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NARRATION
Narration means to mention something or a statement.
There are two types of narrations. DIRECT NARRATION & INDIRECT NARRATION
A speech may be given in two ways : Direct Form of Speech & Indirect Form of Speech.
For Example is a boy named Ali tells you something about himself, you will have to mention it with certain
changes. At that time you will not say to me that I go to Lahore every year, because if you mention actual
words of the speaker in front of somebody without any change, he will think that you go to Lahore every year
and that Ali was telling you about yourself. So , to explain him correctly you will have to mention the actual
words of Ali in your own words as,
Ali tells me that he goes to Lahore every year.
Like this listener can understand the meaning of the sentences well. Let us learn how to mention the
sentences in our way. For this we have to see few words.

DIRECT NARRATION:
Direct narration is the actual words of the speaker quoted in writing.

INDIRECT NARRATION:
To give the substance of the actual words of the speaker.

INVERTED COMMAS:

are used to mention the actual words of the speaker.

REPORTING SPEECH : It is that part of narration which is written outside the inverted commas, as, Ali says
to me,

REPORTED SPEECH : It is that part of the narration which is written inside the inverted commas, as, I go
to Lahore every year.

REPORTING VERB : It is the verb used in the reporting speech, as, Ali says to me,
REPORTED SPEECH : It is the verb used in the reported speech, as,
I go to Lahore every year.

DIRECT AND INDIRECT NARRATION


There are three main changes from Direct Narration To Indirect Narration.
PRONOUN CHANGE, VERB CHANGE , OTHER WORDS / ADVERB

PRONOUN CHANGE
FIRST PERSON PRONOUN
I
We

SECOND PERSON PRONOUN THIRD PERSON PRONOUN


You
He, She, It, They
You
Names (Ali Akram ETC)
Change according to subject of change according to object of
No change
Reporting speech

reporting speech

Rule No : o1 (FIRST PERSON) : I, Me, My, mine, us, our, ours


If there is First Person in reported speech, then it would be changed according to the subject of Reporting
speech.

For Example:DIRECT
INDIRECT
She says to us, I am ill.
She says to us that she is ill.
They say to you, We are doing our work.They say to you that they are doing their work.
He says to me, I go to home.
He says to me that he goes to home.
Ali says to him, I open the door.
Ali says to him that he opens the door.
She says to them, I teach English.
She says to them that she teaches English.
You say to me, I like it.
You say to me that you like it.

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Ahmed says to them, I drive the car.
Maria says to me, I remember you.

Ahmed says to them that he drives the car.


Maria says to me that she remembers me.

She says to me, we play game.


She says to me that they play game.
He says to them, we plant the trees.
He says to me that they plant the tree.
They say to her, we take tea.
They say to her that they take tea.
Ahmed says to him, we recite the Holy Quraan.
Ahmed says to him that they recite the
Holy Quraan.

EXERCISE NO: 01
1. He says to me, My Book is new.
He says to me that his book is new
2. Ali says to us We accuse of robbery
Ali says to us that they accuse of robbery.
3. She says to them,I purpose him.
=======that she purpose him.
4. You say to him, we develop the country.
You say that you develop the country.
5. He says to them, I discuss with them.
============ that he discuss with them.
6. Ahmed says to him, we are all deprive.
============== that they are all deprive.
7. Javed says to his friends, We defeat to our enemy.
============ that we defeat to our enemy.
8. Students say to teacher, We are not whispering.
=========== that we are not whispering.

Rule No : 02 ( SECOND PERSON) : You, You, Yours, Youre.


If there is second person in reported speech then it would be change according to object of the reporting
speech.

For Example :DIRECT

INDIRECT

He says to you, You are my good friend. He says to us that you are his good friend.
They say to us, You are great players. They say to us that we are great players.
He says to him, you are beautiful.
He says to him that he is beautiful.
She says to you, you laugh at him.
She says to you that you laugh at him.
Asad says to me, you are very
Asad says to me that I am very intelligent.
Intelligent.
They say to them, you are best players. They say to them that they are best
players.
You say, I respect my teachers.
You say that you respect your teachers.
You say, I love Pakistan.
You say that you love Pakistan.
He says to you, you please poor people.He says to you that you please poor
people.
You say to her, I polish my shoes.
You say to her that you polish your shoes.
We say to them, You waste your time. We say to them that they waste their time.

EXERCISE NO: 02
1. He says to you, you roam at night.
======== that you roam at night.
2. You say I stare him.
=====that you stare him.
3. We say to you, you swear now
======== that you swear then.
4. You say, You have to reform your personality.
========== that you have to reform your personality.
5. He says to you, you are performing well.
========that you are performing well.
6. They say to you, your mendate has stolen.

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========== that your mendate has stolen.
7. Teacher says to us, you preach for Goodness.
=========== that you preach for Goodness.
8. Uncle says to me, you are striving now.
========= that you recover by passing then.
9. Areej says to you, You recover by passing time.
=========== that you recover by passing time.
10. He says to him, you scold him against me.
============that you scold him against me.

Rule No : 03 ( THIRD PERSON) He, him, his, she, her, hers, it, its, they, them, their, theirs
There is no change in Third Person Pronouns.

For Example:DIRECT

INDIRECT

They say to you, He is playing well.


They say to you that he is playing well.
She says to him, They call me.
She says to him that they call her.
She say to me, she listens song.
She says to me that she listens song.
You say to him, we kill the snake.
You say to him that we kill the snake.
She say to her, Ahmed watches T.V.
She says to her that Ahmed watches T.V
She says to him, It falls from the building.
She says to him that it falls from the building.
They say to us, He punishes the student.They say to us that he punishes the student.
We say to him, She irons the clothes.
We say to him that she irons the clothes.
Ahmed say to Ali He accepts me.
Ahmed says to Ali that he accepts me.
Maria says to her, she can not forget me.Maria says to her that she can not forget me.
He say to me, He loves some one.
He says to me that he loves some one.

EXERCISE NO: 03
1. Aslam says, He is utter it.
====== that he is utter it.
2. They say, she offers us for lunch.
========that she offer them for lunch.
3. He says to them, they observe the experiment.
======== that they observe the experiment.
4. I say to you, He is involved in this crime.
========== that he is involved in this crime.
5. She says to them, they migrate from here.
===== that they migrate from here.
6. We say to nation, He is a corrupt man.
======= that he is a corrupt man.
7. They say, she is a great home-wife.
========= that she is great home-wife.
8. Teacher says to them, He is a lazy student.
===========that he is a lazy student.
9. hammad says, They are imposing on us.
========= That they are imposing on us.
10. I say to all, It is grazing in forest.
========== that it is grazing in forest.

TENSE CHANGE
Tense in reported speech is changed, when Reporting Speech is in Past Tense.

CHANGE IN MAIN TENSE


Present Indefinite Tense
For Example:-

Past Indefinite Tense


DIRECT

She said, I play well.


