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Session Name : Watershed Characterization

Session Instructor: Dr. V. Hari Prasad

Time and Duration: 2 April, 2007; 14:25 14:45

Watershed Hydrology and Management


A remote sensing and GIS approach
V. HARI PRASAD
In-Charge, Water Resources Division,
Indian Institute of Remote Sensing (NRSA), Dehradun.
Introduction
Water is life, in all forms and shapes. This basic yet profound truth eluded many of
us in the second half of the 20th century. Water professionals and scientists around the
world are ringing the alarming bells of an impending water crisis. Yet attempts to address
some of the issues or to offer partial solutions met with limited success. The ever-growing
population and concomitant expansion of agriculture and industry have placed increasing
demand on the limited water resources.
There is a water crisis today. But the crisis is not having too little water to satisfy our
needs. It is a crisis of managing water so badly that billions of people and the environment
suffer badly (World Water Council, 2000)
Definition of Watershed Hydrology
The interdependence and continuous movement of all forms of water on the earth
and in the atmosphere is known as hydrologic cycle. The hydrologic cycle can also be
defined as the processes and pathways involved in the circulation of water from land and
water bodies (sea, rivers, lakes etc.) to the atmosphere and back again. The general
circulation of the water is shown in fig. 1.

Definition of Watershed
Watershed is a land area from which surface water drains into a single outlet.
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It is defined as the land area from which water drains to a


given point. In other words watershed is an area from
which runoff, resulting from precipitation, flows past a
single point into a stream. Since water is drained off to a
given point. The management of watershed in point of
view of Hydrology is easily possible. Hence, we can
arrive to another definition of watershed i.e. "watershed
is a manageable Hydrological Unit".

Fig 2: Delineation of Watershed


Watershed can be delineated using topographic maps with help of drainage lines which
represents the ridge and valleys as shown in figure 3 (a&b). The delineated watershed
contains the drainage lines and ridges as shown in figure 4.

Fig 3: (a) Ridge Line

(b) Valley line

Fig 4: Ridges and Valleys in a watershed

Watershed Characterisation
Table of data base
Table 1: List of watershed characteristics, how to derive them and why it is required.

S. no.

Characte
ristic

1.

Size

Parameters and
indices

Required for
Average precipitation,
runoff and
sedimentation (rate &
volume ; production
potential ; work and
investment

Standard area unit

Source & means


to obtain
Topo-maps, aerial
photos, satellite
image

2.

Shape

Runoff and
sedimentation (rate &
volume); operational
schedules and
conveniences

a) Geometric form
b) Shape Index
c) Compactness
coefficient
d) Form factor

3.

Relief

a) Mean elevation
b) Average slope
c) Geomorphic units
d) Total relief
e) Relief ratio

4.

Drainage

5.

Geology

Runoff &
sedimentation (rate &
volume ; treatment
details surface storage,
operational
convenience
Runoff &
sedimentation channel
treatment, surface
storage, operational
convenience
Sedimentation &
runoff, ground water,
construction material,
structure foundation

6.

Soils

Runoff and
sedimentation
treatment details,
production potentials,
proper, landuse,
operational
convenience

7.

Climate

8.

Surface
condition
& landuse

Runoff and
sedimentation
treatment details;
proper landuse,
production potential
operational
convenience
Runoff &
sedimentation; ground
water; soil moisture
treatment details,
operational
convenience

From map by using


respective formulae
or available
regression
equations.

