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Wildlife Conservation in India

Wildlife Conservation in India


Nature has always helped mankind flourish. But it is not just what immense bounties nature has given to
you. It is what you as a human being give back in return. An important question to ask yourself is, am I
concerned about nature. Does saving the wildlife and taking necessary actions for those on the brink of
extinction mean something to me? If it does, then come and join hands with Indian wildlife organisations to
help save mother earth.
The nature projects and programmes started by the Indian government like the Project Tiger, Nature Camps
and Jungle Lodges have been started to promote wildlife awareness among the common man. The projects
besides preserving our natural heritage, also encourage eco-tourism.
Significance of Wildlife Conservation
The wild creatures are a nature's gift which help embellish the natural beauty by their unique ways of
existence. But due to growing deforestation and negligence, their is a threat to the wildlife and it will require
special attention to save the world from loosing its green heritage.
Some of the government initiatives carried out to preserve this natural heritage include Project Tiger, one of
the most successful efforts in preserving and protecting the Tiger population. Gir National Park in Gujarat is
the only existing habitat for the nearly extinct Asiatic Lions in India. The Kaziranga Sanctuary in Assam is a
prime example of an effort to save the endangered Rhinoceros. Likewise, Periyar in Kerala is doing
appreciable work to preserve the wild Elephants while Dachigam National Park is fast at work to save the
Hangul or Kashmiri Stag.
Project Tiger
Launched in 1973-74, it has been one of the most successful ventures in recent times to protect the striped
predator. Under the same, a few sites in India were identified and named as Tiger Reserves. Special efforts
were then carried out in these reserves to save the tiger. Some of the main aims of Project Tiger are as
follows.

Elimination of all kinds of human activity in the core zones and minimisation of activity in the buffer
zone.
Assessing the damage done to the eco-system by human activity and efforts to recover it to its
original form.
Monitoring the changes taking place and studying the reasons for the same.

Initially just 9 reserves were brought under the project, a number which was increased to 27 in the year
2003. Recently a few more sites have been added to the list.
Plans are in progress to develop wireless communication systems to curb the problem of poaching. Steps like
the shifting of villages outside the core area, control of livestock grazing in tiger reserves and researching
data about environmental changes have also shown positive impact.
Bandhavgarh National Park
Bandipur National Park
Bannerghatta National Park
Corbett National Park
Dachigam National Park
Dudhwa National Park
Eravikulam National Park
Gir National Park
Hemis High Altitude National Park
Kanha National Park
Kaziranga National Park
Namdapha National Park

Nameri National Park


Panna National Park
Pin Valley National Park
Pench National Park
Periyar National Park
Rajaji National Park
Ranthambore National Park
Simlipal National Park
Sunderbans National Park
Sultanpur National Park
Great Himalayan National Park
Velavadar Blackbuck Sanctuary
Wild Ass Sanctuary

Corbett National Park


Facts
Location:
Area covered:
Main Wildlife Found:
Best time to visit:
Places To Stay

Uttaranchal, India
1200 sq. km.
Tiger, Leopard, Crocodile
February to May (The park remains closed from June 15 to November 15)
Claridges Corbett Hideaway, Corbett Riverside Resort, Quality Inn Corbett Jungle
Resort
For Tour Enquiry - Contact us

About Corbett National Park


Situated in the picturesque Kumaon hills in Nainital district, Corbett
National Park was the venue of the maiden launch of Project Tiger (1973).
The park has a core area of 520 sq. kms with picturesque hilly ridges
covered by sal trees. Lower down are the grasslands and bamboo growth. A
list of species reported from Corbett put the population at 582 species of
birds, 26 species of reptiles, 7 species of amphibians and 50 species of
mammals. The floral diversity is equally varied. The Park is named after the
famous hunter and naturalist, Jim Corbett, who popularized this land and its
animals in his book "The Man-Eaters of Kumaon". Corbett recounts many
fascinating tales of hunting down man-eating tigers. Always a nature lover,
he helped set up a sanctuary called Hailey Park in 1936. Eventually, an all India initiative for the protection
of the Tiger was launched from here. The park has a high density of tiger population.
Wildlife Attractions in Corbett National Park
The Corbett Wildlife Sanctuary is an excellent and largely inviolate specimen of the rich sal and mixed
woodland that spans the outer Himalayas. Because of its rich bio-geographic diversity, the Park is a natural
haven for the flora and fauna of the plains, the sub mountainous regions and high altitude areas.
At the lower level are winding strips of alluvial grasslands or chaurs (beloved to many species of deer)
crossed by numerous water courses. The lifeline of the Park is the sparkling Ramganga river which provides
safe harbor to mahaseer fish, crocodile and otter. Stately stands of sal and diverse mixed forest cover hills
and valleys, fodder and foliage for large herds of elephants. Sharp spurs in the terrain make it an idyllic
habitat for shy species like the tiger. Some of the unique attractions of the park include
Tiger
Corbett is one of the most congested parks in India with a ratio of 1 tiger to every 5 acres. Gullies, ravines
and thick forest cover give tigers the right kind of habitat and herdes of deer, particularly the sambar, plenty

of food. The tiger is reclusive, but can be somewhat predictable in its beat. You are more likely to spot a tiger
close near a water body than to meet him or her accidentally on the forest path!
read more about Tiger
Asiatic Elephant
What warns you is the sharp tang of freshly crushed vegetation and the sound of leaves being torn. Spotting
elephants in the wild is a raw, exhilarating experience. The Corbett Park is the best place in Northern India to
observe them at fairly close quarters. About 300 - 350 Asiatic elephants roam around the park in herds, along
the river Ramganga or foraging in the grasslands. The forests provide the elephants enough food. The
elephant's daily diet is perked up with wild berries and fruits which are available in plenty.
The forests provide the elephants enough food. The elephant's daily diet is perked up with wild berries and
fruits which are available aplenty.
read more about Elephant
Bird Population
The park, with its rich biogeographic diversity, is home to more than 600
species of birds - about half of the total species found in the entire Indian
subcontinent! You can see parakeets, owls, orioles, drongos, thrushes,
babblers, bulbuls, cuckoos, doves, bee eaters, rollers, flycatchers, warblers,
robins, chats, finches, forktails, hornbills, kingfishers and many many more.
It is also possibly one of the best places in the world for observing birds of
prey. Many of these birds are migratory: The park forms a natural crossroad
and meeting ground for avian species from high altitude areas, plains and
eastern and western regions.
Corbett - A home for vanishing species
The protective environment of Corbett Park has kept some endangered species safe and thriving, like the hog
deer which has been virtually saved from extinction. At last count, the numbers had increased substantially.
Corbett is also the only home of the rare Indian pangolin. Consider yourself supremely blessed if you spot
one! The rare fish eating, long snouted gharial is a common sight on the banks of the river Ramganga.
Several species on the world hit list have been seen to be breeding happily in the park, at ease in Corbett's
rich, life supporting bio diversity.

