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Types of Biotechnology

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Department of Environment
Biosafety Unit
6th Floor, Post Office Building
P O Box 10993, Maseru
Tel: +266 22327767/8
Fax: +266 22311139
Website: http://www.environment.gov.ls

Ministry of
Tourism, Environment & Culture


Biotechnology would provide powerful tools for sustainable development of agriculture and food production can be significant
in meeting the needs of an expanding population

Department of Environment

Biotechnology has been defined in many
ways mainly because it is a mixture of disciplines. It has foundations in fields like,
cell and molecular biology, physiology,
immunology, microbiology, genetics, biochemistry, medicine, agriculture, food science, environmental science, mining,
chemical and bioprocess engineering. Modern biotechnology is therefore defined as
the scientific manipulation of living organisms at the molecular level to produce useful products.

Agricultural biotechnology is a collection of

scientific techniques used to improve plants,
animals, and microorganisms. Based on an understanding of DNA, scientists have developed
solutions to increase agricultural productivity.
Starting from the ability to identify genes that
may confer advantages on certain crops, and
the ability to make improvements in crops and
(a) Crop production and Biotechnology

Types of Biotechnology
1. Medical biotechnology
Medical biotechnology is the use of microorganisms, such as bacteria or yeasts, transgenic plants and animals, or biological substances, such as enzymes, in specific industrial or manufacturing processes to produce
certain drugs, synthetic hormones, and bulk
2. Agricultural Biotechnology

Biotech Drugs

Animal biotechnology is the application of scientific and engineering principles to the processing or production of materials by animals
or aquatic species to provide goods or services.
Examples of animal biotechnology include
generation of transgenic animals.

Cloned pigs

Bt Maize

In Crop biotechnology, using the techniques of

modern biotechnology, one or two genes may
be transferred to a highly developed variety to
impart a new character that would increase its
yield, reduced vulnerability of crops to environmental stress, increased nutritional qualities, improved taste, texture or appearance of
food, reduced dependence on fertilizer, pesticides and other agrochemicals and production
of novel substances in crop plants
(b) Animal production and Biotechnology

3. Industrial Biotechnology
Industrial biotechnology is up-scaling of biological process from the lab scale to the industrial scale to come out with products for the
benefit of mankind. It includes the practice of
using cells or components of cells like enzymes to generate industrially useful products.

Industrial biotechnology production plant