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SYMMETRICAL

COMPONENTS

Applied to Electric Power Networks

G. O. CALABRESE

ARGONNE NATIONAL LABORATORY

FORMERLY PROFESSOR OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

NEW YORK UNIVERSITY

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THE RONALD PRESS COMPANY NEW YORK

PREFACE

Electrical generating apparatus, transmission lines, and utilizing devices

connected to three-phase systems are designed and arranged to produce

balanced currents. Whenever single-phase devices must be used, they are

arranged so as to produce a minimum unbalance. Engineers are careful to

avoid unbalance because they must generate, transmit, and distribute

electric energy with minimum losses and inconvenience. How, then, are

losses and the performance of electrical apparatus affected by unbalanced

loads? The theory of symmetrical components, established in 1918, pro-

vides the engineer with a means of answering this most important question

in a comprehensive manner better than any other known method. Calcu-

lating short circuits by means of symmetrical components has, in fact,

become the standard method for computing currents and voltages in poly-

phase systems during fault conditions.

The theory permits the study of unbalanced three-phase systems by

means of equivalent balanced three-phase systems and their single-phase

counterparts. The fundamental fact of the presence of a three-phase

system is not lost, and no phenomena arising from it need be neglected.

This is true regardless of whether power system studies are made in long-

hand or by means of a calculating board or a network analyzer. Hence,

familiarity with symmetrical components is an essential part of the tech-

nical equipment of engineers engaged in such studies.

The objective of this volume is to familiarize the student of electrical

engineering and the practicing engineer with the theory of symmetrical

components, and, by text and carefully chosen illustrations and problems,

supply a lucid and up-to-date discussion of the fields in which the theory is

applied. It is intended primarily for use at the graduate level, but the

introductory material included in the first five chapters makes the book

suitable for advanced senior courses where the curriculum permits such a

degree of specialization. The many references will encourage the student

to pursue the subject furthera valuable part of his training. The inclu-

sion of problems for assignment also serves the same purpose, for many

of these problems require study of the sources given.

As an engineer, the author has applied symmetrical components to

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short circuits, regulation, stability, and relaying problems of electric power

vi PREFACE

networks. For many years he taught symmetrical components to graduate

students, and this book is the outgrowth of the notes he developed for

distribution to his classes. It stresses the use of mathematics and the

corresponding physical interpretation as a precise means of achieving real

understanding. The development of the material is carried through by

means of sequence operators, the mathematics of which was developed by

C. L. Fortescue in his classical paper ("Method of Symmetrical Coordinates

Applied to the Solution of Polyphase Networks," Transactions, A.I.E.E..

XXXVII, 1918, pt. II, pp. 1027-1140) and more extensively in the paper

by Dr. Fortescue and the author ("L'Applicazione delle Coordinate

Simmetriche alia Risoluzione delle Equazioni Algebriche," Atti del Congresso

Internazionale dei Matematici, Sept., 1928). In an age which seeks new

and more simple mathematical tools of analysis, sequence operators offer

a simple, precise, and even elegant shorthand method of writing otherwise

tediously long equations.

Manufacturers of electrical equipment, publishers, and the engineering

societies have been most cooperative in permitting the reproduction of

technical material included in these chapters. Specific acknowledgments

are, of course, given at the points where the materials have been used.

G. O. Calabrese

Lemont, Illinois

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January, 1959

CONTENTS

chapter page

1 Introduction .......... 3

2 The Equivalence of Electrical Networks ... 18

3 Per Unit and Per Cent Quantities ..... 69

4 Calculating Boards ....... 90

5 Theorems Useful in Circuit Studies .... 103

6 The Mathematical Theory of Symmetrical Components

for Three-Phase Circuits . . . . . 114

7 Application of Symmetrical Components to Three-Phase

Circuits ......... 141

8 Analysis of Three-Phase Symmetrical Systems with One

Fault or Unbalance ....... 204

9 Impedances of Three-Phase Transmission Lines to Cur-

rents of Positive, Negative, and Zero Sequence. Zero

and Negative Sequence Unbalance Factors of Untrans-

posed Transmission Lines ...... 282

10 Capacitance of Transmission Lines in Positive, Negative,

and Zero Sequence Networks ..... 371

11 Impedance of Cables to Currents of Zero, Positive, and

Negative Sequence 421

12 Zero, Alpha, and Beta Components ..... 433

Index .......... 461

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VII

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1-1. Phasors. In this book we shall deal extensively with sinusoidal

quantities. These quantities are usually represented by vectors in a plane.

A vector is a vector regardless of whether it is in a plane or not and regard-

less of whether it represents a force, a velocity, or a sinusoidal quantity.

Nevertheless in recent years it has become customary to reserve the term

"vector" for space quantities characterized by magnitude and direction,

and to use the terms "phasor" and "phasor quantity" for a plane vector or

complex number and for a plane vector representing a sinusoidal quantity

respectively. This practice will be followed in this book; thus we shall

refer to impedance phasor, admittance phasor, or current phasor, etc.,

as the case may be.

1-2. The Operator eje. This operator will be used extensively in the

following pages. It is therefore important to review the laws it obeys in

order to obtain a more comprehensive understanding of

its applications. In Fig. 1-2-1, x and y are two arbitrary

hortogonal axes of reference. As a complex number the

phasor / shown in the figure is given byf

1=1 (cos 6 + j sin 6)

If we imagine / taken along x, we see that the effect of

multiplying it by cos 6 + j sin 6 is to rotate it in the FIG 1-2-1.

positive direction by an angle 6. The term cos 6 + j sin 6

is, then, an operator which, when applied to a phasor, rotates the latter

by an angle 6 in the positive direction.

Let us recall now the series expansions of the cosine and sine:

62 6* 66

oosfl= 1 -- + ---+... (1-2-1)

63 65 67

Kin6 = 6 1 !- (1-2-2)

3o/

f A letter in italic boldface indicates a phasor. The same letter not in boldface indi-

cates the magnitude of a phasor.

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4 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

Multiply Eq. 1-2-2 by j and add to the result Eq. 1-2-1:

cos 0 + j sin 0 = 1 + j6 - - - j - + - + j'- + (1-2-3)

2t "-, 4 o

By analogy with the expansion

x2 x3

e'-I + z + - + +... (1-2-4)

we can write Eq. 1-2-3

cos 0 -1- j sin 0 = e'9 (1-2-5)

from which we see that the exponential ei9 is identical with the operator

cos 0 + j sin 0 and therefore is itself an operator which, when applied to a

phasor, rotates it by an angle 0 in the positive direction.

In the same manner we can easily obtain

cos 0 j sin 0 = e~}i (1-2-6)

and again e~'i is an operator which, when applied to a phasor, rotates it

by an angle 0 in the negative direction.

When dealing with phasors, we sometimes encounter operators which are

products or quotients, or both, of operators of the form ei9. Can we, in such

cases, treat ei> as an ordinary exponential and apply to it the ordinary laws

of exponentials? In order to answer this question we have to prove that

e}9 obeys the laws of exponentials. Although this proof can be found in

books on complex functions, it is given here for the convenience of the

reader.

Let us start from the product. By the law of exponentials, the product

-,}0l V fl** ia

'S\ C'

X=

Directly from Eq. 1-2-5,

(cos 0i + j sin 0i) (cos 02 + j sin 02)

= cos 0i cos 02 sin 0t sin 02 + j (cos 0i sin 02 + sin 0i cos 02)

= cos (0i + 02) +j sin (0i + 02)

We see, then, that in this case e>0 obeys the law of exponentials. Similarly,

, directly from Eq. 1-2-5,

cos 0i + j sin 0i

. . = cos (0i - 02) + j sin (0, - 02)

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cos 02 + j sin 02

INTRODUCTION

Therefore the operator e'1, with 8 positive or negative, obeys the laws of

multiplication and division as an ordinary exponential.

Again,

j e = je>8 /V' d6 = -je>'

Directly from Eq. 1-2-5,

d ..

(cos 6 + j sin 8) = sin 8 + j cos 8 = j (cos 8 + j sin 8) = je'

dd

I e''6 d6 = j (cos 8 + j sin 8) d8 = sin 8 j cos 8

= -j (cos 8 +j sin 0) = -jV

from which we see that eje also obeys the laws of derivation and integration

of ordinary exponentials.

1-3. Phasor Representation of Scalar Quantities. From Eqs. 1-2-5

and 1-2-6 we obtain

J* + e-je

cos8 = -^ (1-3-1)

eie - e-je

sin 8 = (1-3-2)

In Fig. 1-3-1, eje is a phasor of unit length making an angle 8 in the

positive direction with the Ox axis. On the other hand, e~je is a unit phasor

making an angle 8 in the negative direction with Ox. These two phasors,

e" and e~,e, are said to be conjugate phasors. e~,e is the conjugate of e,e,

and, conversely, e,e is the conjugate of e~je. From y

Eqs. 1-3-1 and 1-3-2 we see that a sinusoidal quantity

of the form

v = V cos 8

where 8 is a function of time, can be written in the

form

VV

v 2 2 FlG- l-3-l.

The two phasors, (V/2)eje and (V/2)e~,e, are also conjugate phasors

because they are equal in magnitude and symmetrical with respect to the

reference axis. Lettingf

v a v v -ie v*

- e'* = - and - e ,e =

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2222

t An asterisk on the right upper side of an italic boldface letter indicates the conjugate

of a phasor.

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

we have

V V*

"= 2+

(1-3-3)

In Fig. 1-3-2, 0A = V/2 and OA' = V*/2. At any particular instant

the scalar quantity v is thus equal to the sum of the two conjugate phasors

OA and OA'. If 6 = 2t/< + <p\, where/ is the frequency and t the time, the

two phasors in the sequence of time must be visualized as revolving in

opposite directions with constant angular velocity to = 2*/ radians per

second, ipi is the value of the angle 6 at the instant zero. As the two

phasors V/2 and V*/2 are conjugate, only one of them may be used to

Fig. 1-3-3.

represent v, it being understood that whenever this is done the other

phasor must be added in order to obtain the instantaneous value v. Fur-

thermore, as V/2 and V*/2 are equal in magnitude and symmetrical with

respect to the reference axis, their sum is equal to the projection, on the

reference axis, of twice either one of them. Thus either V or V* may be

used also to represent v, it being understood that whenever this is done v

is equal to the projection of the chosen phasor on the reference axis, or to

one half the sum of the eh jsen phasor plus its conjugate. Throughout this

book the phasor V will be used to represent the scalar quantity v as shown in

Fig. 1-3-3. The representation of the scalar quantity v is thus reduced

to the phasor

V = VeHat+*l) = Vejale>'fl (1-3-4)

The instantaneous value v is given by the real component of V so that we

can write, in brief form,

v = real component of Ve'^t+,fl)

The operator e'w1 indicates that the phasor revolves with constant speed

in the positive direction. e'ut is usually omitted for simplicity; this amounts

to assuming t = 0, that is, to considering the position of the phasor at the

instant t = 0. The representation of v is then reduced to

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V = VeM

INTRODUCTION 7

This is the representation used in Fig. 1-3-3, where OB = V. At the time

t the phasor in Fig. 1-3-3 has moved from position OB to position OB',

at an angle ut with respect to OB. The instantaneous value v at any time t

is obtained by projecting the phasor V in a direction at a negative angle

<iit + <pi with respect to V. The direction thus obtained is the one from

which angles are measured; it may be called the axis of instantaneous values.

