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1.

Ttel - Personal characteristics - Az egyn


describing appearance
describing character and personality
the ideal man and woman
fashion, trends
beauty care, cosmetics
Handsome is as handsome does I think its true but not completely. Mainly in business life
clothes bespeak quite a lot. Your appearance have to be natural but pretty. Your clothes and
make-up show your character and your personality. After that your speech tells your
intelligence. If youre shy and you havent self-confidence your clothes will be low-key and
not colourful. But if youre cool and youre full of confidence your clothes will be colourful
and trendy.
How a person dresses depends on the occasion, her/his personality, build and the mood of
her/him. Some people obviously think that following the latest trend is the only possible way
to decide what to wear, but I prefer choosing clothes that suit my personality and build. It
might be more important for people who often appear in public, like actresses and TV stars.
I like comfortable clothes. Thats why I wear jeans with a T-shirt or a pullover most of the
time when Im at home with my daughter. Of course on my workplace I wear costume or
trousers or skirts with blouse. I like natural materials, like cotton, linen and wool. I dont like
synthetic materials at all because I sweat in them.
I usually buy my clothes in boutiques or in hypermarkets because there is a wide choice and
the prices are reasonable. I buy my shoes in specialized shops because the quality of shoes are
very important.
I think its easier for women to follow the latest fashion because designers deal mostly with
womens clothes. When you enter a store, the department for womens wear is usually bigger
than the department for mens wear. Besides this, women can choose from a wider range of
different types of clothes; that is, they can wear trousers, suits, skirts, shorts and dresses,
while men are restricted to wearing jeans, trousers or shorts. There are also more accessories
for women than for men.
Women can put ribbons, headbands, clips, flowers, grips and hair-slides into their hair. Both
women and men wear belts, wristwatches, rings and sometimes necklaces and studs, but only
women wear clips, pearl necklaces, chokers, brooches and lockets. On the other hand, only
men wear braces, tie-pins, cuff-links and pocket watches.
Women make up themselves usually at weekdays when they work or at the weekends when
they have date. I think the natural and low-key make-up is more and nicer than so much and
sporty make-up.

2. Ttel - Friends and relationships - Emberi kapcsolatok


friendship
fellow students and colleagues
partners
Friendship is very important in my life because my friends are my second family.
I have lots of friends: one of them was my classmate at primary school, some of them were
my classmates at secondary school, one of them was my colleague at my first workplace and
the majority is known by my husband for 6 years. I think these friendships are the strongest
because adults take their friends more seriously especially they have children. We meet at
weekends to play the children together and sometimes especially on birthdays and
namedays - we go to pubs to talk each other and to celebrate.
Partner relationships are important too. I keep in touch with my ex-lovers nowadays were
friends. We meet rarely but we often call each other and we talk about our present-days.
Although we couldnt agree together, nowadays we can talk about everything. Its very
interesting!

3. Ttel - Family - Csald


family models (only child, large family, single-parent families)
division of tasks within the family
generations living together
In most families there are two children, a mother and a father. Of course, its difficult to tell
because there are families with more than two children and many couples get divorced and the
children usually stay with the mother. In some families there are three generations living
together. This means that one or both the grandparents live with the family too, and they help
with the housework and they also look after the children while the parents are at work.
Thats the way it goes at my father-in-law. He and my mother-in-law live together with my
father-in-laws mother, my husbands grandmother. Shes pensioner so she cooks every day,
and the others tidy up at the weekends.
My family isnt so large: my mother, my sister and my own family: my daughter and my
husband. My daughter Eliza is 20 month-old, shes a tall child with curly brown hair and
big blue eyes. She is very lively and slippy. She likes singing, dancing and drawing.
My husband is 30 years old, hes a sales and marketing manager at his fathers family
business. Our daughter takes after his father, so Bla has curly brown hair and blue eyes too.
Im 27 years old and I worked as an office coordinator for a dutch multinational company.
Nowadays Im at home with Liza until hes going to nursery school at September. I took a
degree last year so Id like to work as a HR manager.
We live with my mother and my sister because were constructing in Inrcs and well move
there not later than June.
We share all the housework with my mother, generally she cooks, I tidy and clean and my
daughter makes the mess.
Our relatives live in Miskolc and my grandmother lives in Nagyrozvgy, so we meet rarely
unfortunately.

4. Ttel - Man and society - Ember s trsadalom


social benefits (pension, health insurance, unemployment benefit)
social movements (NGOs, trade unions, clubs, associations)
public safety, crime and criminal investigation
unemployment
The state and the government assure social supplies to the indigents. For example, pensioners
get pension, parents get family allowance, everybody get medical assurance and unemployed
people get dole. Of course, therefore people have to pay several taxes when they work.
Social movements are non-governmental organizations, foundations, trade unions, clubs,
associations, etc. These organizations protect their members and they fight their true together.
(I disapprove of people who demonstrate on our national holidays nowadays.)
Public safety means the security of the public namely citizens. The polices job is the support
of the public safety. Public security includes especially murder, burglary, car upsurge and
stealing and actions versus property. I think the public safety not so high in Hungary
especially in the capital.
I think the preventing of offense is more important and effective than criminal investigation.
Everything that do harm to somebody and there is in the criminal code is offense. Criminal
code describes all offenses and their sanctions.
Unemployment is a serious social problem all over the world. Unemployed means that
somebody hasnt worked for a month, and he or shes looking for a job. I think most of them
are middle-aged and elder. Of course there are entrant unemployed too, because lots of
employee want a young, well-educated but well-practised employers.
In my opinion the state has to solve the problem, for example, with free re-trainings and odd
job or jobs of public utility. Of course, people have to change their habits. Change of
residence and workplace or profession may be often a good resolution.

5. Ttel - Place of living - Laks


candidate's flat/house

furnishings, pieces of furniture


household chores and appliances
flat-related costs, maintenance
the ideal home
Transitionally I live in a flat on the first floor in a block of flats on a housing estate with my
mother, my sister, my husband and my daughter. We are constructing a two-storey big family
house in Inrcs and we would like to move there in May. Well have a big garage, a double
balcony, a big terrace, two bathrooms, a guest room, a working room, two childrens rooms,
our bedroom with a walk-in closet and in one place the kitchen, the dining room and the
living room. There is huge garden so well make a big playground for the children and therell
be lots of flowers and fruit trees.
Every rooms will be colourful there wont be white wall. Every wood and furniture will be
cherry-coloured and modern. There will be pictures on the walls and lots of plants
everywhere.
In the kitchen there will be lots of household appliances because I like that kitchen utensils
are near my hands, for example, the scales, the kettle, mixer, the deep fryer, the food
processor and so on. In my kitchen there will be on the worktop the kettle, the food processor,
the deep fryer, scales, the cutting board, the graters, the nutcracker, the toaster, the microwave
oven and the bread slicer. The crockery, the plates, the cutlery, the cups and glasses, the
bowls, pans and pots will be in the cupboard.
Our future house is my dream house.
The expenses of home are especially the overheads, for example, the bill of electric light, the
bill of heating and gas, the bill of water and canal and so on. These expenses are the most. I
think the second biggest charge is the food.
The maintenance of home may be so high if you call a specialist. Youd better you do it
yourself if it neednt professional help.
I think owning a flat is better because its a good investment and more secure than living in a
rented flat. If you rent a flat, the owners can ask you to leave any time while if you live in
your flat, you can stay there for all your life. Its also true that you are more willing to finance
repair jobs and redecorating if you are the owner.

