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IS61B4
Pritha Pathak
1MS11IS078
Dr. Lingaraju G.M., Prashant Kambli
BCI-Aided Object Recognition
BCI, Artificial Neural Networks

Abstract
Brain Computer Interfaces enable direct communication between a human brain and an electrical
device. Human-machine interaction is a nascent, emerging field that relies solely on a subject's
intentional brain activity to generate commands. At the forefront of this technology is the
evolving world of adaptive machine learning paradigms and applications. Several applications of
BCI have been put forth and implemented this decade, we are seeing an era marked by wearable
and BCI-controlled devices. BCI technology is on the rise, being incorporated into gaming
technology, to produce music, control robots and drones, maneuver wheelchairs, for telepresence
robotic entities, among a whole host of amazing things.
So far, BCI technology has been employed in classifying the nature of an entity based on neural
feedback from an individual. In standard clinical protocols, Human EEG signals are
synchronized to an external cue and averaged over multiple trials in order to increase signal-tonoise ratio, and resolve spatial and temporal activation patterns.
My project would focus on object recognition. After raw asynchronous brain activity is
harnessed non-invasively, the EEG signals are filtered, and duly processed, the necessary P300
and VEP-related bands would be selected for further analysis. The BCI application will rely on
monitored adaptively classified brain wave patterns to be analyzed and translated into commands
or activities.
Measurements of accuracy, average maximum Beta wave amplitude, Beta wave activity, and
average response time will be used. A library would be populated during training. Such a library
would record a finite list of objects which would be mapped to a signature sequence of brain
waves, also known as mental states. P300 signals which indicate recognition would be sought
before triggering the object matching process activities. Visual short-term memory depends
heavily upon synchronized oscillatory activity of largely distributed neural networks over both
the sensory and prefrontal cortices of the brain, which are involved in sensory-processing as well
as short-term storage of visual information.
Traditionally, this would require large levels of concentration from the subject. However, since I
am attempting to utilize somatosensory modalities in my experiment, I expect less strain on the
subject when it comes to training and then testing the system. The reasoning behind this is that
this particular channel of EEG is less loaded which would facilitate filtering and subsequent

processing.
Object or pattern recognition within the human brain triggers for high Beta wave firing. It
follows that measuring Beta wave activity would be a passive measure of object recognition
within the brain, which would help in modeling strategies to implement object recognition using
software.
The response of the subject to the list of objects in the library, i.e., the user's target response in
terms of raw EEG data would need to be preprocessed in order to filter and condense them into
components carrying stimuli evoked potentials, most importantly those obtained from the
sensorimotor cortex area.
Object recognition activity would be implemented using supervised neural networking strategies.
The brain is a biological neural network: the original neural network which has inspired ANNs.
The most important task here is to do what a human easily does, but is difficult for a machine.
How would a machine begin to comprehend a mass of EEG signals and translate those into the
entity that instigated that pattern of brain waves in an individual? This is where artificial neural
networking paradigms are going to be implemented, for template matching purposes. Adaptive
machine learning is the key, a major tool. The system has to be adaptive and dynamic and change
according to the training provided by an individual during the library-population stage. This is
done by assigning weights to the objects. Supervised learning, which is a strategy that involves
training the system to infer rules from various given, defined mental states, so it can retrieve the
triggering entity at the testing stage.
The necessary equipment would consist of a bluetooth-enabled wireless headset, Emotiv EPOC,
and a computer. MATLAB and Java can be used in conjunction to implement the proposed object
recognition using BCI.

Expected Outcome
Object recognition will be implemented by mimicking how the human brain practices it. A BCIoriented approach to artificial neural networks will guide the process of template matching that is
the heart and soul of object recognition. It is expected that a system will be developed that can
store a library of at least three objects, their corresponding EEG signatures in an individual
subject, and subsequently recognize these same entities from the subject's EEG-signals. This
would improve the quality of life of those people who are physically challenged, or those who
are unable to effectively communicate their needs to their caregivers, like autistic children, or
people with mental disorders or conditions.