Thus, in conclusion, if the position of the phasor V at the instant t is given,

and the instantaneous value v is of the form

v = V cos (U + ^i) (1-3-5)

the axis of instantaneous values is obtained by drawing a line at an angle

at + <pi in the negative direction with respect to V.

Let v be the voltage applied to a circuit of resistance R, inductance L,

and capacitance C. The current i in the circuit will be obtained by solving

the equation

v = - [u(+i + e-

In symbolic form this equation becomes

+ Lp + E. i

where p = d/dt. Thus, symbolically,

V r g>(i+w) e >(a,<+,!) i

1 = ~2 LR + LP + p~l/c + R + LP + rl/c\

From differential calculus, under steady state conditions,

V r gHut+fl) gHat+fl) j

1 = 2 \_R + juL + 1/juC + R - jaL - 1/juC]

- y( _ i _ ^ + r ( _ i _

2 \fl + jaL - j/uC} 2 \R- juL + j/uC

which shows the well-known fact that, in a linear circuit to which a sinus-

oidal voltage is applied, the current is also sinusoidal. Let

Then

/1\

Z(f

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-*(.*-57)-*-

8 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

The operator Z is the so-called impedance phasor or, simply, the impedance

of the circuit under consideration. The current i may be represented by

either of the two phasors, K/27or V*/2Z*, or by either V/Zot V*/Z* in the

same manner as explained for the voltage. Whatever phasor is used to

represent i, it will lag the phasor representing the voltage v by the angle <p.

Throughout this book we shall use the phasor / = V/Z to represent the

current flowing in a circuit of impedance Zto which the voltage Fis applied.

The instantaneous value i of the current is given by the real component of

/ or, briefly,

VV

i = real component of = real component of - eHal+'pl v)

If the position of the phasor V at any instant t is known, the correspond-

ing current phasor / will be obtained by dividing V by Z and rotating the

resultant phasor V/Z by the angle <p in the negative direction if <p is positive,

and vice versa. The axis from which angles are measured is obtained as

before by drawing the line at an angle wt + <p\ with respect to V. As this is

also the axis of instantaneous values, the instantaneous values v and i are

given by the components of V and / in this direction or, respectively, by

v = V cos (wt + <pi)

(1-3-6)

i = I cos (a>< + ip\ ~ <p)

In the preceding discussion it was assumed that the instantaneous voltage

is expressed as a function of the cosine of the angle wt + ip\, as shown by Eq.

1-3-5. Now the instantaneous value v may also be expressed as a function

of the sine of the angle wt + <p\ , or v may be given by

v = Fsin (U + n) (1-3-7)

Then, using Eq. 1-3-2, we can show that v can still be represented by the

phasor V given by Eq. 1-3-4 and that the instantaneous value v will be

given by the imaginary component of V, or

v = imaginary component of Vej^ut+'fl)

If the phasor V is given at any instant t, the axis from which angles are

measured is obtained by drawing the line at an angle <nt + <p\, in the negative

direction with respect to V as before, but the axis of instantaneous values

will be in the direction 90 degrees ahead of this line.

1-4. Operations with Phasors. The representation of a phasor / by

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Ie'e, and the knowledge that e'e obeys the laws of ordinary exponentials,

simplify the performance of operations like multiplication, division, root

extraction, etc., with phasors.

INTRODUCTION

The product of the two phasors Iej9 and Ze}*1 is

The quotient of two phasors IV* and Zej*1 is

The nth root of a phasor Yej1 is

The conjugate of the product of two phasors is equal to the product of

the conjugates of the two phasors. Let the two phasors be

E = Be}9 and El = E^

Their product is

EEl = EElei(t+>1}

The conjugates of E and EI are, respectively,

* = Ee~i9 and 1* = ,ir}*'

The product of E*i and * is

**! = EEie~j(9+9tl

which is identical with the conjugate of the product EEl.

1-5. Three-Phase Operators. Three-phase operators are used exten-

sively in connection with the analysis of three-phase networks. Usually

they are indicated by special symbols:

1, e"20* = a, e>240 = a2

Graphically, they are represented by three phasors of unit length displaced

120 degrees, as shown in Fig. 1-5-1. It follows that

1 . V3

= e - -Z--a

5 _ 2 _ -1 -4 FlG- J-5"1-

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Thus we see that three-phase operators repeat periodically.

10

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

1-6. Representation of Instantaneous Power. The instantaneous

power due to a voltage, v = V cos (wt), and a current, i = I cos (wt ip),

lagging the voltage by the angle ip is equal to the work done in carrying the

charge i through the potential difference v and is given by

it' = VI cos (wt) cos (wt ip)

VI , VI

= cos ip + cos (2wt ip)

VI VI, ,

= - cos ip + [cos ip cos 2<i>< + sin ip sin 2a)<]

Putting

/ = leHt-*)

/* _ jej<.wt'p)

we obtain

D=

2=

V+V*

Dl =

(k + v*) (i + /*) _ y/* + y*/ + k*/* + vi

2 2 2X2

It is apparent that VI = VIeHaut~*) is a phasor rotating in the positive

direction at double the angular speed w. V*I* =

V7e->(2"'-v,) is its conjugate, rotating in the negative

direction. VI* = Vie'* is a phasor in the first quad-

rant, if ip is positive, that is, if the current lags the

voltage. V*I = Vie-'* is its conjugate lying in the

fourth quadrant as long as ip is positive. In Fig.

1-6-1,

OA

AB

VI*

2X2

VI

2X2

A,B, =

V*I

2X2

V*I*

2X2

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0A, =

The sum of 0A and 0A\ gives the average power

(VI/2) cos ip. The sum of AB and A xB\ gives the component of the power.

(VIII) cos (2wt ip), which varies with double frequency. The instan-

INTRODUCTION 11

taneous power is thus the sum of two conjugate phasors OB and OBi ; that

is,

n = Pi + P\

where

VI* VI VI V

= o5l = CM,

K*/ F*/* F/ F/

= + ^ = T r* + T

In terms of effective values, noting that

/ = V5/,ff F = V2Veft

we have

~ . Feff/eff . Feff/eff .

OA = - cos <p + j - sin <p

A2

n . cg . Feff/eff .

OA i = - cos <p j - sin <p

22

from which

OA + OA i = Feff/eff COS <p

which is the well-known expression for the average power.

The component j(VettIett/2) sin <p of OA does not contribute anything

to the true power because at any instant it is balanced by its conjugate

expression, j(VetiIett/%) sin <p. However, we cannot hastily conclude

that , j(Feff/eff/2) sin*j is without importance. On the contrary, it is very

important in that it affects the rating of the machine needed to deliver

the required amount of true power. The volt-ampere rating of the machine

is, in fact, equal to twice the magnitude of OA and therefore depends on

both Feff/eff cos ip and Feff/eff sin ip and not only on the true component,

teff/eff COS <p.

The instantaneous power is obtained by adding to Pi its conjugate, P*i.

Because of the symmetry of PI and P*i, instantaneous power can also be

obtained by taking the real component of either 2/*i or 2P*i. Either of

these two phasors can then be used to represent instantaneous power.

In this book we shall use 1Pi ; therefore the value of the instantaneous power

is equal to the real component of 2/V

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Briefly, letting P = 2Pi we have

VI* VI VI VI

P = _+_ = _ ^V J. 11

222 2

12 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

or, in terms of effective values,

P = Ve,,I*et, + Vef,Icl,

= VettIeftS* + Frff/rffe*""1-" (1-6-1)

and

vi = real component of P

VI VI

= real component of e7'* H gXZ"'-*)

- A

= real component of (Feff/*eff + VMIctt) (1-6-2)

so that only the real component of P is significant to the effect of the

instantaneous power. The real component Veff Jeff cos <p of VettI*et t gives

the average true power. The imaginary term j Veff/eff sin <p does not con-

tribute anything to the expression of the average power but, as stated

above, it affects the rating of the generating and utilizing equipment. Since

this is an important point, we shall discuss some instances to be certain

that it is clearly understood.

Let us consider a generator, No. 1, connected to a reactance with no

resistance. Here

v = 90

v = V cos o,<

i = sin ut = / sin ut

UL

vi = L = VI sin ut cos o)< = sin 2o,<

dt 2

= Veff/eff sin 2 co<

The average power is zero; the instantaneous power varies with double

frequency. As the current increases from zero to the maximum, the gen-

erator supplies energy to the magnetic field, which returns that power when

the current is decreasing. The average power supplied is zero; that is, on

the average the generator output is zero, yet the generator must be capable

of generating the maximum voltage V and of carrying the maximum cur-

rent /. Across a section of the connecting leads, real power will flow from

or to the generator, but on the average the power flow will be zero. This

is illustrated in Fig. 1-6-2, which shows the instantaneous values of r,

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t, and vi. Figure 1-6-3 shows the power phasor P at the instant t. Start-

ing at 0, during one cycle point B, or PI, sweeps twice over the circle of

radius OA in a counterclockwise direction.

Now let us consider a second generator, No. 2, and assume that it is

used to force the same current Ie(t through a heater of resistance R. If R is

made equal to the reactance a,L, connected across generator No. 1, the

INTRODUCTION

13

generator terminal voltage, RItt t = Vctt, will be the same as for generator

No. 1. It follows that both generators must be capable of generating the

same maximum terminal voltage V and of carrying the same effective cur-

FIG. 1-6-2.

Fio. 1-6-3.

rent Ic(t. The volt-ampere rating of the two generators will be the same,

although generator Xo. 1 on the average performs no work. For generator

No. 2,

v = V cos u>t

i = cos orf = / cos dit

VI

vi = VI cos2 ut = (1 + cos

The average power is VeftIett, and the instantaneous power fluctuates with

double frequency about this value. This is illustrated in Fig. 1-6-^1, which

shows the voltage v , the current t, and the power vi. Figure 1-6-5 gives

the power phasor P at the instant /.

FIG. 1-6-4.

Fio. 1-6-5.

Let us now put in series with the resistance a reactance X. Let it be

assumed that we still want to force the same current /eft through the heater

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resistance in order to obtain the same amount of heat energy. The voltage

14 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

at the generator terminals and the instantaneous power supplied by the

generator are

v = Ri + L and vi = Ri2 + Li

at at

The first term, Ri2, represents the power absorbed by the resistance. It is

positive at every instant because it depends on the square of the current.

