found. So basically small amounts of motion (as will be

the case with silent-like periods in videoconferencing sessions) are

represented with the semantic approach only, where any inbetween large motions or shape changes (for example, due to talking or smiling) are compensated for by updating the texture of the

mouth. It is worth mentioning that the semantic tracking of

mouth vertices is continued by the encoder even when the system

switches to the codebook method because positions of these vertices are needed to maintain accurate animation of the mouth in the

frames following the one with the updated mouth texture.

curves in both Figures show that the PSNR values drop gradually

in frames of un-updated mouth texture (for example, between

frames 0 and 25 of Talking), and rises back again when a shape

update takes place. The graphs also show that applying the hybrid

scheme improves the PSNR by -1 dB in regions of small motion of

which the texture is not updated. This allows similar levels of

image quality to be maintained over larger periods of the entire

sequence, and as a result reduces the annoying effects associated

with fluctuations in PSNR levels encountere,d when using the

codebook only. Of course, the quality of the modelled mouth

images using the hybrid scheme is highly dependent on the accuracy of the tracking of the mouth in the first place. Further

improvement is expected to be achieved with better future tracking

algorithms. The increase in the data rate needcd for transmitting

the semantic animation parameters is affordable because, fxst,

although 20 vertices are used to describe the mouth, only the

motion vectors of seven vertices are transmitted while the remaining vectors are linearly interpolated at the decoder. Secondly,

extra reductions in the bit rate can also be achieved through intraand inter-encoding of these parameters.

Conclusions: A switched mouth animation scheme has been implemented whereby the quality of the modelled images is improved

while still enabling the low-bit rate property of model-based coding to be exploited. Observations have shown that the hybrid

scheme offers generally better subjective quality and PSNR performance compared to a stand alone codebook- or semantic-based

animation algorithm.

35:

l b 15 20 25 3b

frame

& 4b

4k

55

24 March 1999

0 IEE 1999

Electronics Letters Online No: 19990565

DOI: lO.I049/19990565

A. AI-Qayedi and A.F. Clark (Department of Electronic Systems

Engineering, University of Essex, Colchester (704 3SQ, United

Kingdom)

rn

References

Talking sequence

PEARSON, D.E.:

-0-codebook only

-+-

(Consulting Psychologist Press, Inc., Palo Alto, CA, 1977)

K ~ K U E RM.,

,

and CLARK, A.F.: A model-based codec suitable for

deaf communication. Proc. Int. Symp. Very-L,ow Bit-rate Video,

1994, Paper 4.2

hybrid scheme

37

IT

EKMAN, P.,

http://peipa.essex.ac.uk/ipa/pidfaces/essex-02/

S. ten Brink

frame

E

p

J

Fig. 3 PSNR comparison of codebook-only and hybrid schemes on Miss

America sequence

-e

codebook only

-+- hybrid scheme

Experimental results: The system has been implemented and tested

laboratory. Figs. 2 and 3 show the relative PSNRs for the

sequences Miss America and Talking [4], respectively. The PSNRs

have been calculated for the facial region after compensating for

the global motion of the head. First the mouth is animated using

purely the codebook and secondly using our hybrid method. The

results show that both schemes give similar results when there is

high movement of the lips (for example, as in the first 15 frames

of Miss America), because only the codebook mode is active and

therefore the semantic approach has no effect. The codebook

806

iterative decoding schemes is proposed. Each constituent decoder

is represented by a mutual information tcmsfer characteristic

which describes the flow of extrinsic information through the soft

idsoft out decoder. The exchange of extrinsic information

between constituentdecoders is plotted in an extrinsic information

transfer chart. The concepts are illustrated for an iterative

demapping and decoding scheme.

