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Prof.

Renato Baggio
Lngua Inglesa p/ Concurso Petrobras
Aula 01.

LNGUA INGLESA - PETROBRAS


Professor: RENATO BAGGIO
Aula: 01

Prof. Renato Baggio

www.aprovaconcursos.com.br

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Prof. Renato Baggio


Lngua Inglesa p/ Concurso Petrobras
Aula 01.

Apresentao

O professor Renato Baggio tem 39 anos formado em Publicidade e


Propaganda e tem sua formao como professor de Ingls pela International
House de Londres, Inglaterra. Estudou letras Portugus-Ingls pelo COC-SP
e tambm fez cursos de aperfeioamento na Eurocentres em Londres.
Leciona h 20 anos com experincia de 10 anos em concursos prvestibulares.
Ol estimados alunos! Sejam bem vindos s aulas de Ingls! Nelas
procurarei trazer uma abordagem diferente durante nossas aulas para que
consigamos obter mximo rendimento nesse curto espao de tempo! Conto
com a dedicao de vocs bem como com um feedback durante nossas
aulas para que possamos atender as suas necessidades da maneira mais
personalizada possvel! Um timo curso a todos e bons estudos!

Prof. Renato Baggio

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Prof. Renato Baggio


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Aula 01.

Ingls
Pronouns
1.1. Personal Pronouns
H dois tipos de pronomes pessoais: os Subjective Pronouns e os Objective
Pronouns.
Os Subjective Pronouns funcionam como sujeito da frase, ou seja,
aquele que faz a ao do verbo. Por este motivo, so usados antes do verbo.
J os Objective Pronouns funcionam como o objeto da frase, ou seja, aqueles
que sofrem a ao do verbo. Logo, so usados depois do verbo.
SUBJECTIVE PRONOUNS

OBJECTIVE PRONOUNS

ME

YOU

YOU

HE

HIM

SHE

HER

IT

IT

WE

US

YOU

YOU

THEY

THEM

Usados Antes do Verbo

Usados Depois do Verbo

Ex.: I want to talk to her about the problem.


Ex.: John and Meg study with Bob.
(He)
(her)
Ex.: Jane is worried about Susan.
(She)
(her)

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Prof. Renato Baggio


Lngua Inglesa p/ Concurso Petrobras
Aula 01.

CESGRANRIO - Concurso Petrobras - 2012


Text I
A Day in the Life of the Women of O&G
by Jaime Kammerzell
From Rigzone Contributor. Tuesday, February 14, 2012
Although far fewer women work in the oil and gas
(O&G) industry compared to men, many women find
rewarding careers in the industry. Five women were
asked the same questions regarding their career
choices in the oil and gas industry.
Question 1: Why did you choose the oil and gas
industry?
Woman 1: Cool technology, applying science and
money.
Woman 2: It seemed interesting and the pay was
good.
Woman 3: They offered me a job! I couldnt turn down
the great starting salary and a chance to live in New
Orleans.
Woman 4: I did not really choose the oil and gas
industry as much as it chose me.
Woman 5: I chose the oil and gas industry because of
the challenging projects, and I want to be part of our
countrys energy solution.
Question 2: How did you get your start in the oil
and gas industry?
Woman 1: I went to a university that all major oil
companies recruit. I received a summer internship with
Texaco before my last year of my Masters degree.
Woman 2: I was recruited at a Texas Tech Engineering
Job Fair.
Woman 3: At the time, campus recruiters came
to the geosciences department of my university
annually and they sponsored scholarships for
graduate students to help complete their research.
Even though my Masters thesis was more geared
toward environmental studies, as a recipient of one
of these scholarships, my graduate advisor strongly
encouraged me to participate when the time came for
O&G Industry interviews.
Woman 4: I was working for a company in another
state where oil and gas was not its primary business.
When the company sold its division in the state
where I was working, they offered me a position at
the companys headquarters in Houston managing
the aftermarket sales for the companys largest
region. Aftermarket sales supported the on-highway,
construction, industrial, agricultural and the oil and
gas markets. After one year, the company asked me

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Lngua Inglesa p/ Concurso Petrobras
Aula 01.

to take the position of managing their marine and


offshore power products division. I held that position
for three years. I left that company to join a new startup
company where I hold the position of president.
Woman 5: My first job in the oil and gas industry was
an internship with Mobil Oil Corp., in New Orleans.
I worked with a lot of smart, focused and talented
geoscientists and engineers.
Question 3: Describe your typical day.
Woman 1: Tough one to describe a typical day. I
generally read email, go to a couple of meetings and
work with the fields earth model or look at seismic.
Woman 2: I talk with clients, help prepare bids and
work on getting projects out the door. My days are
never the same, which is what I love about the job I
have.
Woman 3: I usually work from 7:30 a.m. 6:30 p.m.
(although the official day is shorter). We call the field
every morning for an update on operations, security,
construction, facilities and production engineering
activities. I work with my team leads on short-term
and long-term projects to enhance production (a lot of
emails and Powerpoint). I usually have 2-3 meetings
per day to discuss/prioritize/review ongoing or
upcoming work (production optimization, simulation
modeling, drilling plans, geologic interpretation,
workovers, etc.). Beyond our team, I also participate
in a number of broader business initiatives and
leadership teams.
Woman 4: A typical day is a hectic day for me. My
day usually starts well before 8 a.m. with phone
calls and emails with our facility in Norway, as well
as other business relationships abroad. At the office,
I am involved in the daily business operations and
also stay closely involved in the projects and the
sales efforts. On any given day I am working on
budgets and finance, attending project meetings,
attending engineering meetings, reviewing drawings
and technical specifications, meeting with clients
and prospective clients, reviewing sales proposals,
evaluating new business opportunities and making a
lot of decisions.
Woman 5: On most days I work on my computer
to complete my projects. I interpret logs, create
maps, research local and regional geology or write
documents. I go to project meetings almost every day.
I typically work only during business hours, but there
are times when I get calls at night or on weekends
from a rig or other geologists for assistance with a
technical problem.

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Lngua Inglesa p/ Concurso Petrobras
Aula 01.

Adapted from URL: <http://www.rigzone.com/news/article


.asp?a_id=11508>. Retrieved on February 14, 2012.
11 According to Text I, when asked about their choice of the oil and gas
industry,
(A) all the interviewees pointed out the relevance of having a green job.
(B) all the women felt really committed to solving the nations energy problems.
(C) all the interviewees mentioned that the challenges of the field attracted them.
(D) just one of the women commented that she was attracted by the location of the
job.
(E) no interviewee considered the salary an important factor for accepting the job.
12 In Text I, using the interviewees experience, it can be said that getting a
job in the O&G industry can result from all the following situations, EXCEPT
(A) participating in a job fair.
(B) taking part in O&G Industry interviews.
(C) applying to specific job ads via internet sites.
(D) attending a university where major oil companies look for prospective
employees.
(E) getting previous experience in an internship program with an O&G organization.
13 In Text I, according to the answers to the third question in the interview,
(A) Woman 1 implies that every day is the same for her, since she performs exactly
the same tasks routinely.
(B) Woman 2 complains against her very boring schedule at the office, dealing with
strictly technical issues.
(C) Woman 3 always works off hours and does not get involved with the operations
in the field.
(D) Woman 4 has negotiations with the international branches and gets involved in
commercial and technical issues.
(E) Woman 5 does not need to worry about preparing written materials nor deciding
on last-minute technical issues at nights or on weekends.
14 Based on the meanings of the words in Text I,
(A) major (line 22) and main express opposite ideas.
(B) headquarters (line 40) could be substituted by main office.
(C) smart (line 51) and intelligent are antonyms.
(D) enhance (line 66) and reduce express similar ideas.
(E) prospective (line 84) and former are synonyms.
15 The sentence, in Text I, in which the boldfaced expression introduces an
idea of addition is
(A) Although far fewer women work in the oil and gas (O&G) industry compared to
men, many women find rewarding careers in the industry. (lines 1-3)
(B) I chose the oil and gas industry because of the challenging projects, (lines 1718)
(C) Even though my Masters thesis was more geared toward environmental
studies, (lines 31-32)
(D) as well as other business relationships abroad. (lines 76-77)

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Lngua Inglesa p/ Concurso Petrobras
Aula 01.

(E) but there are times when I get calls at night or on weekends from a rig or other
geologists for assistance with a technical problem. (lines 91-94)
16 In Text I, the expression turn down in I couldnt turn down the great
starting salary and a chance to live in New Orleans (lines 12-14) could be
replaced, without change in meaning, by
(A) refuse
(B) take
(C) accept
(D) request
(E) understand
17 The only fragment from Text I that presents a series of actions exclusively
performed in the past is
(A) I chose the oil and gas industry because of the challenging projects, and I want
to be part of our countrys energy solution. (lines 17-19)
(B) I held that position for three years. I left that company to join a new startup
company where I hold the position of president. (lines 46-48)
(C) My first job in the oil and gas industry was an internship with Mobil Oil Corp., in
New Orleans. I worked with a lot of smart, focused and talented geoscientists
and engineers. (lines 49-52)
(D) At the office, I am involved in the daily business operations and also stay
closely involved in the projects and the sales efforts. (lines 77-80)
(E) On most days I work on my computer to complete my projects. I interpret logs,
create maps, research local and regional geology or write documents. (lines 87-90)
Gabarito:
11121314151617-

D
C
D
B
D
A
C

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Aula 02.

LNGUA INGLESA - Petrobras


Professor: RENATO BAGGIO
Aula: 02

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Aula 02.

Ingls
Pronouns
1.0. Possessive Pronouns
H dois tipos de pronomes possessivos: Os Possessive Adjectives e os
Possessive Pronouns.
Os Possessive Adjectives so seguidos de um substantivo.
J os Possessive Pronouns no podem ser seguidos de um substantivo. Eles
so usados depois do substantivo ao qual se referem, para evitar
redundncia.
POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS

MY

MINE

YOUR

YOURS

HIS

HIS

HER

HERS

ITS

ITS

OUR

OURS

YOUR

YOURS

THEIR

THEIRS

Antes do Substantivo

Depois do Substantivo

Ex.:

I have my friends and you have your friends.


I have my friends and you have yours.

Ex.:

These are my books. Where are your books?


These are my books. Where are yours?

1.3. Reflexive Pronouns


Os pronomes reflexivos concordam com os pronomes pessoais (sujeitos das
frases). Eles podem se referir ao sujeito ou ao objeto da frase.
Os pronomes reflexivos possuem 3 usos:
a) Uso reflexivo
b) Uso enftico
c) Uso idiomtico

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Aula 02.

SUBJECTIVE PRONOUNS

REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS

MYSELF

YOU

YOURSELF

HE

HIMSELF

SHE

HERSELF

IT

ITSELF

WE

OURSELVES

YOU

YOURSELVES

THEY

THEMSELVES

a) Uso reflexivo para indicar que a ao reflete-se no prprio causador:


Ex.: The man cut himself.
b) Uso enftico para dar nfase (destaque) a uma pessoa ou objeto:
I myself fixed the computer.
Jane herself cleaned the house.
c) Uso idiomtico freqentemente usado com a preposio by para substituir
a palavra ALONE (=s; sozinho):
I finished the report alone. = I finished the report by myself.
Exercises
CESGRANRIO - Concurso Petrobras - 2012
How To Start A Career In The Oil And Gas Industry:
What Employers Say
By Katie Weir
From Talent Acquisition Specialist, Campus
Talisman Energy
How to start your career, step by step
Fix up your resum take it to your career
centre at your university and theyll help you.
Write a compelling cover letter that speaks to
your best qualities save the pretentious language
for your English papers.
Join a professional association and attend
their events if you feel uncomfortable attending
alone, try volunteering at them. By having a job to do,
it gives you an excuse to interact with the attendees,

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Aula 02.

and an easy way to start up a conversation the next


time you see them.
Do your research I cant stress this enough. I
want students to apply to Talisman, not because we
have open jobs, but because they actually have an
interest in what were doing, and want to be a part of it.
Be confident, but stay humble its important
to communicate your abilities effectively, but its also
important to be conscious of the phrase: sense of
entitlement. This generation entering the workforce
has already been branded with the word entitlement,
so students will need to fight against this bias from the
very beginning of any relationship with people in the
industry be aware that you will need to roll up your
sleeves and work hard for the first couple years, and
you will be rewarded in the end.
Retrieved and adapted from URL: <http://talentegg.ca/incubator/
2010/11/29/how-to-start-a-career-in-the-oil-and-gas-industry
-what-employers-say/>. Acess on: February 14, 2012.
18 The main purpose of Text II is to
(A) teach prospective workers how to prepare cover letters to impress employers.
(B) advise the readers about the importance of researching for open jobs in
institutional websites.
(C) criticize job candidates who are excessively confident and feel that the world
owes them something.
(D) alert the readers to the importance of joining a professional association to have
free access to their events.
(E) list relevant hints for those interested in entering the job market and building a
successful professional life.
19 The fragment that closes Text II, be aware that you will need to roll up
your sleeves and work hard for the first couple years, and you will be
rewarded in the end. (lines 23-25), implies that one must
(A) make an effort to commit totally to ones job in the initial phase, in order to reach
success in the future.
(B) wear formal clothes to work so that, as years go by, a couple of top-rank officers
can recognize ones worth.
(C) accept jobs with severe routines only in order to obtain early promotions.
(D) avoid postponing assigned tasks and wearing inappropriate clothes in the
working environment.
(E) show commitment to the working routine and demand the rewards frequently
offered to senior employees.
20 Concerning Texts I and II, it is possible to affirm that
(A) neither text points out ways to get rewarding jobs in the O&G industry.
(B) both texts discuss strategies to ask for promotion in the O&G industry.
(C) both texts present ways of starting successful careers in the O&G industry.