6. Ttel - Housing - Laksviszonyok


living in the city or in the country

living conditions (own property, rented accommodation, lodgings, hostel)


flat or house
neighbourhood
I prefer the countryside because I like peace, quiet and nature. I agree that living in a city has
advantages but I cant imagine living in a dirty and noisy city with crowds of people around
me.
In a city its easier to find a job and there are more possibilities for spending your free time.
Specialised health services are more easily accessible and there are big hypermarkets and
plazas eith a wide variety of goods. In cities there are more banks, post offices and all kinds of
services. On the other hand, the air is polluted, the streets are dirty and noisy, there is more
crime, and life is too hectic. In a village life is more peaceful, the air is clean, there are
flowers and trees everywhere and people know each other. People are friendlier, they always
have the time for a chat, and they are willing to help each other. The disadvantages are that the
infrastructure is not so developed, the number of services is generally smaller, and you may
have to commute to make your living. If you need to contact the authorities because of some
administrative matters, you have to travel to the nearest city, and it can take all day.
In villages most people live in a family house, though there may be some blocks in the centre.
In town centres there are blocks of flats and apartment houses, and on the outskirts there are
big housing estates with prefabricated buildings. In the green belt you can find detached,
semi-detached and terraced houses.
The English prefer living in houses and hate high-rise buildings. In most English towns you
can find terraced houses built from red brick.
Living in a high-rise block of flats has problems. Families feel isolated and lonely. There is
not much contact with the neighbours. The children have nowhere to play. The old people
have to depend on the lift (elevator) to reach the outside world. When the lift is not operating,
the old people are cut off from human contact. On the other hand it may be problem with the
neighbours because of noises. In these building the sealant is bad and the walls are thin.
I think houses have only one problem: the scoop of snow.
In my opinion owning a flat is better because its a good investment and more secure than
living in a rented flat. If you rent a flat, the owners can ask you to leave any time while if you
live in your flat, you can stay there for all your life. Its also true that you are more willing to
finance repair jobs and redecorating if you are the owner.
We can get flat or house in many ways; we can buy it in a lump, but it rare because a flat or a
house is very expensive. If we dont have enough money well get on credit. In this case we
pay the amount and interests monthly for a long time. If we dont have capital we can rent a
flat or a house or we can live in a room or a boarding school if were students.

7. Ttel - Holidays and celebrations - nnepek s nnepnapok


family celebrations (birthdays, name days, anniversaries)
Christmas, Easter
public holidays
customs and traditions
Many countries around the world share certain holidays, such as New Years Day, Easter and
Christmas, but not every country celebrates them in the same ways or even on the same day.
We celebrate birthdays, namedays, wedding anniversaries, March 15, Easter, Whitsun,
Mothers Day, August 20, October 23, All Souls Day, Christmas and New Years Day.
In Hungary most people get married on a Saturday afternoon. All couples have to get married
in a registry office, and those who are religious have a church wedding, too. In the registry
office, the ceremony is led by a registrar, and the couple and their two witnesses sign the
register. The bride wears a long white wedding dress with a veil and a train, and the
bridegroom an elegant dark suit with a white shirt and a tie. The bride holds a bouquet, and
the bridegroom has a buttonniere. After the ceremony there is a reception, which held in a
restaurant, and in villages is often held in a big tent. At the reception several kinds of dishes
are served and the new couple cuts the wedding cake. At midnight the couple change their
clothes and the so-called brides dance starts. All the guests dance with the bride and give
some money to the couple to contribute to their new life together.
Namedays arent celebrated, for example, in English-speaking countries. In Hungary
namedays are almost as important as birthdays and are celebrated in all families.
At Christmas we celebrate the birth of Jesus Christ. Christmas is a holiday full of traditions.
The most important day is Christmas Eve, December 24, when the family comes together for
the Christmas dinner. The traditional dishes are fish soup, stuffed cabbage and poppy seed and
nut rolls. The Christmas tree is decorated before the dinner with sweets, brightly coloured
lights and glass ornaments, and Christmas presents are placed under it. At midnight lots of
families go to church for the midnight service. On Christmas Day and Boxing Day relatives
visit each other and have lunch together.
In England Christmas Eve is the time for the annual office party and many English people go
to a midnight mass, while others go to church on the morning of Christmas Day.
In Hungary on New Years Eve people usually go to parties where they eat and drink and
enjoy themselves. At midnight they drink champagne and sing the national anthem. Then
people go to the streets and watch the fireworks.
In England people go to parties or dances on New Years Eve. At midnight they drink a toast
to the New Year and link arms to sing Auld Lang Syne. In London thousands of people gather
to celebrate at Trafalgar Square.
At Easter we celebrate the Resurrection, that is, the rising of Jesus Christ from the tomb three
days after his crucifixion. On Easter Sunday morning we eat ham, hard-boiled eggs and cold

pork in aspic. On Easter Monday boys visit their relatives and friends and sprinkle women
and girls with perfume or water. They get chocolate or painted eggs, and chocolate bunnies. In
England many people go to church on Easter Sunday.
The Hungarians celebrate March 15th, the day of the Hungarian Revolution and War of
Independence of 1848-49, August 20, the day of King Stephen I. and October 23rd, the day of
the Declaration of the Hungarian Republic.
As far as I know, public holidays in England are called bank holidays because on these days
the banks are closed. New Years Day, Easter Monday and Boxing Day are bank holidays.
May Bank Holiday is the first Monday in May. The British also celebrate St. Valentines Day,
May Day, the Queens birthday, Halloween, Guy Fawkes Night and Armistice Day.
St. Valentines Day, February 14th, is the day of lovers.
Both Britain and the U.S.A. also celebrate some holidays which are not common in other
countries, for instance Valentines Day (February 14th), April Fools Day (April 1st),May
Day (May 1st) and Halloween (October 31st). An important Welsh holiday is St. Davids Day
(the patron saint of Wales) on March 1st, and in Ireland, St. Patricks Day (March 17th) is the
day celebrating their patron saint. Midsummers Day (June 24th) marks the longest day of the
year, and Guy Fawkes Day (November 5th) commemorates the survival of the monarchy and
the King after Guy Fawkes unsuccessfully tried to kill him in 1605.
In the United States each state has its own legal holidays but most states observe the holidays
set by the federal government. These holidays are: New Years Day (January 1st), Martin
Luther Kings Birthday (3rd Monday in January), Washingtons Birthday (3rd Monday in
February), Memorial Day (last Mondy in May), Independence Day (July 4), Labor Day
(1st Monday in September), Columbus Day (2nd Monday in October), Veterans Day
(November 11), Thanksgiving Day (4th Thursday in November) and Christmas Day
(December 25).
As in Ireland, St. Patricks Day is observed in America, a day when people wear green for the
Irish saint.
Many of the holidays have traditional foods and activities associated with them, and
nowadays its commond to send greeting cards to family and friends on many of these days.
On Halloween children dress up as witches or in other costumes, make lanterns of pumpkins
and light candles inside them to scare the witches away. They visit houses wearing costumes
and knock at the door, and when its opened, they say trick or treat. Trick means playing a
joke, and treat means getting a gift, usually sweets. This day is celebrated both in GreatBritain and in the United States.