Topographic maps
aerial photo,
satellite images and
block diagrams
(using respective
formulae).
a) Drainage pattern
Topo maps and
b) Stream order
aerial photos,
c) Drainage density
satellite image
d) Main stream length using respective
formulae
a) Type of rocks
Geological maps,
b) Stratigraphy
reports, satellite
image interpretation
combined with field
surveys
e) Soil series and soil Soil survey reports
phases
and maps ; field
f) Morphological,
surveys
physical
and
chemical,
properties
g) Hydrologic
soil
groups
h) Soil
moisture
regime
f) Precipitation
Meteorological
g) Temperature
resource, reports
h) Humidity
and other
i) Wind Velocity
publications
j) Sunshine hours

a) Present
landuse
condition
b) Natural vegetation
c) Canopy percent
d) Hydrologic cover
condition
e) Existing tanks
f) Communications

Revenue records,
forest working
plans and reports,
toposheets, aerial
photos, satellite
images and ground
surveys

9.

Ground
water

10.

Social &
legal
status

Runoff, production
potential, operational
conveniences,
treatment details
Treatment details,
opera-tional
conveniences, watershed sufficiency/
deficiency in food,
fodder & fuel; animal
and manpower,
acceptance, follow-up
and maintenance of
programmes runoff and
sedimentation

a) Water
table
contours or depths
b) Quality of ground
water
g) Human & animal
population
h) Land holdings and
tenure laws
i) Existing
management level
j) Land and water
development
legislation

Ground water
survey reports;
existing wells
Census reports,
revenue records,
district
legislations

Defining Watershed Management


What is Watershed Management?
Watershed management means the rational utilization of land and water resources of
watershed for optimal production with minimal hazard to natural resources. Watershedbased management is the most effective way to enhance water quality and natural
resources, protect critical terrestrial and aquatic habitat, prevent soil erosion, and sustain
resource-based economic activities while concurrently managing the pressures of an
increasingly urbanized landscape.
Importance of watershed management in the present scenario
Watershed management or protection implies the proper use of all land and water resources
of a watershed for optimum production with minimum hazard to natural resources. The
different objectives of a watershed management programme are:

To control damaging runoff

To manage and utilize runoff for useful purposes

To control erosion and effect reduction in the sediment production

To moderate floods in the downstream areas

To enhance ground water storage wherever applicable

Appropriate use of land resources in the watershed and thus developing forest and
fodder resources

Adoption of conservation farming practices to improve agriculture, controlled


grazing to keep the pastures productive, water management for irrigation and drainage and
all other types of erosion control measures could be each watershed are different and
program for their management could also be different. Inappropriate land use practices in
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the upstream catchment leads to accelerated soil erosion and consequent silting up of
reservoirs. Watershed management in thus an integral part of any water resources project.
The prioritization of watershed i.e. which needs to be paid attention is based on sediment
yield potential so that the treatment would result in minimizing sediment load into the
reservoir.
Role of remote sensing and GIS
Remote sensing and GIS play a very important role in watershed management. Due
to synoptic coverage, entire watershed can be mapped for various geo-spatial databases as
listed in table 1 earlier, using remote sensing data and GIS data. Using GIS techniques,
these database can be converted to information about landuse/landcover mapping and
change detection, runoff estimation, soil erosion study, site suitability analysis for rain
water harvesting, watershed prioritization etc. can be effectively carried out using GIS
techniques. Further, due to availability of high spatial resolution satellite data like IRS P6
Panchromatic (5.8 m), IKONOS (4 & 1 m), CARTOSAT (2.5 m) can be used to accurately
map landuse/landcover classification & location of soil and water conservation structures.
Digital elevation model (DEM) can be derived using the interpolation of contour
maps derived from topographic maps or analysis of stereo satellite data such as
CARTOSAT or TERRA ASTER. DEM provides the perspective view of watershed. Using
DEM, slope, aspect, flow direction, flow accumulation and flow length maps can be
derived, which can be integrated to into the other geo-spatial databases to derive suitable
sites for various watershed conservation measures etc.
Watershed Characterisation using Remote Sensing and GIS
Various watershed characteristics required for watershed management can be derived using
remote sensing and GIS. A brief description is given here.
Size : This characteristic determines the quantity of precipitation received, retained and
drained off. Small watershed behaves differently from the large ones in terms of the
relative importance of various phases of the runoff phenomenon. This can be delineated
using the topographic maps (first instance), by the concept of ridge and valley lines (as
explained previously), based on the position of the watershed outlet. The area of the
watershed can be digitized using GIS functions. This boundary can be verified with the
help of the aspect map, which can be derived using DEM, using any standard GIS function.
Shape : Watersheds have many shapes e.g. it could be rectangular, square, palm shape,
oval etc. The shape controls the length, width ratio which affects the runoff characteristics.
For example, the longer the watershed, the greater is the time of concentration. The longer
the time of concentration, the greater the time available for the water to infiltrate, evaporate
and get utilized by vegetation. Shape of watershed is the output of watershed boundary
delineated in GIS environment.
Slope : This is a very important characteristics of a watershed. It affects the time of
concentration, infiltration opportunity time, runoff and soil loss. Slope can be derived in