The second term, Li (di/dt), represents the power absorbed or released by

the magnetic field. At every instant the sign of this power depends on the

signs of i and di/dt.

If time is measured from the instant the voltage v is maximum, from

where

v = V cos ut = 2Z/eff cos ut

i = v/2/Pff cos (ut <p) = / cos (ut <p)

Z = VR2 + XV*

v = tan- |

The generator must be capable of generating the maximum voltage

22 + X2 and of carrying the effective current /eff.

The amount of work done is the same in both cases; however, in the first

case a generator of RIei2 volt-amperes suffices, whereas in the second case a

larger generator of v/?2 + X2I^2 volt-amperes is required.

In the more general case, when the circuit has resistance, reactance.

and capacitance in series, the equation for the circuit is

t- = Ri + L + - /! dt

Again assuming sinusoidal quantities and now measuring time from the

instant the current is zero, we have, from Art. 1-3,

i) = F sin (ut + <p) = V2IcttZ sin (ut + <p)

i = V2/eff sin ut = I sin ut

where

= tan

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V = IZ

INTRODUCTION 15

The generator must be capable of generating a maximum voltage

\/2/effVJB2 + (o)L - 1/uC)2 and of carrying the effective current Ieft.

The volt-ampere rating of the generator will be Ieft2VR2 + (uL 1/C)2.

The generator instantaneous power output is

dt

at

^i fi

CJ

so that the various components are

RI 2

In R: Ri2 = RIm2 sin2 ut = -~- (1 - cos 2uf )

In L: Li = olLIm2 sin ut cos ut = -^- sin

Qt i

iCI2I2

In C: I i' dt = -- ^- sin ut cos ut = ^

sin 2ut

Thus

RI

I*? ( 1 \

(1 cos 2a,<) + -^- [uL I sin 2ut

2 \ a,(7/

The first term of the second member is the instantaneous power dissipated

as heat in the resistance. The second term is the power flowing back and

forth between the generator and the magnetic and electric fields. Both

terms vary with double frequency.

It was stated before that instantaneous power may be represented by

P = 2/*i. If instantaneous power is represented by 2Pi, average power is

represented by Ve(tI*eft = Feff/eff cos <p + jVeftIe(t sin <p. Now, if the

current lags the voltage, that is, if the voltage is applied to an inductive

load, <p will be positive and so will sin <p. If, instead, the current leads the

voltage, that is, if the voltage is applied to a capacitive load, <p will be nega-

tive and so will sin <p. It is thus seen that, with the convention of using

27*1 to represent instantaneous power, a lagging current gives a leading

reactive power component and, conversely, a leading current gives a lagging

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reactive power component. Let us note now that, if the current is taken as

reference, the voltage is given by

Ve(t = Fcff cos <p jVett sin <p

where the plus sign applies if the voltage is leading, and the minus sign

if it lags the current. It can be seen readily that the vector representing

the average power can be obtained from the effective voltage phasor

diagram by multiplying it by the effective current. If the convention of

representing instantaneous power by 2P*i had been used, the average power

16 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

would be represented by K*ef(/eff. According to this convention, an in-

ductance gives a negative imaginary power component and a capacitance

gives a positive imaginary power component; that is, a lagging current

gives lagging reactive power and leading current gives leading reactive

power. In accordance with this convention, the two components of the

average power may be obtained directly from the effective current phasor

diagram, drawn by taking the voltage as reference, merely by multiplying

by the effective voltage.

The convention of using 2P\ to represent power has the inconvenience of

calling leading the reactive power due to a lagging current. The convention

of using'2P*i has not this inconvenience and therefore seems a more con-

sistent convention. The AIEE Committee on definitions first proposed the

use of the second convention to represent power. Later on, the Committee

reversed itself, and proposed the first convention, which has now been

adopted and recommended for general use by the profession. Accepting

this recommendation, we shall represent power by the phasor P = 2/V

Before closing this brief discussion on power, a few more words must be

added regarding its sign. Figure 1-6-6 shows a generator G supplying a

load L. The generator generates an effective emf E, which is assumed posi-

tive when directed from N to A, that is, from a

'- * point of lower to a point of higher potential.

E =e This emf, disregarding the drops in the connec-

"AN

I tions, is the same as the voltage applied to the

N ~ load from A to N. Thus the voltage across a

Fig. 1-6-6. load is taken positive from a point of higher

to a point of lower potential. The current /

(effective value) is assumed positive when flowing away from the generator

and into the load. With these conventions the instantaneous power of the

generator is given by the real component of EI* + EI. Then, when power

is represented by this expression, a positive sign will indicate power ab-

sorbed by, and a negative sign power generated by, the load L.

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PROBLEMS

11. By means of the exponential operators find the expression of:

(a) cos (0! + 62).

(b) sin (0! + 02).

(c) cos (0i - 02).

(d) sin (0, - 02).

1-2. Find the complex expressions for: (a) e'60; (b) e'120; (c) e'".

1-3. The nominal line to line voltage of a 3-phase system is 115 volts.

Write the three line to neutral voltages in exponential form.

1-4. How is instantaneous power represented phasorially?

INTRODUCTION 17

1-6. How is average power represented phasorially?

1-6. What do the two components of the product V,ul*tu represent?

1-7. Reactive power is power which flows alternately to and from the source.

Why is it important?

1-8. How many methods are available for representing phasorially the average

power due to the interaction of a sinusoidal voltage with a sinusoidal current of

the same frequency? In what do they differ? Which is the method adopted by

the AIEE?

1-9. A 100-kw single-phase load having 85% lagging pf is supplied from a

2300-volt 60-cycle source.

(a) Give the phasors representing (1) the instantaneous power; (2) the average

power.

(b) Plot a curve of the instantaneous power.

In your answer state what convention of phasor power representation you

are using.

With the convention assumed in (a), what will be the sign of the reactive

power absorbed by a load composed of resistance and a capacitor in series?

1-10. Show that the total power in a 3-phase ungrounded system is equal to

the sum of the power corresponding to the interaction of two line voltages, re-

spectively, with a line current.

If a, 6, c are the three phases, /, /&, Ic the three currents, E, Eb, Ec the three

line to neutral voltages, and if Ia and h are the currents used, which voltages

must be used to read the correct power?

1-11. Consider a single-phase circuit. Let v and i be the instantaneous voltage

applied to and flowing through it. Both voltage and current are perfectly sinus-

oidal. Assume that oscillographic records of voltage v, current i, and instan-

taneous power vi are available. (It is often very difficult to determine the phase

angle displacement between voltage and current directly from the records.)

Show that the power factor is given by

a-b

a+b

where a = peak value of the vi curve above the zero line; 6 = peak value of the

vi curve below the zero line.

Show also that the effective volt-amperes and the average power are given,

respectively, by

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0+6 , 06 and

CHAPTER 2

THE EQUIVALENCE OF ELECTRICAL NETWORKSf

In analyzing electrical networks it often happens that only the terminal

conditions are of interest. In such cases it would be helpful to replace the

original network with a simpler one, equivalent to the former only in respect

to the terminal conditions. It is the purpose of

this chapter to set forth the rules under which

this replacement can be made.

2-1. Theorem on the Equivalence of Electri-

cal Networks. Let Fig. 2-1-1 represent a net-

work with n terminals 1, 2, 3, , n supplied

f*t 4*2 i from n emf's El, E2, E3, -,Ea respectively. I |_ Some of these emf's may be zero. Let Ii, /2,

Fio. 2-1-1. In be the currents supplied to the network through

the n terminals, the currents being taken positive

when flowing from the common neutral into the network. Then

/i + /2 ++/n = 0 (2-1-1)

It is assumed that the principle of superposition applies to the network

under consideration; that is, it is assumed that the resistance, inductance,

and capacitance of the different circuits are independent of the value of the

current flowing through them. With this assumption, the current dis-

tribution in the network may be found by considering each emf inde-

pendently. The current in any circuit due to any one of the applied emfs

is proportional to that emf. The current in the same circuit due to all

applied emf's is thus equal to the sum of n currents due to n applied emf's.

The coefficient of proportionality varies with the point of application of the

emf. It follows that the currents in the n terminals are given by

Terminal Current Due to the Emf

EI, E2, , En

1 YnEl, ~ Y2lEy, , YniEn

n YinEl, Y2nE2, , YnnEn

f G. O. Calabrese, "Notes on the Equivalence of Electrical Networks," General Electric

Review, XLII (July 1939), 323-25.

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18

THE EQUIVALENCE OF ELECTRICAL NETWORKS 19

The Y's are the coefficients of proportionality. The following relations

exist among them:

I'11 = ^12 + ^13 f - '. . + ^In

^22 = Y2l + Y23 + + Y2n

Y33 = Y3l + Y32 + + Y3n (2-1-2)

The equations for the n currents fi, I2, ,/n are

/i = YiiEl Y2lE2 Y31E3 YniEn

w VPLVP V P V P

*2 - ~ * 12^1 T *22'2 ~ '32*3 ~ In2n

F _ V P V F I V P V P (21o)

*3 - ~'IS*! I2Z&2 T '33*3 ~ ~ *n3*n

In = YinEl Y2nE2 Y3nE3 -(- YnnEn

The Y's of the first members of Eqs. 2-1-2 are the so-called driving admit-

tances relative, respectively, to the terminals 1, 2, , n, and the Y's

of the second members are the so-called transfer admittances. Thus Ynn

is the driving admittance of the nth terminal; it is equal to the current

flowing through the nth terminal when En = 1 and EI = E2 = =

Eni = 0. Under the same conditions the current flowing in the first

terminal is Yni, that is, minus the transfer admittance between the nth

and the first terminals.

I/I'11, l/Y22, , the inverses of the driving admittances, are called the

driving impedances of terminals 1, 2, , respectively. l/Y,k for a j* k,

the inverse- of the transfer admittance between the sth and the kth ter-

minals, is called the transfer impedance between those terminals.

The driving and transfer admittances completely define the terminal

conditions of the network. If both driving and transfer admittances are

given, the terminal conditions of the network are known automatically.

However, on account of Eqs. 2-1-2, not all driving and transfer admittances

need be given in- order to define the terminal conditions of the network.

On account of Eq. 2-1-1, Eqs. 2-1-3 are not all independent, but each of

them is equal to the sum of the remaining n 1 with the sign changed.

Equations 2-1-3 are the fundamental equations for the analysis of the

given network. The Y's appearing in them, other than by Eqs. 2-1-2, are

bound by the relation Ypq = Yqp for q ^ p.

If two or more networks are given, each having n terminals, one set of

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equations similar to Eqs. 2-1-3 may be written for each network. In

general, the corresponding I"s of these sets of equations are different. In

special cases, however, they may be identical. Then the networks are equiva-

20 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

lent as far as the n terminals are concerned; that is, it will be impossible to

distinguish them from their terminals because, when viewed from the

latter, the networks behave in exactly the same manner. It follows that

two or more networks are equivalent, as far as the terminal conditions

are concerned, if all the corresponding Y's of the networks are equal.