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Aula 02.

(D) only Text I encourages prospective employees of O&G industries to plan their
careers in advance.
(E) only Text II provides hints on how to give up highly-paid jobs in the O&G
industry.
Gabarito
20- C

Prof. Renato Baggio

18- E
19- A

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Aula 03
.

LNGUA INGLESA - PETROBRAS


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Aula: 03

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Aula 03
.

Ingls
SIMPLE PRESENT
1.1. CONCEITO
O Simple Present mais usado para falar de coisas que acontecem
habitualmente e verdades absolutas, entretanto, ele pode ainda ser usado
para falar do futuro ou at mesmo do passado!
1.2. VERB TO BE
I

AM

IM

YOU

ARE

YOURE

HE
SHE

HES
IS

IT

SHES
ITS

WE

ARE

WERE

YOU

ARE

YOURE

THEY ARE

THEYRE

VERB TO BE = SER / ESTAR


Ex.: I am a doctor.
Ex.: I am tired.

= Eu sou um mdico.
= Eu estou cansado

Ex.: They are students. = Eles so alunos.


Ex.: They are worried about the test. = Eles esto preocupados com a prova.
VERB TO BE - FORM
Affirmative
Ex.: I am tired.
Negative
Ex.: I am not tired. / Im not tired.
Interrogative
Ex.: Am I tired?
Ex.: Why am I tired?

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Aula 03
.

1)
Affirmative
Ex.: She is beautiful.
Negative
Ex.: She isnt beautiful.
Interrogative
Ex.: Is she beautiful?
2)
Affirmative
Ex.: We are lost.
Negative
Ex.: We arent lost.
Interrogative
Ex.: Are we lost?

1.3. ESTRUTURA
Como saber se um verbo est no Simple Present no texto da prova?
AFFIRMATIVE

NEGATIVE

WORK

DONT

WORK

DO

YOU

WORK

YOU

DONT

WORK

DO

YOU WORK

HE
SHE

HE
WORKS

IT
WE

INTERROGATIVE

SHE

HE
DOESNT WORK

DOES SHE WORK

IT
WORK

THEY WORK

Prof. Renato Baggio

WORK

IT

WE

DONT

WORK

DO

THEY

DONT

WORK

DO

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WE

WORK

THEY WORK

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Aula 03
.

SIMPLE PRESENT - FORM


1)
Affirmative
Ex.: I like to read.
Negative
Ex.: I dont like to read.
Interrogative
Ex.: Do you like to read? > Why do you like to read?
2)
Affirmative
Ex.: She likes to read.
Negative
Ex.: She doesnt like to read.
Interrogative
Ex.: Does she like to read?
1.4. USO
a) AES HABITUAIS
Ex.: Josh usually travels to the beach at weekends.
b) FATOS
Ex.: The moon is our natural satellite.
c) FUTURO PROGRAMADO
Ex.: The bus leaves at 10 oclock.
d) PASSADO
Ex.: In 1945 the World War II ends.

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Aula 04.

LNGUA INGLESA - PETROBRAS


Professor: RENATO BAGGIO
Aula: 04

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Aula 04.

Ingls
PRESENT CONTINUOUS
1.1. CONCEITO
Tambm chamado de Present Progressive, normalmente O Present
Continuous usado para indicar uma ao que est acontecendo agora
(neste momento) e que ainda no acabou. Ele pode, entretanto, indicar outros
tipos de ao como veremos adiante.
1.2. Present Continuous - FORM
O Present Continuous formado pelo Verbo To Be no presente, acrescido de
outro verbo na forma do Gerndio.
Ex.: I am studying now.
Affirmative
Ex.: My father is working now.
Negative
Ex.: My father isnt working now.
Interrogative
Ex.: Is my father working now?
Ex.: Why is my father working now?
1.3. USO
a) AES EM ANDAMENTO
Ex.: Jane is studying in her room now.
b) AES TEMPORRIAS
Ex.: I am living with some friends until the end of the month.
c) FUTURO PLANEJADO
Ex.: We are traveling to London next month.
d) AES REPETIDAS
Ex.: My car is always breaking down.

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Aula 04.

CUIDADO!
Tudo o que est acontecendo possui ING mas nem tudo o que possui ING
est acontecendo!
COMPARE:
1 Smoking is bad for you.
(Fumar faz mal voc.)
2 I like dancing
(Eu gosto de danar)
3 I am interested in learning French.
(Eu estou interessado em aprender francs.)
4 It is a boring movie.
( um filme chato.)
Exercise
Read the text
Ask women what disease they fear most, and the vast majority will
answer: breast cancer. They may even cite the ominous statistic that 1 in 8
women will develop breast cancer at some point in her life. But what most
women dont realize is that they actually have far more to fear from heart
disease, which will strike 1 out of every 3. More than 2 million European
women die each year of cardiovascular disease thats 43% of all deaths
making their hearts, not breast cancer (with 5% of deaths annually), their N o 1
killer.
Women and heart disease? Better believe it. For while most people still
think of cardiovascular trouble as mainly a mans problem, the reality is that
heart disease has never discriminated between the sexes. In fact, for a variety
of complex reasons, the condition is more often fatal in women than in men
and is more likely to leave women severely disabled by a stroke or congestive
heart failure. True, women dont usually start showing signs until their 60s
about 10 years after men first develop symptoms. And hormones seem to
play a protective role in women before menopause. But the common belief
that premenopausal women are immune to heart problems is just plain wrong.
In Britain alone, heart disease kills over 1,500 women younger than 45 each
year.
Time, August 11, 2003
Glossary
Disease = doena
Breast cancer = cancer de mama
Ominous = assustador; sinistro
1. The text says that:

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Aula 04.

a) breast cancer has been womens top killer.


b) men tend to experience heart attacks earlier than women.
c) hormones protect women over sixty from heart disease.
d) mens cardiovascular systems demand more special attention than
womens.
e) women but not men may be disabled by heart failure.
2. What does the vast majority (line 1) refer to?
a) premenopausal women.
b) European women.
c) disabled women.
d) British women.
e) women in general.
Gabarito
1-b
2-e

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Aula 05.

LNGUA INGLESA - PETROBRAS


Professor: RENATO BAGGIO
Aula: 05

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Aula 05.

Ingls
SIMPLE PAST
1.1. CONCEITO
O Simple Past um tempo verbal usado para indicar aes completas no
passado com tempo definido.
1.2. VERB TO BE
I

WAS

YOU

WERE

HE
SHE

WAS

IT
WE

WERE

YOU

WERE

THEY

WERE

VERB TO BE = SER / ESTAR


Ex.: I was sick last night.
Eu estava doente noite passada.
Ex.: I was short when I was a kid.
Eu era baixo quando era criana.
Ex.: They were tired after the game.
Eles estavam cansados depois do jogo.
Ex.: They were friends in the past.
Eles eram amigos no passado.
VERB TO BE - FORM
Affirmative
Ex.: She was tired.
Negative
Ex.: She wasnt tired.

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Aula 05.

Interrogative
Ex.: Was she tired?
Ex.: Why was she tired?
1.3. ESTRUTURA
Alm do verbo To Be, h dois tipos de verbos no Simple Past. Os Verbos
Regulares e os Verbos Irregulares.
REGULAR VERBS So acrescidos de ED ao final do verbo para formar o
passado.
Ex.:
Work
worked
Watch
watched
IRREGULAR VERBS - No so acrescidos de ED para formar o passado.
Ex.:
Go
went
Cut
cut
SIMPLE PAST- FORM
1)
Affirmative
Ex.: I worked a lot yesterday.
Negative
Ex.: I didnt work a lot yesterday.
Interrogative
Ex.: Did you work a lot yesterday?
2)
Affirmative
Ex.: She went out last night.
Negative
Ex.: She didnt go out last night.
Interrogative
Ex.: Did she go out last night?
Exercises
In the twentieth century, architects in large cities designed structures in a way
that reduced noise and yet made living as comfortable as possible. They used
such techniques as making walls hollow and filling this wall space with
materials that absorb noise. Thick carpets and heavy curtains were used to
cover floors and windows. Air conditioners and furnaces were designed to

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Aula 05.

filter air through soundproofing materials. However, after much time and
effort had been spent in making buildings less noisy, it was discovered that
people also reacted adversely to the lack of sound. Now architects are
designing structures which reduce undesirable noise but retain the kind of
noise that people seem to need.
(Jolene Gear & Robert Gear)
Vocabulary :
Noise: barulho
Hollow: vazio
Fill: preencher
Furnace: forno
Lack: ausncia; falta de
Retain: manter:
01. Na linha 2, they refere-se a:
a) architects
b) cities
c) structures
d) techniques
e) materials
02. A alternativa cujo contedo no mencionado como um amortecedor do
som :
a) Thick carpets and heavy curtains
b) Filled hollow walls
c) Air conditioners and furnaces
d) Soundproof material
e) Air filters
03. Atualmente, os arquitetos esto projetando:
a) o barulho ideal.
b) estruturas com um pouco de barulho.
c) construes adversas.
d) tcnicas barulhentas.
e) novas tcnicas de impedir o barulho.
04. As pessoas vivem mais confortavelmente com:
a) noisy furnaces
b) silence
c) reduced noise
d) undesirable noises
e) heavy curtains
FINDING A SCAPEGOAT WHEN EPIDEMICS STRIKE
The swine flu outbreak of 2009 has been nowhere near as virulent as the
pandemics throughout history. However, as history has shown, someone gets
the blame for the spread of epidemics at first Mexico, with attacks on
Mexicans in other countries. In May, a Mexican soccer player who said he was
called a leper by a Chilean opponent spat on his tormentor. In June,

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Argentines stoned Chilean buses, saying they were importing disease. When
Argentinas caseload soared, European countries warned their citizens
against visiting it. When disease strikes and humans suffer, said Dr.
Liise-anne Pirofski, an expert on the history of epidemics, the need to
understand why is very
powerful. And, unfortunately, identification of a scapegoat is sometimes
inevitable. The most visible aspect of blame, of course, is what name a
disease gets. The World Health Organization has struggled to avoid the
names given the Spanish, Hong Kong and Asian flus, instructing its
representatives to shift from swine flu to H1N1 to A (H1N1) S.O.I.V. (the
last four initials stand for
swine-origin influenza virus) to, recently, Pandemic (H1N1) 2009. Headline
writers have rebelled, and ignored them. The truth is that diseases are so
complex that pointing blame is useless, simply deflecting blame may be more
efficient.
Adapted from http://www.nytimes.com/2009/09/01, September, 2009.
05. Which alternative best describes the general idea of the text?
A) The swine flu is not as strong as other pandemics in history.
B) When epidemics strike people must find its cause and origin in order to
understand it.
C) The European countries were prejudiced against Argentina.
D) How the name of H1N1 has changed so far.
E) The headline writers insist on finding the
scapegoats for the epidemics.
06. According to the text, in paragraph three the sentence When Argentinas
caseload soared means:
A) The number of cases of H1N1 patients in Argentina went up.
B) The virus was discovered in Argentina.
C) The virus was brought by Chileans to Argentina.
D) The number of cases of H1N1 patients in Argentina got stable.
E) The number of cases of H1N1 patients in Argentina went down.
gabarito
1-a
2-e
3-b
4-c
5-b
6-a

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Aula: 06
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PAST CONTINUOUS
1.1. CONCEITO
O Past Continuous usado para nos referirmos a algo que estava acontecendo em torno de
um momento especfico no passado ou que estava acontecendo o tempo todo num perodo
de tempo no passado.
1.2. Past Continuous - FORM
O Past Continuous formado pelo Verbo To Be no passado acrescido de outro verbo na
forma do Gerndio.

Ex.: I was studying when you called me last night.