Dudhwa National Park


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Facts
Location:
Area covered:
Main Wildlife Found:
Best time to visit:
Places to Stay :

India-Nepal border, Uttar Pradesh, India


490 sq. km.
Swamp Deer, Chital, Hog Deer, Sambar, Rhino
November to May (The park remains closed from July to October)
Dudhwa Forest Resthouse, Tharu Huts

About Dudhwa National Park


From mosaic grasslands and dense sal forests to swampy marshes, the terrain
of Dudhwa National Park is as diverse as the wildlife population it harbors.
While the northern edge of the Park lies along the Indo-Nepal border, the
River Suheli marks the southern boundary.
A Tiger Reserve since 1879, Dudhwa became a National Park in 1977 and
adopted the Project Tiger in 1988. Although the Tigers at the Park are
numerous, sightings are rare due to the thick forest cover of the area. Besides
Tigers, Leopards, Hispid Hares, Swamp Deer (Barasingha) and Rhinos
thrive amidst the vegetation.

Wildlife Attractions in Dudhwa National Park


Apart from the swamp deer, there are at least 37 species of mammals and 16 species of reptiles. Dudhwa
Wildlife Sanctuary is said to have 101 tigers and four leopards. Recently, the hispid hare has also been
spotted in the area.
It was here in 1984 that a major rhinoceros rehabilitation project was started since these forests had been the
habitat of the rhinoceros 150 years ago. Five rhinos were relocated from Assam but two of the females died
due to the strain of transportation. These were replaced in 1985 by four more females from Nepal.
Dudhwa's birds, in particular, are a delight for any avid bird watcher. The marshlands are especially inviting
for about 400 species of resident and migratory birds including the Swamp Partridge, Great Slaty
Woodpecker, Bengal Florican, plenty of painted storks, sarus cranes, owls, barbets, woodpeckers, minivets
and many more. Much of the parks avian fauna is aquatic in nature, and is found around Dudhwas lakesespecially Banke Tal.
The major vegetation types in this region are tropical semi-evergreen forest, tropical moist deciduous forest,
riparian and swamp forest and dry deciduous forest. The dominant tree species are Shorea robusta,
Terminalis tomentosa, Adina cordifolia, Terminalia belerica, Eugenia jambolana, Dalbergia sissoo, and
Bombax malabaricum. The various types of forests throughout the park are interrupted by wide stretches of
mesophyllous grasslands locally called the phantas.

Sunderbans National Park


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Facts
Location:
Area covered:
Main Wildlife Found:
Best time to visit :
Places To Stay:

Piyali, West Bengal, India


1330 sq. km
Bengal Tiger, Ridley Sea Turtle
September to March (The park remains open all round the year)
Sundar Chital Tourist Lodge

About Sunderbans National Park


The name Sunderbans is perhaps derived from the term meaning 'the forest
of sundari' (Heritiera fomes), a reference to the large mangrove tree that
provides valuable fuel. Along the coast, the southern part of the forest passes
into a mangrove swamp, which has numerous wild animals and crocodileinfested estuaries. It is one of the last preserves of the Royal Bengal tiger
and the site of a tiger conservation project.
Situated south of Calcutta, Sunderbans is one of the most unique ecosystems
in this part of the world and is dominated by mangrove forests. Situated at
the mouth of the Ganges, Sunderbans spreads over 54 islands and two
countries (West Bengal in India and Bangladesh) and is a part of the world's largest delta region. A UNESCO
world heritage site, Sunderbans is home to the largest number of wild tigers in the world.
Project Tiger was implemented here in 1973 and later the Sunderbans Tiger Reserve was demarcated over an
area of 2,585-sq km. The core area of 1,330 sq km has been declared a national park and a world heritage
site. The reserve has a tiger population of 287(1984 census). The only mangrove species, the tiger here has
adapted well to its habitat. The region has a tropical climate with hot summers and cold winters. Maximum
and minimum temperatures during the summer are 42C and 37C respectively. In winters, the maximum
and minimum temperatures are 29C and 9.2C respectively.

Wildlife Attractions in Sunderbans National Park


Tigers
Sunderbans is the largest estuarine delta in the world and the biggest colony of the Royal Bengal Tiger.
These evergreen mangrove forests pulsate with myriad forms of life, which hide during high tide and the
ebbing tide reveals them on the glistening mud flats. The land is split by numerous rivers and water channels
all emptying into the Bay of Bengal. It is believed that Bonbibi, the goddess of the forest, protects the
woodcutters, honey-collectors and fishermen on their hazardous missions through the forest. For, as the local
saying goes, `here the tiger is always watching you'.
Reptiles
The Sunderbans provide important habitat for a variety of reptiles including river terrapin (Batagur baska E),
Olive Ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea E), estuarine crocodile (Crocodylus porosus E), monitor lizard (Varanus
flavescens), water monitor (Varanus salvator) and Indian python (Python molurus V). The only species of
turtle known to nest in the Sunderbans is the Olive Ridley but hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata) has also
been caught in fishermen's nets. The creeks are spawning grounds for some 90 species of fish, 48 species of
crabs and a large variety of molluscs.
read more about Tiger
Avian Paradise
The Sajnekhali area contains a wealth of water birds, noteworthy residents including Asian openbill stork
(Anastomus oscitans), black-necked stork (Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus), greater adjutant stork (Leptoptilos
dubius), white ibis (Threskiornis melanocephalus), swamp francolin (Francolinus gularis), white-collared
kingfisher (Halcyon chloris), black-capped kingfisher (Halcyon pileata) and brown-winged kingfisher
(Pelargopsis amauroptera).

