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Name 4 types of neurotransmitters.

Acetylcholine, Catecholamines, Amino Acids, & Gaseous.

How is Acetylcholine (ACh) synthesized? What enzyme is


involved?
Acetylcholine is synthesized from acetyl-CoA and Choline by enzyme acetyltransferase

Where is Acetylcholine (ACh) produced?


Acetylcholine is synthesized in the presynaptic terminal.

After disassociation with its receptor, what happens to


Acetylcholine (ACh)?
Enzyme acetylcholinesterase degrades Ach into acetate and choline

What happens to Choline?


Choline is recycled in the presynaptic terminal.

What are the 2 major classes of ACh receptors?


Nicotinic and Muscarinic

What are Nicotinic receptors?


Nicotinic receptors are ligand-gated ion channels that are permeable to Na+, K+, and
Ca2+.

What are the 2 subtypes of Nicotinic receptors? Where are they


found?
1. N1 or NM found on skeletal muscle
2. N2 or NN found on neurons

What are Muscarinic receptors?


Muscarinic receptors are G-protein coupled receptors.

What are the subtypes of Muscarinic receptors? Where are they


found?
1. M2 receptor inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASE (found in cardiac tissue)
2. M3 receptor activates PHOSPHOLIPASE C (found in smooth muscle)

What are Catecholamines?


Organic compound that has catechol and a side amine

catechol

What are the 3 most abundant types of Catecholamine?


Dopamine, Epinephrine, & Norepinephrine.

From what compound are Catecholamine derived?

Cite derivation for

each.

Catecholamines are derived from amino acid TYROSINE.


Dopamine is derived from TYROSINE; Norepinephrine is derived from Dopamine.
Epinephrine is derived from norepinephrine.

To which receptors do Epinephrine


(Noradrenalin) bind to?

(Adrenalin)

and Norepiphrine

Both catecholamine bind to 3 adrenergic receptors: 1, 2, &

State the activity of each adrenergic receptor


adrenaline).

(having to do with

1 activates PHOSPHOLIPASE C
activates ADENYLYL CYCLASE
2 inhibits ADENYLYL CYCLASE
*****What is the function of enzyme MAO (MONOAMINE
OXIDASE)?
It recycles epinephrine/norepinephrine

Name 2 amino acid neurotransmitters?

Glutamate and GABA (gamma aminobutyric acid).

How are Glutamate and GABA synthesized?


Glutamine (amino acid)

Glutamate

GABA

(Starting material is Glutamine)

What enzyme synthesizes GLUTAMINE from Glutamate?

Glutaminase
Name the type of receptors Glutamate and GABA binds to and the
downstream effect that they have?
Glutamate receptors are ligand-gated Na+ channels: causes EPSP
GABA receptors are ligand-gated Cl- channels: causes IPSP

Do all neuron cells have enzyme to produce GABA? No

In what type of signaling is gaseous neurotransmitter involved in?


Why?
Gaseous neurotransmitters are involved in paracrine signaling since gases permeate
through cell membrane and affect neighboring cells.

What is the main signaling chemical for gaseous


neurotransmitters?
Nitric Oxide (NO)

How is nitric oxide synthesized? What enzyme is involved?


Nitric oxide is synthesized from amino acid ARGININE by enzyme NITRIC OXIDE
SYNTHASE.

Where is the nitric oxide receptor located?


Nitric oxide receptors are intracellular receptors (float in cytoplasm)

What is the function of nitric oxide receptor?


It inhibits GUANYLYL CYCLASE.

What is a cholinergic receptor?


A receptor that releases Acetylcholine (ACh)

What is an adrenergic receptor?


A receptor that releases epinephrine or norepinephrine.

What are the 2 components of the nervous system?


Central Nervous System brain and spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System Nerves and ganglia outside of CNS

What are the 2 components of the peripheral nervous system?


SOMATIC NERVOUS SYSTEM & AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM.

What is the SOMATIC NERVOUS SYSTEM?


Voluntary control of body movement via skeletal muscle.

What is the AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM?


Involuntary control of glands, blood vessels, and internal organs.

What is the layout of neurons in SOMATIC NERVOUS SYSTEM?


1 somatic neuron (or motor neurons) that makes monosynaptic connection to
skeletal muscle.

What type of neurotransmitter do somatic neurons release? What


receptor does it bind to?
Acetylcholine binds to nicotinic receptor NM on skeletal muscle.

What is NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION?


Meeting of neuron with muscle.

What causes ALS (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis)?

(Lou Gehrigs disease)

Death of somatic motor neuron

What causes Poliomyelitis?


Polio virus by attacking ventral horn of spinal cord; somatic motor neuron die

What is the layout of neurons in autonomic nervous system?


Consist of 2 neurons:
1st neuron comes from CNS (preganglionic neuron) synapses with the 2nd neuron
(postganglionic neuron) outside of CNS; 2nd neuron then synapses with the effector
organ.