Ali said, I see him.
He said, He cross the river.

INDIRECT
She said that she played well.
Ali said that he saw him.
He said that he crossed the river.

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She said, I remember him.
She said that she remembered him.
They said to him, We follow Islamic Teachings.
They said that they followed Islamic teachings.
We said to her, we achieve our destiny.
We said to her that we achieved our destiny.
He said, We do it.
He said that they do it.
Majid said, I collect the stamps.
Majid said that he collected stamps.
Mehmood said, He likes your eyes.
Mehmood said that he liked your eyes.
Ayaz said, I climb on the tree.
Ayaz said that he climbed on tree.
He said, she like me.
He said that she like him.
He said, I write a letter

He said that he wrote a letter.

She said, he goes to school daily

He said that she went to school daily.

They said, we love our country

They said that they loved their country

He said, he does not like computer

He said that he did not like computer.

EXERCISE NO: 04
1. He said to him, they knock the door.
=========that they knock the door.
2. Alia said to her, I divorce him.
======= that she divorce him.
3. I said to them, he defends himself.
======== that he defends himself.
4. We said to them, We demand for frankness.
======== that we demanded for frankness.
5. You said to me, You introduce before them.
======= that I introduced before them.
6. He said, I provoke her.
=======that provoked her.
7. We said, You oppose of them.
======= that oppose of them.
8. He said, Ali musters it.
=======that Ali mustered it.
9. I said, We hang him.
======that we hanged him.
10. She said, I incite her.
======= that she incite her.

Present Continuous TensePast Continuous Tense


For Example :DIRECT
She said, I am reading the book.
He said, I am working at home.
They said, We are buying apples.
We said. they are earning money.
She said to my son, you are only
Wasting your time.
They said, He is telling a story.
Muneer said, My tears are calling him.
Kiran said, She is remembering me.
Ajmal said, She is accusing on me.
He said, I am cheating her.
They said, we are changing home.

EXERCISE NO: 05
1. They said, We are reviewing match.

INDIRECT
She said that she was reading the book.
He said that he was working at home.
They said that they were buying apples.
We said that they were earning money.
She said to my son that he was only wasting his time.
They said that he was telling a story.
Muneer said that his tears were calling
Him.
Kiran said that she was remembering her.
Ajmal said that she was accusing on him.
He said that he was cheating her.
They said that they were changing home.

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======that they were reviewing match.
2. He said, You are allocating police officer.
=======that you were allocating the police officer.
3. Teacher said, I am leading you to Islam.
==========that he was leading you to Islam.
4. Ammar said, He is scoffing at him.
=======that he was scoffing at him.
5. They said, We are perturbing them.
====== that they were perturbing them.
6. She said, He is amusing here.
======that he was amusing there.
7. I said, I am appearing my photo.
======== that I was appearing my photo.
8. You said, He is borrowing his car.
======= that he was borrowing his car.
9. We said, Molecules are colliding with each other.
======= that molecules were colliding with each other.
10. Asad said, We are comparing all colours.
======= that they were comparing all colours.

Present Perfect Tense Past Perfect Tense


For Example :DIRECT
They said, We have bought the home.
He said, I have gone to Shikarpur.
She said, We have written a letter.
We said, they have milked they cow.
Saira said, I have washed clothes.
They said, you have reached at home.
You said, She prepared lunch.
Waseem said, sajid has taken mobile.
He said to you, He have waited of me.
They said to me, We have forgotten them.

INDIRECT
They said that they had bought the home.
He said that he had gone to Shikarpur.
She said that they had written a letter.
We said that they had milked the cow.
Saira said that she had washed the clothes.
They said that you had reached at home.
You said that she had prepared lunch.
Waseem said that sajid had taken mobile.
He said to you that she had waited of him.
They said to me that they had forgotten them.

EXERCISE NO: 06
1. He said, I have attributed this song to him.
======= that he had attributed this song to him.
2. I said, He has complained for misbehaved.
======= that he had complained for misbehaved.
3. You said, We have escaped from prison.
======== that you had escaped from prison.
4. They said, She has resigned from college.
=========that she had resigned from college.
5. Akhtar said, I have done it.
========= that he had done it.
6. Peon said, I have contacted with driver.
========= that he had contacted with driver.
7. Crew said, We have designed the map.
=========== that they had designed the map.
8. Ali said, Flock has passed over the sky.
======== that flock had passed over the sky.
9. Shopkeeper said, I have consumed sugar.
======= that he had consumed sugar.

Present Perfect Continuous Tense Past Perfect Continuous Tense


For Example :DIRECT

INDIRECT

We said, They have been writing the book for threeWe said that they had been writing the book for
months.
three months.
He said to me, I have been for waiting
He said to me that he had been waiting
you since morning.
for me since morning.
They said, We have been traveling for
They said that they had been traveling
Two hours.
For two hours.
She said, He has been weaping for one
She said that he had been weaping for one week.

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Week.
We said, They have been showing result since evening.
We said that they had been showing result since evening.
Zuhaib said, I have been making assignment sinceZuhaib said that he had been making assignment since midnight.
midnight.
You said, He have been walking for 30 minutes. You said that he had been walking for 30 minutes.
He said, It has been flying since
He said, it had been flying since morning.
morning.
Ahmar said, you have been praising her for an hour.
Ahmar said that you had been praising her for an hour.

EXERCISE NO: 07
1. He said, We have been flattering the guests since morning.
===== that they had been flattering the guests since morning.
2. I said, He has been obtaining good marks for two weeks.
======= that he had been obtaining good marks for two weeks.
3. He said, We have been sending delegation for dialogue since morning.
======= that we had been sending delegation for dialogue since morning.
4. We said, He has been labbling us since long.
======= that he had been labbling us since long.
5. They said, I have been cackling at her for half an hour.
======== that I had been cackling at her for half an hour.
6. Teacher said, She has been surviving hard since last night.
======= that she had been surviving hard since last night.
7. We said, It has been leaking from one hour.
======= that it had been leaking for one hour.
8. You said, You have been auctioning this home since last Year.
======= that you had been auctioning this home since last Year.
9. I said, I have been working at him since last week.
======= that I had been working at him since last week.
10. He said, It has been tramping for one month.
========= that it had been tramping for one month.

CHANGE IN BRANCH
Past Indefinite Tense Past Perfect Tens
For Example:DIRECT

INDIRECT

They said, He sang a song very sweetly.


Ahmed said, She called him.
She said, I spent money.
They said, We forbade them.
You said, She punished you.
He said, They took decision.
Sanam said, Salma advised me.
Aslam said, He swept the Mosque.
We said, they learnt English.

They said that he had sung a song very


sweetly.
Ahmed said that she had called him.
She said that she had spent money.
They said that they had forbidden them.
You said that she had punished you.
He said that they had taken decision.
Sanam said that salma had advised her.
Aslam said that he had swept the Mosque.
We said that they had learnt English.