PAST CONTINUOUS- FORM
Affirmative
Ex.: John was studying.
Negative
Ex.: John wasnt studying.
Interrogative
Ex.: Was John studying?
Ex.: What was John studying?
1.3. USO
a) O Past Continuous usado juntamente com o Simple Past quando dizemos que algo
aconteceu enquanto outra ao estava em andamento.
Ex.: I was taking a shower when Jane called me.
b) O Past Continuous pode ainda ser usado para indicar duas aes que estavam
acontecendo simultaneamente.
Ex.: Bob was studying while Jane was cooking.
CUIDADO! CAREFUL! CUIDADO! CAREFUL!
Tudo o que est acontecendo possui ING mas nem tudo o que possui ING est acontecendo!
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COMPARE:
1 Smoking is bad for you.
(Fumar faz mal voc.)
2 I like dancing
(Eu gosto de danar)
3 I am interested in learning French.
(Eu estou interessado em aprender francs.
4 It is a boring movie.
( um filme chato.
Exercises
1. Complete the sentences with the Simple Past or the Past Continuous of the verbs in
brackets:
a) As I _____________ (drive) home, a policeman
__________ (stop) me and _______ (ask) me for my
driving license.
b) Last night when I ________ (arrive) home, my
parents _______________ (have) dinner.
c) The secretary ___________ (type) a letter when her boss _______ (ask) her for some
coffee.
d) When I __________ (wake) up this morning it _______________ (rain).
Suspected Thief Drowns
Sun Aug 18, 7:35 AM
TULSA, Oklahoma - A suspected thief, weighed down with more than 50 pounds of
stolen cameras and CDs, among other items, drowned as he attempted to evade police by
swimming across the Arkansas River, officials said.
The man, identified as Edward McBride, 37, was carrying a bag weighing 50 pounds
that contained stolen items and was found Friday with stolen goods also stuffed in his
pockets, said Tulsa police spokesman Lucky Lamons.
He was being pursued by Tulsa police who suspected him of robbing a Tulsa home when he
jumped into the muddy Arkansas River.
"He got about 40 yards out and yelled for help," Lamons said. "The officers took off
their shirts, shoes and belts and jumped into the river. By the time they reached him, he had
gone under."
Lamons said rescue workers retrieved McBride's body about an hour later from about
8 feet to 10 feet of water along with the bag containing stolen goods.
Disponvel em: <http://story.news.yahoo.com/news?tmpl=story2&cid=573&e=4&u=/nm/20020818/od_nm/drowning_dc_1

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1. According to the text, the police tried to help McBride before he drowned.
( ) certo
( ) errado
2. 1. According to the text, the police was able to reach McBride in time to arrest him.
( ) certo
( ) errado
3. 1. According to the text, the police found some evidence that McBride was a thief.
( ) certo
( ) errado
CONJUNCTIONS
1.1. CONCEITO
Conjunes so palavras que unem oraes em frases. Alm de formar frases, as
conjunes tambm nos mostram como os significados de tais oraes esto relacionados,
do sentido e coerncia ao texto deixando-o mais bem articulado.
As conjunes podem ser coordenativas ou subordinativas.
As conjunes coordenativas unem duas oraes que so gramaticalmente independentes
uma da outra. (and ; or; but; etc.)
Ex.: I like music. I dont play any musical instrument.
I like music but I dont play any musical instrument.
As conjunes subordinativas servem para unir uma orao que parte de outra, ou seja,
uma orao que depende da outra. Por isso, tal orao chamada de orao subordinada.
(because; although; when; etc.)
Ex.: I dont smoke. It is bad for my health.
I dont smoke because it is bad for my health.
Conjuno

Traduo

And

But

mas

Or

ou

Although/though

embora

However

apesar de; entretanto

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In spite of/despite

apesar de

When

quando

Whenever

sempre que

While

enquanto; enquanto que

As soon as

logo que

Till/ until

at

In order to

a fim de

So that

de modo que

Because

por que

As

porque; , assim que

Since

desde; j que; porque

Therefore

portanto

Nevertheless

todavia; contudo

Besides

alm de

Moreover

alm do mais

Unless

a menos que

EXERCISES
Read the text:
One More Reason To Eat Your Veggies
If youre worried about prostate cancer, it might pay to eat an apple a day. Or an onion. Researchers
at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn., report that a natural substance called Quercetin significantly
reduced the ability of prostate tumor cells to absorb the hormone they need to develop and
proliferate. Quercetin is found in apples, onions, leafy vegetables, green and

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black tea, beans, and red wine. The team, led by Dr. Nianzeng Xing, cautioned that the study has
been done only on cancer cells cultivated in the lab, and Quercetin hasnt been tested in human
patients. But it has two advantages as a potential treatment: it is abundant and safe.
Prostate cancer, the most common cancer in men, will strike 198,100 Americans this year and kill
31,500, according to the American Cancer Society. Existing treatments have severe side effects, so
scientists have been searching for a safer one. The researchers found that Quercetin reduced
prostate cancer cells absorption of androgens, the male hormones that stimulate prostate cancer.
Next, the Mayo team will test Quercetin in mice that have been bioengineered to develop prostate
cancer.
(In: Business Week, April 9, 2001. p. 106.)

Vocabulary:
it might pay vale a pena
onion cebola
research pesquisa
develop desenvolver
leafy folhoso
lab laboratrio
cell clula
safe seguro
strike atacar
side effect efeito colateral
mice camundongos

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veggies - vegetais
01. Pode-se dizer que a inteno principal do texto :
a) ( ) Apresentar um relato preliminar de uma pesquisa que visa a preveno do cncer
de prstata.
b) ( ) Incentivar a ingesto de frutas e legumes no combate clula cancerosa
denominada Quercetina.
c) ( ) Questionar os efeitos colaterais apresentados por uma substncia que combate o
cncer de prstata.
d) ( ) Discutir um trabalho cientfico sobre os hormnios absorvidos pelas clulas
cancerosas em sua proliferao.
e) ( ) Relatar uma pesquisa sobre a mortalidade de homens americanos decorrente de
cncer de prstata.
02. O estudo mencionado no texto foi realizado pela equipe liderada pelo Dr.
Nianzeng Xing em:
a) ( ) Homens norte-americanos de meia-idade.
b) ( ) Diversos tipos de ratos geneticamente modificados.
c) ( ) Frutas e vegetais modificados em laboratrio.
d) ( ) Clulas cancerosas cultivadas em laboratrio.
e) ( ) Ratos tratados com o objetivo de desenvolver cncer de prstata.
03. Marque a alternativa que apresenta a melhor maneira de completar a frase que
segue usando o Simple Past e o Past Continuous:
As I __________ (drive) home, a policeman __________ (stop) me and __________
(ask) me for my driving license.
a) drove was stopping asked
b) was driving was stopping asked
c) drove stopped was asking
d) was driving stopped was asking
e) was driving stopped asked

GABARITO
1-A
2-D
3-E

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LNGUA INGLESA - PETROBRAS


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Aula: 07

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Ingls
PRESENT PERFECT
1.1. CONCEITO
uma outra forma de indicar o passado, embora ele seja um tempo presente.
O Present Perfect sempre fala do agora.
Compare:
1- He has lost his key. (Present Perfect)
(Ele no tem a chave agora)
2 - He lost his key. (Simple Past)
(No se sabe se ele tem a chave ou no... s se sabe que ele a perdeu em
algum momento no passado)
1.2. Present Perfect - form
Como reconhecer a estrutura do Present Perfect no texto?
O Present Perfect formado a partir do auxiliar HAVE e do verbo principal no
Passado Particpio.

Ex.: I have seen an accident.


I

HAVE

IVE

YOU

HAVE

YOUVE

HE
SHE

HES
HAS

IT

SEEN

SHES

SEEN

ITS

WE

HAVE

WEVE

THEY

HAVE

THEYVE

Affirmative
Ex.: I have seen this movie before.
Negative
Ex.: I havent seen this movie before.
Interrogative
Ex.: Have you seen this movie before?
Where have you seen this movie before?

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Affirmative
Ex.: Shes seen this movie before.
Negative
Ex.: She hasnt seen this movie before.
Interrogative
Ex.: Has she seen this movie before?
Where has she seen this movie before?
QUAL A DIFERENA ENTRE O SIMPLE PAST E O PRESENT PERFECT?
SIMPLE PAST
1) Aes completas no passado.
Ex.: I studied Cantonese for 2 years.
2) No possui relao com o presente.
Ex.: I broke my leg.

PRESENT PERFECT
1) Aes continuamno presente.
Ex.: I have studied Cantonese for 2 years.
2) Possui resultado ou consequncia no
presente.
Ex.: I have broken my leg.

EXERCISES
Leia o texto a seguir
Jorge Mario Pedro Vargas Llosa, was born on March 28, 1936, in the Peruvian
provincial city of Arequipa. He is a writer, politician, journalist, essayist, and Nobel
Prize laureate. Vargas Llosa is one of Latin America's most significant novelists and
essayists, and one of the leading authors of his generation. Some critics consider
him to have had a larger international impact and worldwide audience than any
other writer of the Latin American Boom. He was awarded the 2010 Nobel Prize in
Literature "for his cartography of structures of power and his trenchant images of
the individual's resistance, revolt, and defeat". Vargas Llosa rose to fame in the
1960s with novels such as The Time of the Hero (La ciudad y los perros, literally
The City and the Dogs, 1963/1966), The Green House (La casa verde, 1965/1968),
and the monumental Conversation in the Cathedral (Conversacin en la catedral,
1969/1975). He writes prolifically across an array of literary genres, including literary
criticism and
journalism. His novels include comedies, murder mysteries, historical novels, and
political thrillers. Several, such as Captain Pantoja and the Special Service
(1973/1978) and Aunt Julia and the Scriptwriter (1977/1982), have been adapted
as feature films. Many of Vargas Llosa's works are influenced by the writer's
perception of Peruvian society and his own experiences as a native Peruvian.
Increasingly, however, he has expanded his range, and tackled themes that arise
from other parts of the world. Another change over the course of his career has
been a shift from a style and approach associated with literary modernism, to a
sometimes playful postmodernism.
Like many Latin American authors, Vargas Llosa has been politically active
throughout his career; over the course of his life, he has gradually moved from the
political left towards liberalism or neoliberalism, a definitively more conservative
political position. While he initially supported the Cuban revolutionary government of
Fidel Castro, Vargas Llosa later became disenchanted with the Cuban dictator and

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his authoritarian regime. He ran for the Peruvian presidency in 1990 with the centerright Frente Democrtico (FREDEMO) coalition, advocating neoliberal reforms.
(Adapted from www.wikipedia.org)
17 - Are these statements about Vargas Llosa TRUE (T) or FALSE (F),
according to the text?
( ) He was born in the city of Arequipa, Peru.
( ) He is a journalist, a lawyer, a writer and a Nobel Prize laureate.
( ) Some critics consider him to be the greatest writer in the Americas.
( ) He is one of the leading writers of the Latin American Boom.
( ) He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1990.
Mark the alternative which presents the correct sequence, from top to bottom.
a) F T F T F.
b) T F F T F.
c) F T T F T.
d) T T F F T.
e) T F T T F.
2 - Which of these statements DOES NOT CORRESPOND to information given
in the text about Vargas Llosa?
a) He became famous in the 1960s.
b) His texts involve a wide range of literary genres.
c) Most of his novels have been adapted to films.
d) His novels include themes such as politics, murder mysteries and thrillers.
e) One of the first novels he wrote was The Time of the Hero.
3 - According to the text, Vargas Llosas writings:
a) do not evolve around themes concerning different parts of the world.
b) are all about his early life in Arequipa.
c) have shifted from a romantic to a modern style.
d) should be more universal and deal with themes related to the most important
cultures.
e) have been influenced by the society of his country.
4 - According to the text, Vargas Llosa:
a) has been politically active only after 1990, when he ran for President.
b) became the President of Peru in 1990.
c) strongly supports Fidel Castro and his revolutionary government.
d) has moved from the left to a more liberal or neoliberal political position.
e) is a member of the communist party in Peru.
GABARITO
1-b
2-c
3-e
4-d

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Present Perfect Special Cases


1) Aes repetidas no passado:
Ex.: Ive seen that film many times
2) Aes completas num perodo de tempo inacabado:
Ex.: Ive met Jane today.
3) Already = j:
Ex.: I have already finished my project.
4) Yet = ainda / j
Ex.: Have you talked to Steve yet?
I havent read the forms yet.
5) Lately = ultimamente
Recently = recentemente
Ex.: I have worked a lot lately.
6) Ever (alguma vez / j)
Never = nunca
Ex.: Have you ever eaten snails?
This is the best film Ive ever seen.
Ive never been to Japan.
7) Just = acabou de
Ex.: I have just seen an accident.
8) Since / For
Ex.: I have studied Cantonese for 3 years.
I have studied Cantonese since 2001.
9)

John has been to London


VS.
John has gone to London

01. Read the sentences and circle the option that best completes each
sentence.
a. Look at this place! The hurricane _________ everything! There is nothing left!.
A destroyed
B has destroyed
C was destroying D was destroyed by
b. Jane and Jack _________ together for a long time.
A has been
B have been
C was

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c. Toni _________ to Canada. Hes coming back only next year.


A has been
B went
C has gone

D was went

d. Tom _________ to London. Hes going there for the first time.
A have never been B has just been
C has already been D
been
e. Have you finished your homework _________?
A just
B ever
C yet
D never

has

never

02. Qual das frases abaixo est no Present Perfect?


a) (
) She went to the beach with her family last week.
b) (
) Peter finished his project last week.
c) (
) Steves never been to Japan.
d) (
) Susan and Kate were very tired after the game yesterday.
e) (
) Carol studied French for 3 years.
03. Marque a alternativa errada com relao ao uso do Present Perfect.
a) (
) Weve already finished our homework.
b) (
) Steve and Jack has studied together.
c) (
) They havent visited us yet.
d) (
) I have seen a terrible accident once.
e) (
) The computer has helped me in my work.
04. Marque a alternativa correta com relao ao uso do Present Perfect.
a) (
) Weve already finish our homework.
b) (
) Steve and Jack has studied together.
c) (
) They didnt visited us yet.
d) (
) I have seen a terrible accident once.
e) (
) The band have played great songs
05. Complete as oraes com o Simple Past ou o Present Perfect.
a) The boys __________________a lot for the test .Thats why they should
have gotten a better grade. (study)
b) Look! Those houses __________________repaired. They are
really
beautiful now.(be)
c) My friends and I __________________ a lot recently. (go out)
d) He __________________married for ten years. Now he is divorced. (be)
e) My cat __________________last year. (die)
f) I __________________in So Paulo since the begging in of this year.(live)
g) It __________________a lot since last night. I dont know how they are
going to cross that river. (rain)
h) My brother __________________ his arm when he was a child. (break)
i) We __________________money for years. Soon we will be able to buy a
new house. (save)
j) John __________________ to Recife before. (be)
06. Leia as frases a seguir e marque com um X aquelas que apresentam o
uso correto do Present Perfect e do Simple Past:
a. (
) John has had many jobs before he came to live in Bristol.

