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IEEE COMMUNICATIONS LETTERS, VOL. 10, NO. 6, JUNE 2006

459

Channel Adaptive CQI Reporting Schemes for HSDPA Systems

Soo-Yong Jeon, Student Member, IEEE, and Dong-Ho Cho, Senior Member, IEEE

Abstract — HSDPA (High-Speed Downlink Packet Access) is an evolved UMTS packet scheme that delivers increased user peak data rates and quality of service. A key technique supporting HSDPA is adaptive modulation and coding (AMC), in which the modulation scheme and the coding rate are changed adaptively according to the downlink channel quality reported by the user equipment (UE). Therefore, the channel quality indication (CQI) reporting scheme is directly related to the accuracy of AMC and the performance of HSDPA. This letter proposes channel adaptive CQI reporting schemes in which UEs report the CQI value intelligently by using information about channel quality. With the proposed schemes, the battery capacity of UE can be conserved and the uplink interference can be lowered by filtering off redundant CQI reports or the transmission error rate can be lowered by fast CQI reports.

Index Terms — UMTS, HSDPA, AMC, CQI.

I. I NTRODUCTION

H SDPA is a packet-based data service in W-CDMA and it was specified in the 3rd generation partnership project

(3GPP). The main target of high-speed downlink packet access (HSDPA) is to increase user peak data rates and quality of service, and to improve spectral efficiency for downlink asymmetrical and bursty packet data services. HSDPA offers theoretical peak data rates on the order of 10 Mbps over a 5MHz bandwidth in WCDMA downlink. HSDPA implemen- tations include Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC) as well as Hybrid Automatic Request (HARQ). With the AMC technique, the modulation scheme and the coding rate are changed adaptively according to the CQI reported by the UE. So, exact channel quality estimation through a proper CQI reporting scheme and a channel quality prediction method are essential in AMC. In [1], the channel quality prediction method was proposed for the reliable adaptive modulation with limited channel quality feedbacks in a correlated fading channel. In the current specification of HSDPA, each UE must periodically report to Node B the CQI indicating the downlink channel quality. The CQI value is transmitted by using a High- Speed Dedicated Physical Control Channel (HS-DPCCH). If UEs report the CQI periodically, they must report the same CQI value repeatedly when the channel quality is unchanged. Obviously, this is the waste of the UE’s battery power. To

Manuscript received January 13, 2006. The associate editor coordinating the review of this letter and approving it for publication was Dr. Christos Douligeris. This work was supported in part by the university IT research center program of the government of Korea. The authors are with the Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305- 701, Republic of Korea (e-mail: syjeon@comis.kaist.ac.kr). Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/LCOMM.2006.06021.

solve this problem, a new CQI reporting scheme was proposed

in [2]. In this scheme, the UE reports the CQI value to the

Node B only when the value difference between new measured channel quality and last reported one becomes larger than delta value which is a certain threshold decided by higher layer. With this scheme, the uplink signalling overhead is reduced efficiently. However, if the Node B receives the CQI value with error, it has incorrect channel quality information for a long time until it receives next CQI value.

In this paper, we propose channel adaptive CQI reporting schemes motivated by the same idea as above scheme. Our

schemes behave intelligently to prevent the Node B from keeping incorrect channel quality information for a long time

by using a timer and an efficient CQI report timing criterion.

Thus, with the proposed schemes, either the number of redun- dant CQI reports is decreased, maintaining the performance of a periodic CQI reporting scheme, or the accuracy of AMC is increased by reducing the probability of transmission error.

The rest of this letter is organized as follows: Section II in- troduces the CQI reporting schemes in the 3GPP specification and section III explains the proposed CQI reporting schemes.

In section IV, we describe the simulation environments and

evaluate the performance of the proposed schemes. The last

section makes conclusions.

II. 3GPP-S PECIFIED CQI R EPORTING

S CHEMES

In the specification Release 5 of HSDPA, a periodic CQI reporting scheme is included. The definition of the CQI and UE procedure for reporting CQI are described in [3]. According to the specification, each UE measures downlink

channel quality and selects suitable CQI values to indicate transport block size, number of High-speed Physical Downlink Shared Channel (HS-PDSCH) codes and modulation schemes. The selected CQI values must be such that the transport block error probability would not exceed 0.1 under the measured downlink channel condition. After the selection of suitable CQI values, the UE reports the selected CQI value to Node

B at its own CQI report timing. The CQI report timing is

determined by each UE’s connection frame number (CFN) given by the radio link establishment procedure. According to the specification [4], the report cycle of CQI is defined as 0, 1,

2,

4, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80 subframes, where the subframe length

is

2ms. The report cycle of CQI is informed to each UE by

higher-layer signalling. Clearly, the short report cycle of CQI gives better through- put performance than the long report cycle of CQI, since the short report cycle of CQI enables Node B to estimate the downlink channel condition precisely. However, the short

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report cycle of CQI results in a larger CQI report overhead and uplink interference compared to the long report cycle of CQI. Conversely, the longer is the CQI report cycle of CQI, the smaller are the CQI overhead and uplink interference, but the throughput performance is poorer.