This is the fundamental condition which must be satisfied in constructing

equivalent networks. Once this point is clearly understood, it becomes easy

to see the conditions under which one n-terminal network of a certain type

may be replaced by another n-terminal network of another type. It fol-

lows, for instance, that a network of one type may be replaced by a network

of another type only when Eqs. 2-1-2 are sufficient to determine all the

transfer admittances of the second members in terms of the driving admit-

tances of the first members, because in such cases it is only necessary to

construct a network of the desired type having the same driving admit-

tances as the given network. In general, however, Eqs. 2-1-2 are not suffi-

cient to determine all the transfer admittances in terms of the driving

admittances. In fact, the total number of transfer admittances in an

n-terminal network is n(n l)/2, whereas Eqs. 2-1-2 are n in number;

thus n(n l)/2 n = n(n 3)/2 additional equations are necessary

in order to determine completely the transfer admittances. Given a net-

work, all the transfer admittances are determined and the n(n 3)/2 addi-

tional equations existing among them are also determined. Besides satis-

fying Eqs. 2-1-2, the transfer admittances of any equivalent network must

satisfy these n(n - 3)/2 additional equations. Thus a network of a given

type can be replaced only by networks of those types for which it is possible

to satisfy the n(n 3)/2 additional equations existing among the transfer

admittances of the original network.

Equations 2-1-2 are common to all networks. The n(n 3)/2 addi-

tional equations vary from network to network; therefore they may be con-

sidered the characteristic equations of each network. The n(n 3)/2

characteristic equations for a star network may

be obtained by noting that, with an emf applied

to one terminal, the voltage drop in the imped-

ances from the star point to the remaining n 1

terminals is constant. Consequently, the net-

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work of the general type of Fig. 2-1-1 can be

replaced (as far as currents and voltages in the

n terminals are concerned) by an equivalent

Fio. 2-1-2. star of the type shown in Fig. 2-1-2 only if its

transfer admittances, besides satisfying Eqs.

2-1-2, satisfy the characteristic equations of the n-terminal star network.

By way of illustration, the foregoing conclusions will now be applied to

f t ''' < networks.

THE EQUIVALENCE OF ELECTRICAL NETWORKS 21

2-2. Two-Terminal Network. In a two-terminal network, n = 2 and

Eqs. 2-1-2 will become

r_ v

11 Z12

VV

* 22 * 21

or, since Yi2 = Y2i,

Yn = r22 = Y12 =Y2l = Y (2-2-1)

That is, as far as the terminal conditions are concerned, any two-terminal

network of a given type may be replaced by another two-terminal network

of another type having the same admittance as the original between the

two terminals. Thus two impedances, Zi, Z2 in parallel, may be replaced

by an equivalent impedance

ZiZ2

fif

*1 T ~2

Two lines having self-impedances Zi, Z2 and mutual impedance Zm, as

shown in Fig. 2-2-1, may be replaced by an equivalent impedance obtained

by writing the expressions Ii , I2, the two currents through Zi and Z2,

as follows:

, / EI E2

from which

Comparison with Eqs. 2-1-3 which, for this network, because of Eq. 2-2-1,

become

/ i = Y(El - E2)

I2 = Y(E2 - ,)

shows that

Y=

iZ2 Zm

Thus the equivalent impedance is

1 _ ZiZ2 Zm

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Y Z, + Z2 - 2Zm

22

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

",-*i

000

Fio. 2-2-1.

FIG. 2-2-2.

The expressions for // and /2 also show that the given network may be

replaced by the network of Fig. 2-2-2, which has two lines with no mutual

coupling. The currents in the lines of Fig. 2-2-2 are the same as the cur-

rents in the corresponding lines of Fig. 2-2-1.

2-3. Three-Terminal Network. If n = 3, the number n(n 3)/2 of

the characteristic equations is zero; that is, Eqs. 2-1-2 are sufficient to

determine the network. In other words, all three-terminal networks having

the same driving admittances are equivalent. In particular, any three-

terminal network (Fig. 2-3-1) may be replaced by an equivalent star

i2

FIG. 2-3-1.

Fio. 2-3-2.

(Fig. 2-3-2). The three impedances Zit Z2, Z3 of the latter may be ob-

tained by equating the impedances, measured in any manner, between

corresponding terminals of the given and equivalent networks. For in-

stance, by measuring the impedances between ter-

minals 1 and 2, 2 and 3, and 3 and 1 of the given

network, in each case leaving the third terminal

open, and equating them to the corresponding

'23 impedances Zi + Z2, Z2 + Z3, Z3 + Zi, obtained

from the equivalent network, the impedances Zi,

Z2, Z3 of the latter are readily obtained.

2-4. Three-Terminal Network. Star-Delta

Transformation. An example of the general

method outlined in the preceding article is offered

by the well-known formulas for transforming a three-terminal star (Fig.

2-3-2) into an equivalent delta (Fig. 2-4-1), and vice versa. From the

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FIG. 2-4-1.

THE EQUIVALENCE OF ELECTRICAL NETWORKS 23

general Eqs. 21-2, which for this case become

KH = 712 + 7,3

V - V 1_ V

*22 *12 T *23

Y33 = 7,3 + 723

we obtain

-, I'11 + 1*22 Y33

Y23 =

YH 722 -f - 733

-Yn + Y22 + Y33

(2-4-1)

Calculation of Y1i, Y22, Y33 from Fig. 2-3-2 and substitution in Eqs. 2-4-1

give

ZIZ2 + ZiZ3

22 ~

33 ^

and

*12

77 J-

I ^>1^3 +

1^3 ~r

'

, , (2-4-3)

^1^2 T *1^3 ~r ^2^3

23 ==

~H Z1Z3 "H Z2Z3

On the other hand, Y12, Yi3, Y23, as calculated from Fig. 2-4-1, are

'-

l2

'

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(2-4-4)

-M

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

Thus, by equating the corresponding values of Eqs. 2-4-3 and 2-41,

we obtain

ZiZ<i + ZiZ3 + Z2Z3

12

Z*

Z,Z3 +

(2-4-5)

'"23

which give the impedances of the delta in terms of those of the star. For

the reverse transformation of a delta into an equivalent star from Eqs.

2-4-5, the following formulas may be derived:

Z,=

Z" =

(2-4-6)

2-5. Three-Terminal Network. Two Lines Mutually Coupled, Bussed

at One End. The two lines 1-2. and 1-3 are shown in Fig. 2-5-1. /6

and Zc are their respective self-impedances, and Zm is the mutual imped-

ance. The equivalent star network is shown in Fig. 2-3-2. In accord-

Fio. 2-5-1.

iwx-mm^o2

l o-AAAr^rnnr^

L^w^nnr 03

^c-^m

FIG. 2-5-2.

ance with the method outlined in Art. 2-3, the impedances Zit Z2, Z3 of

Fig. 2-3-2, in terms of Zb, Zc and Zm, may be found by equating the imped-

ances measured between pairs of corresponding terminals of the two net-

works, the third terminal being left open in each instance.

Zb = Zi -(- Z2

Zc = Zi + Za

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Zb + Zc 2Zm = Z2 + Zs

THE EQUIVALENCE OF ELECTRICAL NETWORKS 25

from which, solving for Zi, Z2, %3,

Z, = Zm

Z2 = Zb Zm

Z3 = Zc - Zm

It follows that the network of Fig. 2-5-2 is equivalent to the network of

Fig. 2-5-1.

2-6. Three-Terminal Network. Two Parallel Lines Bussed at the Two

Ends and a Fault on One of Them. This network is shown in Fig. 2-6-1.

FIG. 2-6-1.

A and B are the two busses, C is the point of fault, and C' is the point on

the good line corresponding to C.

Zae is the self-impedance of the faulty line from A to C.

Zaci is the self-impedance of the good line from A to C'.

Zm is the mutual impedance between AC and AC'.

Zm is the mutual impedance between BC' and BC.

Zkt is the self-impedance of the faulty line from B to C.

Zke1 is the self-impedance of the good line from B to C'.

The two stars, ACC' and BCC', with mutual coupling between AC' and

AC and between BC' and BC, can be replaced by two equivalent stars and

no mutual couplings, as explained in the preceding article. The equivalent

FIG. 2-6-2.

network is shown in Fig. 2-6-2. The network may be further transformed

by replacing the delta network A'B'C with the equivalent star, as explained

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in Art. 2-4.

26

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

2-7. Three-Terminal Star with the Three Legs Mutually Coupled.

The original network is shown in Fig. 2-7-1, and the equivalent network

10 VW

Fio. 2-7-1.

in Fig. 2-3-2. The impedances Zi, Z2, Z3 of the equivalent network are

determined by equating the impedances between corresponding points of

the two networks:

*,' + Z2' + 2Z12 = Z, + Z2

2Z13 = Zi + Z3

j; =

from which

= Zi 4- Zi2

= Z2 + Zy3

= Z3 + Zi3

2-8. Three-Terminal Network. Equivalent Network for a Single-Phase

Induction Regulator. As another illustration of the equivalence of three-

terminal networks, the equivalent network of the single-phase induction

regulator of Fig. 2-8-1 will now be determined.

FIG. 2-8-1.

Single-phase induction regulators are provided with a shunt winding,

a series winding, and a short-circuited winding, as shown in the inset of

Fig. 2-8-1. The purpose of the short-circuited winding is to limit the

series reactance inserted in the line when the regulator is in the neutral

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position.

THE EQUIVALENCE OF ELECTRICAL NETWORKS

27

Essentially, the regulator is a three-terminal network with mutual cou-

plings which, in accordance with the concepts developed in the preceding

articles, can be replaced by an equivalent three-terminal network with no

mutual couplings, as shown in Fig. 2-8-2. The

three impedances Za, Zb, Zr of the equivalent

star are found by measuring impedances be-

tween two corresponding terminals, the third

terminal being left open.

The arrangement of the windings of the regu-

lator is shown in the inset of Fig. 2-8-1. In

this inset the shunt winding and the short-

circuited winding are on the stator at 90 de-

grees with respect to each other, so that MIO = 0. The series winding is

on the rotor, which can be rotated with respect to the stator so that

M12 = 3/12 max COS 6

FIG. 2-8-2.

20

20 mox

sin 6

where 6 is the angle between the axis of the shunt winding and the axis of

the series winding. 6 = 0 when these two axes coincide and the rotor is in

the maximum bucking position. The bucking position is for 6 in the range

-90, 0, 90. The boosting position is for 6 in the range 90, 180, 270.

From Figs. 2-8-1 and 2-8-2, for the boosting position, we obtain

Za + Zc = r, + ji

Za + Zb = T2

g)2M202

ro + juLo

Zc =

r2

)2M202

TO

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from which

Z6 = r2

<o2M,-2

120

TO

Mi

The equivalent network is shown in Fig. 2-8-3.