EXERCISE NO: 08
1. He said, I have expected good.
===== that I had expected good.
2. You said, He rejected him.
===== that he rejected him.
3. We said, They acted on.
===== that they had acted on.
4. She said, I confessed him.
===== that she had confessed him.
5. He said, She consoled me.
===== that they had consoled me.
6. They said, We devoted for country.
======== that they had devoted for country.
7. I said, He abolished the corruption.
====== that he had abolished the corruption.
8. Ahmed said, Neha convinced to him.
======== that Neha had convinced to him.

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9. You said, I approved my honesty.
===== that you approved your honesty.
10. We said, You dethroned mistakenly.
====== that you dethroned mistakenly.

Past Continuous Tense


For Example:-

Past Perfect Continuous Tense


DIRECT

She said, I was waiting here.


They said, we were condoling him.
Aslam said, Ali was running at street.
We said, He was boiling eggs.
she said, we were repairing mobile.
He said, it was raining outside.
They said, Uroosa was decorating
Herself.
Police man said, Thief was stealing
Watch.
He said, cobbler was mending the
shoes.
She said, I was enjoying with my
friends.

INDIRECT
She said that she had been waiting there.
They said that they were condoling him.
Aslam said that Ali had been running at
street.
We said that he had been boiling eggs.
She said that they had been repairing
mobile.
He said that it had been raining outside.
They said that Uroosa had been decorating
herself.
Police man said that thief had been
Stealing watch.
He said that cobbler had been mending
Shoes.
She said that she had been enjoying with
Her friends.

EXERCISE NO: 09
1. He said, It was bleeding.
====== that it had been bleeding.
2. I said, He was breathing well at forestry place.
===== that he had been breathing well at forestry place.
3. They said, Police annihilating on masses at night.
======= that police had been annihilating on masses at night.
4. She said, I was making tea.
====== that she had been making tea.
5. We said, They were composing music.
====== that they had been composing music.
6. He said, She was realizing her mistakes.
====== that she had been realizing mistakes.
7. You said, You were reaching home
====== that you had been reaching home.
8. Ali said, We were spending time well.
====== that they had been spending time well.
9. Alia said, He was mending shoes.
===== that he had been mending shoes.
10. I said, You were teasing him.
====== that you had been teasing him.

Past Perfect Tense Same (Past Perfect Tense)


For Example:DIRECT
She said, I had written two letters.
They said, we had arrived here.
Zakir said, They had painted their
house.
He said, I had watered the plants.
She said, Aqsa had offered Namaz.
Ali said, It had flown on the sky.
We said, Army had controlled our
Country.
They said, Shopkeeper had mixed water
in milk.

INDIRECT
She said that she had written two letters.
They said that they had arrived there.
Zakir said that they had painted their
house.
He said that he had watered the plants.
She said that Aqsa had offered Namaz.
Ali said that it had flown on the sky.
We said that Army had controlled our
country.
They said that shopkeeper had mixed water in the
milk.

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He said, Doctor had seen many patients.
Akhtar said, Afridi had caught the ball.

He said that Doctor had seen many patients.


Akhtar said that Afridi had caught the
ball.

EXERCISE NO: 10
1. We said, Our country had started to develop.
======= that our country had started to develop.
2. I said, He had fallen from tree.
====== that he had fallen from tree.
3. They said, Pak had won the series.
======= that Pak had won the series.
4. She sad, He had fought against evils.
======= that he had fought against evils.
5. You said, They had invested money.
===== that they had invested money.
6. Akram said, Almas thrown shoes at Ahmar.
====== that Almas had thrown shoes at Ahmar.
7. She said, He had learned from his past.
====== that he had learned from his past.
8. I said, You had ignored them.
==== that you had ignored them.

Past Perfect Continuous Same (Past Perfect Continuous)


For Example:DIRECT

INDIRECT

She said, I had been working since morning.


She said that she had been working since morning.
They said, we had been working here since long. They said that they had been working since long.
She said, He had been working here since midnight.
She said that he had been working there
Since midnight.
He said, I had been maintaining the
He said that he had been maintaining the program for
program for 2 hours.
2 hours.
You said, He had been obeying them
You said that he had been obeying them
for one month.
For one month.
Ahmed said, I had been irritating him
Ahmed said that he had been irritating
since afternoon.
Him since afternoon.
We said, They had been discussing since sunset.We said that they had been discussing
since sunset.
They said, He had been delivering letter
They said that he had been delivering the letter for one
for one month.
month
He said, I had been writing letter since
He said that he had been writing letter since 11 o clock.
11 o clock.

EXERCISE NO: 11
1. He said, The sun had been shining since morning.
======= that the sun had been shining since morning.
2. You said, He had been cutting fruits for half an hour.
==== that he had been cutting fruits for half an hour.
3. We said, You had been laughing for 10 minutes.
====== that you had been laughing for 10 minutes.
4. He said, Books had been lying on table since last Year.
==== that books had been lying on table since last Year.
5. She said, An older had been begging since morning.
===== that an older had been begging since morning.
6. They said, The ship had been drowning for one clock.
===== that the ship had been drowning for one clock.
7. Nimha said, He had been waiting since long.
===== that he had been waiting since long.
8. I said, Noshad had been ringing for weak.
========that Noshad had been ringing for weak.
9. He said, You had been governing for 16 Years.
====== that you had been governing for 16 Years.
10. You said, She had been cooking for 1 Clock.

FUTURE TENSE
Shall Would
For Example:-

DIRECT

INDIRECT

She said, I shall do it.


He said, I shall join you.
Mother said, you shall come here.
She said, He shall read book.
Maria said, I shall remember you.
You said, He will assist me.
Ali said, I shall come here tomorrow.
They said, we shall buy eggs.

She said that she would do it.


He said that he would join you.
Mother said that you would go there.
She said that he would arrange party.
Maria said that she would remember you.
You said that he would assist me,
Ali said that he would go there next day.
They said that they would buy eggs.

EXERCISE NO: 12
1. He said, She shall discourage you.
======= that she would discourage you.
2. He said, They shall respect us.
===== that they would respect us.
3. She said, I shall edit his picture.
====== that she would edit his picture.
4. They said, He will do react Na with H2O.
======== that he would do react Na with H2O.
5. You said, She will be cause of conflictions.
====== that she would be cause of conflictions.
6. We said, We shall inspire them.
=====that we would inspire them
7. They said, We shall satisfy the jury.
======that they would satisfy the jury.
8. Aslam said, I shall record his voice.
==== that he would record his voice.
9. Zubair said, They will conquer their enemy.
===== that they would conquer their enemy.
10. You said, He will rise early in the morning.
======that he would rise early in the morning.

Will Would
For Example:DIRECT

INDIRECT

He said to you, She will win the match.

He said to you that she would win the match.

EXERCISE NO: 13

MODAL VERBS
Can

Could

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For Example:DIRECT

INDIRECT

He said to her, You can swim well.


She sai to me, you can write a letter.

He said to her that she could swim well.