In addition to the periodic CQI reporting scheme, an activity-based CQI reporting scheme and NACK-based CQI reporting scheme are proposed in [5][6]. In the activity-based CQI reporting scheme, additional CQI reports are sent with every ACK or NACK of HS-PDSCH data. In the NACK- based CQI reporting scheme, additional CQI reports are sent with every NACK of HS-PDSCH data. Both schemes enable a more exact downlink channel estimation of Node B by using the additional CQI reports. However, both schemes use more power due to the additional CQI reports. After receiving the CQI value from each UE, Node B selects

a suitable modulation scheme, coding rate and number of codes for HS-PDSCH. In order to provide control information

to each UE in time, Node B uses High-speed Shared Control

Channel (HS-SCCH). Each UE must monitor a maximum of four HS-SCCHs simultaneously. By monitoring HS-SCCHs, each UE is informed of the upcoming data transmission, and can prepare to receive data.

III. P ROPOSED CQI R EPORTING S CHEMES

With the periodic, activity-based and NACK-based CQI reporting schemes, UEs must report the CQI value periodi- cally, although the channel quality is unchanged and hence the current CQI value is the same as the last reported CQI value. Obviously, reporting the same CQI value consecu- tively wastes the UE’s battery power. To solve this problem and to allow effective scheduling and MCS selection for transmissions on the HS-PDSCH, while at the same time minimizing the uplink interference and battery consumption due to CQI transmissions on HS-DPCCH, we propose two channel adaptive CQI reporting schemes (CAS1, CAS2). The proposed CQI reporting schemes are based on the Release 5 specifications. The specification related to the method of deriving an individual CQI value by the UE is not changed in the proposed CQI reporting schemes.

The basic behavior of CAS1 and CAS2 is as follows. If the channel is unchanged, and hence the current CQI value is the same as the last reported CQI value, UEs do not report the CQI value although they are at their own CQI report timing. They send the CQI value only when the current CQI value is different from the last reported value or the timer has expired. The timer is initialized whenever the CQI value is sent by the UE. The timing of reporting the CQI value of CAS1 and CAS2

is different. In the CAS1, UEs wait until their own CQI report

timing and report the CQI value at that time, when the current CQI value is different from the last reported value or the timer has expired. So, with CAS1, battery capacity of UEs

is conserved by preventing consecutive reports of the same

CQI value, maintaining the performance of the periodic CQI reporting scheme. Fig. 1(a) illustrates CAS1. In the CAS2, UEs report the CQI value immediately when the current CQI value is different from the last reported value

IEEE COMMUNICATIONS LETTERS, VOL. 10, NO. 6, JUNE 2006

(a)

Node B

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Periodic CQI

report cycle

10, NO. 6, JUNE 2006 (a) Node B UE Periodic CQI report cycle CQI Timer has
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Fig. 1. Diagram illustrating (a) CAS1 and (b) CAS2.

or the timer has expired. So, with CAS2, more CQI reports may be sent than with the periodic CQI report scheme if the channel quality changes quickly, resulting in frequent changes of the current CQI value. However, the CAS2 enables more exact downlink channel estimation of Node B by fast CQI information update, and hence the probability of transmission error is smaller in case of CAS2. If the channel quality is stable, the battery power of UEs also can be conserved with CAS2. Fig. 1(b) illustrates CAS2.

IV. S IMULATION C ONFIGURATION AND R ESULTS

The default simulation parameters are as follows. We em- ploy a no-sector, 19-hexagonal cell model, where the site-to- site distance is 2800m. At initialization, the number of UEs in each cell is 20, and the location and moving direction of each UE are assigned randomly with a uniform distribution within each cell. Every 5 seconds, the UEs either change their moving direction randomly with a probability of 0.3 or do not change with a probability of 0.7 [7]. The number of codes for HS-PDSCH is 15, and the carrier frequency is 2.19GHz. We consider a maximum of four retransmission and five MCS levels (QPSK with R=1/4, 1/2, 3/4, and 16QAM with R=1/2, 3/4). We assume that the channel estimation is ideal and that HS-SCCH, HS-DPCCH transmissions are error free. In addition, we assume that the roundtrip delay is six subframes. We use an open-loop traffic model for HSDPA [8] in which the distribution of the packet size is a Pareto distribution with cut-off, α =1.1, k=4.5kbytes and m=2Mbytes. The channel model is one path rayleigh fading, and pass loss is proportional to 1/d 4 , where d is distance. Meanwhile, the link layer simulation is executed using the FER data in [9]. The timers of CAS1, CAS2 are set to expire after 160 ms, which is the maximum CQI report interval of the periodic CQI reporting scheme. Fig. 2 shows the normalized transmission error ratio accord- ing the various speeds of UE and the CQI report intervals of