What are the 2 subsystems found in autonomic nervous system?


Sympathetic NS & Parasympathetic NS

What is characteristic of neurons in PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS


SYSTEM?
Long preganglionic neurons and Short postganglionic neurons

Where are preganglionic neurons innervated in


PARASYMPATHETIC?
In the brainstem and sacral level of spinal cord
(Cranial nerve 3, 7, 9, 10 & Sacral nerve 1, 2)

What is the only neurotransmitter mediating parasympathetic?


Acetylcholine

Describe how a neurotransmitter is released to effector cells in


parasympathetic nervous system.
Preganglionic neuron release ACh that binds to NICOTINIC RECEPTORS NN of
postganglionic neuron.
Postganglionic neuron release ACh to MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS (M2 OR M3) of effector
organ.

For each of the following effector organ, state which receptor is


involved in binding ACh and the response in Parasympathetic
Nervous System.
Eye

M3; pupillary constriction

Heart

M2; decrease heart rate

Vasculature (blood vessels)


Minimal

Bronchiole

M3; contraction of lungs

GI Track

M3; increase motility (contraction); sphincter relaxation,


salivary secretion thin, high volume

Sweat
No effect

Bladder
M3; detrusor muscle contraction, internal urethral sphincter relaxation

What is characteristic of neurons SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS


SYSTEM?
Short preganglionic neurons and long postganglionic neurons

Where are preganglionic neurons innervated in SYMPATHETIC?


In the thoracic and lumbar level of spinal cord

Describe how a neurotransmitter is released to effector cells in


sympathetic nervous system?
Preganglionic neuron release ACh that binds to NICOTINIC RECEPTORS NN of
postganglionic neuron.

Postganglionic neuron release NE to adrenergic receptors (1 2 ) of effector organ.

What are 2 unique pathways sympathetic nervous system


possesses?
Preganglionic neurons sometime release ACh to ANDRENAL MEDULLA located on top of
kidneys; ANDRENAL MEDULLA releases NE or EPI into bloodstream and bind to
adrenergic receptors on effector organs
Postganglionic neurons sometime release ACh to MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and
control SWEAT

For each of the following effector organ, state which receptor is


involved in binding ACh or NE and the response in Sympathetic
NS.
Eye

1; pupillary dilation (radial muscle contraction)

Heart

1; increase heart rate; NE

Vasculature (blood vessels)


1; vasoconstriction (contraction)

Bronchiole

2; relaxation of lungs
=====================================================================
=============================================

GI Track
2; decrease motility (relaxation)
1; sphincter contraction
1; salivary secretion thick, low volume

Sweat
M3; increase sweat; ACh is released by sympathetic

Bladder
2; detrusor muscle relaxation
1; internal urethral sphincter contracts

What are the 3 muscles found in the bladder?


for each.

Detrusor Muscle smooth muscle

State the type of muscle

Internal Urethral Sphincter smooth muscle


External Urethral Sphincter skeletal muscle

What is micturition?
Urination

When urinating, what occurs with all 3 muscles?


Detrusor muscle is contracted
Internal Urethra Sphincter is relaxed
External Urethra Sphincter is relaxed

When not urinating, what occurs with all 3 muscles?


Detrusor muscle is relaxed
Internal Urethra Sphincter is constricted
External Urethra Sphincter is constricted

What are pudentals?


Somatic nerves in the pelvic

How is detrusor muscle contracted?


Parasympathetic, M3 receptors

How is internal urethra sphincter relaxed?


Parasympathetic, M3 receptors

How is external urethra sphincter relaxed?


Inhibition of pudental nerves by CNS

How is detrusor muscle relaxed?


Sympathetic, 2 receptors

How is internal urethra sphincter contracted?


Sympathetic, 1 receptors

How is external urethra sphincter contracted?


Pudentals activate NICOTINIC NM or N1 receptors .

Describe the micturition reflex.


When detrusor muscle is stretched, stretch receptors within the walls of bladder fire
action potentials to CNS.
If unable to urinate, Sympathetic NS release Norepinephrine to 2 receptors, telling the
detrusor muscle to relax, and 1 receptors tell the internal urethral sphincter to
contract. CNS stimulate pudendal nerves to close external urethral sphincter.
If able to urinate, parasympathetic NS release Acetylcholine to M3 receptors, telling the
detrusor muscle to contract, and internal urethral sphincter to relax. CNS inhibits
pudendal nerve.

Where in the spinal cord are sympathetic nerves controlling the


bladder innervated? Parasympathetic nerves?
Lumbar level of spinal cord
Sacral level of spinal cord

If spinal cord is severed above L1, what happens to micturition


reflex?
What are the consequences?
Micturition is no longer inhibited by CNS
Lower bladder capacity, frequent emptying of bladder, loss of voluntary control.