Great Himalayan National Park


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Facts
Location:
Area covered:
Major Wildlife Attractions :
Best time to visit:
Places To Stay:

50 km from Kullu, Himachal Pradesh, India


754 sq. km.
Tragopan, Tahr, Snow Leopard
April-May (The park remains open throughout the year)
Huts

About Great Himalayan National Park


The great Himalayas have always been a fascination for people around the
world and the Great Himalayan National Park is no different. Situated in the
Kullu district of Himachal Pradesh, the biodiversity of the park has made it a
perfect habitat for some of the most exotic species of flora and fauna found
anywhere in the world.
The park and the area around offers a plethora of options for the tourists
including bird watching, wildlife viewing, religious pilgrimage, cultural
tours etc. The park also has several tourist facilities in the shape of a tourist
centre at Sai Ropa and an information centre at Larjee.
While the park remains open throughout the year, the months of April & May is the best time to visit as
during that time the snow melts and the conditions are ideal for walking and trekking. Winter is the only time
when you stand an excellent chance to spot rare animals like the Nilgiri Tahr and the Snow Leopard in the
lower reaches of the park.
Wildlife Attractions in Great Himalayan National Park
The Great Himalayan National Park is home to more than 350 species of fauna including 31 mammals, 203

birds, 3 reptiles, 9 amphibians and 127 insects.


Besides the rarely seen Tahr and the highly endangered Snow Leopard, other animals which can be spotted
around in the park include Serow, Ghoral, Bharal, Brown Bear, Musk Deer and Red Fox. If you hear a roar
you might have come across a leopard or the highly endangered and very rarely seen Snow Leopard, even
though these white creatures can not give a loud growl because of their weak vocal tissues. A host of other
smaller mammals can also be seen which include the Great Indian Flying Squirrel and the Indian Pika.
Besides animals, the place is also home to some of the very rare bird species including the Monal, Koklass
and the Western Tragopan.

Periyar National Park


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Facts
Location:
Area covered:
Main Wildlife Found:
Best time to visit:
Places To Stay

Kumily, Kerala, India


778 sq km
Elephant. Tiger, Leopard, Nilgiri Langur
October to June
Taj Garden Retreat

About Periyar National Park


Situated within the confines of the Western Ghats in the southern Indian state
of Kerala, Periyar National Park and Tiger Reserve is one of the most
captivating wildlife parks in the world. The picturesque lake in the heart of
the sanctuary was originally 26 sq km but now spans an area of 55 sq km.
This perennial source of water, which initially led to the submersion of large
tracts of forestland, slowly attracted wild animals. It eventually resulted in
the adjoining forests being granted protection by the Maharajah of
Travancore.
Periyar (also Thekkady) is a park where one can witness playful
pachyderms, whose population is currently around 800. The population of tigers is also increasing
appreciably. The terrain ranges from hilly to flat grassland areas at the edges of the lakes. The vegetation is
of moist deciduous type.
The months of March and April constitute the driest part of the year, because of which the animals spend a
lot of time near the lake in the Periyar National Park. Even the tiger may be spotted approaching the waters
in the Periyar National Park. Animals may be seen from motorboats on the lake or from watch towers set up
in the Periyar National Park. There is a good chance of spotting an occasional tiger in this relatively peaceful
corner at the Periyar National Park.
Wildlife Attraction in Periyar National Park
Elephant
While at Periyar you just cannot miss enjoying the Fauna. Periyar and elephants are synonymous and one
cannot be thought of without the other. Herds of playful wild elephants have made Periyar Lake their
favourite haunt for frolicking in the water. Scores of them can be witnessed bathing and swimming here. The
Indian female elephants do not possess tusks like their African relatives. They are also not as swarthy as their
African counterparts.
read more about Elephant
Avian Population
Some 260 species of birds are found at Periyar. These include darters, cormorants, ibises, grey herons,
mynas, flycatchers, orioles, wood pigeons, kingfishers, kites, ospreys, thrushes, and an appreciable number
of blue-winged parakeets.

Other Residents
Other inhabitants of Periyar include the leopard, wild dog, barking deer, mouse deer, Nilgiri langur (a
primate), bonnet macaque, sambhar, porcupines, squirrels, gaur (Indian bison), wild boar, and sloth bear.
There are approximately 40 tigers in the area as per the latest census. The tigers, along with the Nilgiri tahrs
(a kind of a wild goat), are elusive creatures. However, an early morning visit, with luck on one's side, can
yield positive results.
Fauna Attractions
The flora here is composed mainly of marshy grasslands. The forests are a mixture of grasslands, fireresistant low-growth vegetation, deciduous forests, semi-evergreens, and tropical evergreens. It is good to be
cautious of the blood-sucking leeches that are found in plenty here

Gir National Park


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Facts
Location:
Area covered:
Main Wildlife Found:
Best time to visit:
Places To Stay

55 km SE of Junagadh District, Gujarat, India


1412.13 sq. km.
Asiatic Lion, Leopard, Chowsingh
December to April
Maneland Jungle Lodge, Sinh Sadan Guest House

About
Gir is the only home in India for the Asiatic Lion of which there are nearly
300 in the park. The Gir National Park lies in the Gujarat peninsula in SouthWestern India. The terrain is rugged with low hills and the vegetation is
mixed deciduous, with stands of Teak, Acacia, Jamun, Tendu and Dhak trees,
interspersed with large patches of grasslands. The trees on the hills are
sparse and stunted.
Within the sanctuary, there are numerous human settlements of cattle herders
called Maldharis with an estimated 20,000 head of livestock (which,
incidentally, forms a significant part of the Lions diet). There are also places
of Hindu worship and pilgrimage and sulphur springs at Tulsi Shyam and Kankai Mata. The edges of the
park have good population of Indian Gazelle, protected by religious sentiments of the local people.
Wildlife Attractions in Gir National Park
A distinct belt of vegetation is found along the main rivers and streams. Species like the Jambu, Karanj,
Umro, Vad, Kalam, Charal, Sirus and Amli are mainly found here. These trees are mostly broad leaved and
evergreen, giving the area a cool shade and the moisture content. Finally, Prosopis and Casuarina have been
planted in the coastal borders as part of the afforestation plan.
The Asiatic Lion
Gir Sanctuary is the last and only home of the critically endangered Asiatic Lion. These lions are a smaller
more compact version of their African counterparts, and are best viewed at dawn or dusk when they are on
the move. The major difference between the two is that the African Lion appears larger than the Indian Lion
because of its large and luxuriant mane.
read more about Lion
The Leopards
Leopard is considered to be one of the most beautiful and graceful animals in the jungle, also the most
dangerous one. Popularly known as the Prince of Cats, this animal is the most adaptable among the
predators, one of the reasons why it occupies a much larger spread of Gujarat forest cover. In the Gir