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b. (
c. (
d. (
e. (
f. (

) Peter is getting prepared for the marathon. He runned 10 km yesterday.


) Did you saw the news last night?
) We didnt like the film we saw at the cinema.
) Have you cleaned your bedroom already?
) What did you had for dinner last night?

Texto para simples prtica de leitura.


Dutch eye surgeons have implanted tiny pieces of jewelry called JewelEye
in the mucous membrane of the eyes of six women and one man in cosmetic
surgery pioneered by an ophthalmic surgery research and development
institute
in Rotterdam.
The procedure involves inserting a 0.13 inch wide piece of specially
developed jewelry - the range includes a glittering half-moon or heart - into
the eyes mucous membrane under local anaesthetic at a cost of $610 to
$1,232.
In my view it is a little more subtle than (body) piercing. It is a bit of a fun
thing and a very personal thing for people, said Gerrit Melles, director of the
Netherlands Institute for Innovative Ocular Surgery.
The piece of jewelry is inserted in the conjunctiva -- the mucous membrane
lining the inner surface of the eyelids and front of the eyeball -- in sterile
conditions using an operating microscope in a procedure taking about 15
minutes.
Without doing any harm to the eye we can implant a jewel in the
conjunctiva, Melles said. So far we have not seen any side effects or
complications and we dont expect any in the future.
The Rotterdam-based institute, which develops new ocular surgical
techniques in corneal, cataract and retinal surgery, developed and patented
the jewelry made with special materials and the surgical procedure.
The institute, which carries out the procedure in cooperation with an eye
clinic near the city of Utrecht, said it has a waiting list for people who wanted
the implant.
From: http://msnbc.msn.com/id/4685961/

Leia o texto a seguir

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Gabarito:
1(Gabarito: B)
(Gabarito: C)
(Gabarito: C)
(Gabarito: D)
(Gabarito: B)
2- c
3-b
4-d
5
a) have studied
b) have been
c) have gone out
d) was
e) died
f) have lived
g) has rained
h) broke
i) have saved
j) hasnt been / has been
6 - Esto corretas
a-d-e

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LNGUA INGLESA - Petrobras


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Aula: 09

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Ingls
PAST PERFECT
1.1. CONCEITO
Indica uma ao que ocorreu antes de outra ao que tambm estava no
passado. Ele d ordem aos eventos ocorridos no passado.

Ex.: Steve had left the building in time.


O Past Perfect muito usado com o Simple Past.
Ex: The students had finished the exercise when the teacher entered the
classroom.
1.2. PAST PERFECT - FORM
Affirmative
Ex.: She had been to Scotland before.
Negative
Ex.: She hadnt been to Scotland before.
Interrogative
Ex.: Had she been to Scotland before?
Why had she been to Scotland before?
1.3. USO
O Past Perfect sempre indica a ao que aconteceu mais no passado, ou seja,
aquela ao que, numa sequncia cronolgica de eventos, aconteceu
primeiramente.

PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS


1.1. CONCEITO
Indica uma ao que esteve em andamento antes de outra ao passada.

Ex.: I had been waiting for a long time when I finally realized I was in the
wrong line.
Note que o Past Perfect Continuous tambm muito usado juntamente com o
Simple Past.
1.2. PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS - FORM

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Affirmative
Ex.: They had been waiting for a long time.
Negative
Ex.: They hadnt been waiting for a long time.
Interrogative
Ex.: Had they been waiting for a long time?
EXERCISES
CESGRANRIO - PETROBRAS - ADVOGADO - 2008
From Science Fiction to Reality: Personal Robots Emerge at Work, Home and
School
Its 6 a.m., and the Clarks awake to fresh coffee served to them by Millie, one of the
familys personal robots. As they get ready for work, Millie makes the bed, and their
robotic dog Mickey gently reminds Mr. Clark to take his medicine. This scenario is
not a page from a lost Jetsons script. Its likely to be a normal day in the life of a
family in as few as 20 years from now, according to robotics experts at the Georgia
Institute of Technology. Already, the global market for personal robots is growing
400 percent a year, says Professor Henrik Christensen, director of the newly formed
Robotics and Intelligent Machines Center in the Georgia Tech College of
Computing. Personal robots are becoming more popular as people want to do
more and more with their lives, Christensen says. Technology is making it
possible...We live stressful lives now, and we can use technology to take away the
boring tasks of everyday life.
Robots are not novel technology in industry, the military and even space
exploration. However, a new generation of intelligent machines called personal
robots ones that work with and directly for humans, especially in the home,
workplace and school have begun to emerge only recently. A confluence of
smart materials, low-cost, high-speed computing power, better batteries and
knowledge of how humans interact with machines is creating an explosion in the
market for personal robots, researchers say. To have a personal robot that does
things you need, you have to have onboard processing, perception, motion and
power, says roboticist Tucker Balch, an associate professor in the College of
Computing. Until two or three years ago, you couldnt put all of that on one small,
light platform. Motors and computers take a lot of energy, and the batteries we had
couldnt do the job. Now, demand for better cell phone and laptop batteries is
driving improvements, Balch adds. Therefore, we have all the technologies which
can support a consumer robot that is not too expensive. Balch predicts that truly
useful, multi-function personal robots will cost between $1,000 and $1,500. Singlepurpose robots, such as the Roomba vacuum cleaner already on the market, cost
between $150 and $300.
While some personal robots are already available, important research is under way
to address the remaining technical and societal challenges. Georgia Tech
researchers in computer science, engineering, psychology and the liberal arts are
collaborating under the umbrella of the new Robotics and Intelligent Machines
Center that Christensen directs. That cooperation is vital to creating the best-

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designed personal robots. If you just have computer scientists designing them,
youre not going to build a robot thats as good as one that could be built by
computer scientists and mechanical engineers working together, Christensen says.
We are leveraging Georgia Techs world-class expertise in all of these domains
and want to make something that no one else in the United States is doing today.
Research Horizons Magazine - June 8, 2007 (slightly adapted)
11 Based on Professor Henrik Christensens words in Paragraph 2, it is possible to
affirm that
(A) people consider robots unexciting and disturbing.
(B) people do not expect robots to perform daily boring activities.
(C) intelligent robots are making modern life stressful.
(D) technology will never improve peoples quality of life.
(E) new technological inventions can make peoples lives easier.
12 According to Paragraph 3, one of the aspects that has contributed to the
expansion of the personal robot market is the
(A) very high price of speedy computing power.
(B) smaller and less efficient computer batteries.
(C) better knowledge of human-machine interaction.
(D) sudden popularity of American robotics experts.
(E) high consumption of energy by the new machines.
13 Roboticist Tucker Balch, mentioned in Paragraph 3, believes that
(A) the reasonable cost for the multi-function robots is in the $150-$300 price range.
(B) most personal robots that can handle a variety of tasks will be sold for a
minimum of a thousand dollars.
(C) in three years, scientists will start developing the batteries needed to power
single-purpose personal robots.
(D) the latest developments in laptops and cell phones have taken the scientists
attention away from personal robots.
(E) no robots will ever perform multi-functions because it is impossible to combine
processing, perception, motion and power in one platform.
14 Which option expresses an accurate relationship between the items?
(A) take away (line 17) and remove are synonymous.
(B) novel (line 19) is the opposite of new.
(C) emerge (line 24) means the same as disappear.
(D) improvements (line 36) and advances reflect contradictory ideas.
(E) useful (line 38) could not be substituted by helpful.
15 In terms of reference, the only item that DOES NOT refer to robot(s) is
(A) one (line 2).
(B) their (line 15).
(C) ones (line 22).
(D) that (line 38).
(E) them (line 51).
16 The boldfaced item introduces a conclusion in
(A) As they get ready for work, Millie makes the bed, (line 3)

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(B) However, a new generation of intelligent machines called personal robots


(lines 20-21)
(C) Therefore, we have all the technologies which can support a consumer robot
(lines 36-37).
(D) While some personal robots are already available, important research is under
way (lines 43-44)
(E) If you just have computer scientists designing them, youre not going to build a
robot thats . (lines 50-52)
17 From the sentence That cooperation is vital to creating the best-designed
personal robots. (lines 49-50) it is possible to infer that the
(A) expertise of Georgia Techs computer science researchers alone will help
develop the best personal robots in the United States.
(B) joint effort of computer scientists and mechanical engineers is not likely to
improve robot design.
(C) alliance between computer scientists, designers and psychologists can be
harmful to the future of robotics.
(D) collaboration of researchers from different areas of knowledge will be extremely
beneficial to the future of robotics.
(E) collaboration between Georgia Tech researchers and the Robotics and
Intelligent Machines Center is inefficient.
18 Where in the text does the author refer to possible tasks to be performed by
personal robots in the near future?
(A) Paragraphs 1 and 2 (lines 1-5 ; 6-18).
(B) Paragraph 2, only (lines 6-18).
(C) Paragraph 3, only (lines 19-42).
(D) Paragraph 4, only (lines 43-57).
(E) Paragraphs 3 and 4 (lines 19-42 ; 43-57).
19 These domains (line 55) include all the areas below, EXCEPT one. Mark it. (A)
Psychology
(B) Liberal arts
(C) Engineering
(D) Physiology
(E) Computer Science
20 The verb form in italics transmits an idea of probability in
(A) you have to have onboard processing, perception, motion and power, (lines
29-30)
(B) we have all the technologies which can support a consumer robot (lines 3637)
(C) multi-function personal robots will cost between $1,000 and $1,500. (lines 3940)
(D) That cooperation is vital to creating the best-designed personal robots. (lines
49-50)
(E) youre not going to build a robot thats as good as one that could be built by
computer scientists and mechanical engineers working together, (lines 51-54)
Gabarito
11 - E
12 - C

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13 - B
14 - A
15 - B
16 - C
17 - D
18 - A
19 - D
20 - E
Scientist invents easy solution for hard water problems
I recently moved into a new home, and I was disappointed to find that
the water pressure was not as high as at my previous house. One of my
neighbors told me the problem was hard waterthat our water supply contains lots
of minerals, like calcium and magnesium. This causes scales to build up in pipes,
appliances, fixtures and even the water heater. I had heard that hard water
solutions were costly and inconvenient, so I asked him what hed done about the
problem. Thats when he told me about ClearWave, a remarkable water conditioner
that helps reduce scale building-up and helps prevent new scales from forming.
An innovative solution. ClearWave uses the latest microprocessor
technology to electronically generate inaudible waveforms. They help keep calcium
carbonate particles, or scale, dissolved in the water. The water treated by
ClearWave continues to dissolve the scale as it flows through the pipes. Over time,
it helps solve hard water problems in the entire system, from the water heater and
pipes to appliances and shower heads. This will result in a variety of benefits for you
and your home. Youll find yourself using less soap and detergent, and your
appliances will operate more efficiently. ClearWave works with all types of pipe and
installs easily with ordinary household tools.
No salt, no chemicals, no plumbing. Pure water contains nothing but H 20.
When it comes out of the ground, however, water is rich in a multitude of minerals,
such as calcium and magnesium. In the past, there have been three basic methods
used to control the problem of hard water and scale formation. One method is to
remove the minerals through ion exchange, using salt. A second method involves
adding chemicals, such as phosphates, to the water. Both of these methods change
the makeup of the water and require the homeowner to continuously replenish the
salts or chemicalsas well as performing periodic maintenance on the equipment.
A third method involves using magnets and electrostatic devices to cause electrical
changes in the water that affects the scaling characteristics of the minerals. This
method is similar to that used by ClearWave, with an important difference. The
electric field generated by ClearWave is continually applied to the water, while a
magnetic field relies on the movement of the water to produce the changes.
ClearWave is a revolutionary new product that solves your homes hard
water problems without salt, chemicals or plumbing.
(From Popular Science)
01. According to the text, hard water is the water that is full of problems caused by:
a) many species of dangerous bacteria originated from a lot of garbage.
b) some scientific products that are prepared in order to cultivate land for growing
plants.

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c) the accumulation of a considerable amount of minerals in the water containers.


d) insecticide accumulated in the ground and in the rivers.
02. According to the text, it is true or false to say that:
(....) ClearWave uses salt to remove the minerals from water while other methods
do not.
(....) Two methods require continuous replenishment of salts or chemicals and
periodic maintenance on the equipment.
(....) The water pressure was not as high as at the authors previous house because
the water supply contains lots of minerals.
(....) ClearWave does not work well to dissolve the scale while it flows inside the
pipes.
(....) The ClearWave is a water conditioner that helps reduce the white substances
accumulated inside the water pipes or containers.
The correct sequence is:
a) F - F - T - T - F
b) F - T - T - F - T
c) F - T - F - F - T
d) T - T - F - T - F
GABARITO
1-C
2-B

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Aula 10.