SHE SAID TO ME THAT I COUld write
a letter.
He told him that he could play a circket

He said to him, you can play a CIRKET


GAME
They said she can sing a song.
She said to Ali you can not call me.
Sha said to her motherHe can ask a question.
He said Khalid can speak sindhi.
Ali told Wali you can rest now.
He said to her you can use my ear
phones.
Her mother said Amber can move this
The principal said to him, I can dimiss
You.

game,

They said that she could sing a song.


She told to Ali that he could not call her/
She told her mother that he could ask a question.
He said that Khalid could speak sindhi.
Ali told Wali that he could rest then.
He told her that she could use his ear
Phones.
heavy stone
Her mother said that Amber could move
That heavy stone.
The principal said to him that he could
Dismiss you.

I said, The chief Minister can appoint


I said that The chief Minister could
You.
appoint him.
He said to her, Your teacher can punish
He told her that her teach could punish
You.
Punish her.
He said, You can use my computer
She said that I could use his computer.
She said to her mother, Rehana can compose poetry.
She told her mother that Rehana could compose poetry.
Doctor said to her, You can eat
Doctor told her that she could eat every
Every thing.
thing.
He said, I can sacrifice my life for my country. He said that he could sacrifice his life for his country.
My father said, you can lessen your
My father said I could lessen my extra expenditure
extra expenditure.
My teacher said, He can achieve
My teacher said that he could achieve success.
success.
Ali said to me, you can phone me at any
Ali told me that I could phone him at any
Time.
time.
He said to me, Beejal can speak
He told me that Beejal could speak
English fluently.
English fluently.
They said, we can plan fair politics by
They said that they could play fair
proper education.
Politics by proper education.

EXERCISE NO: 14
1. She said, I can threat to gangster.
===== that she could threat to gangster.
2. You said, They can abduct the white-coloured.
==== that they could abduct the white-coloured.
3. They said, We can warn him
===== that they could warn him.
4. I said, She can trust on you.
===== that she could trust you.
5. We said, You can investigate here.
===== that you could investigate there.
6. Uroosa said, He can analyze himself.
===== that he would analyze himself.
7. Majid said, I can identify you.
===== that he could identify you.
8. Anjum said, They can compete them.
===== that they could compete them.
9. Kiran said, He can bear all difficulties of life.
====== that he could bear all difficulties of life.
10. You said, Hari can commit it.
===== that Hari can commit it.

Could Could / Could Have


For Example:DIRECT

INDIRECT

They said, We could do it.

They said that they could do it

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OR They said that they could have done it.
He said to me, You could use the booklet of mine.He told me that I could have used the
booklet of his.
She said, Maria could cook delicious
She said that Maria could have cooked delicious food.
food.
Ali said, Ayaz could tell a lie.
Ali said that Ayaz could have told a lie.
He said, Abid could fight with his
He said that abid could have fought with
opponent.
his opponent.
She said, Zohaib could break this
She said that Zohaib could have broken
stone.
that stone.
She said to us, You could move this
She told us that we could have moved
heavy weight.
that heavy weight
Ali said to him, The teacher could
Ali told him that the teacher could have punished Akram.
punish Akram.
You said to him, I could dismiss him.
You told him that you could have
dismissed him.
She said, My dream could come true.
She said that that her dream could have
come true
The police said, Shakeel could prove
The police said that Shakeel could have proved himself true.
Himself true.
They said, We could not believe in
They said that they could not have
complete stranger.
believed in complete stranger.
He said to me, You could travel on foot.
He told me that he could have travel on
foot.
People said, Pakistan could win the
People said that Pakistan could have
Match.
won the match.
Shah Murad could not deposited money in the bank,
He told
saidme that Shah Murad could not have
he to me.
deposited money in the bank.
He said, Muneer could take his parents
He said that Muneer could have taken his parents to perform Hajj.
to perform Haji.
She said, she could brighten his future.
She said that she could have brighten his future.
He said to me, I could read a lesson.
He told me that he could have read a
lesson.
She said, I could play football.
She said that she could have played
Football.
He said, I could take tea.
He said that he could have taken tea.
She said, I could milk the cow.
She said that she could have milked the
Cow.

EXERCISE NO: 15
1. They said, Boys could arrange party.
===== that boys could have arranged party.
2. He said, My neighbours son could have accursed.
====== that his neighbouirs son could have accursed.
3. I said, He could cross the bridge.
====== that he could have cross the bridge.
4. You said, We could control the protest.
===== that you could have controlled the protest.
5. We said, She could keep food fresh.
====== that she could have kept food fresh.
6. He said, Teacher could punish him.
====== that teacher could have punished him.
7. She said, My son could walk in the park.
===== that her son could have walked in the park.
8. Ammir said, I could sell my conscience.
==== that he could have sold his conscience.
9. Nadir said, Furqan could care of Aleena.
===== that Furqan could have cared of Aleena.
10. I said, They could reach by 9 oclock.
====== that they could have reached by 9 oclock.

Note:- COULD also can be changed into Would be able to in Future.


COULD also changed into Had been able to In Past
In Permission Would Be allowed to

12

Should Should/ Should Have


For Example:DIRECT

INDIRECT

They said, We would do it.


You should respect elders, said he to
Me.
You should come to the office on time,
he said to her.
I should think about my future, said he
to me.
You should mind your own business,
He said to me.
We should take exercise daily, they
said to me.
We should feel our responsibilities.
They said.
The patient should take medicine on
time, I said.
You should give up smoking, said he
to me.
We should make the best use of time,
they said to me.
You should take care of your health, said he to
her.
We should help the destitute, they said to him.
The student should co-operate with
Teachers, he said.
Teachers should love their profession,
Said he to me.
They said, We all should serve our
country honestly and earnestly.
We should work hard for the country,
he said to me.
You should value the time, said Ali to her.
You should not waste time now Ali said to him.
Children should not play with mud, said ali to
them.
I should workhard for CSS Examination, I said
to her.
Girls should not come out without veil, she said
to him.

They said that they would have done it.


He told me that I should have respected
Elders.
He told her that she should have come to
the office on time.
He told me that he should have taught
about his future.
He told her that she should have minded his own business.
They told me that they should have taken
exercise daily.
They said that they should have felt their responsibilities.
I said that the patient should have taken medicine on time.
He told me that I should have given up smoking.
They told me that they should have made best
use of time.
He told her that she should have taken care of
her health.
They said to him that they should have helped the destitute.
He said that the students should have co-operated with
teachers.
He told me that teachers should have loved
Their profession.
They said that they all should have served their country
honestly and earnestly.
He told me that we should have worked hard for
the country.
Ali told her that she should have valued the time.
Ali told him that he should not wasted time.
Ali told them that children should not have played with mud.
I told her that I should have worked hard for the CSS
examination.
She told him that girls should not have come out without
veil.