8. Ttel - Reading; television, video, cinema - Szabadid - olvass, televzi,


vide, mozi
reading (books, newspapers, libraries, Internet)
TV, cinema, video
reading vs TV
TV vs cinema
I think reading is a very useful pastime. I like reading interesting books because I can relax
with it.
People go to a library to borrow books and cassettes, read newspapers and magazines,
photocopy materials, listen to music and use computers.
Its oftener that we buy the newspapers. In Hungary there are local and national daily papers.
The local papers tend to concentrate on the news of the county and write only short articles on
world and national news. As for the national daily papers, there are two basic types. One is
quality papers which focus on more serious issues and try to cover all kinds of topics.
Newspapers belonging to the other group, tabloids, concentrate on sensational news, such as
murders, tragedies and stories on famous people. The headlines are sometimes provocative,
using big letters. The articles are short and there are lots of pictures.
The British are a nation of newspaper readers. Many people even have a daily paper delivered
to their homes in time for breakfast.
British newspapers can be divided into two groups too: quality and popular (tabloid). Quality
newspapers are more serious and cover home and foreign news thoughtfully while the popular
newspapers like shocking, personal stories as well as some news. These two groups of papers
can be distinguished easily because the quality newspapers are twice the size of the popular
newspapers.
Of course the press means more than newspapers. A vast range of magazines and weeklies is
published, aimed at readers interested in all sorts of subjects. In fact, there are magazines for
practically every special interest you can imagine. There are womens magazines, gourmet
cooking magazines, or magazines dealing with gardening, science, cars, motorcycles,
computers, modeling, home decorating, fashion, sports, body building, film, theatre, music,
news magazines and so on.
I love books. I love to read especially tales to my daughter. I buy books by internet because
its comfortable and cheaper than I buy books in the bookshops.
In my opinion, people prefer watching films to reading. Watching films is less demanding
than reading books after a tiring day at work or at school. Although cinema tickets are quite
expensive, so are books.
People not only watch what is on TV but watch videos and DVDs. Its better because there
isnt commercial during the film. I understand that commercials are important for channels
and sometimes provide useful information for everybody. They can also be quite entertaining,
though I hate it when the film that Im watching is interrupted at the most interesting part with
commercials.

In my opinion, TV contributes to our social life. People like talking about TV programmes.
For example, they discuss all kinds of information on the characters of soap operas, try to
guess what will happen to them in the next episodes and talk about the actors and actresses
private lives. They also like criticising the way presenters talk and dress.
I prefer those channels which broadcast documentaries and films on nature, animals and
fabulous events. I often watch tale channel with my daughter, we have lots of favourite
programmes. I watch the news every day because I like to know what is going on in the
world. I also enjoy watching quiz shows and comedies.
We go to multiplex cinemas in big plazas where we go to not only for the sake of the film, but
also to enjoy ourselves with our friends before or after the film. Usually we have dinner there
before the cinema.
I mostly listen to the radio while driving. I like channels which offer programmes with few
commercials and lots of music. I also like programmes which provide news every hour or half
an hour and information on town traffic and road conditions.
Mass media is a phrase often used to describe ways of giving information and entertainment
to very large numbers of people. It includes newspapers, advertising and radio and of course,
television.

9. Ttel - Culture - Szabadid - mvelds, szrakozs


music (listening to music, concerts, opera, playing an instrument)
theatre
museums, exhibitions
I listen to music at home and in the car. Ive never been in classical concert, only in rock
concerts. I dont like operas so much, but I would like to go to the Opera-house and the
Theatre of light opera sometimes.
I like both going to the cinema and the theatre. Its true that I go to the cinema more often
because of the ticket prices and parking. Our car was stolen once when we was in the theatre.
Nowadays we go to theatre by public transport.
If you want to go to the theatre it is often necessary to book a seat before you go. Normally it
is not necessary to book seats at the cinema.
If you book seats you can choose the ones you want on a plan. Seats on ground level are
normally called the stalls; seats on the first floor are called the circle (or the balcony); if there
are seats on the second floor they are called the balcony. When you go into the cinema or
theatre an usherette will take your ticket and show you to your seat.
In my town there are lots of museum and famous art galleries: Museum of Fine Arts, National
Museum, Museum of Modern Art, Museum of Tranportation, Postal Museum, Science
Museum, Museum of History and so on.
I go to exhibitions very rarely because I havent so much freetime and my daughter doesnt
enjoy these visitations.

10. Ttel - Free time activities - Szabadid


going out
parties, balls, festivals
hobbies
other ways of recreation
There are lots of pleasure grounds all over the world. I think everywhere there are pubs,
discoes, clubs, etc. We go out with my friends especially to pubs where we can chat, listen to
music, dance and eat something. But the garden parties are more friendlier and cheaper. We
usually organize barbecues with children, this time they can play and run in the garden.
I usually go to a wellness-weekend with my husband once a year in winter because we work a
lot all of the year. There are some well-known spas in Hungary, for example, Hvz and
Hajdszoboszl, and many people, including foreigners, go there.
A hobby is an activity that you like doing and do quite often. Hobbies are a form of
recreation. If you have a hobby, its easier to regain energy after a hard days work.
Depending on the type of the hobby, you can also make friends.
Unfortunately many Hungarians spend their free time at home watching TV. But there are
some who do some physical activities regularly, like swimming, aerobics or hiking.
Nowadays many young people spend much of their time playing computer games either at
home or in internet cafes.
I think men and women usually have different kinds of hobbies, for example, very few
women go fishing and they are not so interested in extreme sports, either. On the other hand,
men generally arent interested in needlework or pottery. In my opinion both men and women
do gardening but they tend to do different jobs in the garden. Women like dealing with
flowers, they weed the flowerbeds, plant new varieties and they design the whole garden. Men
usually prune the trees, trim the hedges and mow the lawn.
Collecting stamps, coins, autographs, phone cards, beer mats or napkins, model building,
doing needlework or woodwork, pottery, basketry, playing an instrument and dancing are
indoor hobbies, while hiking, mountaineering, caving, sailing, fishing, canoeing and birdwatching are outdoor hobbies. My sisters hobbies are collecting phone cards and diary
writing. I like reading about feng-shui and I like to be an Avon consultant. I used to play
handball for years, nowadays I only watch handball games on TV.
As far as I know, the English like playing golf and cricket, and there are quite a few soccer
fans among them. They often mow the lawn and wash their cars at weekends, while some
British people go to horse races to bet or just to watch the race.
Some Americans go to baseball and basketball games regularly to support their teams. But
there are others who prefer staying at home and watching these games on TV while eating
snacks.
I think Hungarian people collect the same things that people like collecting all over the world,
mostly stamps and coins.

If we considered a sport that many people pursue popular, the most popular sport in Hungary
are football, handball, hiking and aerobics. If a popular sport means a sport that many people
watch, besides football and handball, the most popular sports are Formula 1 racing, water polo
and boxing.

11. Ttel - Learning, education, the school system - Oktats, tanuls


school system, school types in Hungary
school system, school types in English-speaking countries
candidate's school experiences
tertiary education
learning outside school: courses, etc
student exchange programmes, student mobility
When children are 2 or 3 years old, they sometimes go to a nursery school, where they learn
simple games and songs. In England there are not enough nursery schools for all children
under five, so parents themselves often form play groups for children under five where they
can go a couple of times a week. From 5 to 7 years, children go to infant schools and from 8
to 11 years to junior schools. From the age of 11 most children attend a comprehensive school
until the age of 16 or 18. Higher education covers universities, polytechnics and colleges of
education.
In the United States children start the 8-grade elementary school at the age of six. After the
elementary school, the students attend four years of high school. In some cases students
between 12-14 go to junior high school and then attend a 3-year high school. After high
school the students can attend university for four years. State and private university masters
degrees are completed in one to two years, and doctoral degrees can take seven year.
Its the same in Hungary. Childrens first real school is called a primary school. Usually at the
age of six, but parents can decide whether those childen who wee born in autumn start when
they are six, or a year later. In England they start at the age of five and in the States the
system is the same as in Hungary. Secondary education begins at the age of about 14.
In Hungary there are secondary grammar, secondary technical and vocational schools. Mostly
those students choose secondary grammar schools who plan to go on to higher education.
Students who would like to learn a trade or profession besides passing their school-leaving
exam go to secondary technical schools. I passed the school-leaving exam in a Secondary
School of Economics. Vocational schools train skilled workers, such as plumbers, joiners and
hairdressers. The training lasts three years in these schools.
After high-school graduation they can go to university or college. These courses normally last
4 years and then students graduate, which means they receive their degree. At university,
teaching is by tutorial, seminar, lecture and of course private study. Most people who receive
a university place are given a grant by the government to help pay their fees and living
expenses.
Full-time students attend school on weekdays and correspondence students go to classes
mainly on Fridays and Saturday. I went to college every second Friday and Saturday, so I
could work or I could stay at home with my child.
Other facilities of continuing professional education are the crash-courses and OKJ trainings,
where you get an official and received certificate.