LNGUA INGLESA - Petrobras


Professor: RENATO BAGGIO
Aula: 10

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Ingls

Adjectives
Os adjetivos so palavras que tm a funo de transformar os substantivos. Eles no
possuem plural e no possuem formas para masculino e feminino, ou seja, no variam
quanto ao nmero e gnero.
Os adjetivos que descrevem cor, qualidade, tamanho (ex: good; bad; big; small; blue;
yellow...) ou podem ser aqueles que estabelecem restries quantidade, posse,
distncia, etc. (ex: my car, few students, distant place, etc...)
Alguns adjetivos terminam em ED, portanto devemos cuidar com o contexto para que
no confundamos com os verbos regulares, que so aqueles que levam ED para formar
o passado.
J outros terminam em ING, exigindo o mesmo cuidado para que no sejam confundidos
com formas do gerndio.
Alguns adjetivos que levam ED:
aged idoso(a)
beloved amado
blessed abenoado
crooked torto
cursed amaldioado(a)
naked pelado / nu

ragged maltrapilho / spero


sacred sagrado
wicked perverso / maligno
wretched desprezvel
one/three/four-legged
de uma / trs/
quarto pernas.

Adjetivos que levam ING:


Compare.
a) This movie is boring.
(Este filme chato)
b) Im bored with this movie. (Eu fico entediado com este filme)
No primeiro caso, o adjetivo se refere a uma mera caracterstica do substantivo. No
segundo caso, o adjetivo expressa um sentimento de uma pessoa em relao a algo.
Sempre que isso acontecer, devemos usar o adjetivo terminado em ING.
Ordem dos Adjetivos
Existem muitas regras para determinar a ordem dos adjetivos e muitos gramticos
discordam quanto ao seu uso. Veja algumas das regras mais importantes para
sabermos a ordem dos adjetivos numa frase:
1) Regra Geral: Normalmente os adjetivos seguem a seguinte ordem:
Colour - cor
Origin - origem
Material -material
Purpose - propsito
a blue
Italian
glass
flower
a brown
German
pottery
beer

Noun - substantivo
vase
mug

2) Adjetivos de tamanho, comprimento, altura ou idade geralmente so usados


antes dos adjetivos de cor, origem, material e propsito:

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a square wooden table. (not: wooden square table)


(Uma mesa de madeira quadrada)
a tall modern glass building.
(um prdio de vidro alto e moderno)
3) Adjetivos de julgamento e atitude geralmente so usados antes de todos os
outros.
A silly tall guy.
A lovely young man.

(um cara alto e tolo)


(um jovem adorvel)

4) Nmeros
Tambm so usados antes dos demais adjetivos:
Six comfortable chairs.
The four first days.

(seis cadeiras confortveis)


(os quatro primeiros dias)

5) Vrgulas
Usamos vrgulas quando temos uma sequncia longa de adjetivos, especialmente em
descries fsicas, para adjetivos que do o mesmo tipo de informao.
Ex.: A lovely, long, cool, refreshing cocktail.
* Vrgulas podem ser eliminadas antes de adjetivos comuns curtos:
Ex.: a short(,) dark(,) handsome cowboy.
6) Verb To Be and Copular Verbs
Os adjetivos vm depois do verbo To Be e dos chamados Copular Verbs (look, feel,
smell, taste, become, remain, stay, appear, seem and sound).
Ex.: The weather is nice today.
Im thirsty.
The film was interesting.
Hes been tired.
This meat smells good.
That food tastes awful.
She looks beautiful.

(O tempo est bom hoje)


(Eu estou com sede)
(O filme foi interessante)
(Ele tem estado cansado)
(Essa carne cheira bem)
(Aquela comida est com gosto horrvel)
(Ela est bonita)

EXERCISES
1.
Coloque as palavras na ordem correta:
a) had a She vacation fantastic
____ ____________________________________
b) rock does music like - ? she
_____ ____________________________________
c)
loves black he new car your.
________________________________________
2.

Use um substantivo e um adjetivo de cada quadro para completar as frases:


Adjectives

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Nouns

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foreign hot
sharp dark
fresh awful

water - clouds
languages air
knife - accident

a) We need some ____________. Open the window, please!


b) They need a ____________ to cut that meat.
c) Do you speak any ____________________?
d) Its going to rain. Look at those ____________ !
e) Theres no ____________ in the shower.
f) We saw an ____________ last year.
3.

Choose the adjectives that best complete the each sentence and circle them.

a) I was disappointed / disappointing with the film. I had expected it to be better.


b) Are you interesting / interested in Arts?
c) The film I saw yesterday was quite exciting / excited.
d) Its very embarrassed / embarrassing when you forget about an appointment you
had.
e) Do you easily get embarrassed / embarrassing?
f) I was amazing / amazed by the result of my test.
4.
Put the adjectives in brackets in the correct position:
Ex.: a beautiful table (wooden / round) a beautiful round wooden table.
a) a simple ring (gold) b) a new jacket (nice) c) a new jacket (green) d) an old apartment (beautiful) e) blue gloves (leather) f) an Australian film (old) Gabarito:
1)
a. She had a fantastic vacation.
b. Does she like rock music?
c. He loves your new black car.
2)
a. fresh air
b. sharp knife
c. foreign languages
d. dark clouds
e. hot water
f. awful accident
3)
a. amazed
b. interested
c. exciting

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d. embarrassing
e. embarrassed
f. disappointed
4)
a. a simple gold ring
b. a nice new jacket
c. a new green jacket
d. an old Australian film
e. blue leather gloves
f. a beautiful old house
Leia o texto a seguir e responda s questes 52, 53 e 54
Welcome to Madrid: City of Protests
Madrid (CNN) The people, united, will never be divided! yells the crowd, angrily
waving banners and placards. To fight is the only way! Dog-walkers, mothers with
strollers, and pensioners carrying shopping bags join the crowd. These people on the
sidewalk are no curious neighbors. Indeed, many of them are complete strangers to the
family living on the fifth floor, but they are all here to protect Rocio from eviction - being
forced to leave her property by legal process. Rocio and her son, now 17 and in high
school, moved from Ecuador in 2003, when times were good and jobs plentiful in Spain.
But then the global financial crisis hit, bringing Spains economy down, Rocio lost her two
jobs - in a shop, and as a cleaner. For a while, Rocio got by on benefits, but then those
stopped too. She is an example of the crisis many Spaniards face as the country deals
with the highest unemployment rate since the Civil War in the 1930s, and a recession
entering its second year. I cant stand the thought of living on the streets with my son,
but I have no idea where else to go, she says.
Rocios story is echoed by others all over Spain. It is this fear that took many Spanish
citizens to action. Many of those people who are outside the door of Rocios apartment
block are supporters of Stop Desahucios (Stop Evictions), part of the Platform of People
Affected by Mortgages (PAH Plataforma de Afectados por la Hipoteca), a group that
campaigns to prevent banks and authorities from eviction because of the countrys
economic crisis. They accuse the banks and authorities of real estate terrorism. There
are also the mass marches of the 15-M movement - also known as the Indignados.
Activist Dante Scherma, 24, says citizens were not used to speaking out on political
issues. The 15-M movement made people talk about social issues, and about politics in
normal conversations - in cafs, restaurants, bars - where before they only talked about
football or fashion. Back in Vicalvaro, the moment of truth has arrived, but the crowd now shouting at the police, insisting they have to stop forcing families to leave their
properties - appears to have had an impact. Lawyers from the PAH explain that Rocio will
be able to stay - for a while, at least. For those working to stop Spains eviction epidemic,
today has seen a small and temporary victory. For those demonstrating about cuts,
corruption and lack of cash, the protests will go on.
Adaptado de http://edition.cnn.com/2013/02/20/ world/europe/madrid-city-ofprotests/index.html
52 - According to the text, Rocio

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[A] moved to Spain when there were many jobs there.


[B] was the only person affected by the crisis in Spain.
[C] is getting benefits from Spains government nowadays.
[D] had two jobs in Ecuador before moving to Spain.
[E] has the best job in Spain nowadays.
53 - According to the text, the 15-M movement made
[A] Spaniards lives lose their importance.
[B] citizens in Spain more interested in social issues.
[C] Spaniards talk more about football and fashion.
[D] people go to cafs, restaurants and bars.
[E] Spaniards accept evictions
54 - In the sentence ...insisting they have to stop forcing families to leave their
properties..., the words they and their respectively refer to
[A] the crowd and families.
[B] the crowd and the police.
[C] the police and families.
[D] the families and the properties.
[E] the police and the properties.
Leia o texto a seguir e responda s questes 55 e 56.
Gabarito
52 - A
53 - B
54 - C

Brazil wants to count trees in the Amazon rainforest


By Channtal Fleischfresser
February 11, 2013
Photo: Flickr/Nico Crisafulli
Brazil is home to roughly 60 percent of the Amazon, about half of what remains of
the worlds tropical rainforests. And now, the country has plans to count its trees. A
vast undertaking, the new National Forest Inventory hopes to gain a broad
panorama of the quality and the conditions in the forest cover, according
to Brazils Forestry Minister Antonio Carlos Hummel. The census, set to take place
over the next four years, will scour 3,288,000 square miles, sampling 20,000 points
at 20 kilometer intervals and registering the number, height,
diameter, and species of the trees, among other data. The initiative, aimed to better
allocate resources to the countrys forests, is part of a large-scale turnaround in
Brazils relationship to its forests. While it once had one of the worst rates of
deforestation in the world, last year only 1,797 square miles of the Amazon were
destroyed a reduction of nearly 80% compared to 2004.
(www.smartplanet.com. Adaptado.)
Questo 25
O Governo brasileiro

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(A) tentar recuperar as reas desmatadas desde 2004.


(B) far fotografias panormicas da floresta para conter o desmatamento.
(C) reduzir o desmatamento legal para apenas 1 797 milhas quadradas.
(D) far um censo das rvores da Amaznia brasileira.
(E) contar 60% das rvores da floresta amaznica.
Questo 26
O programa National Forest Inventory
(A) far um registro do nmero de rvores, bem como de suas caractersticas, nos
pontos de amostragem.
(B) abrir uma trilha na floresta, com pontos de coleta de dados a cada 20 km.
(C) identificou espcies de rvores desconhecidas nas regies da Amaznia.
(D) j contou mais de trs mil rvores nos ltimos quatro anos.
(E) descobriu que a maioria das rvores apresenta altura e dimetro
semelhantes.
Questo 27
O objetivo do Censo Florestal
(A) usar os dados obtidos para criar polticas florestais na Amrica Latina.
(B) obter verbas internacionais para implantar programas contra o desmatamento.
(C) implantar um inventrio florestal em colaborao com pases que tm florestas
tropicais.
(D) conscientizar os povos da floresta sobre a sustentabilidade do meio ambiente.
(E) aprimorar a dotao de recursos para as florestas brasileiras.
Questo 28
No trecho do primeiro pargrafo Brazil is home to roughly 60 percent of the
Amazon , a palavra roughly equivale, em portugus, a
(A) evidentemente.
(B) exatamente.
(C) aqum.
(D) alm de.
(E) cerca de.
Questo 29
No trecho do ltimo pargrafo aimed to better allocate resources to the countrys
forests , aimed to indica
(A) explicao.
(B) finalidade.
(C) nfase.
(D) contraste.
(E) consequncia.
Questo 30
No trecho do ltimo pargrafo While it once had one of the worst rates of
deforestation in the world, last year only 1,797 square miles of the Amazon were
destroyed , a palavra once apresenta uma ideia de
(A) passado.
(B) condio.

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(C) futuro.
(D) previso.
(E) singularidade.
Gabarito

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Aula 11.

LNGUA INGLESA - PETROBRAS


Professor: RENATO BAGGIO
Aula: 11

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Aula 11.

Ingls
Degrees of Adjectives
1.1. Conceito
Normalmente aprendemos algumas coisas bsicas sobre os adjetivos em
ingles: Eles so usados antes do substantivo ao qual se referem e depois do
verbo To Be. Sabe-se tambm que eles no sofrem variaes quanto ao
nmero e gnero.
Entretanto possvel trabalharmos os graus dos adjetivos. Em ingls os
adjetivos podem variar em 2 graus: Comparativo e Superlativo.
1.2. Comparative degrees:
a) Equality
b) Superiority
c) Inferiority
a) Comparative of Equality
as + adjective + as
Affirmative
Ex.: Jennifer Lopez is as beautiful as Angelina Jolie.
Negative
Ex.: Jennifer Lopez isnt as beautiful as Angelina Jolie.
Jennifer Lopez isnt so beautiful as Angelina Jolie.
b) Comparative of Inferiority
less + adjective + (than)
Ex.: The interviewee was less articulate than the reporter.
c) Comparative of Superiority
adjective + ER (than)
more + adjective (than)
Ex.:

Tim is taller than his brother.


