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1.

Introduction
2. Physical Quantities
3. Kinematics
4. Forces & Universal Gravitation
5. Work, Energy and Power
6. Linear Momentum and Collision
7. Fluid Mechanics
8. Thermodynamics

describe the theory of Mechanics (Newtonian)


and its branches
define distance, displacement, speed, velocity &
acceleration
apply this concepts in solving kinematic
problems

Kinematics
Brief History
Definition
1- Dimensional Kinematics

Distance & Speed


Displacement, Velocity & Acceleration
2-Dimensional Kinematics
Projectile Motion
Uniform Circular Motion

Aristotle

Isaac Newton
Galileo Galilei

There are only two types of motion, the


natural motion and the violent motion

Natural- proceed from the nature of objects


objects were thought to fall at speeds proportional to their
weights

Violent resulted from pushing of pulling

all motions resulted either from the nature of the


moving object or from a sustained push or pull

KINEMATICS
deals with the description of motion.

DYNAMICS
deals with causes of motion.

How do we describe motion?

A car is moving towards the north at a speed of 80 km/hr.


http://images.tutorvista.com/cms/formulaimages/39/kinematics-formulas.PNG
http://webtaj.com/images/cristiano-ronaldo-football_171660.jpg

2nd Sem AY 13-14

Motion along a straight line

the simplest case of motion to study

considering objects to travel along a flat and narrow


straight line

object in consideration is termed as point particle

Anything can be considered to be a particle- a


molecule, a person, or a galaxy, as long as we can
reasonably ignore its internal structure

Reference frame a physical entity to which the


motion and position of objects are referred.

Inertial frame a reference frame moving with


constant velocity.

- a system for assigning numbers or coordinates to the


location of a point in a reference frame.

Position is defined in terms of a frame of reference


One dimensional, so generally the x- or y-axis

DISTANCE
(x)

DISPLACEMENT
(x = xf - xi)

- a SCALAR quantity

- a VECTOR quantity

"how much space an object has


covered?

"how far out of place an object is?"

total length traveled

change in position (x or y)
shortest distance from initial
position to final position of the object
being considered
(+) or () for 1D motion

Dimension: L

Distance may be, but is not necessarily, the


magnitude of the displacement

Displacement
(orange line)

Distance
(blue line)

Note: position-time graph is not necessarily a straight line, even


though the motion is along x-direction

If you run a 1000m circular race track from


start to finish,

What is your total distance travelled?


1000 m

What is your total displacement?


0m

initial position (xi)

8m

6m
final position (xf)

SPEED
- a SCALAR quantity
- " how fast an object is moving?

total distance
vs
total time

VELOCITY
- a VECTOR quantity
- " the rate at which an object changes its position?

xf xi
t

Dimension: L/T

total displacement

total time

Average Velocity

Average Speed

Distance traveled along


the path of an object
divided by the time it
takes to travel the
distance.

Displacement of an
object divided by the
time.

Suppose that in both cases truck covers the distance in 10 seconds.


What is the trucks velocity for each trip?

x1 70m
v1 average

t
10 s
7m s

x2 60 m
v2 average

t
10 s
6m s

Suppose that in both cases truck covers the distance in 10 seconds.


What is the trucks velocity for the whole trip?

Mario enters in a kart race. He completes the 1250m race


around a circular track in 31.7532 s
1. What is Marios average speed?
2. What is Marios average velocity?

Ans: (1) 39.37m/s (2) 0m/s

d
vave
t

* Concern only on the initial point and final point

Velocity can be determined from a position-time graph


Average velocity equals the slope of the line joining the
initial and final positions

x 40 m
vaverage

t
3 .0 s
13 m s

Instantaneous velocity is defined as the limit of the


average velocity as the time interval becomes
infinitesimally short, or as the time interval approaches
zero

vinst

x f xi
x
lim
lim
t 0 t
t 0
t

The instantaneous velocity indicates what is happening


at every point of time

Instantaneous velocity is the slope of the tangent line to


the curve at the time of interest
The magnitude of the instantaneous velocity is the
instantaneous speed

Average velocity

Instantaneous velocity

Uniform velocity is
constant velocity
The instantaneous
velocities are always
the same

- a VECTOR quantity
- the rate at which an object changes its velocity

v v f vi
a average

t
t

Dimension: L/T2

Acceleration has nothing to do with


moving fast!!!!
If an object is slowing down, then its
acceleration is in the opposite direction of
its motion.
For motion with constant velocity, the
acceleration is zero

A falling apple captured by strobe


photography at 60 flashes per
second.
The acceleration of the apple is
indicated by the widening spaces
between the images

When the sign of the velocity and the


acceleration are the same (either positive or
negative), then the speed is increasing
When the sign of the velocity and the
acceleration are opposite, the speed is
decreasing

Instantaneous acceleration is the limit of the


average acceleration as the time interval goes to
zero

ainst

v f vi
v
lim
lim
t 0 t
t 0
t

When the instantaneous accelerations are always


the same, the acceleration will be uniform

The instantaneous accelerations will all be equal to


the average acceleration

Average acceleration is the


slope of the line connecting
the initial and final
velocities on a velocity-time
graph
Instantaneous acceleration
is the slope of the tangent
line to the curve of the
velocity-time graph