National Park it is found in all the varied habitats and vegetation types. The approximate population of 210
Leopards resides within the sanctuary area.
read more about Leopards
Reptiles
Not leaving the water predators behind, Mash crocodiles are often seen along the Kamleshwar Dam Site.
Another major attraction among the reptile population of Gir National Park are the numerous non-venomous
Snakes such as the Indian Rock Python along with the four venomous varieties of Indian Cobra, Common
Krait, Saw Scaled Viper, Russell's Viper. Among the lesser-known wildlife of Gir National Park includes the
most common animal that can be sighted in the sanctuary, the Chital or Spotted Deer. Other main wild
attractions are Nilgai, Chinkara, Sambhar, Black Bucks, the four horned Antelope, Wild Boar, Indian Flying
Foe, Grey Musk Shrew, Indian Hare, Pale Hedgehog, Small Indian Mangoose, Small Indian Civet, Indian
Pangolin, Indian Porcupine, Ratel, Indian Fox, and Jackal. The three smaller wildcats - the Jungle Cat,
Desert Cat and the Rusty Spotted Cat also inhabit the forest, a fact which shows that the forest is not just
meant for the protection of Lions, but the entire cat family.
Avian Population
The forest is also rich in bird life, with an estimated 300 species inhabiting the Gir National Park. Many
wildlife experts believe that had Gir not been a Lion sanctuary, it could have easily passed off as a protected
area for the incredible diversity of birds that it harbors. The avifauna here occupies the forest floors, small
plants and shrubs and even the canopy of the trees. The Paradise Flycatcher, Black Headed Cuckoo Shrike,
Pied Woodpecker, Bonelli's Eagle, Creset Serpant Eagle, Painted Sandgrouse, Bush Quail and Grey Patridge
are the commonly found varieties in the park.

Wildlife of India
The wildlife of India is a mix of species of diverse origins.[1] The region's rich and diverse wildlife is
preserved in numerous national parks and wildlife sanctuaries across the country.[2] Since India is home to a
number of rare and threatened animal species, wildlife management in the country is essential to preserve
these species.[3] According to one study, India along with 17 mega diverse countries is home to about 60-70%
of the world's biodiversity.[4]
India, lying within the Indomalaya ecozone, is home to about 7.6% of all mammalian, 12.6% of avian, 6.2%
of reptilian, and 6.0% of flowering plant species.[5] Many ecoregions, such as the shola forests, also exhibit
extremely high rates of endemism; overall, 33% of Indian plant species are endemic.[6][7] India's forest cover
ranges from the tropical rainforest of India of the Andaman Islands, Western Ghats, and Northeast India to
the coniferous forest of the Himalaya. Between these extremes lie the sal-dominated moist deciduous forest
of eastern India; teak-dominated dry deciduous forest of central and southern India; and the babul-dominated
thorn forest of the central Deccan and western Gangetic plain.[8] Important Indian trees include the medicinal
neem, widely used in rural Indian herbal remedies. The pipal fig tree, shown on the seals of Mohenjo-daro,
shaded the Gautama Buddha as he sought enlightenment.
Many Indian species are descendants of taxa originating in Gondwana, to which India originally belonged.
Peninsular India's subsequent movement towards, and collision with, the Laurasian landmass set off a mass
exchange of species. However, volcanism and climatic change 20 million years ago caused the extinction of
many endemic Indian forms.[9] Soon thereafter, mammals entered India from Asia through two
zoogeographical passes on either side of the emerging Himalaya. [8] As a result, among Indian species, only
12.6% of mammals and 4.5% of birds are endemic, contrasting with 45.8% of reptiles and 55.8% of
amphibians.[5] Notable endemics are the Nilgiri leaf monkey and the brown and carmine Beddome's toad of
the Western Ghats. India contains 172, or 2.9%, of IUCN-designated threatened species.[10] These include the
Asiatic lion, the Bengal tiger, and the Indian white-rumped vulture, which suffered a near-extinction from
ingesting the carrion of diclofenac-treated cattle.
In recent decades, human encroachment has posed a threat to India's wildlife; in response, the system of
national parks and protected areas, first established in 1935, was substantially expanded. In 1972, India
enacted the Wildlife Protection Act and Project Tiger to safeguard crucial habitat; further federal protections

were promulgated in the 1980s. Along with over 500 wildlife sanctuaries, India now hosts 15 biosphere
reserves, four of which are part of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves; 25 wetlands are registered
under the Ramsar Convention.
The varied and rich wildlife of India has had a profound impact on the region's popular culture. Common
name for wilderness in India is Jungle which was adopted by the British colonialists to the English language.
The word has been also made famous in The Jungle Book by Rudyard Kipling. India's wildlife has been the
subject of numerous other tales and fables such as the Panchatantra and the Jataka tales.

Fauna
Fauna of India

The endangered Black Buck at the Guindy National Park, the only National park in the world
within a metropolis.

India is home to several well known large mammals including the Asian Elephant, Bengal Tiger, Asiatic
Lion, Leopard, Sloth Bear and Indian Rhinoceros, often engrained culturally and religiously often being
associated with deities. Other well known large Indian mammals include ungulates such as the rare Wild
Asian Water buffalo, common Domestic Asian Water buffalo, Nilgai, Gaur and several species of deer and
antelope. Some members of the dog family such as the Indian Wolf, Bengal Fox, Golden Jackal and the
Dhole or Wild Dogs are also widely distributed. However,the dhole also known as the whistling hunter are
the most endangered top Indian carnivore, and Himalayan Wolf is now critically endangered endemic
species to India. It is also home to the Striped Hyena, Macaques, Langurs and Mongoose species.

Conservation

Now the world's rarest monkey, the golden langur typifies the precarious survival of much of
India's megafauna.

The need for conservation of wildlife in India is often questioned because of the apparently incorrect priority
in the face of direct poverty of the people. However Article 48 of the Constitution of India specifies that,
"The state shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wildlife
of the country" and Article 51-A states that "it shall be the duty of every citizen of India to protect and
improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers, and wildlife and to have compassion for
living creatures."[11]

The most endangered Indian top predator of 2010, the dhole is on edge of extinction. There
remain less than 2500 members of species in the world.