Women are more emotional than men

1.3. Superlative Degree:


Inferiority
Superiority
a) Superlative of Inferiority
the least + adjective
Ex.: Susan was the least worried student in class.
b) Superlative of Superiority

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adjective + EST
the most + adjective
Ex.: Steve is the tallest boy in his class.
Studying is one of the most important things to do in life.
Adjective

Comparative

(ER)

Superlative (EST)

TALL

taller

(than)

the tallest

BIG

bigger

(than)

the biggest

EASY

easier

(than)

the easiest

COY

coyer

(than)

the coyest

DIFFICULT

more difficult (than)

the most difficult

Irregular Comparative and Superlative forms


good

better

the best

bad

worse

the worst

far

farther / further

the farthest / furthest

TEXTO
AINT THAT SWEET!
New research shows the hidden benefits of eating dark chocolate
By Sora Song
Go ahead, indulge yourself a little. Medical science has just cooked up two sweet
reasons to eat chocolate as long as its dark chocolate. Two small studies
published last week suggest that dark chocolate may offer such benefits as lower
blood pressure and higher
levels of disease-and-age-defying chemicals called antioxidants. As if you needed
an excuse.
Researchers have long known that cocoa beans contain a class of chemicals called
flavonoids, which are also found in fruits, vegetables, tea and red wine. Previous
studies suggest that flavonoids raise levels of HDL cholesterol (the good kind) and
act as potent
antioxidants, protecting cells from free-radical damage, which can contribute to
aging, heart disease and certain cancers.
In a study published in Nature, researchers asked 12 volunteers to eat dark
chocolate only, dark chocolate with a glass of milk, or milk chocolate. An hour later,
the dark-chocolate-only group showed an 18% increase in blood levels of
antioxidants called epicatechins. Those in the latter two groups had no such
change. We suspect its the proteins in the milk that the epicatechins are binding
to, so theyre not absorbed,
says study co-author Alan Crozier of the University of Glasgow. There is evidence
that with tea, milk does something similar. [...]
01. About the article, it might be stated that:

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A) it argues that any kind of chocolate is good for


peoples health.
B) it suggests that people avoid dark chocolate.
C) it tells people to eat less chocolate.
D) it suggests that people should eat more dark
chocolate.
E) it offers scientific data to support people who eat
all sorts of chocolate.
02. According to the information presented in the article:
A) flavonoids act as potent antioxidants, raising
HDL cholesterol and free-radical levels.
B) flavonoids are not only found in chocolate but
also in fruits, vegetables, tea and red wine.
C) antioxidants contribute to aging, heart disease
and certain cancers.
D) among the benefits of dark chocolate are lower
blood pressure and higher levels of chemicals
that produce aging and diseases.
E) consuming chocolate with tea and milk increases
the level of antioxidants in the blood.
03. If the title of the article, Aint that sweet! were to be changed from
colloquial speech into more formal language, it would be:
A) Arent those sweets!
B) Wasnt that sweet!
C) Isnt that sweet!
D) Is that as sweet!
E) Was that sweet!
04. The introductory statement Go ahead, indulge yourself a little should be
understood as:
A) an invitation to have as much chocolate as one
wishes.
B) some advice to be careful while eating chocolate.
C) a promise to do something one wishes to do.
D) a request to think carefully before eating
chocolate.
E) permission to have some chocolate.
Take a Walk
Its the perfect exercise for fighting fat as well as fatigue and stress. Heres how to
do it right.
Though you may not think of walking as a wonderful form of exercise, it is. Walking
promotes cardiovascular fitness, tones up all your muscles and is a great fat burner
too. If you walk briskly for 45 minutes a day, by the end of a year youll have lost
more than 20 pounds, without dieting! So imagine what walking does when you do
diet. Since your metabolism speeds up, weight comes off faster and tends to stay
off.

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Some other advantages of walking: it requires no special skills or equipment, it


can be done almost anywhere at any time, and its virtually injury-free, provided you
wear proper shoes, start off slowly and dont overdo in the beginning.
Vocabulary
to tone up: fortalecer
fat: gordura
fat burner: queimador de gordura
briskly: rapidamente
weight: peso
provided: contanto que
skills: habilidades
tend: tende (tendncia)
injury: leso, ferimento
virtually: quase
1 pound = 453,59g
overdo: exagerar
5. Todos so benefcios de caminhar, exceto:
a) Melhora o desempenho do corao.
b) Combate a gordura.
c) Diminui as calorias dos alimentos
d) Tonifica os msculos
e) Combate o estresse.
6. According to the text, write TRUE or FALSE.
What is good about walking?
I. ( ) It is perfect for fighting.
II. ( ) It is excellent for the heart.
III. ( ) It's harmless unless you overdo in the beginning.
IV. ( ) Walking for 45 minutes a day, by the end of a year you'll have lost up to 8
kilos.
Mark the correct sequence of answers:
a) F T T F
b) T T T F
c) F T F T
d) F F F T
e) T F F T
7. Match:
I.
Walking fast for 45 minutes a day...
(
II.
When you walk fast and go on a diet... (
III. It is very improbable that...

) you lose more weight.


) makes you lose up to 20
pounds a year.
) you will get hurt by walking.

The correct sequence is:


a) I III II
b) II I III

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c) III I II
d) III II I
e) I II III
8. Mark the only correct alternative:
a) Walking is difficult.
b) You need special places to walk.
c) Walking is bad for old people.
d) There is a right way to do walking.
e) Walking causes fatigue.
GABARITO
1-D
2-B
3-C
4-E
5-C
6-A
7-B
8-D

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LNGUA INGLESA - PETROBRAS


Professor: RENATO BAGGIO
Aula: 12

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Ingls
RELATIVE PRONOUNS
1.1. CONCEITO
Os pronomes relativos se relacionam a um substantivo ou a um pronome
anteriormente mencionado.
Eles podem ser usados para definir o substantivo ao qual se referem ou para
simplesmente acrescentar informao sobre o mesmo.
So eles:
WHO
WHOM
WHICH
THAT

WHOSE
WHY
WHERE
WHEN

Ex.: The man who was involved in the accident is my cousin.


(Defining Relative Clause)
Ex.: Rage, which is a bad feeling, gets people to do stupid things.
(Non-defining Relative Clause)
1.2. RELATIVE PRONOUNS - FORM
a) WHO = que ( sujeito)
Ex.: The girl who is playing is country champion.
b) WHOM = que / quem (objeto) Geralmente vem acompanhado de
preposio.
Ex.: The woman to whom I talked on the phone was nice to me.
No pode ser substitudo por that.
c) WHICH = usado para coisas ou animais.
Ex.: The car which I like is very expensive.
d) WHOSE = indica posse: CUJO/ CUJA
Ex.: The boy whose girlfriend disappeared is my friend.
e) WHERE = indica lugar.
Ex.: A department store is a place where you can buy goods.
f) WHEN = indica tempo - quando.
Ex.: Easter is a time when people celebrate Jesus ressurrection.

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1.3. OMITINDO O PRONOME RELATIVO


The magazine which I bought is for my sister. (podemos omitir o which)
The magazine which is on the floor is mine. (no podemos omitir o which)
That is the girl who talked to me. (no podemos omitir o who)
That is the girl who I saw last night. (podemos omitir o who)
TEXTO
What is acne?
Acne is not just a problem for teenagers, it can affect people from ages 10
through 40. It is not unusual for women, in particular, to develop acne in their midto-late 20s. Acne can appear as any of the following:
Blackheads -- are caused by partially blocked pores. The "black" appearance of
them is not caused by dirt, but by the melanin pigment from the dead skin cells.
Whiteheads -- are caused by completely blocked pores. The white appearance of
them is caused by the bacteria inside the blocked pore turning the sebum to "free
fatty acid".
Papules -- are small, red, tender bumps or spots.
Pustules -- are larger, red and inflamed pus-filled spots.
Nodules -- are large hard bumps under the skin's surface.
Cysts -- are similar to nodules, but can be deeply inflamed and infected.
These blemishes occur wherever there are many oil (sebaceous) glands, mainly
on the face, chest, and back.
You can do a lot to treat your acne using products available at a drugstore or
cosmetic counter that do not require a prescription. However, for more serious
cases of acne, you should consult a doctor.
What causes acne?
No one factor causes acne. Acne happens when oil (sebaceous) glands come to life
around puberty stimulated by male hormones from the adrenal glands of both boys
and girls. Oil is a natural substance which lubricates and protects the skin, and
under certain circumstances, cells that are close to the surface block the openings
of sebaceous glands and cause a buildup of oil underneath. This oil stimulates
bacteria, (which live in everyone's skin and generally cause no problems), to
multiply and cause surrounding tissues to become inflamed.
If the inflammation is right near the surface, you get a pustule; if it's deeper, a
papule (pimple); deeper still and it's a cyst. If the oil breaks though to the surface,
the result is a "whitehead." If the oil becomes oxidized (that is, acted on by oxygen
in the air), the oil changes from white to black, and the result is a "blackhead."
Some factors that dont usually cause acne, at least by themselves are:
Heredity: With the exception of very severe acne, most people do not have the
problem exactly as their parents did. Almost everyone has some acne at some point
in their life.

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Food: All over the world, parents tell teens to avoid pizza, chocolate, greasy and
fried foods, and junk food. While these foods may not be good for overall health,
they don't cause acne or make it worse.
Dirt: Some individuals have more "oily" skin than others (as mentioned above,
"Blackheads" are oxidized oil, not dirt). Sweat does not cause acne, therefore, it is
not necessary to shower instantly after exercise for fear that sweat will clog pores.
On the other hand, excessive washing can dry and irritate the skin.
Stress: Some people get so upset by their pimples that they pick at them and
make them last longer. Stress, however, does not play much of a direct role in
causing acne.
Hormones: Some women break out cyclically, but most women (and men) don't.
Some oral contraceptive pills may help relieve acne, but unless a woman has
abnormal menstrual periods and excessive hair growth, its unlikely that hormones
play much of a role in causing acne.
Cosmetics: Most cosmetic and skin care products are not pore-clogging
(comedogenic.) Of the many available brands, those which are listed as waterbased or oil-free are generally a better choice.
In occasional patients, contributing factors may be:
Pressure: In some patients, pressure from helmets, chinstraps, collars, and the
like can aggravate acne.
Drugs: Some medications may cause or worsen acne, such as those containing
iodides, bromides, or oral or injected steroids (either the medically prescribed
prednisone or the steroids bodybuilders or athletes take.) Most cases of acne,
however, are not drug-related.
Occupations: In some jobs, exposure to industrial products like cutting oils may
produce acne.
http://www.acne-advice.com/articles/types_of_acne.shtml
http://www.medicinenet.com/acne/article.htm

Vocabulary:
Sebum: The semifluid secretion of the sebaceous glands, consisting chiefly of fat,
keratin, and cellular material.
Spots: a small round mark on the skin, different in colour or texture from the
surface.
Blemish: a mark that spoils something that is beautiful.
Bumps: a swelling on the body.
Pimple: a small raised spot on the skin.
1. According to the text:
a) Acne can affect people at any age, specially women in their mid-twenties.
b) Blackheads, Whiteheads, papules and nodules are forms of acne.
c) Acne most commonly occurs on peoples face, hands, chest and back.
d) Acne is caused by hormones but it can be also caused by some greasy foods.
e) According to the text, men tend to have more problems with acne than women.
2. Circle the only correct letter according to the text:
a. Blackheads are dirty, so you should clean them frequently.
b. Whiteheads are white because thats the colour of the bacteria inside them.
c. Pustules are red because they contain blood in them.
d. Nodules are similar to cysts but cysts are deeper and also infected.

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e. Acne is not a serious problems, so cases of acne are never treated by doctors.
3. Match the factors with their correct explanation:
a. Heredity
b. Food
c. Stress
d. Hormones
e. Drugs
(
) There isnt a strong connection between your emotional health and acne.
(
) Women can avoid some acne by taking them in the form of contraceptive
pills.
(
) Just because you parents had acne, that doesnt mean you will have it, too.
(
) Depending on what you take, they can make acne worse.
(
) Not everything you ingest will be good for you but it certainly wont cause
you acne.

It is becoming more and more important to eat the right food.


Experts say that the type of food you eat can damage your health. If you eat the
right food, you will have a better chance of living a long and healthy life.
If you eat a lot of processed food, you will be more likely to have problems with
your health. If people eat food with a lot of fat in it, they will have a greater risk of
getting heart disease.
In some countries, people eat less fat in their diet. Scientists have shown
that fewer people get heart disease in these countries. In Spain and Italy, for
example, most people have less fat in their diets than people in England. And in
England, the rate of heart disease is double the rate in Spain or Italy.
So if you eat less fatty food, you'll live longer. You'll feel better, feel fitter,
and have more energy if you change to a simpler and healthier diet.
From:Break into English
Vocabulary

likely: describes something that will probably happen or is expected


rate: an amount or level of payment

4. According to the text, what sort of food is BAD for you? Circle the only correct
letter.
a) Italian food.
b) Fruit and vegetables.
c) Fatty food.
d) Simple food.
e) Diet food.
5. According to the text, what happens in countries where the diet is high in fat?
Circle the only correct letter.
a) People get fatter.