GIS environment using DEM. Using the watershed boundary, the weighted average slope
of the watershed can be derived in a GIS environment.
Drainage : This is another important factor which influences the watershed behaviour.
A large drainage density (length of drainage channels per unit area) creates situation
conducive for quick disposal of runoff down the channels. In watershed where drainage
density is less overland flow is predominant. Length of the channels can be derived using
the digitized drainage in GIS environment.
Geology : Nature of parent rocks, features, faults, extent of outcrops and weathering can be
known by interpretation of satellite data and also ground truth collected. It is possible to
understand the ground water recharge areas also, using the geomorphology and analysis of
other relevant information.
Soils: Major soil groups of the watershed and their hydrologic groupings. Physical and
chemical properties as required, which can derived using the mapping of physiographic
units from the satellite data and combined with the field verification of soil profiles dug in
each of the physiographic units.
Climate: Precipitation, its annual, seasonal and monthly distribution, forms of
precipitation, storm pattern, rainfall intensity and duration are to be collected from
metrological stations. Their spatial distribution can be understood in a GIS environment.
Other climatic factors include air temperature (min. and max.), soil temperature,
evaporation, relative humidity, wind velocity, wind direction, and solar radiation are also
required for understanding the hydrology of the area. If necessary, these data can be
converted into spatial data using GIS functions.
Surface condition and Landuse : Existing land use and cover conditions including forest
lands, range lands, cultivated lands, waste lands, habitations and miscellaneous uses can be
derived using interpretation of satellite images and also ground truth. Forest type and area
under each classification (like stock forest, degraded forest, scrub etc. hydrologic
conditions, legal status (reserved, demarcated, protected, undemarcated, protected,
unclassified, private, community etc.) can be obtained from remote sensing images.
Extent of agricultural lands, land capability classification, area under each class and
subclass, area under irrigation, major crops, rainfed area along with crops grown, orchards
and their extent etc. can be obtained by interpretation of remote sensing data and collection
of ground truth.
Ground Water : Source of ground water and ground water levels during pre-monsoon and
post-monsoon conditions are necessary to understand extent of ground water-recharge and
possible quantity available for utilization.
Economic Data : General economic conditions of the people, important professions and
their dependence on watershed resources, markets and marketing practices, return from
forests including fire wood, and minor forest products, return from range land, grazing
value, returns from cultivated land including irrigated and rainfed etc.
Current trends in Remote Sensing

Remote Sensing technology is changing continuously in improvements in spatial and