FIG. 2-8^3.

FIG. 2-8-4.

28 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

Mi2 is positive for the boosting position and negative for the bucking

position. If, for simplicity, we put

r2 + j'uL2 = Z2

rl + juLi = Zi

= Z2o

Z0

we obtain for the boosting position

72

77 20

= *2 T *12 - _

Zc = ^1 + ^12

When the regulator is in the neutral position, M 12 = 0, Zi2 = 0.

Za = 0

The same results can be obtained by applying the formulas derived in Art.

2-5, because, with no coupling between the shunt winding and the

short-circuited winding, the secondary plus the short-circuited winding

can be replaced by a single impedance Z2 Z^/Z^, as shown in Fig. 2-8-4.

2-9. Three-Terminal Network with Voltages Applied to Only Two Ter-

minals. A, B, C, D Constants. For a three-terminal network, Eqs. 2-1-3

and 2-1-1 become

/i = YnEl ^21^2 ~ I^s 1^3

/2 = Yi2El

/3 = ^13^1

/I + /I + /3 - 0

If one of the three voltages, say E3, is zero, the network will assume the

form shown in Fig. 2-9-1. This will be recognized as the case of a network

supplied from two different sources. The above equations become

1 + ^22^2 (2-9-2)

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Il = -/2 - /S

THE EQUIVALENCE OF ELECTRICAL NETWORKS

29

FIG. 2-9-1.

Fio. 2-9-2.

It will be interesting to express Ii, I2, El, E2 in terms of the so-called

general constants A, B, C, D. Noting that

after a few substitutions we obtain

12

12

By putting

12

12

/I =

/2 =

2 -

'I2

'12

TT~

'12

1*22

K,2

(2-9-3)

we obtain

=C

012

- D/2

/2 =

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(2-9-1)

30 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

From the first and second equations, respectively, we obtain

A El

(2-9-5)

which give the receiving and sending end currents in terms of the applied

voltages and the A, B, C, D constants.

The constants A, B, C, D have been referred to in the literature as the

four general constants.

From Eqs. 2-9-3 it is seen that

AD - BC = 1

If the current I2 is taken positive when flowing away from the network,

as shown in Fig. 2-9-2, Eqs. 2-9-4 will become

EI = AE2 -\- B/2

E2 = DEl - 5/, (2-9-6)

/i = CE2 + Z>/2

/2 = -CEl + AI,

2-10. Networks with More Than Three Terminals and Their Equiva-

lents. It has been shown that a three-terminal network of a given type

can in all cases be replaced by an equivalent network of any other

type, because, with three-terminal networks, the equivalence will be

automatically satisfied if the driving admittances of the equivalent network

equal the driving admittances, from the corresponding points, of the given

network. This is not true if the original network has more than three

terminals, as Eqs. 2-1-2 do not suffice to determine the transfer admit-

tances. A given network of a given type can be replaced by an equivalent

network of a different type only if the transfer admittances of the former

satisfy the characteristic equations of the latter.

In making practical calculations on an n-terminal network, it often

happens that only the terminal currents and voltages are desired. In such

calculations it would be convenient to replace the often complicated given

network by an equivalent network of a simpler type, such as a star or a mesh

network. For this purpose the conditions that must be satisfied in order

to replace a network by an equivalent star network or mesh network will

be analyzed.

2-11. Star-Type Equivalents. For a star network the characteristic

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equations may be obtained by noting that, if a unit voltage is applied at

THE EQUIVALENCE OF ELECTRICAL NETWORKS 31

any one terminal k (Fig. 2-11-1) while the voltages applied at the other

terminals are zero, the drop from the common point to the zero voltage

terminals, 1, 2, , k I, k + 1, , n, must be equal.

FIG. 2-11-1. Fio. 2-11-2.

For a four-terminal network there are, in addition to Eqs. 2-1-2, two

characteristic equations which must be satisfied. Assuming El = 1 and

E2 = E3 = E4 = 0, from Fig. 2-11-2, we obtain

ZyYw Z3Yi3 = ZtYi4

Similarly,

from which, after a few transformations,

Yl2Y34 y.i3^24 YitYya (2-11-1)

These are the two characteristic equations for a four-terminal star. It

follows that a four-terminal network may be replaced by an equivalent

star only if the transfer admittances of the original network happen to

satisfy the characteristic Eq. 2-11-1. For a five-terminal star there are

five characteristic equations:

^12 ^35 = ^13 YZ5

(2-11-2)

It follows that a five-terminal network may be replaced by an equivalent

star only if the transfer admittances of the original network happen to

satisfy the characteristic Eqs. 2-11-2. Other cases may be analyzed in a

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similar manner.

32

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

2-12. Equivalent Mesh. An n-terminal network can always be replaced

by an equivalent one, obtained by connecting each terminal kth to every

one mth of the remaining n 1 terminals by means of an admittance Y^,.

The equivalent network, or mesh as it is often called, has n(n l)/2

circuits. The characteristic equations of the original network remain

automatically satisfied by the manner in which the equivalent network is

built.

Fio. 2-12-1.

FIG. 2-12-2.

Thus the four-terminal network of Fig. 2-12-1 may be replaced by the

equivalent network of Fig. 2-12-2. The impedances of the latter, six in

number, are bound to the transfer admittances of the former by the relations

11

Y13

(2-12-1)

Theoretically, an equivalent mesh may be obtained for any given net-

work. A practical limitation arises, however, because some of the branch

impedances of the equivalent network may require a negative resistance

component.

2-13. Two-Winding Transformer or Two Parallel Transmission Lines.

Auto'ransformer. As an illustration, let us consider two circuits mutually

J_fc_ JfcL

Fio. 2-13-1.

FIG. 2-13-2.

coupled. These may be two transmission lines (Fig. 2-13-1) or the two

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windings of a transformer (Fig. 2-13-2). Let Zi, Z2, Zm be their self-

THE EQUIVALENCE OF ELECTRICAL NETWORKS 33

impedances and the mutual impedance between them. If

RI is the resistance of circuit 1-2 with 3-4 open,

Li is the self-inductance of circuit 1-2 with 3-4 open,

R2 is the resistance of circuit 3-4 with 1-2 open,

Z/2 is the self-inductance of circuit 3-4 with 1-2 open, and

M is the coefficient of mutual induction between the two circuits,

we obtain

Zi = RI + juLi

Z2 = RZ -\- juL2

Zm = juM

If EI, E2, E3, 4 are the voltages applied to the terminals,

EI E2 = ZiIi + Zm/3

from which

(El - E2)Z2 - (3 -

1 ~ ^1Z2 - Zm2

(2-13-1 )

_ (3 E^)Zi (El Ei)Zm

3 ~ 77 7 2

*1*2 An

The general equations, 2-1-1, 2-1-2, 2-1-3, for this case will become

TfF

1~7772l~77722

&I , 4m ^1^2 ~ ^m

iZ2 Zm

*4

I *- , Zn

ZZZ2~ZZZ2

(2-13-2)

/3 = IT~^^~"o **1 + _ _ ^-o ^2

*l j-k _^__

77

, m ., *m

~ == Z Z Z 2 ~ Z Z Z 2

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Zi Z,

34

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

Therefore

iZ2 Zm

iZ2 Zm

-Zn

iZ2 Zm

Zm

,Z2 - Zm2

- Zm*

iZ2 Zm

(2-13-3)

7y y 2"

1^2 *m

v -*-

7,7,, -- Z 2

tif2 f/m

Thus the impedances of the equivalent mesh of Fig. 2-12-2 in this case

become

Z -L Z - ^

12 l

'12 ^2

__ * ^

*13 ., 7 *n,

'13 *m

14

2_

*m ~ ~ ~ "i

23

7 l2

*24 ^~~ ~~i

'24 *m

1Z

(2-13-4)

The equivalent mesh is shown in Fig. 2-13-3.

Z,.

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FIG. 2-13-3.

FIG. 2-13-4.

THE EQUIVALENCE OF ELECTRICAL NETWORKS 35

Now, if Zi = Z2 = 0, the original network will reduce to one of a perfect

transformer with no resistance in either winding. Equations 2-13-4 will

become

ZJ2 = 00 Z23 = Zm

Zi3 = Zm ZM = Zm

Zi 4 = Zm Z34 = oo

The equivalent mesh will be as shown in Fig. 2-13-4.

Now, in the networks of Fig. 2-13-1 and Fig. 2-13-2, the self-impedances

/i, Z2 may be considered external, as shown in Fig. 2-13-5. The network

FIG. 2-13-5.

l'23'4 can be replaced by the network of Fig. 2-13^4, as shown in Fig.

2-13-6, which then is another equivalent network of those shown in Figs.

2-13-1, 2-13-2, and 2-13-3. f

For the transformer, it can be assumed for all practical purposes that

terminals 2 and 4 are connected to each other. In this manner the four-

terminal network of Fig. 2-13-2 becomes the three-terminal network of

Fig. 2-13-7, which can be replaced by a three-terminal equivalent, as

shown in Art. 2-5. The equivalent network is given in Fig. 2-13-8.

Fio. 2-13-7. Flo. 2-13-8.

It should be noted that the meshes of Figs. 2-13-3 and 2-13-6 are the

equivalent of the transformer under all conditions, whereas the network of

Fig. 2-13-8 is not. For instance, the conditions with 2 and 4 open cannot be

reproduced in the network of Fig. 2-13-8 but can be reproduced in the net-

work of Fig. 2-13-5 or Fig. 2-13-6.

Reference to Eq. 2-11-1, which gives the characteristic equations for a

four-terminal star, shows that the transformer in its general representation

f Frank M. Starr, "Equivalent Circuits: 1," Transactions, AIEE, LI (June 1932),

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287-98.

36 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

cannot be replaced by an equivalent four-terminal star because

Another special case of two coupled circuits is the autotransformer (Fig.

, 2-13-9). Because there are only three termi-

nals, the autotransformer can be replaced by

_2 an equivalent three-terminal network of any

type.

_ 2-14. Three-Winding Transformer.f A

three-winding transformer is shown in Fig.

2-14-1. This is a six-terminal network. For

most purposes met with in practice it will

suffice to assume that l, 2, and 3 are connected as shown in Fig. 2-142.

If it is assumed that the currents 12', Iy' flowing in windings 2 and 3,

respectively, are positive when producing flux in opposition to that pro-

duced by the current /! flowing in winding 1, the total ampere-turns will be

nJi

Fio. 2-13-9.

1-

-tf-

.'i

1-

2-

/'

2A

3-

3^5

'3

Fio. 2-14-1.

Fio. 2-14-2.

where HI, /i are the turns and current of winding 1; HZ, /2' are the turns and

current of winding 2; n3, /3 are the turns and current of winding 3. 70 is

the excitation current, which is usually negligible. Thus, disregarding it

we have

or

Let

naIa

HI

=u

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2 13/3 = 0

(2-14-1)

=h

=h

f Edith Clarke, Circuit Analysis of A-C Power Systems, Vol. 1 (New York: John Wiley

& Sons, Inc., 1943), p. 42; O. G. C. Dahl, Electric Circuits, Theory and Applications, Vol. 1

(New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 1928), p. 34.

