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Marketing, Logistics and Port Planning

1. Logistics: Field Production Customer

The competition is held, more and more global and involves marketing strategies that
focus more niches and types of customers with special needs, leading to customized
products of high quality, produced and distributed at low cost components from
multiple sources globally, with reduced life cycles (Chlomoudis, Karalis and Pallis,
2002), with complex range of variety and reduced delivery times and reliable.
In a more demanding and competitive, with drastic effects of the confrontation with the
products from China at low cost, the marketing departments of companies now
dominate the production and product, that is, the client and their needs and desires,
spontaneous or generated by the commercial communications, began to overwhelm the
production model.
The industrial units can no longer just produce their "sausages" always the same, so the
low cost, then distributed all over the place, with price advantages. The Chinese do it
better. Today, the plants become flexible units, mobile, adaptive on-line applications
demand and the imagination of Marketing and their campaigns. The products are
constantly innovating, changing shape, and image quality. The stocks do not exist and
their supply chains are pushed to extremes to cut costs, are more reliable and faster. The
products must come when the customers want, tailored to your needs and reduced cost.
The transportation, materials management and physical distribution had to adapt,
appearing in 90 years, transformed into a logistics management supply chain - SCM
(Hesse and Rodrigue, 2004), which is a compromise between the needs of marketing
( Chlomoudis, Karalis and Pallis, 2002), production and globalization, physically
materialized with transportation, terminals, warehouses and specialized information
systems are synchronized and optimized, working in a flexible and adaptive, almost as a
network of living organisms in many cases.

There are various types of network relations between companies in the field of SCM,
where they are obviously the ports, as are the cases described by Chlomoudis, Karalis
and Pallis, 2002:

Network Type Logic Operation


Stable elements of several business enterprises, limited in number, create links with
different functions.
Internal elements of business owned by the company are allocated to the value chain,
using market mechanisms.
Dynamic Elements independent business create temporary alliances along the value
chain as partners chosen from the wide market offer.

The dynamic supply networks, which are currently mostly in logistics aspect SCM
should be considered as Complex Adaptive Systems - CAS (Choi, Dooley and
Rungtusanatham, 2000), following the dynamic principles: Mechanisms Affairs, Co-
evolution and the environment.
With regard to internal mechanisms, the CAS can be described as a set of agents
involved, self-organized, with a set of values or common rules, with varying degrees of
connectivity and a critical value of the maximum permissible. They have a more or less
central control and are subject to the ownership of the emergency, ie the re-emergence
of natural agents, bonds and property, without outside intervention (Choi, Dooley and
Rungtusanatham, 2000).
In terms of environment and co-development, the CAS are subject to constant
momentum and is on the edge, acting in a "wrinkled" in constant change, a "landscape"
in which mountain tops there are various possible to maximize their objective function,
it is necessary to choose a complex way (Choi, Dooley and Rungtusanatham, 2000).
Although the changes are not linear, that is not always the same grade or to change one
variable affects the other in the same manner or intensity, this does not mean that the
future is unpredictable, but is subject to typical patterns of change to case, estimated by
nonlinear mathematical systems (Choi, Dooley and Rungtusanatham, 2000).
In this context, the ports must be integrated in terms of logistics, looking at the needs,
requirements of different partners and supply chains and trying to create links and
constantly adapt to their offering. The ports should also be itself dynamic drive systems
- companies, so they were unable to choose and integrate the CAS logistics networks.

2. Port Planning and Marketing

These changes at the level of marketing and logistics, led to strong changes in ports
worldwide. Until then instructed to operate and develop the infrastructure for multi
users unknown, whose cargoes to arrive here on ships, have been given to know not
only their amounts of cargo, but the types of goods, their location, their plants, their
logistical networks, their specific needs.
The weather has become a fundamental requirement to compress from ordering, to
synchronize in the intermodal chain, to make more reliable deliveries and to make
frequent (and Woxenius Sommar, 2007) in the maritime transport services. At sea
containers and regular lines of large container ships weekly or biweekly played this
role. But only the ports that meet the requirements of CAS can be chosen by them.
The ports have a role that goes far beyond traditional short-term objectives, operational,
simple delivery of basic services to the ship and cargo, as the interface between land and
sea, and is now ideal places to locate features that add value the load within the logistics
industry, but also in aspects of leisure and tourism (Animals and Gray, 2004).
Also in the long term mission of the ports has evolved significantly and is no longer just
a traditional hub of development, generating employment and facilitating international
trade business (Animals and Gray, 2004), to become an essential element of economic
policy and transport policy, particularly intermodal, Objective-develop hub logistics
catalysts links to many supply chains successfully, with activities at the global level,
contributing to the competitiveness of enterprises and people, or be a factor competitive
region in which it operates.
Previously, ports hinterlands had captives were well defined and because companies
and people in the region had to be served. Today, the effect of the marketing strategies
of companies, logistics SCM, globalization and the improvement of accessibility
terrestrial (UNCTAD 1990), the ports also have to compete more aggressively for their
participation in major logistics networks, which compete reaching distant hinterlands
and diffuse (Meersman, Van de Voorde and Vanelslander, 2002). On the other hand, is
now the ports of the same region are increasingly competing with each other, there are
clusters of ports with the same type of supply and located within a region, competing
with other clusters of ports other regions and there are "ranges" of ports of the same
region, in this case, each port with different offers that may or may not be coordinated
(Hoste, loyen and Vanfraechem, 2006).
Today they are required to port new functions and powers, such as reliability,
cooperation, transparency, competitiveness and expertise, seeking to be chosen by the
logistics networks at the expense of other ports (Dekker, 2005).
In this context, emerged recently the new functions of marketing of the ports themselves
and their port terminals, which have as the medium-term horizon and are associated
with satisfaction of the specifications and requirements of customers representatives of
the supply networks that dominate the port and maritime component and that translates
into new targets for the intermodal container traffic, peak volume and higher revenues,
to rehabilitate the increasingly heavy investment is needed in large, specialized
infrastructure and accessibility sea and land (Dekker, 2005).
The new targets have also profound changes in port operations, port planning and the
system of organization and positioning of the port against the rest of the economy
(Dekker, 2005).
The growing field of marketing roles in industries, has brought changes in logistics
networks, complex and aggressive choice of network partners, particularly with regard
to ports, forcing the development of port marketing strategies as instruments to port the
needs of networks, seeking to counter the effect of inertia of port infrastructure naturally
heavy in the long run.
This led to specialization of port terminals and sometimes extreme adaptation to the
requirements of modern logistics chains (Chlomoudis, Karalis and Pallis, 2002) and
maritime transport, implying strong changes in port operations day-to-day with
imposing increasing pace, intensive training, collaboration with customers, focus on
quality and introduction of private ports, through the mechanism of concessions for the
port terminals and dedicated public service and provide new value-added services in
ports.