Nowadays most young people want to become economists, lawyers or deal with some field of
computer science. Many of them think that it will be easy to find well-paying jobs with these
degrees.
The program of student barter is a very good thing. Students can meet foreign people,
countries and cultures, and during they learn foreign languages. I think it has only advantages.

12. Ttel - Learning foreign languages - Idegen nyelvek, nyelvtanuls


the role and importance of foreign languages
language learning opportunities
language learning experiences
Its important that we take a language exam because its necessary if you want to get a degree,
and it is an advantage when a student wants to go on to higher education. Nowadays if you
want a good job, you will have to be able to speak foreign languages, and its good if you can
prove it with a certificate. Of course, knowledge of an foreign language is advantage for you
in your weekdays and in your travellings too.
You can learn foreign languages alone at home from a book, with a private teacher or at a
language school, and of course abroad.
Ive been learning English for 15 years, and if I pass the language exam, Ill learn Dutch and
Italian.
I began foreign language learning when I was 12. I remember my first English book, it was a
story-book about Linda. I learnt English seriously at the secondary school and at my first
workplace, I had a private teacher. I got an elementary language exam, and later when I learnt
English at London Studio, I passed the verbal intermediate language exam.
Now Im learning at Mtisz Studio, and I hope that my exam will be successful.

13. Ttel - Work and the individual - Munka s egyn


working hours (part-time, casual work, shift work, several jobs)
fashionable jobs / dream jobs
ways of finding a job
working abroad (advantages, disadvantages)
career and/or family
Jobs are traditionally divided up into two large categories: blue collar and white collar. Blue
collar jobs are generally the manual labour type, such as factory work, road crews, building
and construction, etc. The white collar jobs are the office jobs such as bank clerks, office
workers, teachers, computer operators, etc. They are called blue and white collar because of
the colour of the shirt traditionally worn in those jobs. Wearing a uniform is still required for
numerous jobs, such as police officers, hotel doormen, nurses and many others.
While many jobs have regular hours typically 9 a.m. to 5 p.m., and called nine-to-five
jobs some require shift work. There is usually a hierarchy in a work place, and at the top is
employer, usually called the boss, who is generally a type of executive of manger. Below this
are other supervisors and then the other employees. Sometimes there is a labour union in the
work place to protect the rights of the workers.
Full-time jobs mean that you work 8 hours a day. If you have a part-time job, you work less,
usually 4 or 6 hours a day.
Employer can work more two or three shifts. There are day- or nighshift and swing shift
too.
Odd job is valid to occasions or seasons, for example, snow scoop in winter or farmhand in
summer.
Some people have more jobs called accumulation, such as the politicians. Its possible that
they have other functions beside the function of political.
Salaries are fixed monthly payments especially for professional employees or people working
in an office.
These days a lot of young people would like to become lawyers or economists, or they would
like to find a job in connection with computer science. The main reason why these jobs are so
popular is that they are well-paid. Most young people would like to work for a big company
and get a company car, a mobile phone and a laptop, and where they can travel abroad on
business. There are some young people who choose a popular job, no matter whether they are
interested in that field or not. Others try to find work that suits their abilities and interest.
There are families where the parents tell their children what to become.
Nowadays its easier to gain admission to an institution of higher education, but its more
difficult to find a lucrative job after graduation. There are many more students in higher
education than some years ago, so the job market is getting full.
In my opinion, a good job must be challenging and motivating. I would like to work with
people and help them. Its very important for me to enjoy what I do and be a member of a
good team.

Employee provides job security, good salary and fringe benefits, such as free health insurance,
travel subsidies and sports facilities. A good employer constantly tries to motivate the
employees and creates ideal working conditions. He or she should organize activities for the
employees outside work, like sightseeing tours and evening programmes.
A good employee is efficient, loyal to the employer and reliable. He or she has to adapt to
changing work conditions and has to be able to cooperate with others.
Women have become more career-oriented. They dont have to stay at home and look after
their children as there are crches and nursery schools. They can take care of housework more
easily because there are labour-saving household devices. Another reason why they go to
work is that the family needs the money.
I think we dont have to choose between family and career if we can map out and we have
family support.
In my opinion the middle-aged and elderly people are at a disadvantage when they are looking
for a job because most companies advertise jobs for people under 35. In turn these people can
work very well and they dont have to go on sick leave because they havent got little
children.
According to the law, women and men get the same salary for the same job, but as far as I
know, especially in blue-collar jobs, women are paid less because they are considered weaker
than men.
Traditionally there are mens jobs and womens jobs. For example, turners are mostly men,
and kindergarten teachers are mostly women.
The most frequent reason is that an employee is made redundant and has to find another job.
He or she has to leave either because the firm goes bankrupt or closes down, or because the
employer is not satisfied with his or her work. There might be family reasons as well. Some
people have to change jobs because of their health. There are people who change for a betterpaid job or a job with better benefits. Other change jobs just because their tasks have become
monotonous and they need a change.
Unfortunately, in todays economic hard times a lot of people dont have jobs and cant find
the kind of work they were trained for. These people are unemployed, and its sad to say their
numbers are growing.
If Im search of a job I ask my friends whether they know about vacancies. I read job
advertisement, surf the net and go to a job agent. I found all of my jobs by TopSec, so Im
pleased with them. Firstly I called this company, we made an appointment, and went to the
office with my CV. I was done some exercises and talked a lot. They took on me to their
database, and after a week they called me that I could go to an appraisal interview. It was
successful.
A CV contains personal details, such as the candidates name, address, phone number,
nationality, date of birth and marital status. You must give details of your education and
qualifications, your previous experience, your language and other skills. You may also include
a list of your interests. Its advisable to add names of people who can provide references.

Some people think that their life will be easier and more interesting abroad. They also hope to
earn much more money than in Hungary, but they might not consider that life is more
expensive abroad.
The advantages of working abroad are that you can learn the local language, get to know
interesting people, and acquire the most recent technologies. Probably you earn more,
although your expenditures can be higher too. The disadvantages include that you might feel
like an outsider, have language problems and find the people around you and their customs
strange. You might often feel lonely as you are far from your family and friends.

