Directional drilling manual
Information and guides, Shahrood university of technology

© All Rights Reserved

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Directional drilling manual
Information and guides, Shahrood university of technology

© All Rights Reserved

- 02 Basic Math for Directional Drilling Calculations
- Directional Drilling
- 07 Directional Drilling
- Directional Drilling
- Note for Directional Drilling Calculation
- Calculation Equations for directional drilling
- Directional Drilling Training Manual
- Directional Drilling(2)
- Directional Drilling
- An Introduction to Directional Drilling
- Directional Drilling
- Directional Drilling
- NeXT Course_Practical Directional Drilling Problems and Solutions
- Directional Drilling
- Tech Drilling Directional Drilling
- Directional Drilling
- Directional Drilling
- Directional Drilling
- Well Planning
- MicroTortuosity Drilling Problem

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Directional Drilling

Directional Drilling

- Overview :

Controlled directional drilling is the engineering

process of planning and drilling a well

It is a drilling method in a predetermined trajectory,

until reaching a target or objective situated off of the

vertical line that passes thorough the rig

Directional drilling started as corrective operations for

some problems occurring during drilling such as:

Sidetracks due to fishing operation failures or

Extreme borehole tortuosity

Directional Drilling

- Overview :

Today, however, the applications of directional wells

in the industry are manifolds

Most recent advances include the drilling of horizontal

wells and multilateral wells, have revealed extremely

efficient in increasing the productivity of reservoirs

with small thickness

Directional Drilling

- Overview :

Among the most important uses of directional wells

is the development of offshore fields

The cost of the development of those fields using

vertical (conventional) wells would have made their

exploitation prohibitive

Directional Drilling

Directional Drilling

- Application of Directional Drilling :

Inaccessible locations:

Natural or artificial barriers preclude the access

from the vertical of the target

Relief wells:

Technique used to combat a blowing up well

gas is entering the well and mud with adequate

weight is pumped to kill the well

Directional Drilling

- Application of Directional Drilling :

Natural directional wells:

Use the natural tendency of certain formations

to reach the target with lower cost

(vertical too expensive)

Horizontal wells:

In thin formations, horizontal wells increase the

area exposed to flow, increasing production

Directional Drilling

- Application of Directional Drilling :

Sidetrack:

metal or fishes that could not be recovered by

fishing operation

equipment and techniques are the same used

in directional drilling

10

Directional Drilling

11

Directional Drilling

- Application of Directional Drilling :

Environmental pressures, as for example in Alaska

and in the Amazon, have increased the use of

onshore directional drilling

of geothermal projects

Geothermal reservoirs can reach temperatures of

370oC, and are used to generate steam from water

pumped from surface

12

Directional Drilling

- Well Trajectory Local Coordinate System:

The planned and drilled trajectories of a directional

well are either 2D or 3D objects

Associated to any point along the trajectory

(planned or actual) there are

three values that can be determined (planned

trajectory) or measured (actual trajectory)

Those values can be used to determine the

coordinates of the point in the rig local coordinate

systems

13

Directional Drilling

- Well Trajectory Local Coordinate System:

The values are :

Measured Depth

Inclination

Azimuth

14

Directional Drilling

- Well Trajectory Local Coordinate System:

The measured depth at the point of the trajectory

is the measured of the length along the trajectory,

from the rotary table to the point

depth in the strict sense of the word but a length

(unless for a perfectly straight vertical trajectory)

15

Directional Drilling

- Planning a 2D Directional Well Trajectory :

16

Directional Drilling

- Planning a 2D Directional Well Trajectory :

The location of the rig determines the rig local

coordinate system

The rig and the target determine a vertical plane

which contains the vertical V, and the target T

trajectory is planned drawn

17

Directional Drilling

- Planning a 2D Directional Well Trajectory :

18

Directional Drilling

- Planning a 2D Directional Well Trajectory :

Point R corresponds to the rig location, and also

the origin of the rig local coordinate system

Point T is the target, whose coordinates (v, n, e)

are respectively the TVD, relative North/South,

and relative East/West coordinates of the target

19

Directional Drilling

- Planning a 2D Directional Well Trajectory :

The distance d from the target to the vertical axis V

is called the horizontal departure to target and is

calculated from the relative coordinates n and e as

follows:

20

Directional Drilling

- Planning a 2D Directional Well Trajectory :

The target azimuth is the angle of the vertical

plane and is given by:

21

Directional Drilling

- Planning a 2D Directional Well Trajectory :

The parameters v (TVD) and horizontal departure

d are the basic parameters we need to plan the 2D

trajectory of the directional well

22

Directional Drilling

- Terms for Well Trajectory :

well trajectory starts with a vertical hole section

drilled to a given depth where it starts to curve

determination depends on various factors,

in particular, the mechanical competence and

stability of the formation where the curved section

(and the angle) starts to build

23

Directional Drilling

- Terms for Well Trajectory :

force required to drive the bit into a curved path

deviation tool

24

Directional Drilling

- Terms for Well Trajectory :

The position of the KOP will also affect the final

and/or the maximum inclination of the trajectory

The engineer, therefore, will have to simulate

several trajectories and choose the one that best

fits the characteristics of the region to be drilled

Some restrictions on the trajectory will narrow the

range of possibilities

25

Directional Drilling

- Terms for Well Trajectory :

For example, the ideal or necessary angle to reach

the target :

To drill the reservoir perpendicular to the plan of

highest permeability in anisotropic rocks, or

fractured reservoir

Parallel to a blowing out well to more efficiently

kill the well

26

Directional Drilling

- Terms for Well Trajectory :

The hole section that follows the KOP is called

build-up section

It is always recommended to run a casing shortly

after the end of the build-up section

A cased borehole will prevent the formation of key

seats which may lead pipesticking problems

Since casing projects should follow several design

criteria, it is appropriate, and advisable, that

engineers work as an integrated team aiming to

end up with a small number of optimized plans

that comply with all design criteria

27

Directional Drilling

- Terms for Well Trajectory :

The final choice will consider economics, logistics

(availability of deflection tools at or close to the

location, etc)

important role, reducing substantially the number

of interactions required to obtain the optimal plans

28

Directional Drilling

- Geometric Elements of 2D Well Trajectories:

The simplest curved segment used in trajectory

planning is the sector of circle

An advantage is that only one parameter is

required to define the curve

Instead of specifying the radius R, it is possible to

specify its inverse c, or curvature

29

Directional Drilling

- Geometric Elements of 2D Well Trajectories:

The radius and the curvature are related by

30

Directional Drilling

- Geometric Elements of 2D Well Trajectories:

The curvature can be expressed as:

such that L = R for in radians

C: rad/min

31

Directional Drilling

- Geometric Elements of 2D Well Trajectories:

The radius can be calculated by:

Common units of curvature are degrees per 100 ft, and

degrees per 30 m

32

Directional Drilling

- Geometric Elements of 2D Well Trajectories:

It is common also to refer to curvature as :

buildup rate

(BUR for building angle curves)

dropoff rate

(DOR for dropping angle curvatures

doglegseverity

(DLS for curves in general, and in particular to

measure the degree of tortuosity of a trajectory)

33

Directional Drilling

- Geometric Elements of 2D Well Trajectories:

The TVD and the horizontal departure are the basic

parameters needed to plan a 2D trajectory for a

directional well

calculated

The degree of freedom of a trajectory type is the

number of independent parameters we need to set

in order to calculate the remaining parameters

34

Directional Drilling

- Geometric Elements of 2D Well Trajectories:

35

2D Trajectory Geometries

36

Directional Drilling

- Classifying 2D Well Trajectories:

Build and Hold

Build, Hold, and Partial Drop (Modified S type)

Continuous Build

37

38

Directional Drilling

- Classifying 2D Well Trajectories:

Build and Hold (Profile A):

Drilling starts vertical to the KOP

segment) until a maximum inclination is reached

(end of build)

Drilling continues with a straight segment (slant)

until reach the target

39

Directional Drilling

- Classifying 2D Well Trajectories:

Build and Hold (Profile A):

The Build and Hold type has three parameters

and two degrees of freedom:

KOP

BUR

Maximum Inclination

40

Directional Drilling

- Classifying 2D Well Trajectories:

Build and Hold (Profile A):

Determine KOP given BUR and max

(Max.Inclination)

41

42

Directional Drilling

- Classifying 2D Well Trajectories:

Build and Hold (Profile A):

Determine KOP given BUR and Max. Inclination

43

Directional Drilling

- Classifying 2D Well Trajectories:

Build and Hold (Profile A):

44

Directional Drilling

- Classifying 2D Well Trajectories:

Build and Hold (Profile A):

Determine max given KOP and BUR

45

46

Directional Drilling

- Classifying 2D Well Trajectories:

Build and Hold (Profile A):

Determine max given KOP BUR and

47

Directional Drilling

- Classifying 2D Well Trajectories:

Build and Hold (Profile A):

48

Directional Drilling

- Classifying 2D Well Trajectories:

Build and Hold (Profile A):

Determine BUR given KOP and max

49

Directional Drilling

- Classifying 2D Well Trajectories:

Build and Hold (Profile A):

Determine BUR given KOP and max

50

Directional Drilling

- Classifying 2D Well Trajectories:

Build and Hold (Profile A):

Determine BUR given KOP and max

51

Directional Drilling

- Classifying 2D Well Trajectories:

Build and Hold (Profile A):

52

53

Directional Drilling

- Classifying 2D Well Trajectories:

Build, Hold, and Drop (profile C):

segment) until a maximum inclination is reached

(end of build)

a point called DOP (drop-off point) is reached

segment) until it becomes vertical (end of drop)

reach the target

54

Directional Drilling

- Classifying 2D Well Trajectories:

Build, Hold, and Drop (profile C):

The Build and Hold type has five parameters and

four degrees of freedom:

KOP

BUR

Maximum Inclination

DOR

EOD (vertical depth of the endof-drop)

55

56

Directional Drilling

- Classifying 2D Well Trajectories:

Build, Hold, and Drop (profile C):

Determine max given KOP, BUR (c1), DOR (c2),

and EOD

57

Directional Drilling

- Classifying 2D Well Trajectories:

Build, Hold, and Drop (profile C):

Determine max given KOP, BUR (c1), DOR (c2),

and EOD

58

Directional Drilling

- Classifying 2D Well Trajectories:

Build, Hold, and Drop (profile C):

horizontal departure of the endofbuild (EOB)

section is given by

59

60

Directional Drilling

- Classifying 2D Well Trajectories:

Build, Hold, and Partial Drop (profile B):

Drilling starts vertical to the KOP

segment) until a maximum inclination is reached

(end of build)

Drilling continues straight (slant segment) until a

point called DOP (drop-off point) is reached

61

Directional Drilling

- Classifying 2D Well Trajectories:

Build, Hold, and Partial Drop (profile B):

From this point, angle decreases (drop-off

segment) until a given inclination is obtained

(end of drop)

the target

62

Directional Drilling

- Classifying 2D Well Trajectories:

Build, Hold, and Partial Drop (profile B):

parameters and five degrees of freedom:

KOP

BUR

maximum inclination

DOR

hang length - s

(sometimes the vertical depth of the EOD)

hang inclination (the inclination to reach the

target)

63

Directional Drilling

- Classifying 2D Well Trajectories:

Build, Hold, and Partial Drop (profile B):

target with a given angle (hang inclination)

64

65

Directional Drilling

- Classifying 2D Well Trajectories:

Continuous Build (profile D):

Drilling starts vertical to the KOP

smaller rate (build up segment) until the drilling

reaches the target

66

Directional Drilling

- Classifying 2D Well Trajectories:

In addition to these basic types, there exist other

special profiles

These profiles are more suitable to deep drilling

projects, extended reach wells (ERW), and

horizontal wells

67

Directional Drilling

- Classifying 2D Well Trajectories:

Catenary:

of minimizing the torque along the drillstring

but with a controlled variable curvature

drillstringsuspended at the rotary table and at the

target

difficultiesin this type of trajectory

68

Directional Drilling

- Classifying 2D Well Trajectories:

Double Build:

This type is very common in horizontal drilling

instead of dropping to the vertical, the second

curved segment is another build, ending at the

inclination of 90o

69

Directional Drilling

- Classifying 2D Well Trajectories:

Reverse Double Build:

too far from the rig position, a reversed double

build type is used

is

built in a direction opposite to the target, so to

increase the departure of the target

back

to vertical and continuing building angle, now in the

direction of the target

70

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