The same happened to the planning and port macrologístico the hinterland of the ports,
with the introduction of new concepts of container terminals in deep water, intermodal,
the areas of logistics activities adjacent systems, information flows, security in the
supply chain, accessibility fluid and extensive terraces.
The port is planning a slow process due to the large investment, the time required for its
implementation, its long life and inflexible infrastructure. But now involves an
increasing adaptation to the new paradigm of the changing market needs and logistical
networks, cargo ship and the flexibility and modernity required the marketing functions
of companies, which adds new requirements for the conversion of coastal fronts
restituted to former port functions, funds, embankments and inadequate access to
modern ports, located in cities, which are replaced by functions related to recreation,
water sports, culture, tourism and catering.
The port is also planning to take into account the relationship models port city (Lopez,
2004) and normal growth of major ports in the world, trying to imitate the winning
strategies.
This is where the planning director in 10 years, has become a strategic planning 3 / 5
years, which seeks to identify opportunities, strengths and weaknesses, redefining the
product at its base port infrastructural base and location for the physical attributes,
logistics and the prices are adequate to capture the logistics networks as you want and
customers - and cargo vessels - identified as a target.
The client is not the only cargo and the ship itself, but the logistics networks of these, on
land and at sea, or their representatives at any time, with which the ports should
establish partnerships, which are always temporary, for certain businesses, for a time,
against a background of turbulent markets and rapid changes in logistics networks,
including competition from other modes of transport and ports, sometimes at greater
distances or travel further that, at first glance, appear non-viable.

4. Model AnyPort Bird

AnyPort The model, developed by Bird in 1963, sought to systematize the normal
development of any port over time, with the use of three phases: establishment,
expansion and specialization. In 1971, the model has been used also to compare the
stage at which each port is, and despite the local conditions of each port changes occur
in the development of each port, there are a number of similarities in the evolution of
the model that make an instrument very useful analysis (Lopez, 2004).

a) Establishment - phase in which the port and city are closely related, very close, with
urban developments and interdependent port, the port is a major center of employment
in the city, the docks are not very deep and embankments are minimal, and the often
multi-purpose terminals (usually up to a century. XIX);

b) Expansion - Dock emergence of industries in the bulk phase of the industrial


revolution, located on the edge of the city's perimeter, using a licensed private pier, with
a direct drive industry nearby or far away through dedicated road and rail (usually
during the first half of the century. XX);

c) Specialization - emergence of the container which requires the greatest amount of soil
necessary expertise of the charges, increasing the size and draft of vessels, the
appearance of container terminals from the city and near the sea, with increased funding
and embankments, allowing the conversion of riparian zones in cities and the
development of intermodal transport to the detriment of industry, which requires more
terminals and improved accessibility (usually in the second half of the century. XX)
(Lopez, 2004).

Fonte: Bird, 1963

Fases de
evolução de Peso no
qualquer porto Ligação à Cidade Área Ribeirinha Emprego Fundos Terraplenos Terminais Localização Função Logística

No rio, na
Estabelecimento Função Portuária - - Multiusos cidade Armazéns do Porto

Graneleiros No exterior da
Expansão Função Portuária + - Industriais cidade Industrial

Especializad Bipolaridades com


Algumas áreas os em Terminais de 2ª
Especialização reconvertidas ++ + Contentores Próximo do mar Linha

Gateway e Águas
Hub profundas.
Regionalização Reconversão total +++ +++ Logísticos Novo porto. Integração Logística
porto cidade
Adaptação de um quadro de Lopez, 2004
Notteboom and Rodrigue, 2005, claim that the model of Bird AnyPort not explain the
recent development of ports as "Hubs" marine and inland collection and distribution.
The exponential growth in vessel size, the increase in regular lines and door-to-door
round-the-world ride and sea resulted in the emergence of major new terminal, often far
from their hinterlands, chosen to serve continents, regions and transhipment at the
intersection of lines.
Moreover, the model of Bird does not explain the dynamics of port development land.
So Notteboom and Rodrigue, 2005, proposes a new phase, the fourth, which they call
Regionalization.
The fourth phase of the model to explain the latest developments in the hinterland of
variables that evolve from a very very poor, to networking and connecting corridors
between gateways and port logistics centers in the hinterland (Taaffe et al, 1963) . On
the other hand, allows the model to define the port regions, trying to explain why a
"ranges" of ports evolve more than others (and Notteboom Rodrigue, 2005).

Notteboom, 2005