14. Ttel - Work and society - Munka s trsadalom


job prestige
unemployment, benefits
telework
graduates entering the labour market
Jobs are traditionally divided up into two large categories: blue collar and white collar. Blue
collar jobs are generally the manual labour type, such as factory work, road crews, building
and construction, etc. The white collar jobs are the office jobs such as bank clerks, office
workers, teachers, computer operators, etc. They are called blue and white collar because of
the colour of the shirt traditionally worn in those jobs. Wearing a uniform is still required for
numerous jobs, such as police officers, hotel doormen, nurses and many others.
These days a lot of young people would like to become lawyers or economists, or they would
like to find a job in connection with computer science. The main reason why these jobs are so
popular is that they are well-paid. Most young people would like to work for a big company
and get a company car, a mobile phone and a laptop, and where they can travel abroad on
business. There are some young people who choose a popular job, no matter whether they are
interested in that field or not. Others try to find work that suits their abilities and interest.
There are families where the parents tell their children what to become.
Nowadays its easier to gain admission to an institution of higher education, but its more
difficult to find a lucrative job after graduation. There are many more students in higher
education than some years ago, so the job market is getting full.
I think the middle-aged and elderly people are at a disadvantage when they are looking for a
job because most companies advertise jobs for people under 35. In turn these people can work
very well and they dont have to go on sick leave because they havent got little children.
According to the law, women and men get the same salary for the same job, but as far as I
know, especially in blue-collar jobs, women are paid less because they are considered weaker
than men.
Traditionally there are mens jobs and womens jobs. For example, turners are mostly men,
and kindergarten teachers are mostly women.
The most frequent reason is that an employee is made redundant and has to find another job.
He or she has to leave either because the firm goes bankrupt or closes down, or because the
employer is not satisfied with his or her work. There might be family reasons as well. Some
people have to change jobs because of their health. There are people who change for a betterpaid job or a job with better benefits. Other change jobs just because their tasks have become
monotonous and they need a change.
Unfortunately, in todays economic hard times a lot of people dont have jobs and cant find
the kind of work they were trained for. These people are unemployed, and its sad to say their
numbers are growing.

Unemployment is a serious social problem all over the world. Unemployed means that
somebody hasnt worked for a month, and he or shes looking for a job. I think most of them
are middle-aged and elder. Of course there are entrant unemployed too, because lots of
employee want a young, well-educated but well-practised employers.
The state and the government assure social supplies to the indigents. For example, pensioners
get pension, parents get family allowance, everybody get medical assurance and unemployed
people get dole. Of course, therefore people have to pay several taxes when they work.
In my opinion the state has to solve the problem, for example, with free re-trainings and odd
job or jobs of public utility. Of course, people have to change their habits. Change of
residence and workplace or profession may be often a good resolution.

15. Ttel - Sports - Sport


sports facilities
candidates sporting activities, favourite sports
mass sports
sports events, professionals
extreme sports
Sport includes the healthy lifestyle, crowdsports, racingsports, popular- and extreme sports
and so on.
The healthy lifestyle contains eating healthy food, regular movement and free from stress.
I try to live healthy as I know. I eat lots of vegetable dishes, fruits, yoghurts and cereals.
I like sports, especially handball, tennis and Formula 1. I used to go to fitness centres and play
handball for years but nowadays I only watch handball games on TV. I like this sport because
of the hardness and team playing. We won several awards, for example, silver medal in the
competition of Budapest. Nowadays I take exercises at home with a step machine because I
cant go out from my daughter. My employer pays the season tickets of a fitness centre so the
managing director help us to keep our fit.
Crowdsports are played by several people, so crowdsport means the game of the crowds. For
example, football, running, basketball, etc.
Racingsports are the sports which are played in functional competitions and the winners get
medals. For example, motorsports, ice-skating, football, athletics, etc.
As far as I know, the English like playing golf and cricket, and there are quite a few soccer
fans among them.
Some Americans go to baseball and basketball games regularly to support their teams. But
there are others who prefer staying at home and watching these games on TV while eating
snacks.
If we considered a sport that many people pursue popular, the most popular sport in Hungary
are football, handball, hiking and aerobics. If a popular sport means a sport that many people
watch, besides football and handball, the most popular sports are Formula 1 racing, water
polo, swimming and boxing.
Although its said that extreme sports are dangerous, many young people try them. These
sports are gliding, white-water rafting, snowboarding, bungee jumping and so on. I think
extreme sports are nice and exciting but I dont want to try them. Once I was parachuted with
my husband by a motor-boat above the Mediterranean sea in Tunesia and it was wonderful but
I was afraid because I have agoraphobic.

16. Ttel - Health - Egszsg


characteristics of a healthy lifestyle

healthy and unhealthy diet/dishes


healthcare
The word health really means good health, when you feel fine. But it also possible to speak
about poor health, when you feel out of sorts, do not feel up to the mark.
A regular way of life is very important to good health. Have your meals at regular times,
devote enough time to recreation, sports in the fresh air and sunshine. Many people who feel
unwell or nervous are just exhausted, overworked and need a good rest.
To be healthy you should eat healthy food, such as chicken and fish, vegetables, fruits, cheese,
yoghurt and cereals, exercise regularly and try to avoid stress.
I try to live in the healthiest way possible. I eat healthy food, that is, little fat and sugar and
lots of vegetables and fruit. I take exercises at home three times a week and walk a lot with
my daughter every day.
Health cares are cover all people and theyre nearly free. Of course, its not free because
employees and employers pay social security contributions to the state to cover their health
cares. From 15th February we pay visit fee at doctors and bed fee in the hospitals per day.
Health cares may be benefit in kind and monetary allocation.
Benefit in kind may be the price of medicine support. Monetary allocation are sick-pay and
child care allowance and fee.
There are private medical cares but theyre so expensive.
Important institute is the sick-pay what is paid by the employees and social insurance. When
an employer is sick, go to the doctor and stay at home, he or she gets the 70 per cent of his or
her salary as sick-pay.
Some employees pay the medical examinations for the employers, especially the
multinational companies.

17. Ttel - Illnesses - Betegsg


common illnesses
addiction (alcohol, drugs, smoking)
stress, psychic diseases
In Hungary most people have coronary diseases or suffer from cancer. I think the majority of
people dont pay enough attention to their health and go and see a doctor only when its too
late.
In my opinion, in Africa the biggest problem is the spread of AIDS, which is due to ignorance,
lack of money and education. In the developed countries the most serious issue is cancer
because in most of the cases it is incurable.
When you are unwell, you see the doctor in his surgery or send for him. From 15th February
you have to pay visit fee. You tell him your trouble and he examines you by sounding your
lings, listening to your heart, taking your blood pressure, feeling your pulse and taking your
temperature. If it is nothing serious, there is nothing much to worry about, but you may have
to take some prescription. He may put you on a diet, tell you to stay away from work or put
you on the sick list.
If you are in need of urgent hospital treatment, the doctor will ring for the ambulance. As
polyclinics are not self-sufficient for every kind of medical examination, you may be sent to
hospital for observation.
Medical attendance covers the emergency medical- and accident attendance, hospital
treatment and recourse of family doctor.
Herbs can replace medicines in certain cases and provide a more natural treatment. Herbs are
mainly used to make teas. I believe in natural therapy not tablets and medicines.
Unfortunately many people are overweight in Hungary. People dont care about leading a
healthy way of life. They eat too much and too many fatty foods and they dont do any sports.
They dont even walk, but use their cars or public transport.
There are addictions, which are very harmful, for example: smoking, drugs and drinking.
Smoking is very harmful and its very difficult to give up smoking. I think smokers smoke
cigarettes out of sheer habit not for the taste and flavour of cigarette.
Drinking coffee is harmful too, but some people who has low blood pressure its helpful.
I think drugs are the most dangerous passion because its crocked up the body so quickly.
Taking drugs weakens the addicts immune system, makes them susceptible to strokes and
causes anemia. Young people try drugs mostly because of curiosity. Young peoples idols,
famous pop stars, actors and actresses, also take drugs and show a bad example for them.
Giving up drugs is very difficult because drugs are extremely addictive. I think it is almost
impossible to give up drugs without professional help.
Drinking is as dangerous as taking drugs, both of them mend the feelings for a short time.
Adults should call the attention of young people to the health hazards of drinking. They
should make teenagers realize that alcohol is as addictive as drugs and cigarettes. Drinking is

especially dangerous for young people as their liver functions are not developed enough to
stop alcohol from destroying their brain cells.
I think its impossible to stop people from smoking and drinking with laws or regulations.
Producing and distributing cigarettes and alcoholic drinks is a very profitable business.
Stress is a common trouble in our days. The most typical form is the stress at occupation.
Future exercises and quick worktempo cause quick pulse, strain and phobia. This is a
psychological trouble, such as anorexia, sexual problems, phobias (hydrophobia,
claustrophobia), inside illnesses, etc.