Constant velocity velocity (magnitude and direction) is


not changing with time
Zero acceleration

Constant acceleration acceleration (magnitude and


direction) is not changing with time
Non - zero acceleration

Uniform velocity (shown by red arrows maintaining


the same size)
Acceleration equals zero

Velocity and acceleration are in the same direction


Velocity is increasing (red arrows are getting longer)
Acceleration is uniform (blue arrows maintain the same length)

Acceleration and velocity are in opposite directions


Velocity is decreasing (red arrows are getting shorter)
Acceleration is uniform (blue arrows maintain the same length)

position

velocity

time

time

acceleration

time

a = zero

A= const

Slope = a

Y-intercept = Vo

When acceleration of a particle is not changing, it is said

to be uniformly accelerated. This kind of motion is


common in nature, which is why we are studying it!
This could mean two things:

Acceleration is a constant non zero value (UARM)


Acceleration is zero (UM)

For example, near the earth's surface all free" particles

and all unsupported objects fall vertically with constant


acceleration (provided we neglect air resistance!)

If a particle has constant acceleration a, it


follows that the average acceleration is also a.

The next slides shows how the four basic


UARM equations are derived

If acceleration is uniform
(i.e. a ) a

v f vo
t f t0

v f vo
t

v f vo at
Shows velocity as a function of acceleration and time

v f vo at

Eqn 1:
where:
vf = velocity of the body at a later
time t
v0 = initial velocity
t = elapsed time
a = acceleration

A motor bike passes a green traffic light while


moving at a velocity of 6.00 m/s. It then accelerates
at 0.300 m/s2 for 15.0 s. What is the bikes velocity
at 15.0s?

ANS: 10.5 m/s

Recall our equation for Vav :

Manipulating this to get displacement would give


us:

If the acceleration of a moving object is constant, its


average velocity is:

V0 is the initial velocity of the object while V is its


final velocity

EQUATION 2

From Equation 2

v f vo at
vo v f
x vaveraget
2

1 2
x vot at
2
Represents the displacement x

body at any instant of time t.

Velocity changes
uniformly!!!

of the moving

Eqn 3:

1 2
x vot at
2

where:

v0 = initial velocity
t = elapsed time
a = acceleration
x = displacement

A truck, initially travelling at 8.33 m/s, accelerates at the


constant rate of 1.50 m/s2. How far will the truck travel
in 15.0s?

ANS: 294m

Equation 1:

Equation 2:

Equation 3 :

v f vo at

1 2
x vot at
2

An airplane accelerates from rest down a runway at


3.20 m/s2 for 32.8 s until is finally lifts off the ground.
Determine the distance traveled before takeoff.

Recall Equation 2:

vo v f
x vaveraget
2

And Equation 1:

v f vo at
t

v f vo
a

v v 2ax
2
f

2
o

Represents the
velocity of the
moving body at
any displacement

Eqn 4:

v v 2ax
2
f

where:

2
o

vf = velocity of the body at a later time t


v0 = initial velocity
a = acceleration
x = displacement

Gives displacement as a function of velocity and time

vo v f
x vaverage t
2

Gives displacement as a function of time, velocity and acceleration

1 2
x vot at
2
Gives velocity as a function of acceleration and displacement

v v 2ax
2
f

2
o

Notes:
Motion with Constant Acceleration
If the velocity is constant (a=0), the
displacement d is computed by multiplying by
the velocity by the time
x=v*t.

1 2
x vot at
2

EQUATION
NUMBER

EQUATION

MISSING VARIABLE

v=v0+at

x = (v+v0) * t

x = v0t + at2

v2 = v02+2ax

1. Check for the given (supplied data) in the problem


2. Make sure it is stated that the motion is uniformly

accelerated (or has uniform velocity) and is rectilinear


(straight, narrow, flat paths)
3. Check for what is needed or required

4. Then check which variable is missing!


After the abovementioned steps, determine the equation to

use, then solve!

Carmi is driving around campus when she sees a dog in the


middle of the road. She steps on the brakes and decelerates
from a speed of 120 km/h to a complete stop during a
displacement of 91 m at constant acceleration to avoid
hitting the dog. A.What is the acceleration? B. How much
time is required for the given decrease in speed?

A. What is the acceleration?


Given: v, v0, delta x
Required: a
Missing Quantity: t
Equation to use?
2

v =v +2a x
0

(Equation 4)

B. How much time is required for the


given decrease in speed?
Now we know a, delta x
Given: v, v0, a
Required: t
Equation to use?:
v=v0+at or x = ((v+v0)/2)t
(Equation 1 or Equation 2)

A car has an initial velocity of 20 m/s and acceleration of


-1.0 m/s2.
(a) Find its displacement after the 10 s from the
moment the acceleration begins.
(b) How far will the car have gone when it comes to a
stop?

GIVEN:

initial velocity of 20 m/s


acceleration of -1.0 m/s2.

a.

ASKED:
Displacement after the 10 s .

1 2
x vot at
2
b.

Displacement when it comes to stop.

v v 2ax
2
f

2
o