Introduction: While many studies have concentrated on providing

asymptotic bit error bounds for parallel and serially concatenated

convolutional codes (e.g. [l]) little has yet been revealed as to the

convergence behaviour of the corresponding sub-optimal iterative

turbo decoders. In this Letter a visualisation method based on

bitwise mutual information is introduced which provides a tool for

studying the convergence behaviour of iterative decoding schemes,

yielding new design rules for improving the choice of constituent

codes. For simplicity an iterative demapping and decoding scheme

[2, 31 is considered in this Letter. The demapper takes soft values

from the channel and outputs extrinsic information E, which is

passed through a bit interleaver to become the a priori input A,

for the soft in/soft out channel decoder [4]. From the decoder

extrinsic information on the coded bits E, is fed back to the

ELECTRONICS LETTERS

Vol. 35

No. 10

(BER) in further iterative decoding steps. The variables A,, E,, A,

and 4 denote log-likelihood ratios (L-values).

lies. Thus it is sufficient to describe a mapping using two values:

the bitwise mutual information Zo = ZEI(ZAI= 0) given that no

other bit of the mapping is known ('no a priori knowledge at

demapper'), and I,, = ZEI(ZA, = 1) given that all other bits of the

mapped codeword are known ('perfect a priori knowledge') [2].

Keeping the mapping futed, different EdN, values just shift the

curve up and down. Keeping the EJN0 value fvced, different m a p

pings result in lines of different slope. For Gray mapping the bitwise mutual information remains almost constant with increasing

a priori knowledge la,,whereas the transfer characteristic for antiGray mapping has a steep slope, revealing the strong potential

performance improvements in an iterative demapping and decoding scheme.

q

c

0.2

01

"

'

"

"

"

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

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output IE2 of decoder becomes input IA1to demapper

@@I

Fig. 1 Extrinsic information transfer characteristics of 16-QAM demapper for different EJNo (at code rate 1:2) and different mappings

-A- Gray mapping (EdN, = 3dB)

some 16-QAM mapping (EdNo = 3dB)

anti-Gray mapping (EdN, = 3dB)

--C some 16-QAM mapping (EdN, = 3dB)

-0-anti-Gray mapping, different EdN, values

-**

Demapper transfer characteristics: The demapper transfer characteristic is a function of the a priori bitwise mutual information ZA1

and the EdN, value of the AWGN-channel

transmitter) the bitwise mutual information [5] is calculated as

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.o

mutual information lE2 at output of decoder, b%per binary symbol

m

Fig. 2 Extrinsic information transfer characteristics of soft idsoft out

decoder for rate 1:2 convolutional codes with different memory

--C rate 1:2, memory 2

--C rate 1:2, memory 4

-+-A-

rate 1:2, memory 8

-0

n

$1.01

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

and

for A , and E l k are obtained by simulations. Different values of ZA,

and EdNo are considered in ZBI through changes in the distribu~.

to the strong correlation between I*, and ZE, the

tions P ~ , ,Owing

demapper characteristics can be plotted in an ZE,,ZAl diagram

(Fig. l), with the EdN, value as a parameter yielding a set of

curves. Different distributionsp a l were used to calculate the demapper characteristics without observing a notable change in the

shape of the curves. Moreover, the demapper output distributions

P ~ , can

, ~ be quite asymmetric and noncontinuous with sharp

edges, depending on the complex signal constellation and the

applied mapping. Hence, transfer characteristics based on the

mean values and variance of the input/output distributions, such

as SNR measures, would fail, whereas mutual information transfer

characteristics prove to be very robust, owing to the robustness of

the entropy measure IS].

ELECTRONICS LE7TERS

Vol. 35

2 1

.-E

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.o

mutual information IA, at intput of demapper, bit per binary symbol

16-QAM, anti-Gray mapping, rate 1:2 memory 4 code

trajectory of iterative decoding

-A- anti-Gray mapping (EdN, = 3.4dB)

--C conv. code, rate 1:2, memory 4

IE2

No. IO

= g(IA2)

(5)

807

priori input to the decoder. Again, the probability distributions

p E 2 pa2

, for calculating ZE2,ZA2 are obtained by simulation.

of rate 1.2 with memory 2, 4, 6 and 8. It is remarkable that all

curves cross at a single point: (0.5, 0.5). For arbitrary code rates R

this point t u m s out to be at (0.5, R).

Extrinsic information transfer chart: Connected through interleavers, the extrinsic output of the demapper becomes the a priori

decoder becomes the a priori input to the demapper ZA = IE2.This

exchange of extrinsic information is accounted for in the extrinsic

information transfer chart (EIT chart) by plotting the demapper

and decoder characteristics into a single diagram.