18. Ttel - Services - Szolgltatsok


catering facilities
banks
repair and maintenance
emergency services (ambulance, police, Automobile Association)
There are several services in the world, such as restaurants, banks, hairdressers, dry-cleaners,
patrol services and so on.
People are usually in a hurry and they dont have time to wait for meals in restaurants. They
go to self-service restaurants, which dont offer many kinds of dishes, but the service is quick
and the food is acceptable. There are cheaper and some more expensive ones. You can buy
your food at takeaway restaurants if you dont have time to cook but would like to eat at
home. Fast food restaurants are very popular but not so healthy. I like these foods but I eat
there rarely.
Many students complain about the canteen food, saying that it is tasteless and full of fat. I
think the situation is not that bad. The kitchen provides food for several hundred students a
day and cant afford to use the best ingredients. There are some dishes that they cook really
well.
In Hungary the number of foreign restaurants is growing. There are more and more Chinese,
Greek, Italian, Turkish and Arabic restaurants. You can also find other international
restaurants, mainly in big towns.
I go to the hairdressers to have my hair cut two- or three times a year because I grow my hair
and I dye it at home.
Its much cheaper to do all the work yourself and with the help of your family and friends, but
you might not be so satisfied with the result. Employing professionals is quite expensive but
they work faster and better.
I take suits, overcoats, leather jackets, fur coats and other clothes made of materials that cant
be washed to the dry-cleaners.
At the post office you can buy stamps, envelopes, cards, scratchcards and so on. You can post
letters and parcels, pay your bills, transfer money, etc. I transfer money by internet.
Banks offer a wide choice of services. They deal with savings, payment services, lending,
insurance, foreign currency exchanges, leasing, giving advice on investments, and so on.
Nowadays more and more banks provide telebanking services. It means that people use their
phones or the internet to give orders to the banks to carry out different kinds of business
transactions for them.
Patrol services are ambulance, police, fire service and auto club. Ambulance callable in 104,
police in 105 and fire service in 107 in emergencies. In Hungary these services are not so
quick and modern. Auto club helps the motorists in default. Its available in 188, and it has 80
modern yellow angels.

19. Ttel - Shopping - Vsrls


everyday shopping
buying consumer durables
shopping habits
sales, discounts
the role of advertisements
consumer society
I buy some bread and milk almost every day in a little shop opposite my house, but we go to a
big hypermarket to buy other all things for the household usually every third weekend.
We always buy big hunks of cheese, crates of yoghurt and kephir, tubs of margarine and
butter, sugar, flour, cooking oil, spices, mineral water, cereals, meat, cleaning supplies,
domesticities, nappy, consumer durables, electrical goods, toys, etc., so almost everything.
Vegetables and fruits we buy at the market near my house because these goods are fresh there.
Advantages of hypermarkets are that you can find almost everything from food to gardening
equipment in one place and there is also a wide range of goods. There is usually a place where
the children can play while their parents are shopping. The hypermarkets offer some products
at reduced prices and cards for regular customers. With these cards you can earn points that
you can exchange for goods or services.
I like shopping in hypermarket because theyre opened non-stop and I can buy everything in
one place at a low price. The disadvantages of hypermarkets are that they are often incredibly
crowded, especially at weekends. Its difficult to move with fully packed trolleys among the
shelves. These hypermarkets are generally far from the town centre and it can take long to get
there and home. Fortunately there is a hypermarket near my house so we dont have to travel
a lot.
Usually we get catalogues from super- and hypermarkets about sales so we go to there at that
time.
Recently I buy books and Avon essences by internet. Its very comfortable and cheap, I like it.
In small shops the customer service is usually better than in bigger stores because the shop
assistants consider the customers more important there. These shops are closer to your home
and arent so crowded and you dont have to stand in a long queue. Their disadvantages are
that you cant find as many brands as in big shops and they are more expensive.
I think I pertain to the majority, which do the shopping in hypermarkets.

20. Ttel - Transport - Kzlekeds


everyday transport
public transport in the city
intercity transport
individual transport (cars, motorbikes, bicycles)
public transport problems
individual transport problems
There are several ways of travelling. People can travel by bicycle, motorcycle, car, taxi, bus,
tram, trolleybus, underground, train, plane, ship, boat, hydroplane and so on.
There are many ways of getting about town. In most big cities people have a wide choice of
tram, bus, trolley-bus and underground routes in addition to a taxi service. Trams, trolleybuses and buses stop to pick up passengers at special stops. During the morning rush hours,
with so many people hurrying to work, the vehicles are usually overcrowded. During the
evening rush hours, with everyone hurrying home, they are packed full, too.
You can buy railway tickets at newsagents, ticket offices, in shops, from ticket machines and
in some towns from the drivers, which is always more expensive. Then you have to validate
your ticket either punching it or stamping it. But if you have a monthly ticket, you dont have
to worry about buying a ticket because monthly and weekly tickets are valid for several
journeys within a particular period of time. They are also cheaper than separate tickets. You
can also buy half-yearly and yearly tickets.
I used to go to work by bus, underground and tram but nowadays we go to work by car with
my husband and our daughter. Its more comfortable and quicker than the public transport.
I dont like public vehicles because they are slow and crowded, and the service is not frequent
enough.
The fastest type is the underground because it isnt influenced by weather or traffic
conditions. In Hungary you can find it only in the capital.
People travel by taxi when they are in a hurry, when they have much to carry or when they are
in unknown places. You go by taxi if there is no public transport or it isnt operating because
its too late.
The London underground (the Tube) is one of the largest in the world. It has 10 lines and
nearly 300 stations. Underground called subway in New York and metro in Paris and many
other cities.
Public transport can be made more environmentally friendly by replacing buses with trams
and trolleybuses or running them on natural gas.
Parking is getting more and more difficult nowadays because the number of cars has
increased dramatically.
In Hungary the point-to-point transport is very critical. Buses and trains are crowded, slow,
expensive and often late.

21. Ttel - Travelling in Hungary and abroad - Kl- s belfldi utazs


preparations
favourite destinations
types of trips (holiday, official, business, study, conferences)
package tour (advantages, disadvantages)
If you travel to a foreign country youll need a valid passport. If you are travelling to certain
countries, you have to apply for visas and you may also need certificates of vaccination. In
some countries you have to be able to prove that you have either enough cash or an embossed
bank card.
Most people prefer some kind of package holiday at a popular holiday resort, which means
that everything is arranged for you and the price you pay includes transport, food and
accommodation.
In Hungary, tourists can stay at hotels, motels, pensions, guest houses, youth hostels and in
campsites.
In Great Britain there are hotels, inns, boarding houses, bed and breakfasts, youth hostels and
campsites.
In the United States, instead of inns, boarding houses and bed and breakfasts, there are motels.
Hotels are classified according to the services they offer. Inns are pubs where people can stay
the night. Boarding houses are private houses where you pay to sleep and eat. Bed and
breakfasts are small hotels or private houses where you pay for a room and a meal in the
morning. You can find motels along roads and motorways. They are cheap hotels for people
travelling by car. Youth hostels provide cheap accommodation especially for students for a
short period of time.
I think the most popular holiday places are in exotic countries, for example, Tunesia in Africa,
India, Thailand, Canary-islands, Hawaii, Mauritius, Egypt, and so on. Lots of people go to
Italy, Croatia and Greece too.
Holidays are more than relaxation because you can spend your time in an active way. You can
walk long distances to get to know towns, visit museums, exhibitions and galleries, and even
do some sports, like cycling, sailing or bungee jumping and parachuting.
Once I was parachuted with my husband by a motor-boat above the Mediterranean sea in
Tunesia, and it was wonderful.
There are several ways of traveling: holiday, formal travelling, business travel, study journey
and conference. Both of them are very useful, but you can relax and you can go sightseeing on
your holiday.
I prefer package holidays because I like it when I dont have to bother with organising
anything. I just go to the travel agency and ask them to arrange the journey, the
accommodation and all the programmes. We went to our honeymoon in this way to Tunesia,
and it was wonderful. We were waited at the airport, the assistants told everything, a flight