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b) The rate of heart disease is greater.


c) The population has a better life.
d) People are healthier.
e) There are less sick people.
6. The text says that in Spain people eat __________ than in England. Circle the
only correct letter to complete the space.
a) less fatty food
b) more energetic food
c) less food
d) much more fatty food
e) more food
Texto somente para a prtica da leitura.
Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva
Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is an extremely rare disease
which affects the connective tissue. A mutation of the body's repair
mechanism causes fibrous tissue (including muscle, tendon, and ligament) to
be ossified when damaged. In many cases, injuries can cause joints to
become permanently frozen in place. Surgical removal of the extra bone
growths has been shown to cause the body to "repair" the affected area with
more bone.
GABARITO:
1-B
2-D
3-C-D- A-E-B
4-C
5-B
6-A

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Aula: 17

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Ingls

Quantifiers
Os Quantificadores so pronomes que precedem e modificam os substantivos e
tm a funo de determinar sua quantidade. Para sabermos us-los, preciso que
conheamos as diferenas entre substantivos contveis e incontveis. Lembramos
que so chamados substantivos incontveis, aqueles que no possuem forma
plural, ou seja, devem ser usados somente na forma do singular:
Ex.: money, weather, advice, information, etc.
So chamados substantivos contveis aqueles que podem ser passados para o
plural, ou seja, podem ser usados tanto no singular quanto no plural, dependendo
do que se quer dizer:
Ex.: girl, chair, friend, person, etc.
1) Much (muito):
usado com substantivos incontveis, ou seja, serve para indicar grande
quantidade de um substantivo que no pode ser usado no plural.
Ex.: Theres much information about the course on the internet. (H muita
informao sobre o curso na internet.)
2) Little (pouco):
o antnimo de much sendo igualmente usado com substantivos incontveis,
entretanto indica pequena quantidade de algo:
Ex.: Theres little water in the pool so we wont be able to swim. (H pouca gua na
piscina,logo, no poderemos nadar.)
3) Many (muitos):
usado com substantivos contveis servindo para indicar grande quantidade de
algo. Quando usamos many, devemos usar o substantivo na forma do plural:
Ex.: I have many friends in Los Angeles. (Tenho muitos amigos em Los Angeles.)
4) Few (poucos):
o antnimo de many sendo igualmente usado com substantivos contveis no
plural.
Ex.: There were few people at the party. (Haviam poucas pessoas na festa.)
5) Plenty (mais do que suficiente):
Ex.: Theres no need to hurry. Weve got plenty of time.
6) A Lot of (muito; muitos; muita; muitas)
usado tanto com substantivos contveis como incontveis, para indicar grande
quantidade de algo:
Ex.: There is a lot of food in the refrigerator. (H muita comida na geladeira)

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Attention!
1 - Much e Many so usados especialmente em frases negativas e interrogativas.
Pode-se usar tambm a lot of:
Ex.: I didnt spend much money. (ou I didnt spend a lot of money.)
Do you know many people here? (ou Do you know a lot of people here?)
I dont go out much. (ou I dont go out a lot.)
2 Many tambm usado em afirmativas, porm, na lngua falada, a lot (of)
mais comum.
Ex.: A lot of people like to drive fast in Brazil. ou: Many people like to drive fast in
Brazil.
3 - TOO MUCH e SO MUCH so usados normalmente em afirmativas:
Ex.: We spent too much money the last time we traveled. (Ns gastamos dinheiro
demais na ltima vez que viajamos.)

Special Cases:
Compare as seguintes frases:
* I have a few friends.
* I have few friends,
Ao compararmos as duas frases percebemos que elas so quase iguais e assim
podemos achar que seu significados tambm sejam semelhantes. Entretanto isso
no verdade. A presena do artigo na frente do pronome few, faz com que haja
uma mudana na mensagem da frase. Observe as diferenas a seguir:
1) Little e Few possuem idia negativa:
Ex.: Lets hurry. Theres little time. (a idia e de que no h tempo suficiente.)
Hes always alone. He hs few friends. (a idia de que ele no tem amigos
o suficiente.)
2) A little e A few possuem idia positiva:
Ex.: Lets have a drink. Weve got a little time before the bus leaves.
I like it here. Ive got a few friends and I like them all.
PORm, quando usados com only, a little e a few passam a ter significados
negativos:
Ex.: This house is not big enough. There are only a few rooms.
EXERCISES
Budapest
For many centuries, Budapest was two cities, with Buda on the west side of
the Danube River and Pest on the east side. Budapest became one city in 1872,
and it has been the capital city of Hungary ever since.
The population of Budapest is about two million, and the city is a very popular
place for tourists. Visitors like to take boat rides along the Danube. Budapest is also
known for its exciting nightlife. The best time to visit is the summer since Budapest
is very cold in the winter.
Become = tornar-se

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Known = conhecida
Since = j que; porque; desde

Los Angeles
Los Angeles was founded in 1781. With 3.8 million people, it is now the
biggest city in California and the second largest city in the United States. It is
famous for its modern freeways, its movie stars, and its smog. When the city is
really smoggy, you cant see the nearby mountains. The weather is usually dry and
warm.
Visitors like to go to the film studios and drive along Hollywood Boulevard.
There are some good beaches near the city, and Los Angeles is also close to
Disneyland.
Freeways = rodovias
Smog = mistura de nevoeiro e poluio
Dry = seco
Weather = tempo
Taipei
Since its founding in the eighteenth century, Taipei has grown to a population
of 2.7 million people and has become the cultural, industrial, and administrative
center of the island of Taiwan. Its an exciting city, but the weather is humid and not
always pleasant.
Taipei is also a busy city, and the streets are always full of people. There is
an excellent museum that many tourists visit. Its a fairly expensive city, but not
more expensive than some other Asian cities, so many tourists go to Taipei to shop.
Has grown = cresceu
Pleasant = agradvel
Busy = agitada
Shop = comprar
1. Leia o texto sobre Budapeste e marque a nica alternativa correta:
a) Budapeste continua sendo duas cidades desde o ano de 1872.
b) Budapeste deixou de ser a capital da Hungria depois que foi dividida em duas
cidades.
c) Budapeste no tem vida noturna.
d) Os visitantes gostam de fazer um passeio de barco pelo Danbio, rio que dividia
a cidade no passado.
e) A cidade tem esse nome devido ao fato de que no passado uma peste quase
dizimou a populao de toda a cidade.
2. A palavra since, na frase The best time to visit is the summer since
Budapest is very cold in the winter, pode ser traduzida por:
a) assim sendo.
b) desde j
c) j que
d) desde
e) desde ento
3. Leia o texto sobre Los Angeles e marque a nica alternativa correta:
a) Los Angeles maior do que a Califrnia.

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b) Los Angeles pe famosa por ser uma cidade com pouca poluio.
c) Los Angeles conhecida por abrigar um parque da Disneylndia.
d) As montanhas perto da cidade nunca so vistas devido forte neblina presente
o ano todo.
e) Os artistas e estdios de Hollywood so um atrativo para os visitantes que
tambm gostam de dirigir pela Hollywood Boulevard.
GABARITO
1-D
2-C
3-E

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Aula: 18

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Ingls
The Passive Voice
Quando falamos a respeito de Passive Voice (Voz Passiva), estamos nos referindo
a um tipo de construo de frases, no qual o sujeito sofre a ao do verbo. Se
dissermos:
John loves Mary voz ativa, pois o sujeito John que pratica a ao. Se,
porm, dissermos:
Mary is loved by John voz passiva, pois agora Mary sofre a ao do verbo
e no a pratica.
Para transformarmos uma frase em voz passiva, devemos obedecer aos seguintes
princpios:
1. O objeto da voz ativa passa a ser o sujeito da voz passiva.
2. O sujeito da voz ativa passa a ser agente da passiva na voz passiva.
3. O verbo to be usado no mesmo tempo verbal em que o verbo principal se
encontra na voz ativa.
4. O verbo principal assume a sua forma do particpio passado (a 3 forma do
passado dos verbos, chamada comumente de 3 coluna).
5. Se o sujeito da ativa for particularizado, determinado, ele ser mantido como
agente da passiva.
Exemplos:
Sheila makes good cakes.
1. O objeto (good) cakes ser sujeito da voz passiva.
2. Makes: verbo no presente; portanto, usaremos o to be no presente = are.
3. Make, made, usamos a sua forma do particpio passado, made.
4. O sujeito Sheila particularizado e aprece como agente da passiva ou
substitudo por um pronome oblquo = her. Como agente da passiva, ser
sempre precedido pela preposio by.
Teremos ento:
Good cakes are made by her.
Exemplos:
They play poke here.
Eles jogam pquer aqui.
Poker is played here (by them).
Pquer jogado aqui por eles.
1. Simple Present
Se o tempo verbal for o Simple Present Tense, teremos ento:

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Active Voice: Maggie takes the kids to school.


Passive Voice: The kids are taken to school by her.
2. Simple Past
Active Voice: Pedro A. Cabral discovered Brazil in 1500.
Passive Voice: Brazil was discovered in 1500 by Pedro A. Cabral.
3. Present Continuous
Active Voice: They are cleaning the room now.
Passive Voice: The room is being cleaned now.
4. Past Continuous
Active Voice: My cousin was fixing the computer.
Passive Voice: The computer was being fixed by my cousin.
5. Present Perfect
Active Voice: They have never seen her before.
Passive Voice: She has never been seen before.
6. Past Perfect
Active Voice: The robber had broken the safe.
Passive Voice: The safe had been broken by the robber.
7. Simple Future
Active Voice: Many people will watch that game.
Passive Voice: That game will be watched by many people.
8. Modal Verbs: Can; May; Could; Should; Must; etc.
Active Voice: A grenade can cause a lot of destruction.
Passive Voice: A lot of destruction can be caused by a grenade.
Active Voice: We must respect the law.
Passive Voice: The law must be respected.

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LNGUA INGLESA - PETROBRAS


Professor: RENATO BAGGIO
Aula: 19

Prof. Renato Baggio

www.aprovaconcursos.com.br

Pgina 1 de 7

Prof. Renato Baggio


Lngua Inglesa p/ Petrobras
Aula 19.

Ingls
IF-CLAUSES
1.1. CONCEITO
If-Clauses so tambm chamadas de frases condicionais (Conditional
Sentences).
So frases que apresentam uma condio:
If = se.
So divididas em 3 tipos bsicos.
Type I
Type II
Type III
Nessa aula veremos os 3 tipos bsicos e iremos alm deles tambm.
1.2. IF-CLAUSES MEANING and FORM
TYPE I As frases condicionais do Tipo I so aquelas que indicam grande
chance de algo acontecer ou grande chance de que algo se realize.
AFFIRMATIVE
Ex1.: If you study hard, you will pass.
NEGATIVE
Ex2.: If you dont study hard, you wont pass.
AFFIRMATIVE + NEGATIVE
Ex3.: If you dont study, you will fail.
Ex4.: If you study, you wont fail.
TYPE II As frases condicionais do Tipo II indicam pouca chance de algo
acontecer ou que algo possvel que se realize.
AFFIRMATIVE
Ex1.: If you studied, you would pass.
NEGATIVE
Ex2.: If you didnt study, you wouldnt pass.
AFFIRMATIVE + NEGATIVE
Ex3.: If you didnt study, you would fail.
Ex4.: If you studied, you wouldnt fail.

Prof. Renato Baggio

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Prof. Renato Baggio


Lngua Inglesa p/ Petrobras
Aula 19.

TYPE III As frases condicionais do Tipo III indicam algo impossvel de se


realizar. Tambm podemos dizer que o Tipo III indica uma possibilidade irreal.
AFFIRMATIVE
Ex1.: If you had studied, you would have passed.
NEGATIVE
Ex2.: If you hadnt studied, you wouldnt have passed.
AFFIRMATIVE + NEGATIVE
Ex3.: If you hadnt studied, you would have failed.
Ex4.: If you had studied, you wouldnt have failed.
TYPE 0 As frases condicionais do Tipo 0 indicam que o resultado sempre
certo. Nesse tipo de frase condicional usamos o Simple Present em ambos os
lados da frase. Veja o exemplo:
Ex1.: If water reaches 100C, it boils.
Ex2.: If you touch fire, you get burned.
1.3. Special Cases
a) SE EU FOSSE VOC
O verbo To Be no passado usado numa frase condicional, aquele sempre
ser WERE.
Ex.: If I were you, I would talk to her.
b) MIXED CONDITIONALS
Podemos misturar os casos anteriormente citados dependendo do que
queremos dizer.
Ex.: If I had taken an aspirin, I wouldnt have a headache now.
SUBSTITUINDO IF:
If pode ser substitudo por palavras ou expresses com um significado
similar.
As mais comuns so:
as long as
assuming (that)
on condition (that)
on the assumption (that)
provided (that)
supposing (that)
unless
with the condition (that)

Prof. Renato Baggio

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Prof. Renato Baggio


Lngua Inglesa p/ Petrobras
Aula 19.

TEXTO

Teen Obesity
Obesity continued to increase dramatically during the late 1990s for
Americans of all ages according to the data collected and analyzed by the
National Center for Health Statistics, part of the Centers for Disease Control
and Prevention (CDC).
The percent of children and teens who are overweight also continues to
increase.
Among children and teens aged 6-19, 15 percent (almost 9 million) are
overweight according to the 1999-2000 data, or triple what the proportion was
in 1980. In addition, the data shows that another 15 percent of children and
teens aged 6-19, are considered at risk of becoming overweight.
Obesity can be defined as an excessive accumulation of body fat,
which results in individuals being at least 20% heavier than their ideal body
weight.
"Overweight" is defined as any weight in excess of the ideal range.
Obesity is a common eating disorder associated with adolescence.
Although children have fewer weight-related health problems than
adults, overweight children are at high risk of becoming overweight
adolescents and adults.
Overweight people of all ages are at risk for a number of health
problems including heart disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, stroke and
some forms of cancer.
Obesity can weaken physical health and wellbeing, and can shorten life
expectancy. It can also lead to social disabilities and unhappiness, which may
cause stress and even mental illness. A study released in May 2004 suggests
that overweight children are more likely to be involved in bullying than
normal-weight children are, both as victims and as perpetrators of teasing,
name-calling and physical bullying.
The development of a personal identity and body image is an important
goal for adolescents. Your parents, physician and teachers can help you. If
you think you are overweight, talk to a trusted adult about what you can do to
improve your health.
(Disponvel em
<http://www.pamf.org/teen/health/diseases/obesity.html>.
Acesso em 26 outubro 2005.)

