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Worksheet introduction to the digestive system

The digestive system has six major subdivisions and four accessory organs:
Major subdivisions
Oral cavity
Pharynx
Oesophagus
Stomach
Small intestine
Large intestine

Information
Mechanical processing, moistening and mixing of
food with salivary secretions
Muscular propulsion of material into the
oesophagus
Transport of materials to the stomach
1. Chemical breakdown of materials
2. Mechanical processing
Enzymatic digestion and absorption of water,
organic substrates, vitamins and ions
Dehydration and compaction of indigestible
material

Accessory organs
Salivary glands
Liver
Gallbladder
Pancreas

Information
Secretion of lubricating fluid containing enzymes
that breakdown carbohydrates
1. Secretion of bile
2. Storage of nutrients
Storage and concentration of bile
Secretion of enzymes (exocrine) and hormones
(endocrine)

The six functions of the digestive system are:


1. Ingestion
2. Mechanical processing
3. Digestion
4. Secretion
5. Absorption
Excretion Worksheet the movement of food through the digestive

system (answers)

Fill in the blanks:


1. Oral cavity
Also known as the buccal cavity, this subdivision of the digestive tract
has four functions:
1. Sensory analysis of material
2. Mechanical processing
3. Lubrication
4. Limited digestion of carbohydrates and lipids
Salivary glands
Made up of three pairs of glands:
I.

The large parotid gland produces a secretion containing salivary


amylase

II.

The sublingual gland produces a secretion that acts as a buffer and


lubricant

III.

The submandibular salivary glands secrete a mixture of buffers,


mucins and salivary amylase

2. Pharynx
This is the common passageway for food, liquids and air
3. Oesophagus
The oesophagus is a hollow muscular tube that connects the pharynx to
the stomach. It contains both an upper and lower oesophageal
sphincter which controls the passage of food and liquid through this
region.
4. Stomach
The stomach performs four major functions:
1. Storage of ingested food

2. Mechanical breakdown of ingested food


3. Disruption of chemical bonds in food
4. Production of intrinsic factor
The stomach can be divided into four regions:
I.

The cardia secretions coat the connection with the oesophagus

II.

The fundus contacts the inferior surface of the diaphragm

III.

The body mixing tank for ingested foods and secretions

IV.

The pylorus contains glands that secrete mucus and important


digestive hormones

Rugae are prominent folds in the mucosa that allow for expansion.
5. Small intestine
Ninety nine percent of nutrient absorption takes place in the small
intestine. It has three segments:
I.

The duodenum mixing bowl for chyme and digestive secretions

II.

The jejunum the bulk of chemical digestion and nutrient


absorption occurs here

III.

The ileum contains the iliocecal valve which controls the flow of
material into the cecum

The pancreas
The pancreas is primarily an exocrine organ producing digestive
enzymes and buffers. These secretions are delivered to the duodenum
in the large pancreatic duct.
The liver
One-third of the blood supply to the liver is arterial blood from the
hepatic artery proper. The other two-thirds are venous blood from the
hepatic portal vein. The latter begins in the capillaries of the

oesophagus, stomach, small intestine and most of the large intestine.


The name given to liver cells is hepatocytes. These cells adjust
circulating levels of nutrients through selective absorption and
secretion.
The gall bladder
The gall bladder functions to store and modify bile.
6. Large intestine
The large intestine reabsorbs water and stores digestive waste. It can
be divided into three parts:
I.

The cecum collects and stores material from the ileum and
begins the process of compaction

II.

The colon can be split into four sections:


a. Ascending colon
b. Transverse colon
c. Descending colon
d. Sigmoid colon

The three major characteristics of the colon are:


1. Lack of villi
2. Abundance of mucus cells
3. Presence of distinctive intestinal glands
III.

The rectum an expandable organ for the temporary storage of


faeces

Examples of substances that are reabsorbed by the large intestine


include:
1) Water
2) Bile salts
3) Vitamins

Worksheet enzymes and digestion


Enzyme
Carbohydrases
Salivary amylase
Pancreatic alphaamylase
Sucrase

Location

Release site

Fu

Oral cavity
Pancreas

Salivary glands
Small intestine

The breakdown of comp


The breakdown of comp

Small intestine

Brush border of
small intestine

The breakdown of sucro

Proteases
Pepsin

Stomach

The breakdown of prote

Peptidases

Small intestine

Trypsin

Small intestine

Chief cells in
the stomach
Brush border of
small intestine
Pancreas

Glands of the
tongue
Pancreas

The breakdown of trigly

Lipases
Lingual
lipase
Pancreatic lipase

Oral cavity
Small intestine

The breakdown of tripep

1. The breakdown of pro


2. Activation of other pa

The breakdown of trigly


be present for efficient a