EXERCISE NO: 16
1. Teacher said, You should work hard.
===== that you should have worked hard.
2. Father said, He should offer Namaz daily.
==== that he should have offered Namaz.
3. Uncle said, They should not speak loudly.
======= that they should not have spoken loudly.
4. We said, You should read autobiography of people.
==== that you should have read autobiography of people.
5. You said, He should increase his skills.
===== that he should have increased his skills.
6. She said, Iqra should continue her study.
===== that Iqra should have continued her study.
7. He said, You should follow your elders.
====== that you should have followed your elders.
8. Imran said, They should use Burgu Now.
===== that tey should have used Burgu Now.
9. Rehman said, He should leave old customs.
====== that he should left old customs.
10. Hussain said, We should return by tonight.
====== that we should have return by that night.

May Might
For Example:-

13

DIRECT

INDIRECT

I said to her, he may drive the car.


I said to her that he might drive the car.
She said to me, You may go now.
She told me that I might go then.
He said, he may marry this year.
He said that he might marry that year.
He said to me, it may rain today.
He told me that it might rain that day.
They said, We may meet again.
They said that they might meet again.
He said, My father may come tonight.
He said that his father might come that night.
She said to me, Maria may fail in the examination.
She told me that Maria might fail in the examination.
He said, Mumtaz may give up smoking
He said that Mumtaz might given up smoking.
Aslam said to his mother, I may not change my Aslam told his mother that he might not change his
clothes.
colthes.
Father said, Children may play here.
Father said that children might play there.
Mother said, Rabia may use this cream.
Mother said that Rabia might use that cram.
Dr. said, Patient may pass away.
Dr. said that patient might pass away.
She said, I may speak in English.
She said that she might speak in English.
I may earn 10 thousand per month, he said to He told her that he might earn 10 thousand per month.
her.
We may read stories books, they said to me . They told me that they might read stories.
Ali said, The children may watch zee horror
Ali said that the children might watch zee horror show.
show.
He said, she may dance in my marriage party. He said that she might dance in his marriage party.
They may not park here, he said to me.
He told me that they might not park there.
He said, You may go to Karachi.
He told that I might go to Karachi.
Father said, you may help me in my work.
Father said that I might help him in his work.
Ali said, You may get first position.
Ali said that I might get first position.

EXERCISE NO: 17
1. We said, It may rain today.
=====that it might rain that day.
2. You said, He may come in.
==== that he might come in.
3. He said, I may concentrate on my book.
===== that he might concentrate on his book.
4. Fariha said, She may apply there.
===== that she might apply there.
5. Soha said, They may repeat again.
====== that they might repeat again.
6. She said, We may delay later.
===== that we might delay later.
7. You said, He may recall you.
===== that he might recall you.
8. Erum said, I may differ it.
===== that she may differ it.
9. Shoaib said, Zobi may open books.
====== that Zobi might open books.
10. Zakir said, Faizan may watch program.
====== that Faizan might watch program.

Must Had to, Must have, Would have to.


For Example:DIRECT
They said to him, You must be honest.
We must be righteous, said they to us.
Your speech must be effective, said Aliu to me.

INDIRECT

They said to him that he had to be honest.


They told us that they had to be righteous.
Ali told me that my speech must have been
effective.
Our accent must be sweet, my father said to him.My father told me that our accent must have been
sweet.
You must go to see your aged parents said I to I told him that he must have gone to see his old
him.
parents.
Waqar must join Navy said he to me.
He told me that Waqar must have joined the navy.
He must be good citizen, said Ali to her.
Ali told her that he had to be good citizen.
Girls must have learn cooking, said she to her daughter.
She told her daughter that girls would have learnt cooking.
we must try again and again they said to us.
They told us that they had to try again and again.
we must pay our debts, said I to them.
I told them that we had to paid our debts.

14

EXERCISE NO: 18
1. He said, You must be religious.
==== that you had to be religious.
2. You said, He must be careful.
===== that he would have to be careful.
3. We said, Students must be responsible.
===== that students had to be responsible.
4. I said, You must furnish it.
=====that you had to furnish it.
5. She said, Kiran must be sincere.
======== that kiran had to be sincere.
6. They said, We must obey our elders.
====== that we would have to obey our elders.
7. You said, They must have keep silence.
====== that they must have kept silence.
8. We said, He must take exercise.
====== that he had to take exercise.
9. She said, You must be connected with media.
===== that you had to be connected with media.

(Sir / Madam) will be changed into Respectfully


For Example:DIRECT

INDIRECT

She said to her teacher, Madam, please do it for


She requested her teacher respectfully to do
me.
it for her.

EXERCISE NO: 19

Universal Truths OR Scientific Truths are kept same. There is no change even in words i.e Words
are kept same.
For Example:DIRECT

INDIRECT

The teacher said, The sun is a star.

The teacher said that the sun is a star.

He said, Earth moves around the sun He said that earth moves round the sun
They said, two and two makes four.
He said that two and two makes four.
We said, God is merciful
He said that God is merciful.
She said, For every reaction always reaction.
He said that for every reaction always a
reaction.
Teacher said, air is made up of different The teacher said that the air is made up of
gasses.
different gases.

15

EXERCISE NO: 20
1.THE TEACHER SAID, THE SUN IS THE CENTRE OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM.
THE TEACHER SAID THAT THE SUN IS THE CENTRE OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM.
2. MY FATHER SAID, HONESTY IS THE BEST POLICY.
3. THE PRINCIPAL SAID, VIRTUE IS ITS OWN REWARD.
4. HE SAID TO ME, KARACHI IS A SEA-PORT.
5. HENRY SAID HIS FRIEND, MAN IS MORTAL.
6. FATHER SAID TO HIS SON, GOD IS ONE.
7.

Quotations are also not altered


For Example:DIRECT

INDIRECT

She said, A rolling stone gathers no moss. She said that a rolling stone gathers no
moss.

EXERCISE NO: 21

OTHER- WORDS CHANGE


SCENERY (All Right, Well, Yes, No, & Hello ) Will Be Removed
For Example:DIRECT

INDIRECT

He said to us, No, You cannot take it easy.

He said to us that we could not take it easy.

EXERCISE NO: 22
Good morning, Good night, Good evening, Good afternoon, will be changed into GREETED
For Example:DIRECT

INDIRECT

He said, Good morning.

He greeted me with good morning OR


He wished good morning.

16

EXERCISE NO: 23

Ago Before
For Example:DIRECT

INDIRECT

Aslam said, My father died a year ago

Aslam said that his father had died a year


before/ previous year.