1. According to the text, it is correct to say that "bullying"


A) means "threatening to hurt someone or frighten them".
B) is a disease caused by obesity.
C) affects children and teens dramatically.
D) is the opposite of "teasing" .
E) started in the USA in 2004.

Prof. Renato Baggio

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Pgina 4 de 7

Prof. Renato Baggio


Lngua Inglesa p/ Petrobras
Aula 19.

2. Choose the alternative in which the underlined verb is used to express a


possibility.
A) "Obesity continued to increase..."
B) "In addition, the data shows that another..."
C) "Overweight people of all ages are at risk..."
D) "...which may cause stress and..."
E) "A study released in May 2004..."
3. De acordo com o texto, as pessoas obesas
A) devem medir a presso arterial regularmente.
B) podem ter sua expectativa de vida reduzida.
C) facilmente desenvolvero um tipo de cncer.
D) tero uma srie de problemas de sade.
E) desenvolvem cardiopatias.
4. Com base nas informaes contidas no texto, a obesidade
A) atinge preferencialmente as crianas e os adolescentes.
B) causa mais problemas de sade em crianas do que em adultos.
C) tende a aumentar 15% em pessoas na faixa etria de 6 a 19 anos.
D) afeta indivduos de qualquer idade e pode acarretar vrias patologias.
E) considerada uma ocorrncia normal entre crianas e adolescentes.

Some facts about dreams


Everybody dreams every night, but people usually forget their dreams very
quickly. Some people have technicolour dreams; others tend to dream in
monochrome (black and white)
You can learn a lot about yourself from your dreams.
Sometimes dreams come true they are called telepathic dreams.
Dreams are seldom what they seem to be. They contain symbols or
metaphors. Dreams are mainly visual, but it is possible to dream of music.
Vocabulary:
Dream: sonho
Seldom: raramente
Come true: virar realidade

Some interpretations of dreams


In a dream, wild animals may be an expression of our most sensual passions
and they may represent our evil instincts.
Aspiration, spirituality and freedom are symbolically represented by a bird in
flight.
As insects are determined and active, they may symbolize our own hard work
or aspirations.
Erotic dreams are considered a means of releasing sexual tension, or an
expression of aspiration, hopes and desires.
Vocabulary:
Freedom: liberdade
Means: meios
Hope: esperana
Desire: desejo

Prof. Renato Baggio

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Pgina 5 de 7

Prof. Renato Baggio


Lngua Inglesa p/ Petrobras
Aula 19.

Dreams and colours


Red usually symbolizes heat, passion, fire and anger.
Yellow and orange are considered positive colours, representing sunshine.
They stand for optimism and joy.
Blue is the colour that represents our emotions and moods.
Black may reflect a feeling of depression and sadness in our life.
When white emerges in your dream, it is likely that you are feeling hopeful
and self-confident.
Purple is considered the colour of authority. It may suggest justice or a need
to be more humble.
Vocabulary:
Heat: calor
Mood: humor; temperamento
Confident: confiante
5. Circle the only correct letter according to the first text:
a) People always forget all their dreams.
b) Dreams are always visual.
c) Some people dream of music.
d) We only dream at night.
e) Dreams always come true.
6. Mark True or False according to the information on the second text:
I.
Domestic animals represent our passions.
II.
When you dream of insects, I means something good for us.
III.
A bird in a fight symbolizes freedom.
IV.
Erotic dreams are connected to our desires.
V.
Interpretations of dreams are always wrong.
Circle the correct letter:
a) All sentences are true.
b) Only sentences II, IV and V are true.
c) Sentences are false.
d) Sentences III and IV are true.
e) Only sentences II and IV are true.
7. Circle the only correct letter according to the first text:
a) Each colour represents different things in our dreams.
b) Blue represents a bad mood.
c) Red represents the colour of flowers.
d) Black represents the night.
e) White represents the birds in the sky.
GABARITO
1-A
2-D
3-B
4-D
5-C

Prof. Renato Baggio

www.aprovaconcursos.com.br

Pgina 6 de 7

Prof. Renato Baggio


Lngua Inglesa p/ Petrobras
Aula 19.

6-E
7-A

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Pgina 7 de 7

Prof. Renato Baggio


Lngua Inglesa p/ Concurso Petrobras
Aula 20.

LNGUA INGLESA - PETROBRAS


Professor: RENATO BAGGIO
Aula: 20

Prof. Renato Baggio

www.aprovaconcursos.com.br

Pgina 1 de 6

Prof. Renato Baggio


Lngua Inglesa p/ Concurso Petrobras
Aula 20.

Gerndio vs. Infinitivo


O gerndio caracterizado pelo acrscimo da partcula "ING" e dessa forma
pode atribuir diferentes funes gramaticais s palavras. Assim sendo, no
se pode achar que sempre que uma palavra acompanhada do sufixo ING,
esta possuir caracterstica de ao em andamento. Vejamos a seguir.
1. O Gerndio pode ser usado como o sujeito, o complemento ou o objeto de
uma frase:
Examples:
Reading helps you learn new vocabulary. (SUJEITO DA FRASE)
B) Michelle's favorite hobby is reading. (COMPLEMENTO DA FRASE)
C) I like reading. (OBJETO DA FRASE)
A)

Para a forma do negativo do Gerndio, adicionamos "not."


Examples:
a)
b)

He enjoys not doing anything.


The best thing for your recovery is not smoking.

Infinitivo
2. O Infinitivo pode igualmente ser usado como o sujeito, o complemento ou
o objeto de uma frase:
Examples:
A)

To study is important. (SUJEITO DA FRASE)


b) The most important thing is to study. (COMPLEMENTO DA FRASE)
c) He wants to study. (OBJETO DA FRASE)

* EMBORA ESSAS FORMAS ESTEJAM CORRETAS, ELAS NO SOAM


NA LNGUA INGLESA. A FORMA DO GERNDIO MAIS USADA.

NATURAL

Para a forma do negativo do Infinitivo tambm adicionamos "not."


Examples:
a)
b)

I decided not to stay.


The most important thing is not to give up.

Prof. Renato Baggio

www.aprovaconcursos.com.br

Pgina 2 de 6

Prof. Renato Baggio


Lngua Inglesa p/ Concurso Petrobras
Aula 20.

4. Quando se tratar de um objeto na frase, ambas as formas do gerndio e


infinitivo podem ser usadas. Nesse caso, a escolha geralmente depende do
verbo principal da frase. Alguns verbos permitem ambas as possibilidades,
outros permitem somente o gerndio ou somente o infinitivo.
Examples:
a) He enjoys swimming.
b) He wants to swim.
c) I like to dance.
d) I like dancing
5. Alguns verbos so seguidos de gerndio com funo de objeto.
Examples:
a)
b)

She suggested going to a movie.


Mary keeps talking about her problems.

6. Podemos melhorar a ideia de quem est fazendo a ao da frase


adicionando elementos tais como his, her, its, your, their, our, John's, Mary's,
etc ao gerndio.
Examples:
I enjoyed their singing. (ELES CANTARAM).
She understood his saying no to the offer. (ELE DISSE "NO").
C) Sam resented Debbie's coming late to the dinner. (DEBBIE VEIO TARDE PARA O
JANTAR).
A)
B)

7. O verbo "go" comumente usado com o gerndio para descrever esportes


ou atividades recreativas.
Examples:
a)
b)

I go swimming every day.


Would you like to go fishing?

8. No esqueamos que "verbo aps preposio" deve ser usado no


gerndio!
Examples:
a)
b)
c)

They admitted to committing the crime.


How about going out tonight?
We are thinking about studying abroad.

Prof. Renato Baggio

www.aprovaconcursos.com.br

Pgina 3 de 6

Prof. Renato Baggio


Lngua Inglesa p/ Concurso Petrobras
Aula 20.

CAREFUL! CUIDADO!
9. Alguns verbos podem ser seguidos tanto da forma do infinitivo como da
forma do gerndio. Entretanto atribuem significados diferentes frase!
Examples:
a) She forgot reading the book when she was a kid. (Ela leu o livro e esqueceu
desse fato)
b) She forgot to pay the rent this month. (Ela esqueceu que ela tinha que pagar.
Indica que ela tinha a necessidade de fazer algo mas no fez.)
c) Stop talking
d) Stop to talk.
10. H algumas expresses que so obrigatoriamente seguidas do gerndio
Examples:
a)
b)
c)

We had fun fishing.


They had difficulty finding a place to sleep.
She spent her time listening to music.

Exerccios
CESGRANRIO - 2013

Migration
Why and how do animals migrate?
From Kids Discover Magazine
Most birds and other animals migrate for three
basic reasons. First, animals must look for food, and
maybe they may have depleted the resources in a
particular area where they are. Or they may be trying
to keep up with the changing patterns of available
vegetation. This is what the zebras in Serengeti Forest
in Africa do each year. They follow rainfall patterns in
order to find ample and fresh vegetation.
Second, animals may migrate to escape extreme
seasonal temperatures. For example, many birds fly
south to warmer climates, for the winter, while others
travel to get special seasonal shelters. Little brown
bats fly 200 to 800 km from their outdoor home to
their winter caves that provide a safe place for them
to hibernate during the cold months.
Third, animals migrate to get to their breeding
ground. Salmon, for instance, swim from the ocean
to the exact area of the river where they were born.
Then, they reproduce in this area before they die.
Now, in terms of how they migrate, if we are
talking about day animals, they keep visual landmarks
in their minds to help them move from one place to

Prof. Renato Baggio

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Prof. Renato Baggio


Lngua Inglesa p/ Concurso Petrobras
Aula 20.

another. With the elephants, for instance, the oldest


female memorizes the position of rivers, mountain
ranges and other fixed spots, in order to take the
members of the herd to food and fresh water. Flying
animals such as birds and insects may use the
position of the sun to guide them as a compass. If they
are night animals, their specialized nocturnal vision
allows them to see the shades of the trees in the
dark. But to migrate at night in the forest, night
animals preferred method is by guiding themselves by
observing the position of the stars, just like exploring
navigators used to do in the XV century.
Available at: <http://www.kidsdiscover.com/blog/spotlight/animalmigrations-forkids/>
Retrieved on: nov. 20, 2012. Adapted.
11
In the text, the first reason given for an animal to migrate is its
(A) desire for a particular area.
(B) search for food.
(C) need to get protection from the rain.
(D) necessity to deplete the resources.
(E) urge to follow other animals.
12
The word in italics that describes the idea expressed in the text by the word in
boldface type is
(A) animals may migrate to escape line 9 walk
(B) extreme seasonal temperatures. line 9 mild
(C) For example, many birds fly south line 10 instance
(D) to get special seasonal shelters line 12 minutes
(E) from their outdoor home to. line 13 secret
13
In the text, the third reason given for an animal to migrate is to
(A) reproduce.
(B) swim.
(C) die.
(D) be born.
(E) escape.
14
In the text, the way day animals succeed in migrating is by
(A) helping others to move too.
(B) looking for fresh water.
(C) making advisory calls.
(D) flying to the mountains.
(E) memorizing visual landmarks.
15
Concerning night animals in the forest, according to the text, their main migration
method is by
(A) opening their eyes.

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www.aprovaconcursos.com.br

Pgina 5 de 6

Prof. Renato Baggio


Lngua Inglesa p/ Concurso Petrobras
Aula 20.

(B) navigating from one place to another.


(C) exploring the shades of the trees.
(D) looking at the position of the stars in the sky.
(E) looking at the shades of mountain ranges and other fixed spots
Gabarito
11 - B
12 - C
13 - A
14 - E
15 - D
A team from Northwestern University, Illinois, found that when you eat, not just how
you eat, could make a big difference. Scientists found that when mice ate at
unusual hours, they put on twice as much weight, despite exercising and eating as
much as the other mice. The study, in the journal Obesity, is said to be the first to
show directly that there is a wrong time to eat. Recent studies have suggested that
circadian rhythms, the bodys internal clock, have a role in how our bodies use up
energy. However, this had been difficult to prove definitively.
Deanna Arble, the main author of the study, said: One of our research interests is
shift workers, who tend to be overweight. This got us thinking that eating at the
wrong time of day might be contributing to weight gain.
The researchers looked at two groups of mice over a six-week period. Both groups
were fed a high-fat diet, but at different times of the mice waking cycle. One group
of mice ate at times when they would normally be asleep. They put on twice as
much weight. This was despite the fact that they did the same level of activity, and
ate the same amount of food, as the other mice. The researchers believe that the
findings may have implications for people worried about their weight.
1. According to the text, the aim of the study was:
a) to find out if six weeks of exercising leads to loss of weight.
b) to see if there is a connection between time of eating and obesity.
c) to discover the long-term effects of a high-fat diet on obesity.
d) to compare the speed at which mice and people gain weight.
e) to discover if riding a bicycle helps humans to lose weight.
Gabarito
1-B

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www.aprovaconcursos.com.br

Pgina 6 de 6