spectral resolutions. Example, Panchromatic data of CARTOSAT satellite with 2.5 m
spatial resolution and stereo capability. Before this, IRS P6 (RESOURCESAT) which is
having multi-sensors such as Advanced WIde Field Sensor (AWIFS) at 56 m, multispectral LISS III at 23.5 m and LISS IV at 5.8 m on single platform is unique opportunity,
to study the watersheds at different scales spatially and spectrally simultaneously.
Future satellite such as CARTOSAT 2, which will provide data at 1 m spatial
resolution, which will be unique opportunity to look at the various soil and water
conservation measures implemented in watersheds.
How each parameter is derived, conventionally and updating with RS data
Using DEM, depending upon watershed outlet, the watershed boundary and extent can be
derived using the flow direction and flow accumulation patters. This will enable the size,
shape, slope and drainage pattern in the watershed. Using remote sensing data and
corresponding ground truth various thematic layers such as land use / land cover and
surface condition maps, soil, geology maps etc. can derived and can be integrated in a GIS
environment.
Watershed Management
Concept of WM
The concept of Watershed Management is shown pictorially with various aspects which
need to be considered, as the sentiments of the people living within the watershed area have
to be given utmost priority in implementing various watershed management schemes.
Land Owner's
Objectives

Natural Resources Elements

What is their preferred vision ?


What are the impacts on land
use pattern and land values ?

Topography
Water bodies
Vegetation
Wild Life
Climate
Soils
Precipitation
Minerals

Legal Frame Work


What do existing laws allow
to prohibit ?
How feasible is it to change
regulatory requirement?

Environmental issues
What will happen to the water
quality?
Are endangered species present ?
Which lands are crucial for habitat?
.. Ground water recharge ?
.. Wetlands ?

Public Support
Will key interest groups support the
proposal?
Has the public had adequate
opportunity for input?
Will land owners be willing to
contribute funds/effort?

Watershed

Economic Factors
How will this effect the local
economy?
What are potential impacts on specific
cultures or segments of society ?

Implementation
Feasibility
Which groups and agencies can contribute
resources?
Is adequate funding available for
implementation?
Is adequate infrastructure available for
planned activities?

Fig 4: Factors Affecting Watershed Management


Aims of Watershed Management
To control damaging runoff,

To control erosion & sediment yield,

To moderate flood,

To enhance ground water storage,

To use land resources optimally,

To protect, conserve, & improve lands,

To develop & mange water resources


Problems in Watershed Management Programme
Professional problems
- Identifying existing problems
- Convincing concerned authority
- Defining local requirements
- Selecting proper management practice
- Designing & implementation

Social problems
- Low awareness
- Reluctance to change existing practices
- Poor participation of locals
- Feudal social structure

Financial problems

Psychological problems

Putting the Efforts Together


A common theme among successful watershed management efforts is the
involvement of personnel from multiple agencies and organizations in
decision making roles and subsequent implementation activities.
However, the structure that evolves to manage watershed projects can
vary significantly from site to site.
Role of Geoinformation technology
Satellite data have been extensively used in many watershed, namely Jurala, Asan
and Ukai for deriving the parameters of the Sediment Yield Index (SYI) model to provide
quantitative silt load estimates in watersheds developed by the All India Soil and Landuse
Survey, Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India.
Space borne multispectral data have been used to generate baseline information on
various natural resources, namely soils, forest cover, surface water, ground water and land
use/ land cover and subsequent integration of such information with slope and socioeconomic data in a Geographic Information System (GIS) to generate locale-specific
prescription for sustainable development of land and water resources development on a
watershed basis. The study covering around 84 M.ha. and spread over 175 districts has
been carried out by the Department of Space, Govt. of India under a national level project
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titled Integrated Mission for Sustainable Development (IMSD). Implementation of


appropriate rain water harvesting structures in selected watersheds under this programme
has demonstrated the significant benefits by way of increased ground water recharge and
agricultural development of once barren areas. Multi-year satellite data is also used to
monitor the impact of the implementation of watershed management programmes.
A IRS 1C PANchormatic satellite Image showing various types of ground
conditions, which require watershed management schemes is shown here.
AGRICULTURAL
LAND