was beautiful, our travel guide waited for us at the airport in Tunesia and saw in us to the
hotel, asked for our key, organised the programmes and we could ask for her with everything.
My friends, on the other hand, like to organise their holidays themselves because they got
disappointed by some travel agencies. They search for addresses, call the places and book
their accommodation.
Knowledge of foreign language is very important and it facilitates our situation everywhere,
for example, at travelling, in restaurants, at shopping and so on.

22. Ttel - Weather, seasons, environment protection - Idjrs, vszakok,


krnyezetvdelem
environmental problems
environment protection
home environment protection (selective waste collection, energy saving at home)
weather, seasons
In Hungary in spring the weather is usually changeable. It can be quite warm and sunny, or
cold and rainy and windy. Summer is hot, sultry and dry. Sometimes there are storms and
even hail. People dont like autumn very much because it is usually cold and rainy with strong
wind. In winter the weather is cold, the temperature is usually below zero and it often snows.
The mornings are foggy and frosty.
To tell the truth, I like summer and spring because I dont have to dressed well.
Because of the greenhouse effects there isnt winter, for example, this year it hasnt snowed
yet and the temperature is below zero rarely. The temperature has been increasing.
People usually listen to weather forecasts on radio or television. With the extensive use of
computers and satellites weather forecasts have become more and more accurate.
The weather in Britian is very changeable and unpredictable even from one day to the next.
This is due to the influence of southwestern winds blowing off the Atlantic and the warm
waters of the Gulf Stream which modify the original temperate climate of the country.
There are many rainy days in the year, even in winter.
Nowadays the main problems are the greenhouse effect, deforestation, rivers being diverted,
dams being built, erosion, rapid consumption of resources and commodities, and pollution of
air and water. The most important consequence of the greenhouse effect is the warming of the
earth which causes climate changes and melts polar icecaps. Global warming means the
increase in the worlds temperatures. The greenhouse effect and the depletion of the ozone
layer are believed to be its main causes. The ozone layer can be protected only by
international cooperation. People should stop producing and using harmful products that
damage the ozone layer. The melting of the polar caps results in the rising sea-levels. It will
flood populated areas and agricultural land.
Industrial pollution and overexploitation of the forests must be drastically decreased. The seas
are endangered by industrial and other forms of pollution, such as oil spills from tankers and
oil rigs. Most vehicles run on petrol or gas. Recently car manufacturers have launched cars
operating with electricity. There is research going on how other energy sources, such as solar
energy and water, could be used for running vehicles.
Almost everything can be recycled, like plastic bottles, paper, clothes, cans and metal. I think
more containers should be placed not only in towns but in villages.
In Hungary more and more regulations are enacted to protect wild animals. Both hunting and
keeping them are strictly regulated, so the situation is getting better.

23. Ttel - Telecommunications - Telekommunikci


telephones
computers
e-mail
internet
In Hungary there are two types of public phone boxes. One which operates with coins, and
another which operates with phonecards. But the number of public phone boxes fall off
because of mobile phones.
A mobile phone has several functions, depending on its brand. In every mobile phone theres a
phone book, where you can store the numbers that you regularly call. In modern phones you
can add voice labels to the numbers. You can send and receive SMSs, get information on calls
and apply settings, e.g. the language, time and date, and handsfree function. They also include
some extras, like alarm clock, timer, stop-watch, calculator and games.
In my opinion, you feel safer if you have a mobile phone because you will be able to ask for
help if something happens to you. As almost everybody has a mobile phone nowadays, its a
kind of an expectation for you to be contactable. Another reason for their popularity is that
they are becoming cheaper and its possible to sign reasonable contracts with mobile
telephone service providers.
I think the advantages of mobile phones are their disadvantages at the same time. Its good to
be contactable but it is sometimes disturbing that people can reach you everywhere.
Its rude to use your mobile phone in public places, like libraries, cinemas, theatres, churches
and temples, wardrooms in hospitals and schools and universities during classes.
Since when the computers appeared the function of fax machine lower because its quicker
and the quality of computer is better.
Nowadays computers are used in all fields of life. You can find them in banks, post offices,
shops, hospitals, restaurants, pharmacies, libraries, schools, offices, factories, homes and so
on. Computers are used for storing data, word processing, keeping records, invoicing,
managing production, etc. Traffic is also controlled with computers.
I have a laptop at home so I can surf the net, send e-mails, I do the shopping and I book
cinema tickets or book seats at restaurants. Of course I can learn English by internet because
therere lots of online exercises.
Internet is helpful if someone live far from their families because he or she can keep contact
with them by e-mail. They can write to their friends, relatives and colleagues. Its better than
telephone because you can contact more people at the same time and its more quicker than an
ordinary letter.

24. Ttel - Hungary - Magyarorszg


major tourist attractions
main places of interest
tourism
Hungary as a destination
Hungary is situated in the heart of Europe and it covers an area of 93.000
square
kilometers. It has a population of about 10 million inhabitants and has been a
republic since October 23, 1989, when it adopted a new Consitution.
To the west, Hungary borders Austria; to the south, Slovenia, Croatica and Serbia; to the east
Romania and the Ukraine; and to the north, Slovakia.
Most of the country is flat. The hills in the western part of the country lead to the Alps, while
higher hills lying to the northeast are part of the Carpathian Alps. The biggest river is the
Danube, the highest point in Hungary is a peak in the Mtra Mountains called Kkestet.
Lake Balaton is the largest lake in Central Europe, its a popular holiday resort with
Hungarians and other Europeans alike.
The climate of Hungary is temperate, with distinct seasons.
The capital of Hungary is Budapest with about 2 million inhabitants: it is the political,
economic, commercial and cultural centre of the country. It is also one of the most important
railway junctions in Europe. It lies on the two banks of the River Danube. Buda and Pest were
two towns before 1873 when the two parts of the city and buda were officially united.
Other major cities are Miskolc, Debrecen, Szeged and Pcs.
While Hungary is one of the most ethnically homogeneous countries in Central Europe (90%
of the population are Magyars), it does have a number of different minorities, the largest of
which are the Gypsies.
Hungary is a parliamentary republic. There are parliamentary elections every four years, and
the leader of the winning party is asked by the president to form the government. The
president is elected by the parliament every five years.
Hungary is divided into the capital, 19 counties, 22 towns of county rank and 23 districts in
Budapest.
I live in Budapest in the 17th district. Its a greenbelted location and its far from the city
centre and its more peaceful and healthy.
There are several attractions in Budapest:
Matthias Church: a 700 year-old gothic church on Castle hill, re-built in the last century.
Many kings were crowned here.
City Park: the largest open space in Budapest, it contains the zoo, funfair, and a castle
specially built to show the many styles of Hungarian architecture.
Elizabeth Bridge: the only bridge to be re-built in modern style after the War, it was the first
cable bridge in Europe and is famous for its slender, graceful lines.