JEON and CHO: CHANNEL ADAPTIVE CQI REPORTING SCHEMES FOR HSDPA SYSTEMS

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1.2 Dashed lines : CAS1 1.1 Solid lines : CAS2 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6
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Fig. 2. Normalized transmission error ratio of CAS1 and CAS2 according to various UE speeds and CQI report intervals.

1.15 Dashed lines : CAS1 1.1 Solid lines : CAS2 1.05 1.0 0.95 0.9 0.85
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Fig. 3. Normalized consumed battery power ratio of CAS1 and CAS2 according to various UE speeds and CQI report intervals.

the periodic CQI reporting scheme. The normalized transmis- sion error ratio is defined as the probability of transmission error with the proposed scheme divided by the probability of transmission error with the periodic CQI reporting scheme. Since CAS1 has no fast update of CQI information, its performance is the same as that of the periodic CQI reporting scheme with respect to the probability of transmission error. However, with CAS2, the probability of transmission error can be much smaller than that of the periodic CQI reporting scheme. As the periodic CQI report interval is longer and the speed of UEs decreases, the fast update of CQI information has more effectiveness in enhancing the accuracy of AMC, and hence CAS2 performs better than the periodic CQI reporting scheme with respect to the probability of transmission error.

Fig. 3 shows the normalized consumed battery power ratio according the various speeds of UE and the CQI report inter-

vals of the periodic CQI reporting scheme. The normalized

consumed battery power ratio is defined as the consumed battery power of UEs with the proposed scheme divided by the consumed battery power of UEs with the periodic CQI reporting scheme. In the simulation, we assume that each UE always spends a power of 1 due to uplink data transmission and it spends a power of 0.5 additionally when it reports the CQI value. Since the redundant CQI reports of the periodic CQI scheme are filtered off with CAS1, the consumed battery power of UEs for CAS1 is smaller than that for the periodic CQI reporting scheme. Hence, the normalized consumed battery power ratio of CAS1 is always less than 1.

However, if the speed of UEs increases and the CQI report interval is very long, the normalized consumed battery power ratio of CAS2 can be greater than 1, because the CQI value changes more frequently as the speed of UEs increases, and the number of CQI reports during one periodic CQI reporting interval increases as the periodic CQI report interval is longer.

V. C ONCLUSIONS

We have proposed two channel adaptive CQI reporting schemes (CAS1, CAS2). With the proposed schemes, UEs do not report the same CQI consecutively, even when it is time for them to report. They report the CQI value only if the current CQI value is different from the last reported value or the timer has expired; at their own report timing with CAS1 and immediately with CAS2. As a result, UEs can conserve their

battery power with CAS1, maintaining the performance of the

periodic CQI reporting scheme. With CAS2, the probability

of transmission error is greatly reduced, although there is a

possibility that the UEs consume more battery power than the periodic CQI reporting scheme.

R EFERENCES

[1] Yang et al., “Reliable adaptive modulation aided by observations of another fading channel,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 52, pp. 605-611, Apr. 2004. [2] 3GPP, “Downlink channel quality report scheme,” 3GPP TSG R1-01-

1055.

[3] 3GPP, “Physical layer procedures (FDD),” 3GPP TS25.214 V6.7.1. [4] 3GPP, “Radio resource control (RRC): protocol specificaition,” 3GPP TS25.331 V6.8.0. [5] 3GPP, “High speed download packet access (HSDPA) enhancements,” 3GPP TR25.899 V6.1.0. [6] N. Fukui, “Study of channel quality feedback in UMTS HSDPA,” in Proc. 14ht IEEE PIMRC 2003 , vol. 1, pp. 336–340. [7] W. S. Jeon, D. G. Jeong, and B. Kim, “Design of packet transmission scheduler for high speed downlink packet access systems,” in Proc. 55th IEEE VTC Spring 2002 , vol. 3, pp. 1125–1129. [8] 3GPP, “Physical layer aspects of UTRA high speed downlink packet access,” 3GPP TR25.848 V4.0.0. [9] M. Dottling, J. Michel, and B. Raaf, ”Hybrid ARQ and adaptive modulation and coding schemes for high speed downlink packet access,” in Proc. 13th IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, vol. 3, pp. 1073–1077.