GULLY
ERODED LAND

AFFORESTION

Fig 5: IRS 1C PANCHROMATIC image of a watershed showing different areas which


needs Watershed Management
Geo-spatial data base generation current trends
Geo-spatial data can be generated (as explained earlier) using the latest remote sensing data
in a GIS environment, and then based on the requirement, land and water resources
development plans can be generated towards preparation of watershed management plans
in various aspects. Since the availability of more temporal frequency (daily or 8 days or
fortnightly basis) remote sensing data such as (most of them free) NOAA-AVHRR
(1.1km), SPOT VGT (1km), MODIS (250m, 500m, 1000m) etc. can be used to observe the
changes in the watersheds. Based on the analysis of more temporal data sets, most dynamic
areas, which are changing due to the processes in watersheds can identified. In these areas,
the high and medium resolution satellite data sets such as IRS LISS III, LISS IV can be
used to understand the watershed processes or effect of watershed management plans.
Data Integration for WM planning
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Various thematic layers generated and the action plan developed using the geo-spatial data.
The possible surveys using these datasets are,
Engineering Surveys : size, shape, slope, topography, drainage etc. including engineering
structures
Climate : Rainfall, evaporation, temperature, wind velocity.
Soil & Land capability Surveys : Type, texture, depth, soil fertility status, extent of
erosion and land capability classes
Land Use Survey : Agriculture, forest, grass land, orchard.
Vegetation Surveys : Natural and planted vegetation, density, classes, species, crops
grown etc.
Hydrologic Survey : Sources of water supply, quantity, quality and perenniality and
irrigation facilities etc.
Socio- Economic Survey : Man and Animal Population, size of holdings etc.
Various thematic layers and action plan developed under IMSD project are converted into
Watershed conservation planning (Action plan) in Upper Hatni watershed in Jhabua
District, M.P. is shown here in figure 6.

Source: IMSD
Fig. 6: Thematic layers generated and Action plan developed in Upper Hatni watershed
There are different phases in Watershed work plan, such as
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Planning Phase
Implementation Phase
Operation & maintenance Phase
Evaluation phase

Remote sensing and GIS technology plays an important role in planning phase and
evaluation phase of the watershed work plans.
Change detection studies
After the implementation of the conservation measures, the effect of these can be seen on
change of land use / land cover in the watershed.
Criteria for Evaluation of Watershed Work Plan

Sedimentation survey

Tributory gauging

Rainfall-runoff relationship

Agricultural production

Forest produce

Standard of living in the area

Benefit-cost ratio
Temporal images of
Upper Hatni Watershed
Jhabua dist., MP
IRS-1B LISS-II
Feb, 1992

IRS-1C LISS III


Feb, 1997

Vegetation change during 1992-97


(derived through
NDVI technique)
Feb 1992

Low density vegetation

Feb 1997

High density vegetation

Areal extent of Vegetation


Vegetation in 1992

1992 - 1533 ha
1997- 2321 ha
Increase -788 ha (51.40%)
Watershed area - 9160 ha

Increase in vegetation
during 1992-97 period

Fig 7: Change detection in Upper Hatni watershed

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Source: IMSD

Panoramic View of an Ideal Watershed

courtesy: IGBP, MOA, GOI

References
1. Chow, V.T., Hand Book of Applied Hydrology.
2. Engman E. T, Gurney R. J (1991) Remote Sensing in Hydrology, Chapman and
Hall India
3. Gregory K. J, Walling D. E (1973) Drainage Basin Form and Process : A
Geomorphological Approach, Edward Arnold Publishers Ltd., U. K.
4. IMSD Integrated Mission for Sustainable Development report, NRSA.
5. Murty, V. V. N (1985) Land and Water Management Engineering, Kalyani
Publishers, New Delhi.
6. Rodda John C. (1976) Facets of Hydrology (Edited), John Wiley & Sons, U. K
7. Singh, G; Venkatratanam, C; Shastry, G; and Joshi, B. P (1990) Manual of Soil and
Water Conservation Practices, Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi.
8. World Water Council, 2000. Report. www.worldwatercouncil.org

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