Fig. 3 shows an example of an iterative decoding trajectory: the

E d N , value of the channel has raised the demapper curve just high

enough to open a tunnel for the trajectory. This matches with the

BER(EdN,) plot of [2] where the turbo cliff is at -3.3dB. The

BER floor is determined by the intersection of demapper and

decoder curves on the very right side of the EIT chart. Note that

mutual information (decoder output on the information bits, not

shown) and BER are connected through a bound given by the

converse of the coding theorem [5]. Both demapper and decoder

characteristics are obtained separately, and not in conjunction

with a particular iterative decoding scheme; for verification, the

trajectory of Fig. 3 has been evaluated by means of simulation.

Clearly, the trajectory closely matches the demapper and decoder

Characteristics. For short interleavers the trajectory would tend to

diverge from the characteristics after a few iterations. From the

EIT chart some design guidelines become apparent, for example,

the larger the code memory, or the steeper the slope of the demapper curve, the later the turbo cliff in the BER(EdN,) chart, but the

lower the BER floor.

accumulated evo ution information

Doo-Hyun Choi

In natural evolution, the individuals of species accumulate

successive slight variations in their genes and the accumulated

evolution information is d e n t e d by thelr offspring. A new

evolutionary programming algorithm adopting this concept is

presented. Similar to natural evolution, the algorithm uses the

accumulated evolution information inherited from its parent. The

information is obtained through many generations of the

evolution and speeds up the convergence of the evolutionary

prograWnng. The eficiency and robustness of the proposed

algorithm has been verified through benchmark testing.

Introduction: Evolutionary algorithms mimic thle process of natural evolution. The aim of evolutionary programming (EP) is to

achieve intelligent behaviour through simulated evolution [11. EP

is suitable for combinatorial and real-valued function optimisation. The most signifcant advantage of using evolutionary searching lies in the increase in flexibility and adaptability to the task at

hand, in combination with robust performance and global search

characteristics [2].

In natural evolution, when one part varies through the law of

correlation and the variations are accumulated through natural

selection, other modifications of the most unexpected nature will

appear [3]. In this Letter, a new EP algorithm is presented in

which the evolution information has been accumulated into the

genes of individuals. In the algorithm, the accumulated evolution

information not only speeds up of the convergence but also finds a

better optimum solution.

based on mutual information can facilitate the design of iterative

demapping schemes. The flow of extrinsic information was visualised in the EIT chart to provide insight into the turbo cliff

position and BER floor. Initial results for other concatenated

codes [l, 61 are encouraging.

Acknowledgment: This work was camed out in a joint project with

Wiltshire SN5 7YT, United Kingdom.

evaluations

0 IEE 1999

Electronics Letters Online No: 19990555

DOI: 10.1049/el:19990555

22 February 1999

proposed EP

........... SAEP

_ - - _ AEP

Telecommunications, Dep. 0408, Pfaffenwaldring 47, 70569 Stuttgart,

Germany)

E-mail: tenbrink@inue.uni-stuttgart.de

References

1

2

3

4

concatenation of interleaved codes: performance analysis, design,

and iterative decoding, IEEE Trans., 1998, lT-44, (3), pp. 909-926

TEN BRINK, s., SPEIDEL, J., and YAN, R.-H.: Iterative demapping and

decoding for multilevel modulation. Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM98,

Sydney, Australia, 1998, pp. 579-584

TEN BRINK, s., SPEIDEL, J., and YAN, R.-H.: Iterative demapping for

QPSK modulation, Electron. Lett., 1998, 34, (15), pp. 1459-1460

ROBERTSON, P., VILLEBRUN, E., and HOEHER, P.: A comparison of

optimal and sub-optimal MAP decoding algorithms operating in

the log domain. Proc. ICC 95, June 1995, pp. 1009-1013

HAMMING, R.w.: Coding and information theory (Prentice-Hall,

New Jersey, 1986)

BERROU, c., GLAVIEUX, A., and THITIMAJSHIMA, P.: Near Shannon

limit error-correcting coding and decoding: Turbo-codes. Proc.

ICC93, May 1993, pp. 10641070

BENEDETTO,

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10

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400

800

evaluations

800

10

proposed EP

........... SAEP

- - _ _ AEP

parameters, distance variables and accumulated evolution information variables, into the, genes of the individuals of the EP. The

individual is represented as follows:

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