Large and charismatic mammals are important for wildlife tourism in India and several national parks and
wildlife sanctuaries cater to these needs. Project Tiger started in 1972 is a major effort to conserve the tiger
and its habitats.[12] At the turn of the 20th century, one estimate of the tiger population in India placed the
figure at 40,000, yet an Indian tiger census conducted in 2008 revealed the existence of only 1411 tigers. The
passing of the Forest Rights Act by the Indian government in 2008 has been the final nail in the coffin and
has pushed the Indian tiger on the verge of extinction.Various pressures in the later part of the 20th century
led to the progressive decline of wilderness resulting in the disturbance of viable tiger habitats. At the
International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) General Assembly meeting in
Delhi in 1969, serious concern was voiced about the threat to several species of wildlife and the shrinkage of
wilderness in the India. In 1970, a national ban on tiger hunting was imposed and in 1972 the Wildlife
Protection Act came into force. The framework was then set up to formulate a project for tiger conservation
with an ecological approach.
Launched on April 1, 1973, Project Tiger has become one of the most successful conservation ventures in
modern history. The project aims at tiger conservation in specially constituted 'tiger reserves' which are
representative of various bio-geographical regions falling within India. It strives to maintain a viable tiger
population in their natural environment. Today, there are 39 Project Tiger wildlife reserves in India covering
an area more than of 37,761 km.
Project Elephant, though less known, started in 1992 and works for elephant protection in India.[13] Most of
India's rhinos today survive in the Kaziranga National Park.

Asiatic Lion
Indian Elephant

Royal Bengal Tiger

Indian Rhinoceros

Indian Wild Dog

Indian Cobra

Indian Peafowl

Indian Gazelle

Lion-tailed Macaque

Shikra

Himalayan Red Panda

Pariah Kite

Brown Owl.jpg

Brown Fish-owl
Brahminy Kite

Indian-ringnecked
Parakeet

Recent extinctions

Illustration of a Himalayan Quail from A. O. Hume's work. Last seen in 1876

The exploitation of land and forest resources by humans along with hunting and trapping for food and sport
has led to the extinction of many species in India in recent times. These species include mammals such as the
Indian / Asiatic Cheetah, Javan Rhinoceros and Sumatran Rhinoceros.[14] While some of these large mammal
species are confirmed extinct, there have been many smaller animal and plant species whose status is harder
to determine. Many species have not been seen since their description.
Hubbardia heptaneuron, a species of grass that grew in the spray zone of the Jog Falls prior to the
construction of the Linganamakki reservoir, was thought to be extinct but a few were rediscovered near
Kolhapur.[15]
Some species of birds have gone extinct in recent times, including the Pink-headed Duck (Rhodonessa
caryophyllacea) and the Himalayan Quail (Ophrysia superciliosa). A species of warbler, Acrocephalus
orinus, known earlier from a single specimen collected by Allan Octavian Hume from near Rampur in
Himachal Pradesh was rediscovered after 139 years in Thailand.[16][17]

Flora of India
Main article: Flora of India

There are about 17500 taxa of flowering plants from India. The Indian Forest Act, 1927 helped to improve
protection of the natural habitat.

National Animal, National Bird & National Tree of India

National animal: Royal Bengal Tiger


National aquatic animal: Dolphin [18]

National bird: Indian Peacock

National tree: Banyan tree.

Biosphere reserves
The Indian government has established 15 Biosphere Reserves of India which protect larger areas of natural
habitat and often include one or more National Parks and/or preserves, along buffer zones that are open to
some economic uses. Protection is granted not only to the flora and fauna of the protected region, but also to
the human communities who inhabit these regions, and their ways of life. The 15 Bio-reserves in India are1. Sunderbans
2. Gulf of Mannar
3. The Nilgiris
4. Nanda Devi
5. Nokrek
6. Great Nicobar
7. Manas
8. Simlipal
9. Dihang Dibang
10.Dibru Saikhowa
11.Agasthyamalai
12.Kangchenjunga
13.Pachmarhi
14.Achanakmar-Amarkantak
15.Kachchh

Seven of the fifteen biosphere reserves are a part of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves, based on the
UNESCO Man and the Biosphere (MAB) Programme list.[19]

Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve


Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve

Sundarbans Biosphere Reserve

Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve

Simlipal Biosphere Reserve

Nokrek Biosphere Reserve

Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve

Conservation Programs in India


Book a Wildlife Tour
The history of Wildlife Conservation Society research in India began in
the 1960's - with the first-ever scientific study of wild tigers in central
India by George Schaller. Henceforth, following a break of two
decades, Ullas Karanth accelerated the present WCS-India program as
a single tiger research project at Nagarhole in the year 1986. Ever
since, WCS-India has developed into a comprehensive collection of
activities that revolve around major global conservation strategies of
WCS - scientific research, national capacity building, site-based
conservation and developing new models of wildlife conservation.
Acting synchronously, all these initiatives have contributed significantly to wildlife
conservation in India and rest of the world during the last three decades.
Wildlife Conservation Society India Program
India is a mega-diversity country that is distinctly rich in vertebrate fauna. This is a result of its
distinct biosphere, and, evolutionary and social histories it has faunal elements from the IndoMalayan, Afro-tropical and palearctic regions. India boasts of about 500 species of mammal,
2000 types of Bird and at least 30,000 kinds of insects, providing an unmatched range and
diversity.
Book a Wildlife Tour
India has an age old culture that considers human as a part of nature rather than as its
masters; that displays a higher degree of equitableness for other life forms in contrast to any
other part of the world. Partly as a result - and partly due to India's colonial past - several
excellently protected nature reserves have been sanctioned during the last three decades.
These now cover about 4% of the land area. However, there are threatening challenges to
'saving wildlife' in India - a billion strong human population largely dependent on land-based
occupations; high degree of reliance on biomass for fuel, energy and structural materials;
excessive livestock densities - all now supplemented by a modern consumerist economy
growing at 6% a year; rapidly changing cultures and attitudes towards wildlife. However, the
major social and ecological revolution that we are now seeing in rest of the tropical world had
existed in India over a 1000 years ago.
In this context, Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS), India program concentrates on charming
endangered megafauna in protected reserves (the last wild places) - as the most befitting
social tactic for saving the ecosystem. During its 13 years of development, WCS-India program
has flourished from a single research project to embrace all the major strategies now pursued
by WCS globally - Research; Capacity Building; Policy Interventions and Site-based
conservation.
Partners In The Conservation Program
Centre for Wildlife Studies
Centre for Wildlife Studies (CWS) is a non-profit scientific research
organisation and carries out the long-term core research projects of
WCS India Program. CWS works in development of rigorous methods
to monitor wildlife populations and also conducts training for field
biologists, forest department staff and NGO volunteers in monitoring
wildlife populations.
CWS collaborates with Forest Departments of the respective states where research and
conservation projects are carried out. In addition it also closely work with Ministry of
Environment and Forests (MOEF) and the Project Tiger directorate.
Wildlife First
Wildlife First is a proactive conservation movement with it's own unique approach to wildlife
issues. Mr.K.M.Chinnappa serves as its president; Dr.K.Ullas Karanth of WCS is the scientific
advisor. A group of volunteers from different walks of life constitute Wildlife First team. Wildlife
First was the nodal NGO and co-ordinated the Karnataka Tiger Conservation Project (KTCP).
Book a Wildlife Tour