The Royal Palace: originally a castle from the 13th century, it was re-built as a magnificent
residence for the monarchy in the 19th century and now houses the National Gallery.
Parliament: the seat of the Hungarian government, building began in 1885 and finished in
1905.
Chain Bridge: the first permanent link between Buda and Pest, it was the brainchild of Istvn
Szchenyi and was designed and built by two British engineers, both named Clark.
The Citadel and Liberation monument: a Habsburg fortress on the highest hill of the Danube
bank, with the statue commemorating the release of Hungary from Nazi domination at the end
of the World War II.
Heroes Square: flanked by the Fine Arts Museum and the Art Gallery, the central column
carries the Millenium Monument and stands in front of a semi-circle of statues of great
historical figures.
Margaret Island: in the middle of the Danube, and nearly two miles long, it is a spacious and
varied leisure park with its own spa.
The Fishermens Bastion: visitors are usually amazed to learn that this was only built in 1903.
it offers excellent views of the city.
Hungary joined to NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization in 1999), so our safety and
future increased because this organization is a military union.
We joined to EU (European Union) too in 2004 but till now I havent felt the effect of the
connection. Probably Hungary has more financial aid but there isnt more workplace and
better salaries.

25. Ttel - English-speaking countries - A clnyelv orszga(i) (Anglia, USA)


general information, personal experiences
Great-Britain
The United Kingdom is a parliamentary democracy with hereditary monarchy, meaning that
there is a monarch but the effective power belongs to the government, which is part of
parliament and responsible to it but also normally dominates it. The government consists of
about a hundred politicians under the Prime Minister.
The monarch is always the previous monarchs eldest son or eldest daughter if there is no son.
The present monarch is Elizabeth II who belongs to the House of Windsor and who has been
the monarch for more than fifty years.
Great Britain consists of England, Wales and Scotland. The United Kingdom consists of Great
Britain and Northern Ireland.
About 59 million people live in the UK, and people speak English, Welsh and Scottish.
Scotland:
There are three large geographical areas in Scotland: the Highlands, the Lowlands and the
Islands, 5 million people live in Scotland. Edinburgh is the capital, Glasgow is the chief
industrial and commercial city.
Places to visit: Alloway, Ayrshire the birthplace of Robert Burns, Balmoral Castle to be
seen from a distance, The Edinburgh Festival for music and drama, The Western Isles for
the beauty of their high land and wide seas, The Shetlands and Orkneys the remote and
barren northern islands, Loch Ness to catch a glimpse of the monster?
England:
England is foten sub-divided into 3 parts: the North, the Midlands and the South.
Some places of interest in the North: Hadrians Wall named after the Roman Emperor
Hadrian was completed int he 2 nd century. It is a huge fortification all along the Scottish
border. The Lake District an area of mountains and lakes which
looks larger than it
really is. Dramatic, romantic scenery. York once an importan Roman city. It has remains
from all periods of history. The city walls, the cleaned and restored cathedral and its street of
medieval buildings are most impressive.
Some places of interest in the Midlands: Stratford-on-Avon the birthplace and burial place
of William Shakespeare. The Royal Shakespeare Company plays here at the Festival Theatre
as well as in London. Cathedral towns of Worchester and Gloucester their ancient cathedral
churches are beautiful and the towns provide a centre of cultural and business life. Coventry
the fine modern cathedral has been built next to the ruined one, bombed during World War II.
The Peak District an area of Derbyshire, it is Englands first National Park, protected against
industry.

Some places of interest in the South of England: Windsor the town on the River Thames. Its
castle is a royal residence. Eton close to Windsor. The famous public school here was
founded in 1440. Canterbury the cathedral and the residence of the Archbishop of
Canterbury, who is the religious head of the Church of England. Bath a beautiful town int he
West Country, interesting, because it was developed and built in the 18th century and remains
as it originally was. Oxford and Cambridge the famous (and the oldest) university towns in
Britian.
Wales:
The capital is Cardiff. There are about 3 million inhabitants in Wales. There is a Welsh
language. Welsh folklore and language strengthen each other. Every year a national festival of
traditional poetry and music is held. It is called the Eisteddfod. In the United Kingdom the
longest river is the Servern, which rises in Wales and flows into the Bristol Channel.
Northern Ireland:
It is a land of lakes, rivers and a varied sea coast. The biggest lake is Lough Neagh. The
countrys capital is Belfast. It is an industrial centre and port.
London:
The capital of the United Kingdom and England is London. It is one of the worlds leading
financial, industrial and cultural centres with about 7 million inhabitants.
The most famous river is the Thames, which flows through London.
The United States of America
America is a nation of immigrants. With the exception of the Native Americans the original
peoples of America the people of the U.S.A. came from other countries with widely
differing languages, cultures, values and traditions.
The most important values are freedom and individualism democratic freedom from
tyrannical government and the individual freedom to make ones own choices and make the
decisions that control ones life. Americans believe very strongly in self- reliance relying on
oneself instead of relying on others to achieve what one wants.
Americans also highly value material wealth and hard work. The American Dream is that by
working hard one can go from rags to riches from being poor the being very rich.
The United States is a federal presidential republic. The president is elected every four years.
The United States of America, which has approximately 289 million inhabitants, is made up
of 50 states, 48 joined together on the continent, plus Alaska and Hawaii. It can roughly be
broken up into five large geographical areas.
The highest mountain in the United States is Mount McKinley, which located in south-central
Alaska, in Denali National Park and Preserve. The longest river is the Mississippi.

The capital of the United States is Washington DC. It has a population of more than half a
million.
New York City is a major port in south-eastern New York State. With its population of about
7.5 million people, it is the most popular city in the US. It consists of Manhattan, Bronx,
Brooklyn, Queens and Staten Island boroughs. The second most populous city is Los Angeles
with its 3.5 million inhabitants. You can find Hollywood, the centre of US film and television
industry, here. The third largest town is Chicago, an industrial city on Lake Michigan with
about 2.7 million inhabitants.
In the United States English, Spanish and Native Indian Languages are spoken.
The Northeast:
While there is a lot of farming in this region, especially in parts of New England, it is best
known as a center for commerce and heavy industry. Both Boston and Philadelphia are old
cities, Washington, D.C. (the District of Columbia), the capital of the U.S.A., is the center of
the federal government, and has many fine museums. New York City, called the big Apple,
is filled with landmark skyscrapers, museums and other cultural institutions, and is the home
of the Statue of Liberty.
The South:
The South has traditionally been known as an agricultural region int he past, principally
growing cotton and tobacco, but now it is experiencing great economic growth and
industrialization. New Orleans is famous for its Mardi Gras (Carnival) celebration and jazz,
and Miami, of course, for its beach.
The Midwest:
The Midwest is primarily Americas breadbasket, with its endless fields of wheat and corn
in states like Iowa and Kansas, but also has such major commercial and industrial cities as
Chicago and Detroit, automobile capital of the U.S. Chicago, which is on Lake Michigan.
The Southwest:
The Southwest is a huge area with deserts, like Death Valley, as well as fertile farmlands, such
as the orange groves of California. New high-tech industries are located in Silicon Valley,
and there are oil wells in Texas and New Mexico. The Grand Canyon is one of its many
spectacular natural wonders. Major cities include Dallas, of TV series fame, Santa Fe, an
important cultural center, and Los Angeles, home of Disneyland and the movie industry in
Hollywood.
The West:
The West lives on in everyones imagination as the Wild West, with its cowboys and
gunfighters, American Indians and prospecting for gold, and its the birthplace of Levis blue
jeans. Among its most famous cities are San Francisco with its hills, streetcars and the Golden
Gate Bridge, Denver, the Mile High City where skiers love to go, Seattle, known for its yearround temperate climate, and Las Vegas, gambling capital of the U.S.