EXERCISE NO: 24
1. He said, Mobile invented 32 years ago.
===== that mobile invented 32 years before.
2. She said, First Material was taken 62 Years ago.
==== that first Material was taken 62 years before.
3. Teacher said, Miss Hellen Keller came 15 years ago.
==== that Miss Hellen Keller came 15 years before.
4. He said, My baby born five years ago.
===== that his baby born five years before.
5. She said, I took admission here ten years ago.
==== that she took admission there ten years before.
6. You said, They were in opposition a year ago.
===== that they were in opposition a year before.
7. I said, He visited Makli five months ago.
====== that he visited makli five months before.
8. They said, We used to live here 10 years ago.
===== that they used to live there 10 years before.
9. We said, He built this building 50 years ago.
===== that he built that building 50 years before.
10. I said, He had to go one year ago.
===== that he had to go one year before.
11. He said, Trailer of the film released 2 days ago.
===== that trailer of the film released 2 days before.
12. You said, He was gone two weak ago.
====== that he was gone two weak before.
13. Teacher said, This College has started 15 years ago.
===== that that College has started 15 years before.

Today That day


For example:DIRECT

INDIRECT

We said to them, It is a very sunny today.

We said to them that it was very sunny that


day.

17

EXERCISE NO: 25
1. He said, It may rain today.
==== that it might rain that day.
2. They said, We demand to come today.
====== that they demanded to come that day.
3. You said, He wanted to go today.
====that he wanted to go that day.
4. I said, I will see you today.
====== that I would see you that day.
5. He said, You can alert them today.
===== that you could alert them that day.
6. We said, He shall come today.
===== that he would come that day.
7. You said, I may meet today.
===== that I might meet that day.
8. Ali said, He should join today.
===== that he should have joined that day.
9. Aliza said, Guests have to come today.
===== that guests had to come that day.
10. I said, He may play game today.
===== that he might play game that day.
11. They said, We will perform Haj today.
===== that they would perform haj that day.
12. Vistor said, We cannot move forward today.
===== that they could not move forward that day.
13. Neha said, Train has to reach today.
==== that train had you reach that day.

This That
For Example:DIRECT

INDIRECT

She said to you, I can do this work.

She said to you that she could do that work.

EXERCISE NO: 26
1.He said, I may carry this stone.
===== that he might carry that stone.
2. They said, This is our school.
===== that that is their school.
3. She said, Ahmed likes this place.
===== that he liked that place.
4. We said, They like this dress.
====== that they like that dress.
5. She said, Pakistans Capital is this.
===== that Pakistans Capital is that.
6. You said, He wants to see this park.

18
===== that he wanted to see that park.
7. I said, You can easily pass through this street.
====== that you could easily pass through that street.
8. Teacher said, He may climb on this tree.
===== that he might climb on that tree.
9. They said, We like building like this.
====== that we liked building like that.
10. Amir said, He can solve this sum.
==== that he could solve that sum.
11. You said, She arrested near this bar.
===== that she was arrested near that bar.
12. Mehmood said, I can buy this watch.
===== that he could buy that watch.
13. Ayaz said, Nadir caught fish from this sea.
===== that Nadir has caught fish from that sea.
14. Father said, Son you should follow this person.
==== that son you should have followed that person.

These Those
For Example:DIRECT

INDIRECT

They said to her, we like these birds.

They said to her that they liked those birds.

EXERCISE NO: 27
1. Ali said, They like these people.
===== that they liked those people.
2. Ahmed said, He goes there to see these shops.
===== that he went there to see those shoes.
3. Akbar said, I can know these are important or not.
==== that I could know those are important or not.
4. I said, You may ignore these questions.
====== that you might ignore those questions.
5. He said, He can sell these fruits.
===== that you could sell those fruits.
6. You said, They will reject these points.
====== that they would reject those points.
7. We said, He measures these objects.
===== that he measured those objects.
8. He said, We support all these poor.
==== that we support all those poor.
9. They said, He shall improve these offers.
===== that he would improve those offers.
10. She said, Virus is impacting on these cities.
===== that virus was impacting on those cities.
11. I said, He imagines always for these sceneries.
===== that he imagined always for those sceneries.
12. He said, I am interested to read these Novels.
===== that he was interested to read those Novels
13. Teacher said, He is able to move these stones.
===== that he was able to move those stones.
14. Mehran said, They could come to see these paintings.
====== that they could have to see those paintings.

Here There
For Example:-

19

DIRECT

INDIRECT

Ali said to his mother, you waited here.

Ali said to his mother that she had waited


there.

EXERCISE NO: 28
1. He said, I may stay here for two days.
====== that he might stay there for two days.
2. She said, They can follow you if you come here.
==== that they could follow you if you go there.
3. Ali said, He was running from here.
==== that he had been running to there.
4. We said, She investigates from here to end.
====== that she investigated from there to end.
5. Mehar said, I can help you only here.
====== that he could help you only there.
6. They said, We are here to inform you.
===== that they were there to inform you.
7. I said, He is going from here to hyd.
===== that he was going from there to hyd.
8. Fisherman said, I catch fish here
===== that he caught fish there.
9. Policeman said, Crime committed here.
===== that crime had committed there.
10. They said, We come here every summer.
==== that they go there every summer.
11. He said, I am meeting here again.
==== that he was meeting there then.
12. Aisha said, They can live here for 2 months.
==== that they could live here for 2 months.
13. He said, Your cycle is here.
==== that their cycle was there.
14. Amna said, She likes to meet here.
===== that she liked to meet there.

Now Then
For Example:DIRECT

INDIRECT

Fatima said to you, I can not bear the insult now.


Fatima said to you that she could not bear the insult
then.

EXERCISE NO: 29
1. They said, We are extremely busy now.
==== that they were extremely busy then.
2. She said, You must leave now.
==== that you had to leave then.
3. We said, Television is now main source of news.
====== that television was then main source of news.
4. He said, They should now watch.

20
===== that they should have then watch.
5. I said, She may discuss now.
==== that she might discuss then.
6. You said, He can lead them now.
===== that he could lead them then.
7. Aqeel said, You should lend him house now.
==== that you should lend him house then.
8. Shehroz said, He has locked the door now.
===== that he had locked the door then.
9. Ahmed said, She is gathering clothes now.
==== that she was gathering clothes then.
10. Master said, I have authorized them now.
===== that he had authorized them then.
13. Teacher said, Science can discover many things now.
==== that science could discover many things then.
14. Asad said, Property has divided between you now
==== that property had divided between you then.

Yesterday Previous day / day before / last day


For Example:DIRECT

INDIRECT

We said to him, they called us yesterday.

We said him that they had called us last day.

EXERCISE NO: 30
1. He said, Examination has taken yesterday.
==== that examination had taken last day.
2. Ali said, Alia went yesterday.
==== that Alia had gone last day.
3. They said, He met with me yesterday.
===== he had met with me last day.
4. We said, She cooked food delicious yesterday.
===== that she had cooked food delicious last day.
5. She said, He has left yesterday early.
==== that he had left last day early.
6. He said, They awoke yesterday at 7 oclock.
==== that they had awoken last day at 7 oclock.
7. I said, She departed to England yesterday.
==== that she had departed to England last day.
8. We said, No one could break this stone yesterday.
===== that No one could break that stone that day.
9. He said, We are doing our work since yesterday.
==== that we were doing our work since last day.
10. Teacher said, Students taught grammar yesterday.
==== that students had taught grammar last day.