Kuduremukh Wildlife Foundation


Kuduremukh Wildlife Foundation focuses its work on conserving the unique Kuduremukh
National Park. It works on conservation, monitoring, conservation education and community
interfacing at Kuduremukh National Park.
Bhadra Wildlife Conservation Trust
Bhadra Wildlife Conservation Trust is dedicated to saving the Bhadra Tiger Reserve, it is one of
our local conservation NGO's. Nature Conservation Guild based at Chickmagalur concentrates
their conservation monitoring, conservation education and community interfacing at Bhadra
Tiger Reserve.
Nature Conservation Foundation
Nature Conservation Foundation (NCF) is a non-profit organization devoted to research and
action for conservation of wildlife and natural ecosystems. WCS has partnered with NCF on
research projects of human impacts on wildlife and habitats. Studies on the impact of livestock
grazing, human hunters have been conducted with NCF's partnership.
Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment
Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment (ATREE) works towards advancing
protection of the environment and conservation of biodiversity.
Nagarhole National Park Conservation Education Project
Nagarahole Wildlife Conservation Education Project (NAWICOED) is
the education project of WCS, India Program started in the year 1994
works at educating students, rural youth, teachers and others around
Nagarahole National Park.
Conservation of Wildlife and Heritage of Kodagu
Conservation of Wildlife and Heritage of Kodagu (CWK) has played a
catalytic role in motivating the tribal people in Nagarahole to accept
the resettlement package offered by the Government. It has also monitored that the promised
infrastructure package has been delivered to the tribals.
Tiger Research and Conservation Trust
Tiger Research and Conservation Trust (TRACT) intends to build a long-term intensive field
conservation program in prime wildlife habitats in Maharashtra. It aims to conserve tigers and
their prey base through community awareness programs, facilitating voluntary resettlement
and support to forest department.
Book a Wildlife Tour

Wildlife Conservation in India


Aiming to Sustainable Growth and Development
By: Sangeeta Gupta
Author is an expert of various competitive examination.

Wildlife includes all non-domesticated plants, animals, and other organisms. Domesticating wild plant and
animal species for human benefit has occurred many times all over the planet, and has a major impact on the
environment, both positive and negative. Wildlife can be found in all ecosystems, Deserts, rain forests,
plains, and other areas including the most developed urban sites all have distinct forms of wildlife. While the
term in popular culture usually refers to animals that are untouched by human factors, most scientists agree
that wildlife around the world is impacted by human activities.
Indian wildlife:The wildlife of India is a mix of species of diverse origins. The region's rich and diverse wildlife is preserved
in numerous national parks and wildlife sanctuaries across the country. Since India is home to a number of
rare and threatened animal species, wildlife management in the country is essential to preserve these species.

According to one study, India is home to about 60-70% of the world's biodiversity. India, lying within the
Indomalaya ecozone, is home to about 7.6% of all mammalian, 12.6% of avian, 6.2% of reptilian, and 6.0%
of flowering plant species.
Many ecoregions, such as the shola forests, also exhibit extremely high rates of endemism; overall, 33% of
Indian plant species are endemic. India's forest cover ranges from the tropical rainforest of the Andaman
Islands, Western Ghats, and Northeast India to the coniferous forest of the Himalaya. Between these
extremes lie the sal-dominated moist deciduous forest of eastern India; teak-dominated dry deciduous forest
of central and southern India; and the babul-dominated thorn forest of the central Deccan and western
Gangetic plain. Important Indian trees include the medicinal neem, widely used in rural Indian herbal
remedies. The pipal fig tree, shown on the seals of Mohenjo-daro, shaded the Gautama Buddha as he sought
enlightenment.
Many Indian species are descendants of taxa originating in Gondwana, to which India originally belonged.
Peninsular India's subsequent movement towards, and collision with, the Laurasian landmass set off a mass
exchange of species. However, volcanism and climatic changes 20 million years ago caused the extinction of
many endemic Indian forms. Soon thereafter, mammals entered India from Asia through two
zoogeographical passes on either side of the emerging Himalaya. As a result, among Indian species, only
12.6% of mammals and 4.5% of birds are endemic, contrasting with 45.8% of reptiles and 55.8% of
amphibians. Notable endemics are the Nilgiri leaf monkey and the brown and carmine Beddome's toad of the
Western Ghats. India contains 172, or 2.9%, of IUCN-designated threatened species. These include the
Asiatic lion, the Bengal tiger, and the Indian white-rumped vulture, which suffered a near-extinction from
ingesting the carrion of diclofenac-treated cattle.
In recent decades, human encroachment has posed a threat to India's wildlife; in response, the system of
national parks and protected areas, first established in 1935, was substantially expanded. In 1972, India
enacted the Wildlife Protection Act and Project Tiger to safeguard crucial habitat; further federal protections
were promulgated in the 1980s. Along with over 500 wildlife sanctuaries, India now hosts 14 biosphere
reserves, four of which are part of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves; 25 wetlands are registered
under the Ramsar Convention. The varied and rich wildlife of India has had a profound impact on the
region's popular culture. Common name for wilderness in India is Jungle which was adopted by the British
colonialists to the English language. The word has been also made famous in The Jungle Book by Rudyard
Kipling. India's wildlife has been the subject of numerous other tales and fables such as the Panchatantra and
the Jataka tales.
The gradual emergence of the human beings as the most dominant species among all other species of
animals and the attempt of the human beings to set themselves apart from other species is the main
underlying cause of the contemporary environmental disaster. The main reason behind a threat to the wildlife
and the ecosystem is the constantly growing deforestation, poaching and negligence towards animals and
nature. The Indian Government has started nature projects like, Project Tiger, Nature Camps, Jungle Lodges,
etc. to encourage wildlife awareness among the common people. Besides preserving the natural heritage,
these projects also promote eco-tourism.
Various Projects:Gir National Park in Gujarat is the only existent habitation for the nearly extinct Asiatic Lions in India. The
Kaziranga Sanctuary in Assam is a major example of good effort to save the endangered Rhinoceros.
Similarly, Periyar in Kerala is doing a great job to preserve the wild Elephants and Dachigam National Park
is progressing rapidly to save Kashmiri Stag.
Wildlife Conservation in India occupies a total area of about 3.29 million sq. km. that contains floral and
faunal species, mammals, reptiles, insects and birds. The Wildlife Conservation in India has become the
most popular holiday destinations because of its diverseness. In India there are 571 sanctuaries and reserve
parks that are protected by the Indian Government, mainly meant for the protection of the extinct species of
animals and birds. Predators, Carnivores and Herbivores, - all are equally important to maintain the vital
ecological processes as nutrient and water cycling. India has over 500 animal sanctuaries, referred to as
Wildlife Sanctuaries (IUCN Category IV Protected Area). Among these, the 28 Tiger Reserves are governed
by Project Tiger, and are of special significance in the conservation of the tiger. Some wildlife sanctuaries
are specifically named Bird Sanctuary, eg. Keoladeo National Park before attained National Park status.