THE EQUIVALENCE OF ELECTRICAL NETWORKS 37

Obviously /2, /3 are, respectively, the currents /2', I3, expressed in terms

of circuit 1.

Equation 2-14-1 becomes

h ~ h ~ h - 0 (2-14-2)

If a 1:1 ratio between the windings is assumed, the network of Fig.

2-14-2 can be replaced by that of Fig. 2-14-3, in which the leakage im-

pedance between any pair of windings is equal to the actual leakage im-

pedance expressed in terms of winding 1.

Fig. 2-14-3.

'.

Fig. 2-14-4.

In Fig. 2-14-3 there is no current returning in the common connection.

It thus can be omitted, as shown in Fig. 2-14-4. This is a three-terminal

network with mutuals between windings, which can be replaced by an

equivalent three-terminal network with no mutuals between windings, as

discussed in Art. 2-7. Thus a three-winding transformer can be repre-

sented as a three-terminal network under the following assumptions:

1. A common voltage for all three windings.

2. The magnetizing current is disregarded.

Under these assumptions the impedances Z\, Z2, Z3 of the equivalent net-

work with no mutuals, as shown in Fig. 2-14-5, are obtained by

(a) Measuring the impedances between

(1) 1 and l' with 2 and 2' shorted and 3 and 3' open

(2) 1 and l' with 3 and 3' shorted and 2 and 2' open

(3) 2 and 2' with 3 and 3' shorted and 1 and l' open

(b) Converting the impedances measured under (a) to the same voltage

basis, as explained in Chapter 3, thus obtaining, respectively,

Z\2 from (al), Z13 from (a2), Z23 from (a3)

(c) Equating Zi2, Zi3, Z23 to the impedances between corresponding

terminals of Fig. 2-14-5 or:

Z12 = Z\ + Z2

Z\3 = Z\ + Z3

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Z23 = Z2 + Z3

38 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

Zi2, Zi3, Z23 being known, the values of Zi, Z2, Z3 can be obtained from the

relations

ZI =

Fio. 2-14-5.

+77

"23 ~ *12

(2-14-3)

2-15. A, B, C, D Constants for a Three-Terminal Network with Voltage

Applied to Only Two Terminals. In stability studies, power expressions

for a three-terminal network, with voltages applied to only two terminals,

are often given in terms of the A, B, C, D constants. The values of these

constants for any type of three-terminal network are derived by following

the method outlined in Art. 2-9, or they may be obtained from published

tables, f The method of derivation will be illustrated for two common

types of networks, namely the general T and the general pi networks.

v_ _Ti+_l*_

FIG. 2-16-1.

2-16. A, B, C, D Constants for a T Network. Figure 2-16-1 shows the

general type of T network. For this type, from Eqs. 2-4-2, 2-4-3, and

2-9-3,

Z.

Zr

Z.Zr

(2-16-1)

f Electrical Transmission and Distribution Reference Book, 4th Ed., Weetinghouse

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Electric Corp., 1950, Table 9, p. 327.

THE EQUIVALENCE OF ELECTRICAL NETWORKS

39

These relations can be obtained from the expression for the currents Ii and

/2 in terms of the voltages EI, E2 and the impedances Z,, Zr, Z% written

directly from Fig. 2-16-1.

FIG. 2-17-1.

2-17. A, B, C, D Constants for a Pi Network. Figure 2-17-1 shows the

general type of pi network. For this type, from Art. 2-4, the expressions

for Yn, Y22 are

Thus, from Eqs. 2-9-3,

'_ ^22 . , Z12

~ ^'

B- Z

12

(2-17-1)

J \ ] I 9

D==1H-

Obviously, we can obtain these relations directly from Fig. 2-17-1,

noting that

/2

'23 - -=-

*23

E, = E2 + Z12 (^ - /2) = (l + |

\^23 / \ *23

/ El

M3 ~^~

E2 - Z12I

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122

40 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

Ii ~ /13 + /23 /2 = ~^~ + -^ -- /2

13 i ,_ , 23

Z13

Comparison with Eqs. 2-9-4 gives the values of A, B, C, D shown in

Eqs. 2-17-1.

In still another manner, the pi can first be converted to an equivalent T

of the type shown in Fig. 2-16-1 by means of Eqs. 2-4-6. We obtain

Z12Z13

"= 7 7 4.7

^12 i ^13 i *23

^12Z23

^12 4 ^13 4 Z23

77

- *13*23

^12 + ^13 + Z23

Substitution in Kqs. 2-16-1 yields Eqs. 2-17-1.

2-18. Equivalent Networks for Long Transmission Lines. Exact T

and Pi Equivalents. f Transmission lines are composed of distributed

series resistance and inductance and distributed shunt resistance and

capacitance. For greater generality, let us assume that the line is com-

posed of series impedance elements Zi and shunt impedance elements Zj,

as shown in Fig. 2-18-1. Let x be the distance from some point chosen as

FIG. 2-18-1.

origin, in some units of length, say meters; then Zi and Z2 are expressed

in ohms per meter. Let Ex be the voltage at the distance x, and Ix the line

current at x. Along an element, of length dx, the voltage Ex decreases by

dEz and the current Iz decreases by dIx. Thus

dEI = - Z,/x dx

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f Dahl, op. rit.

THE EQUIVALENCE OP ELECTRICAL NETWORKS 41

or 77 = ~Zl1,

(2-18-1)

d/, = .

dx" Zt

from which ^ = Zi -

dr dx

(2-18-2)

a*/- _ 2.^1

dz* = ~ Z2 dx

By combining Eqs. 2-18-2 and Eqs. 2-18-1 we obtain

dx* Z,

dx* Z2"

Let

Y = *l = complex angle per meter (2-18-3)

Y is called the propagation constant of the line.t

In general, Y has a real component ai and an imaginary component ft, or

Y = ai + jg

The real component a} is called the attenuation constant. It is expressed in

nepers per meter. The imaginary component 3 is called the phase constant.

It is a circular angle and thus is expressed in circular radians per meter.

Briefly we can say that Y is expressed in complex radians per meter.

ZQ = \fZiZ2 = surge or characteristic impedance of the line

in ohms (2-18-4)

81 = ty = total complex angle of the line

Here / is the length of the line, in meters. With these relations as a starting

point, J the following expressions are obtained between the voltages E,, E,

and the currents /., Ir at the origin and the receiving end, respectively, of

the line shown in Fig. 2-18-2:

Er = cosh 6i, Z0 sinh 8i/,

sinh 6, c (2-18-5)

Ir = Y~^ E, + CoSh 8i/"

f See, for instance, W. C. Johnson, Transmission Lines and Networks (New York:

McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 1950).

I A. E. Kennelly, The Application of Hyperbolic Functions to Electrical-Engineering

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Problems (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 1925).

42 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

or, conversely, solving for E,, I,,

E, = cosh 9iEr + Z0 sinh 9Jr

sinh 6, f (2-18-6)

/, = - Er + cosh 6i/r

where coshGi, sinh 6i are the hyperbolic cosine and sine, respectively, of

the complex angle 8i subtended by the line.

1-

FIG. 2-18-2.

In series form the hyperbolic functions of 81 are given byf

ei _h e~* ei2 6,4

cosh 6, = ^ -! + - + -+...

ei e~h 6l3 fll5

smhe^ -^--.6, + + _ +

. , ^ ~ *~" ft ei3 , 2e'5 17e'7 4

tanhe, = 7r-K = e, - - + - + -

(2-18-7)

coth B! =

csch 81 = .

tanh 9 1

sinh 6,

, 81 cosh 6t 1

tanh = - . , .

2 smh 6!

In the ordinary case,

Zi = RI + jaL = RI + jXl

= r2 - jX

where, as shown in Fig. 2-18-3,

RI is the series resistance of the line, at the operating frequency /.

per unit length (ohms per meter)

L is the series inductance, also at the operating frequency /, of the

line per unit length (henrys per meter)

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f/wa.

THE EQUIVALENCE OF ELECTRICAL NETWORKS

43

FIG. 2-18-3.

g is the shunt conductance of the line per unit length (mhos per

meter)

C is the shunt capacitance of the line per unit length (farads per

meter).

The surge or characteristic impedance takes the form

RI

= Z0e~yaohms

For both single-phase and polyphase symmetrical lines with no current

in the ground, L is given by LH Maw, where Lii is the self -inductance

of one phase per se, that is, when considered isolated, and M aW is the aver-

age of the three mutual inductances between any two phases. The case

in which current is flowing in the ground will be considered later.

The total series (Z) and shunt (Z'") impedances and the total complex

angle of the line are, respectively,

Z=

(2-18-8)

81 = lV(Rl +juL)(g+jaC) = VZY

where Y = (g + juC).

For ordinary transmission lines operating at frequencies higher than 10

cycles per second, RI and g are negligible in comparison to uL and uC,

respectively; therefore, approximately,

m\c

(2-18-9)

i=

It will be shown in Eq. 9-7-5 that the apparent phase impedance of a

three-phase symmetrical line, under balanced conditions, that is, with

three currents equal in magnitude and displaced 120 degrees, is given by

I + j2 X 10~7 io log ,,,.) ohms per meter (2-18-10)

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(jrMR/

44 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

where GMD = geometrical mean spacing of the three conductors

GMR = geometrical mean radius of the conductor inclusive of

skin effect

/?i = a-c resistance of the conductor at the frequency /

a, = 2a/

log = natural (Napierian) logarithm.

In Eq. 10-9-6 it will be shown that the capacitance of the same circuit

under the same conditions is given, with good approximation, by

farads per meter (2-18-11)

18 X 109 log (GMD/r)

where r is the radius of the conductor and k is the relative dielectric con-

stant of the medium surrounding the conductors. Thus

1 .18 X 109 log (GMD/r)

Z2 = - = j ohms per meter

juC li)K

Thus, disregarding the series resistance and the shunt conductance for

overhead conductors (A- =1),

, . GMD GMD ,

Z0 = VZiZ, = x/- = x/36 X 102 log - log - ohms

IjrJVln. r

(2-18-12)

GMD, GMD ,

? = 60^logGMRlog-r-ohmS

Since. approximately, GMR = r,

g - ohms

(2-18-13)

c, = 60 log - ohms

GMD

, (i = 138 logm --- ohms

where logio = logarithm to the base 10.

The spacing d between two adjacent conductors of an overhead circuit

with horizontal arrangement can be approximated byf

d = (0.76 + 0.029 kv) meters

where d is given in meters and kv is the line to line rated voltage, in kilo-

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volts. Thus, approximately,

GMD = \/2d = (0.96 + 0.365 kv) meters (2-18-14)

f Consult W. W. I/ewis, "Coordination of Insulation and Spacing of Transmission

Line Conductors," Transactions, AIEE, LXV (Oct, 1946), 690-93.