Tonight That night


For Example:DIRECT

INDIRECT

He said to us, it is cold to night.

He said to us that it was cold that night.

21

EXERCISE NO: 31
1. Officer said, Meeting is holding tonight.
==== that meeting was holding that night.
2. Hamza said, I shall observe it tonight.
==== that I would observe it tonight.
3. Ali said, He may come to receive me tonight.
==== that he might come to receive him that night.
4. I said, You can spend time with him tonight.
==== that you could spend time with him that night.
5. He said, They had decided to go to night.
==== that they had been decided to go that night.
6. They said, He must have to be here tonight.
===== that he must have to be there that night.
7. Imran said, You have invited tonight.
==== that you had invited that night.
8. He said, They will repair car tonight.
==== that they would repair car that night.
9. Aliza said, She entertains us tonight.
==== that she entertained us that night.
10. I said, We explain it tonight.
==== that we explained it that night.
11. He said, I can refuse you tonight.
==== that he could refuse you that night.
12. They said, You should control otherwise you will be controlled tonight.
They said that you should have controlled otherwise you would be controlled.

Tomorrow
(Following) The Next day, Coming day
For Example:DIRECT

INDIRECT

They said to us, We shall go there


tomorrow.

They told us that they would go there the


following day.

EXERCISE NO: 32
1. They said, We shall come tomorrow.
==== that they would come coming day.
2. Teacher said, He will get free tomorrow.
===== that he would get free next day.
3. Ali said, He cannot utter this tomorrow.
==== that he could not utter that next day.
4. He said, I shall bring gift tomorrow.
==== that he would bring gift next day.
5. They said, We would expel him tomorrow.
===== that we would have expelled him next day.
6. We said, Nothing will assure him tomorrow.
==== that nothing would assure him next day.
7. He said, Ali will abjure to his teacher tomorrow.
==== that Ali would abjure to his teacher next day.
8. They said, We shall daunt to his order tomorrow.
===== that we would daunt to his order next day.
9. You said, He may boycott tomorrow.
=== that he might boycott next day.
10. We said, They can borrow its base tomorrow.

22
===== that they could borrow its base next day.
11. She said, He will bruit himself tomorrow.
==== that he would bruit himself next day.
12. He said, Ahmed may chunter to him tomorrow.
==== that Ahmed might chunter to him next day.
13. They said, We shall disburse tomorrow".
=== that they would disburse next day.
14. Ali said, She could drop herself tomorrow.
=== that she could have dropped herself coming day.

Hence So / Thence
For Example:DIRECT

INDIRECT

He said, We have completed it thence we are He


freesaid that they had completed it so / thence they
now.
were free then.

EXERCISE NO: 33
1. He said, I am engaged hence forget you.
=== that I had engaged so forget you.
2. She said, He wants to meet you hence he is here.
=== that he wanted to meet you so he was there.
3. They said, We have grieved them hence we say sorry.
=== that we had grieved them so we said sorry.
4. We said, She ignited them hence they fight.
===== that she ignited them so they fought.
5. You said, Ali hyped me hence he demands for money.
==== that Ali had hyped him so he demanded for money.
6. I said, We interject him first hence he can get haste.
==== that we interject him first so he could get haste.
7. He said, I judged them hence they are not followed.
=== that he had judged them so they were not followed.
8. We said, he is jiving hence he is happy.
==== that he was jiving so he was happy.
9. They said, He is jested with him hence he is upset.
=== that he was jested with him so he was upset.
10. She said, They irked them hence they got pleasure.
==== that they had irked them so they had got pleasure.
11. Mother said, She ironed the clothes hence she takes rest.
=== that she had ironed the clothes so she took rest.
12. They said, We are mooting hence to prove reality.
==== that we were mooting so to prove reality.
13. Zohab said, I molested her hence felt uncomfortable.
==== that he molested her so felt uncomfortable.
14. He said, We are linking hence they can meet.
=== that we were linking so they could meet.

Thus So
For Example:DIRECT

INDIRECT

He said, I am ill thus I need rest.

He said that he was ill so he needed rest.

23

EXERCISE NO: 34
1. He said, She facilitates him thus he passes it.
==== that she facilitated him so he passed it.
2. They said, You extracted them thus he cannot return.
=== that you had extracted them so he could not return.
3. She said, I endeared him thus he helps m.
=== that I had endeared him so he helped him.
4. We said, They frost here thus they cant more.
==== that we frosted these so they could not more.
5. He said, We frill the lights thus it attracts.
==== that we frilled the lights so it attracted.
6. They said, We have kept fast thus pray Allah.
==== that they had kept fast so prayed of Allah.
7. You said, they attend party thus he exults.
==== that they attended party so he exulted.
8. We said, He try to faff us thus he robb.
=== that he tried to faff us so he robbed.
9. I said, You can please him thus joke.
==== that you could please him so joke.
10. They said, We shall work hard thus can defeat others.
==== that we would work hard so can defeat others.
11. Aslam said, We shall go Murree thus we enjoy.
==== that we would go to murree so we enjoyed.
12. He said, I help him thus he encourage.
==== that he helped him so he encouraged.

Need Need
For Example:DIRECT

INDIRECT

He said, he need not wait.

He said that he need not wait. OR He said


that he did not need to wait.

EXERCISE NO: 35

Note:- Need Not is also changed into did not have


IF THERE BE NEED I , NEED YOU, NEED HE? THEN IT WOULD BE CHANGED INTO HAD TO
For Example:DIRECT

INDIRECT

Need I finish my work?, the servant asked. The servant asked if he had to finish work.

24

EXERCISE NO: 36

Ought to
For Example:DIRECT

INDIRECT

The Principal ought/ should visit the college every


I said that the principal ought to / should visit the
day, I said.
college every day.

EXERCISE NO: 37

SENTENCES OF DIFFERENT KIND


RULES FOR ASSERTIVE / DECLARATIVE / AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCE
Rule No : 01 : Sentence structure in Assertive sentence remain same. Where as Tense is changed
according to Tense Change rule.
For Example:DIRECT
He said, I am ill.

INDIRECT
He said that he was ill.

25

EXERCISE NO: 38

STRUCTURE:
I am ill
S+V+C
TENSE :
I am ill
He was ill

He was ill
S+V+C
( Present Continuous Tense)
(Past Continuous Tense)

NEGATIVE :
He said, I am not ill.
He said that he was not ill.
STRUCTURE:
I am not ill
S+V+NOT+C

He was not ill.