Many National Parks were initially Wildlife Sanctuaries. Wildlife sanctuaries of national importance to
conservation, usually due to some flagship faunal species, are named National Wildlife Sanctuary, like
national chambal (gharial) Wildlife Sanctuary for conserving the Gharial (1978).
Some of the important wildlife sanctuaries in India are: Bandhavgarh National Park in Madhya Pradesh
Corbett National Park in Uttar Pradesh
Gir National Park & Sanctuary in Gujarat
Kanha National Park in Madhya Pradesh
Kaziranga National Park in Assam
Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary in Kerala
Sariska Wildlife Sanctuary in Rajasthan
Sunderbans National Park in West Bengal
Dachigam National Park in Jammu & Kashmir
Manas Tiger Reserve in Assam
National Parks of India:India's first national park (an IUCN category II protected area) was established in 1935 as Hailey National
Park, now known as Jim Corbett National Park. By 1970, India only had five national parks. In 1972, India
enacted the Wildlife Protection Act and Project Tiger to safeguard the habitats of conservation reliant
species. Further federal legislation strengthening protections for wildlife was introduced in the 1980s. As of
April 2007, there are 96 national parks. All national park lands encompass a combined 38,029.18 km,
1.16% of India's total surface area. A total of 166 national parks have been authorized. Plans are underway to
establish the remaining scheduled parks.
Biosphere Reserves:The term Biosphere Reserve' should denote an area:
Which is, set aside for the conservation of the resources of the biosphere and for the improvement of the
relationship between man and the environment;
Which is, to serve as sites for long term scientific research as well as education all over the world.
List of National Parks:-

Dibru-Saikhowa National Park-Assam


Desert National Park-Rajasthan
Dachigam National Park-Jammu and Kashmir
Corbett National Park-Uttarakhand
Chandoli National Park-Maharashtra
Campbell Bay National Park-Andaman and Nicobar
Anshi National Park-Karnataka
Balphakram National Park-Meghalaya
Bandhavgarh National Park-Madhya Pradesh
Bandipur National Park-Karnataka
Bannerghatta National Park-Karnataka
Vansda National Park-Gujarat
Betla National Park-Jharkhand
Bhitarkanika National Park-Orissa
Blackbuck National Park, Velavadar-Gujarat
Buxa Tiger Reserve-West Bengal
Fossil National Park-Madhya Pradesh
Great Himalayan National Park-Himachal Pradesh
Indira Gandhi National Park (Annamalai National Park)- Tamil Nadu
Dudhwa National Park-Uttar Pradesh
Intanki National Park-Nagaland
Guindy National Park-Tamil Nadu

Govind Pashu Vihar-Uttarakhand


Kaziranga National Park-Assam
Khangchendzonga National Park-Sikkim
Kishtwar National Park-Jammu and Kashmir
Van Vihar National Park-Madhya Pradesh
Kanha National Park-Madhya Pradesh
Mollem National Park-Goa
Mount Harriet National Park-Andaman and Nicobar

The programme of Biosphere Reserve was initiated under the 'Man & Biosphere' (MAB) programme by
UNESCO in 1971. Biosphere Reserves are areas of terrestrial and coastal ecosystems promoting solutions to
reconcile the conservation of biodiversity with its sustainable use. They are internationally recognized,
nominated by National Governments and remain under sovereign jurisdiction of the states where they are
located. Biosphere Reserves serve in some ways as 'living laboratories' for testing out and demonstrating
integrated management of land, water and biodiversity (CES., UNESCO, 2005., IUCN, 1979).
List of Biosphere Reserves
Achanakmar-Amarkanta- Madhya Pradesh & Chhattishgarh
Agasthyamalai- Kerala
Dehang-Debang- Arunachal Pradesh
Dibru-Saikhowa- Assam
Great Nicobar- Andaman and Nicobar
Gulf of Mannar - Tamil Nadu
Khangchenjunga Sikkim
Manas- Assam
Nanda Devi-Uttaranchal
Nilgiri -Tamil Nadu, Kerala, and Karnataka
Nokrek-Meghalaya
Pachmarhi -Madhya Pradesh
Simlipal-Orissa
Sunderbans-West Bengal

IUCN
The International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international
organization dedicated to natural resource conservation.Founded in 1948, its headquarters is located in the
Lake Geneva area in Gland, Switzerland.
The IUCN brings together 83 states, 108 government agencies, 766 Non-governmental organizations and 81
international organizations and about 10,000 experts and scientists from countries around the world. IUCN's
mission is to influence, encourage and assist societies throughout the world to conserve the integrity and
diversity of nature and to ensure that any use of natural resources is equitable and ecologically sustainable.