THE EQUIVALENCE OF ELECTRICAL NETWORKS 45

and

V/2 (0.76 + 0.029 kv) ,

Z0 = 138 logio - ohms

Here r must also be expressed in meters.

Obviously, from Eqs. 2-18-3 and 2-18-4,

ZO

Usually the shunt conductance g is negligible and can be assumed to be

zero. Under this assumption,

= u VLC l + \ (sin a0 + j cos a) (2-18-15)

(2-18-16)

I //?

-v/1 + ( ~

* v*i

= Zoe~ia0 = -= \/l + ( ^ ) (cos a0 - j sin a0) ohms (2-18-17)

VLC > VM/

where

c*o = tan~ -

(2-18-18)

- ) ohms

"" VLC

The inductance L is composed of two parts, L, and Lc, corresponding,

respectively, to the flux of induction inside and outside of the conductor.

In general, L, is much smaller than Lc, so that we can assume, approxi-

mately,

L m L,

L, is calculated from the reactance component of Eq. 2-18-10 by replacing

GMR with r, or

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Le = Mr2 X 10~7 log -

46

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

where Mr is the relative permeability of the medium surrounding the con-

ductor; usually Mr = 1.

It is evident that the assumption GMR = r, made in calculating Z0

with Eqs. 2-18-13 instead of with Eqs. 2-18-12, corresponds to replacing

L with L,.

If, in addition to g = 0, RI = 0, the line is a lossless one. If for such a

line h is replaced with Lr from Eqs. 2-18-15 and 2-18-11.

where

Y -J

1 3 X 108

VL.C

For overhead transmission lines,

Mr = 1

meters per second

(2-18-19)

=1

or

v = 3 X 108 meters

So. for overhead lines in Eq. 2-18-15, we can write

= 3.334 X

(2-18-19a)

It follows that, approximately, for overhead lines the propagation constant

y depends on the ratio Ri/Xi and the frequency/. In practice, the fre-

quency for electric power lines is usually 00 cycles. Correspondingly, y

assumes the form

= 1.257 X

= jl.257 X 10~6 */l + f M e~iao complex radians per meter

(2-18-20)

The values of -y for Rl/Xl = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 are given in Table 2-18-1.

TABLE 2-18-1

R,

If

eta

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X,

Complex radians/meter

Complex radians/mile

0.1

0.2

0.4

0.6

jl.257 X 10-t

(0.0635 + jl.26) X 10-t

(0.127 +J1.28) X 10-t

(0.254 +jl.33) X 10-t

(0.391 +J1.414) X 10--

2 51

5 40

10 50

15 29'

(0.102 +J2.05) X 10~t

(0.204 + j2.06) X 10-t

(0.409 +J2.14) x 10-*

(0.63 + j2.28) X 10~t

THE EQUIVALENCE OF ELECTRICAL NETWORKS

From Eq. 2-18-17 we see that under the same conditions Z0 is given

^W-

Z0 = 3X 108L ^1 + f y J e-'<"> (2-io

Values of 1.27 X 10-6 and 1.28 X 10-6 radian per meter for wVLC

(2.04 X 10-3 and 2.06 X 10-3 radian per mile) have been used by different

writersf for 60-cycle power transmission lines. The following values have

been used extensively for average 60-cycle long distance power transmission

lines:

Xi = 0.8 ohm per mile or 0.496 X 10-3 ohm per meter or

L = 1.315 X 10~* henry per meter

wC = 5.2 X 10-8 mho per mile or 3.13 X 10-9 mho per meter or

C = 8.6 X 10-12 farad per meter or

X2 = 3.09 X 108 ohms per meter

Ri

Ri = 0.08 ohm per mile or = 0.1

X\

9=0

For these average values,

VlC = 3.34 X 10-9

y = (0.0635 + jl^H0-6 complex radian per meter

Z0 = 393e-y2 8e*

Neglecting the resistance of the line, we obtain from the above

Za = 103 J^- = 393 ohms

The length of the line, I, corresponding to a quarter wave length is, from

Eqs. 2-18-9,

/ = - 3: = 1.240 X 106 meters or 770 miles

1.257 X 10-6

Existing transmission lines are much shorter than this. The longest line

in the United States is of the order of 300 miles, the majority being much

shorter.

A transmission line is essentially a three-terminal network in which the

three terminals are the sending end, the receiving end, and the ground or

t D. J. Povejsil and A. A. Johnson, "A Per Unit Interpretation of Transmission Line

Constants," Transactions, AIEE, LXX (1951), 194-201; E. Clarke and S. B. Crary,

'Stability Limitations of Long Distance A.C. Power Transmission Systems," Trans-

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actions, AIEE, LX (1941), 1051-59.

48 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

neutral. As such, it can be replaced by any other type of three-terminal

network, including the T or the pi network. It can also be expressed in

terms of the A, B, C, D constants. By direct comparison of Eqs. 2-18-5

and 2-9-6, we obtain for the transmission line

A = cosh 6, = D

B = Z0 sinh 81

(2-18-21)

sinh 61

Combining these equations with Eqs. 2-16-1, we obtain for the equivalent

T network

or, since

C sinh 81

Z, = Z3(A - 1) = T~ (ooshe, - 1)

sinh 81

81 cosh 81 1

tanh =

2 sinh 81

we obtain

81

Z, = Zn tanh

Since D = A,

Zr = Z, = Zn tanh ^ (2-18-22)

Thus the exact equivalent T network of the transmission line is as shown in

Fig. 2-18-4.

The exact equivalent pi is obtained in a similar manner. From Eqs.

2-17-1 and 2-18-21,

Zi2 = Z0 sinh 81

Z12 , Z0 sinh 81

A 1 cosh 81 1

or

f Kft /ON

tanh (81 /2)

Thus the exact equivalent pi is as shown in Fig. 2-18-5.

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(2-18-23)

THE EQUIVALENCE OF ELECTRICAL NETWORKS

49

FIG. 2-18-4.

wv

tanhy

FIG. 2-18-5.

We can obtain these values directly, as indicated in Art. 2-17, noting

that in this case, owing to the symmetry of the line in Fig. 2-17-1,

The constants of the line can be determined from test as follows. With

the receiving end open, Ir = 0 and

E,

E, = cosh QiEr or Er =

cosh 81

*,

sinh 6t

Thus

F7

Z,o = = , , A = ZO COth 81

/, tanh 81

With the receiving end short-circuited, Er = 0 and

E, = Z0 sinh 6Jr

Thus

/, = cosh 8i/r or Ir = TT~

cosh 81

Z,, = = ZO tanh 81

(2-18-24)

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(2-18-25)

50

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

Dividing,

or

81 = tanh~1

which permits us to determine the total complex angle of the line.

Multiplying Eq. 2-18-24 by Eq. 2-18-25, we obtain

Zo = VZ,,Z,0

which permits us to calculate the surge or characteristic impedance of the

line. Otherwise. from Fig. 2-18-5, if for brevity we let

*o ,

we obtain

tanh (6,/2)

BZa,'

B + Zar'

ZVT'(B +

2Z",' + B

Solving Eq. 2-18-27 for B,

Substituting in Eq. 2-18-28,

Solving this for Zgr'',

B=

' - Z.,

V2

2Z' - Z,.

(2-18-26)

(2-18-27)

(2-18-28)

(2-18-29)

(2-18-30)

By substituting Eq. 2-18-30 in Eq. 2-18-29, B can be expressed in terms of

Z,, and Z,0.

The constants A, B, C, D can also be expressed in terms of Z,,, Z*,.

In fact, from Eqs. 2-18-21, 2-18-24, and 2-18-25,

Z.o = (2-18-31)

(2-18-32)

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which suffice to determine A, B, C, since A2 BC = 1.

THE EQUIVALENCE OF ELECTRICAL NETWORKS 51

For a three-phase line, Z,0, Z,, are obtained by applying at the home end

of the line three voltages equal in magnitude and 120 degrees apart. f

2-19. Approximate T and Pi Equivalent Networks of a Transmission

Line. Correction Factors To Convert Approximate into Exact Equivalent

Networks. Conditions for Two Lines To Have the Same Correction

Factors. Transmission line constants cannot be determined with more than

3 or 4 per cent accuracy.J Some of the factors contributing to this inac-

curacy are:

1. The conductor sag changes with temperature and line loading.

2. The resistivity changes with temperature.

3. The capacitance is affected by the contour of the surrounding ground,

foliage, etc.

For this reason calculations which are approximate within 0.5 per cent are

satisfactory.

In addition, calculations of the exact equivalent networks involve the

use of hyperbolic functions. These are cumbersome to calculate, although

the necessary work is simplified by published tables. In practice, power

transmission lines are usually short and for most applications approximate

T and pi may be used. These are obtained as follows: For the approximate

T, Z, and Zr in Fig. 2-16-1 are each taken equal to one half the total series

impedance Zoi the line, and Z3 is taken equal to the total shunt impedance

Z' of the line. That is,

Z B!

Z, = Zr = - instead of Z0 tanh

(2-19-1)

Z-i Z' instead of

smh 81

Thus the approximate equivalent T network will be as shown in Fig.

2-19-1. The approximate pi is obtained by taking, in Fig. 2-17-1,

Zi2 = Z instead of Z,-, sinh 8i

2 Z0 (2-19-2)

Zi3 = Z23 = 2Z' = . instead of .

l(g+juC) tanh (81/2)

Thus the approximate equivalent pi will be as shown in Fig. 2-19-2.

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The exact equivalent networks may be obtained from the approximate

equivalent networks by multiplying the various branch impedances by

appropriate correction factors. Two methods which have been suggested

for this purpose follow.

f C. A. Streifus, C. S. Roadhouse, and R. B. Gow, "Measured Electrical Constants of

270 MUe 154 kv Transmission Line," Transactions, AIEE, LXIII (July 1944), 538-42.

t Electrical Transmission and Distribution Reference Book, 4th ed., 1950, Ch. 9.

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

z'

Fio. 2-19-1.

= = 2^

4= 2Z'

Fio. 2-19-2.

METHOD l.f In deriving the impedances of Fig. 2-17-1 to obtain the

exact equivalent pi of Fig. 2-18-5, that is,

Zr. Z,, sinli 81

Zia =

Z0

sinh 8

13 *23

tanh (6,/2) cosh 81 - 1

sinh 81 and tanh (8i/2) are calculated with the series expressions in Eqs.

2-18-7, and all terms except the first two are neglected; that is,

sinh e, = 6, + -^

cosh 6, = 1 + -

(2-19-3)

If we do this, since

6, =

KRi +

~>/^7(x

we obtain after a few transformations

1200XJ

(2-19^)

(2-19-5)

where g has been assumed to be zero, and thus

f Ibid.