S+V+Not+C

TENSE
I am not ill
He was Not ill

(Present Continuous Tense)


( Past Continuous Tense)

RULES FOR INTERROGATIVE SENTENCE


There are two types of words which we can use for INTERROGATIVE Sentence.
INTERROGATIVE
FUNCTIONAL VERBS
Is, Am , Are
Was ,Were
Have, Has
Had
Do, Does
Did
Shall Should
Will Would
May Might
Must Ought to
Need Dare
(If , Whether ) Are Used in Place
That

WH-WORDS + HELPING VERBS


What
Which
Whom
Whose
Where
When
Why
How
How Much
How Many
How Long
There is no change in WH Words
THAT is Not Inserted

RULE NO: 01: Introduce the reported speech by adding If or Whether


RULE NO: 02: In Functional Words IF, Whether Are used in place of That
RULE NO: 03: Drop IF or Whether when the question begins with WH- Words.
RULE NO: 04: There is no change in WH-Words. That is not used in WH-Words.
RULE NO: 05: In INTERROGATIVE Sentence, Structure Becomes Declarative / Assertive. And Tense is
changed according to Tense Change Rule.
RULE NO: 06: Said will be converted into question Words (ASKEDM INQUIRED & INVESTIGATED, ETC)

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USE OF FUNCTIONAL VERBS


For Example:DIRECT

INDIRECT

Sohail said, Are you going?

Sohail asked if they were going.

EXERCISE NO: 39

STRUCTURE:
Are they going?
H.V + S + M.V
TENSE:
Are they going?
They were going?

They were going


S + H.V + M.V
(Present Continuous)
(Past Continuous)

USE OF WH-WORDS
For Example:
DIRECT

INDIRECT

He said, Where Ali was?

He asked where Ali was?

EXERCISE NO: 40

27

STRUCTURE:
Where
is
WH-Word + H.V/M.V+

Ali ?
S ?

Where
Ali
was ?
WH-Word + S + M.V ?

RULES FOR IMPERATIVE SENTENCES


Imperatives are those which shows ORDER, REQUEST, PROHIBITION, ADVICE, DIRECTION, FORBID,
IMPLORE, IVITE, RECOMMENDATION, REMINDER, WARNING, ENTREATING, BEGGING, URGE, TELL,
ENCOURAGEMENT.

FORMULA : 1st Form of Verb

+ Object

ORDER
+
Verb

Complement

For Example:DIRECT

INDIRECT

He said, Stand up.

He ordered to stand up.

EXERCISE NO: 41

STRUCTURE:
Formula:
Vi+ Object
Vi+Complement
Vi+

Subject +Ordered+ To+Object


Subject+Ordered +To+Vi+Complement
Subject+Ordered +To+Vi

RULE NO.01: Sometimes that is used to introduce Indirect Speech. In such cases That is followed by
SHOULD

RULE NO.02 : That is not used.


RULE NO.03 : Said is converted into Ordered / Commanded
RULE NO.04 : In imperative sentence sometimes we get a sentence beginning with LET. It is used in the
sense of : As Proposal , For Permission, For Condition.
NOTE: This word Let is treated in different ways according to the sense it conveys.

DIRECT

REQUEST
INDIRECT

28

EXERCISE NO: 42

Formula:
Please + Vi+ Object
Subject + Requested + To + Vi + Object
Please + Vi + Complement
Subject + Requested+ To+Vi+ Complement
Please+Vi
Subject +Requested+To+Vi
RULE NO.01 : Please will be removed.
RULE NO.02 : Said is converted into Request, Submitted, Pleaded etc.
RULE NO.03 : First Form Of Verb Carries To with it as infinitive.

For Example:
DIRECT

INDIRECT

He said, Please forgive me.

He requested to forgive him.

EXERCISE NO: 43

PROHIBITION
Formula :
Dont + Vi+ Object
Dont + Vi+Complement
Dont + Vi

Subject + Forbade +To + Vi + Object


Subject+Forbade+To+Vi+Complement
Subject+ Forbade+To+Vi

RULE NO.01 : Dont is removed


RULE NO.02 : Said is Converted into Prohibited / Forbade.
RULE NO.03 : To is used as Infinitive.
For Example:

29

DIRECT

INDIRECT

He said, Dont ask silly questions.

He forbade to ask silly questions.

EXERCISE NO: 44

ADVICE / DIRECTION / SUGGESTION / URGE


Formula:
Vi+Object
Vi+Complement
Vi

Subject+Advised/Directed/Suggested/Urged/+To+Vi+Object
Subject+Advised/Directed/Suggested/Urged/+To+Vi+Complement
Subject+Advised/Directed/Suggested/Urged/+To+Vi

RULE NO.01: Said is converted into Direct, Suggested, Advised, Urge Etc
RULE NO.02: To is used as infinitive.
For Example:
DIRECT
He said to me, Take medicine on time.

EXERCISE NO: 45

INDIRECT
He suggested me to take medicine on time.

30

RULES FOR OPTATIVE SENTENCE


RULE NO.01: That is not removed That is used.
RULE NO.02: Would That is removed.
RULE NO.03: To said is converted into Wished
For Example:
DIRECT

INDIRECT

He said to us, Would that I were king.

He wished before us that he had been a king.

EXERCISE NO: 46

RULE NO.01: May is converted into Might


RULE NO.02: Said is converted into Prayed
For Example:
DIRECT

INDIRECT

He said to us, May you live long!

He prayed us that we might live long.

EXERCISE NO: 47

31

RULES FOR EXCLAMATORY SENTENCES


RULE NO.01: Alas is changed into Exclaimed with Sorrow / Grief
For Example:
DIRECT

INDIRECT

He said, Alas! My friend has died.

He exclaimed with sorrow that his friend had


died.

EXERCISE NO: 48

RULE NO.02: Oh is changed into Exclaimed with Surprise


For Example:
DIRECT

INDIRECT

He said, Oh! It is not good.

He exclaimed with surprise that it was not


good.

32

EXERCISE NO: 49

RULE NO 03: Bravo is changed into Exclaimed with encouragement


For Example:
DIRECT

INDIRECT

He said, Bravo! You have done well.

He applauded him, saying that he had done


well.

EXERCISE NO: 50

RULE NO 04: Hurrah is changed into exclaimed with happiness.


For Example:
DIRECT

INDIRECT

He said, Hurrah! My son has qualified the


test.

He exclaimed with relief / Happiness that his


son had qualified the test.

33

EXERCISE NO: 51

RULE NO 05: What How are removed.


For Example:
DIRECT

INDIRECT

EXERCISE NO: 52

RULE NO 06: Very is used


RULE NO 07: Said is changed into Exclaimed OR Cried out
RULE NO 08: Sentence is put into Affirmative Structure.
For Example:

34

DIRECT

INDIRECT

He said, What a charming scene it is!

He exclaimed with delight that it was a very charming


scene.
She exclaimed that the flower was very
beautiful.

She said, How Beautiful the flower is!

EXERCISE NO: 53

Made By :
Nazim Wahid Soomro
Ulfat Soomro
M.A (Hons) English
M.Phill Sindhi Literature
M.Ed
With Special Thanks To
Mr. Abdul Hameed Khatti
Mr. Abid Khoso
And all my Sutdents Specially Mr.Zohaib
Soomro