Biosphere Reserve Objectives:Each Biosphere Reserve is intended to fulfill three basic functions, which are complementary and mutually
reinforcing:
A conservation function - to contribute to the conservation of landscapes, ecosystems, species and genetic
variation;
A development function - to foster economic and human development which is socio-culturally and
ecologically sustainable;

A logistic function - to provide support for research, monitoring, education and information exchange
related to local, national and global issues of conservation and development (UNESCO, 2005).
The Indian government has established 15 Biosphere Reserves of India, (categories roughly corresponding to
IUCN Category V Protected areas), which protect larger areas of natural habitat (than a National Park or
Animal Sanctuary), and often include one or more National Parks and/or preserves, along buffer zones that
are open to some economic uses. Protection is granted not only to the flora and fauna of the protected region,
but also to the human communities who inhabit these regions, and their ways of life. Four of the fifteen
biosphere reserves are a part of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves, based on the UNESCO Man and
the Biosphere (MAB) Programme list.
Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve
Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve
Sundarbans Biosphere Reserve
Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve
Conservation of wildlife in India:The need for conservation of wildlife in India is often questioned because of the apparently incorrect priority
in the face of dire poverty of the people. However Article 48 of the Constitution of India specifies that "the
state shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wildlife of the
country" and Article 51-A states that "it shall be the duty of every citizen of India to protect and improve the
natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers, and wildlife and to have compassion for living
creatures."
Large and charismatic mammals are important for wildlife tourism in India and several national parks and
wildlife sanctuaries cater to these needs. Project Tiger started in 1972 is a major effort to conserve the tiger
and its habitats. At the turn of the 20th century, one estimate of the tiger population in India placed the figure
at 40,000, yet an Indian tiger census conducted in 1972 revealed the existence of only 1827 tigers. Various
pressures in the later part of the 20th century led to the progressive decline of wilderness resulting in the
disturbance of viable tiger habitats. At the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural
Resources (IUCN) General Assembly meeting in Delhi in 1969, serious concern was voiced about the threat
to several species of wildlife and the shrinkage of wilderness in the India. In 1970, a national ban on tiger
hunting was imposed and in 1972 the Wildlife Protection Act came into force. The framework was then set
up to formulate a project for tiger conservation with an ecological approach.
Project Tiger which was launched on April 1, 1973, has become one of the most successful conservation
ventures in modern history. The project aims at tiger conservation in specially constituted 'tiger reserves'
which are representative of various bio-geographical regions falling within India. It strives to maintain a
viable tiger population in their natural environment. Today, there are 27 Project Tiger wildlife reserves in
India covering an area of 37,761 km.Project Elephant, though less known, started in 1992 and works for
elephant protection in India. Most of India's rhinos today survive in the Kaziranga National Park. The
wildlife institute of India (WII) is a government institution run by the Indian Council of Forestry Research
and Education which trains wildlife managers and wildlife researchers.
Trained personnel from WII have contributed in studying and protecting wildlife in India. WII has also
popularized wildlife studies and careers. The institute is based in Dehradun, India. It is located in
Chandrabani, which is close to the southern forests of Dehradun. The Indian Council of Forestry Research
and Education also runs the Forest Research Institute and the Indian Institute of Forest Management
Wildlife Protection Act of 1972 :In 1972 by the Government of India. Prior to 1972, India only had five designated national parks. Among
other reforms, the Act established schedules of protected plant and animal species; hunting or otherwise
harvesting these species was largely outlawed.
The Act provides for the protection of Wild animals, birds and plants and for matters connected therewith or
ancillary or incidental thereto. It extends to the whole of India, except the State of Jammu and Kashmir
which has its own wildlife act. It has six schedules which give varying degrees of protection, with absolute
protection being provided under Schedule I and part II of schedule II with the highest penalties prescribed

for offences under these schedules and Species listed in the Sch. IV are also protected but the penalties are
much lower, with the enforcement authorities having the power to compound offences (as in they impose
fines on the offenders).

Wildlife Conservation in India


Sun, 2007-09-23 14:54 team

The situation of wildlife is getting alarming in India. In particular, our national animal, the royal Bengal tiger is under
a serious threat. With more than 40,000 of the species at the start of the 20th century, thanks to the British officers
and Indian royalties, the population rapidly dwindled to about 5500 in 1970's when the ban on tiger hunting was put
into place for the first time. Project Tiger was launched in 1973 and since then it has established several forests under
it's helm as tiger reserves. The data shows it as a success with reasonable improvement in the tiger population till the
start of this decade.

However, no data is available for the recent years and other sources reveal that poachers have successfully
exterminated the tigers from several of these reserves like Sariska. The main demand for tiger products come from
Tibet and China, where, tiger parts are integral part of traditional dresses and medicines respectively. Situation of
tigers in China is much worse, with about 50 South China tigers left in wild. These too are of poor genetic diversity.
There are at least 5 tiger farms in China, where about 5000 tigers are reared as cattle. They are brutally treated and declawed for "safety". These tigers can not be reintroduced in the wild as they have poor genetic diversity and lack the
basic knowledge of killing a prey. Ban on tiger products by Chinese government for last 14 years has hardly improved
the situation and tiger farmers are actively lobbying for removing the ban.

In India, challenges for safeguarding the tigers include lack of dense forests, ever-increasing encroachment, rampant
poaching and lack of resources in the forest department. In India, only 2% of land are dense forests. However, the
government claims about 19% as forest land and plans to bring 33% of land under forest cover by 2012. Encroachment
is a major problem, with several thousand hectares of forest land being occupied by public every year. Many villages
already lie in the buffer and core regions of several reserves, rendering interaction with wildlife inevitable. Many tigers
are poisoned or electrocuted by villagers as they attack the livestock. Several fall in open wells. Some industries are also
lobbying for acquiring forest lands. Sulzon, the windmill company, wants to plant windmills on forest land in
Maharashtra, while, oil companies like Reliance are lobbying for forest land grants to cultivate plants for bio-diesel.

Apart from tigers, other animals like alligators, lions, elephants and rhinoceros are under a similar threat. In a nutshell, the situation of wildlife in India is getting worse. There are several NGOs which work primarily in spreading
awareness. The action part lies with the government and unless it takes strong steps to stop poaching and
encroachment, the trends are hard to reverse.