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juL

THE EQUIVALENCE OF ELECTRICAL NETWORKS

53

X2 and Xc being the capacitive reactance of the line in ohms and in meg-

ohms per mile respectively.

I = length of line, in meters

S=

length of line, in 100 miles

Briefly,

where

1609 X 100

ri = (1609 X Rl) ohms per mile

xi = (1609 X Xl) ohms per mile

"'13

= -j

.2Xc

(2-19-6)

(2-19-7)

XlS2

1200A%

1200Xr

The factors Kx, kr differ from 1

by a quantity which depends on the

length of the line S, on Xi, and on

X2. kr is usually small. The curves

in Fig. 2-19-3f are applicable in all

cases with good accuracy except for

small conductors and small equiva-

lent spacing.

METHOD 2.J From Eqs. 2-18-8,

the total complex angle of the line,

BI, and the surge impedance 7,, in

terms of the total series impedance Z and of the total shunt admittance Y

of the line are

e, = \/zr

l.UU

*.

-,

-^

0.99

-^

t^.

^^

0.97

g 0.95

X,

"x

*,

S.

K.

^^

gO.93

o 0.91

0.89

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,.

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SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

.94

Hyperbolic Sine of 6

.95

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THE EQUIVALENCE OF ELECTRICAL NETWORKS

55

SINK e

.98 .99

Fio. 2-19-4 (Continued).

1.00

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SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

1,00

Hyperbolic Tangent 9/2

Fio. 2-19-5.

SIZE

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THE EQUIVALENCE OF ELECTRICAL NETWORKS

57

1.04

TANK 0/2

~~

<r

-r

L04

FIG. 2-19-5 (Continued).

58 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

from which

Zn = ei = e^/2

and

e; = e? = r==z/

It follows that

! Z tanh (8i/2) Z

e2

(2-19-9)

Zp

sinh 81 (sinh6i)/6i (sinh6i) 6,

where

(2-19-11)

Thus, to convert the approximate equivalent T of Fig. 2-19-1 into the

exact equivalent T of Fig. 2-18-4, the series impedance Z/2 is multiplied

by the correction factor Ki and the shunt impedance Z' is divided by the

correction factor K2. Similarly,

Z0 sinh 81 = sinh QI = K2Z (2-19-12)

fli

o *'B! 2Z/(81/2) 2Z/

tanh(8!/2) tanh (6,/2) tanh (6,/2) JC,

Thus, in order to convert the approximate equivalent pi of Fig. 2-19-2

into the exact equivalent pi of Fig. 2-18-5, the series impedance Z is multi-

plied by the correction factor K-, and the shunt impedance 2Z' is divided

by the correction factor Ki.

Obviously, both Ki and K2 depend entirely on 81, the complex angle

of the line. They can be determined from Figs. 2-19-4! and 2-19-5.f

Disregarding the conductance g, from Eq. 2-18-16, 81 is given by

l+j (2-19-14)

A!

Thus the correction factors K i and K2 are functions of "X/LC, fl, and

It has already been pointed out that, for existing overhead trans-

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f Reprinted, with permission, from L. F. Woodruff, Principles of Electric Power

Transmission, 2d ed. (New York: John Wiley 4 Sons, Inc., 1938).

THE EQUIVALENCE OF ELECTRICAL NETWORKS 59

mission lines VLC is very nearly constant and equal to the inverse of the

velocity of propagation v given by Eq. 2-18-19. Thus for existing power

lines the correction factors Ki and KZ

may be said to depend only on fl and

0.25

From Eqs. 2-18-7,

178!6

315 X 64

=1++

3! 5!

= ft +

0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000

//

Fio. 2-19-6.

Curves giving fa, yi,

Tri/(Ri/Xl) and in addition Ai and A2/(Ri/Xl) as functions of fl (/being

expressed in cycles and I in miles) are shown in Fig. 2-19-6. f From these

curves it is possible to calculate Ki, K2 and

cosh 8i = AI + j

for values of // up to 20,000 corresponding to a line 800 miles long at 25

cycles and a line 334 miles at 60 cycles.

In the general case consider two lines of different length, frequency,

resistance, reactance as shown below. The correction factors for the two

Line 1

Line 2

Frequency (cycles)

Length (meters)

Resistance (ohms per meter)

Reactance (ohms per meter)

Capacitance (farads per meter)

Susceptance (mhos per meter)

Shunt reactance (ohms per meter)

Ri

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Xi = uL'

b'

AY

*,

AT, -uL

X,

lines are equal if

flVLC

-j = fi'

This relation can be satisfied only if

(2-19-15)

f Reproduced, with permission of AIEE, from Edith Clarke, "Steady-State Stability

in Transmission Systems," Transactions, AIEE, XLV (1926), 22-41.

60 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

so that, to be equivalent, the two lines must have the same Ri/Xi ratio

and in addition

ft = fl VFE, (2-19~16)

Or line 2 of length / operating at frequency / has the same angle as line 1

operating at frequency/, having the same Ri/Xi ratio and having a length

/ given by

Assuming that line 1 is an overhead line operated at 60 cycles, that is,

assuming / = 60, and, of the average characteristics previously referred to,

Xi = 0.8 ohm per mile or 0.498 X 10~3 ohm per meter and 6 = 5.2 X

10~6 mho per mile or 3.23 X 10"9 mho per meter,

(2-19-17a)

Or the 60-cycle line of average characteristics, equivalent to the line of

length l' having a resistance/reactance ratio Ri'/Xi and operating at

frequency /', is a line of the same resistance/reactance ratio of length I

given by Eq. 2-19-17a.

Stated differently, the line l', operating at frequency /' and having a

reactance Xi ohms per meter, a shunt capacitive susceptance b' mhos

per meter, a resistance/reactance ratio Ri /Xi, subtends the same complex

angle, and therefore has the same correction factors, Klt K2, as a 60-cycle

line of average characteristics of length I having a reactance of 0.498 X 10~3

ohm per meter (0.8 ohm per mile), a shunt capacitive susceptance of

3.23 X 10~9 mho per meter (5.2 X 10~6 mho per mile), and the same re-

sistance/reactance ratio, Ri'/Xi', the length I being given by Eq. 2-19-17a.

2-20. Transmission Line Equations in Terms of Load Impedance.

Equations 2-18-6 may be rewritten:

- = cosh 81 + sinh 6t

Er Zr

(2-20-1)

/. sinh 81

- = - Zr + cosh 61

'r *0

where

Er

Zr = = load impedance (2-20-2)

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Ir

THE EQUIVALENCE OF ELECTRICAL NETWORKS 61

Letf

-1 = tanh 8r

*o

er =

From Eqs. 2-20-1,

E, sinh 81 cosh 81 sinh 8r + cosh 8r sinh 81

Er 'tanh 8r sinh 8r

sinh (8, + 81)

(2-20-3)

sinh 8r

or

, sinh 8<

Er sinh 8r

where 6( = 81 + 8r.

Similarly,

/. cosh 81 cosh 8r + sinh 8r sinh 81

= cosh 81 + tanh 8r sinh 81 =

Ir COSh 8r

_ cosh (8, + 8Q

cosh 8r

or

/, cosh Qt

Ir cosh 6r

The impedance at the sending end is

E, _ tanh 8,

/." rtanh8r

(2-20-4)

= Z0 tanh fl( (2-20-5)

2-21. A, B, C, D Constants for Other Types of Networks. By appro-

priate manipulation, the A, B, C, D constants of various forms of networks

and combinations thereof can be obtained easily. \

2-22. Per Unit A, B, C, D Constants of Transmission Lines. A concept

used in stability studies of electric power transmission is the concept of

surge impedance loading or natural loading. A transmission line is said to

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carry a surge impedance or natural load (SIL) when the apparent load

impedance Zr given by Eq. 2-20-2 is equal to the surge impedance Z0 of

the line

In Chapter 3 it will be shown that in making power system studies it is

usually convenient to express impedance as a fraction, or per unit, of an

1 0. G. C. Dahl, Electric Circuits, Theory and Applications.

I See, for instance, Electrical Transmission and Distribution Reference Book.

62 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

appropriate reference value called the normal reactance or normal imped-

ance. This value is usually indicated by the symbol Xn. Similarly, admit-

tance is expressed as a fraction, or per unit, of a reference value given by

l/Xn and called the normal admittance. In power studies it is sometimes

convenient to choose the magnitude ZQ of the surge impedance ZO as the

normal impedance and 1/Zo as the normal admittance.

Of the A, B, C, D constants of a transmission line, given by Eqs. 2-18-21'

A and D have no dimensions, B is an impedance, and C is an admittance.

If B is expressed in per unit of Z0 and C is expressed in per unit of

Bu = = e~""l sinh 8i = e~}mi sinh |

ZO

= Blu + jB

2u

Cu = CZ0 = e+ya sinh 6, = c'a sinh ( ul\/LC J -1 + j *

V * xv

It has been shown that \/ZC is practically constant and approximately

equal to 3.334 X ICT9 for existing overhead power transmission lines.

Since a0 (Eq. 2-18-18) is a function of Ri/Xi, for a given frequency the

values of Biu, B2u, Ciu, C2u and Ai, A2, the two components of cosh 61

are functions of I and Ri/X1. It has been shown also that on the above

basis, for existing 60-cycle power transmission lines, toVLC is approxi-

mately equal to 1.257 X 10~8 radian per meter (2.04 X 10~3 radian per

mile). Curves giving BI,, B2u, Ciu, C2u, Ai, A2 have been published by

Johnson and Povejsilf for a 60-cycle power transmission line using for

uVLC a value of 1.28 X 10~6 radian per meter (2.06 X 10~3 radian per

mile) or a value of \/LC = 3.39 X 10~9 and Ri/Xl = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4.

The curves are applicable to overhead lines of length I' operating at

frequency / other than 60 cycles, having the same resistance/reactance

ratio and the same approximate value VLC = 3.39 X 10~9 if an equivalent

length I, from Eq. 2-19-17, is used which is given by

,-2

60

The curves can also be applied to lines other than overhead ones if a 60-cycle

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equivalent length I, given by Equation 2-19-17a, is used.

PROBLEMS

2-1. Can a 3-terminal network of one type be transformed into a 3-terminal

network of another type?

f D. J. Povejsil and A. A. Johnson, loc. tit.

THE EQUIVALENCE OF ELECTRICAL NETWORKS

63

10 mi

ABC

2-2. Under what conditions can a network of one type having more than three

terminals be transformed into a network of the same number of terminals and

different type?

2-3. Derive the relations for transforming a

A into a Y.

2-4. Can a 3-terminal star with the three legs

mutually coupled be transformed into a 3-ter-

minal star with no mutual between the three

legs? If the answer is in the affirmative, show

how it can be done.

2-5. Derive the equivalent network for a

single-phase induction regulator.

2-6. Two 3-phase lines, ABC, 10 miles long,

and abc, 5 miles long, are bussed at one end, S.

They are both composed of 795,000-CM ACSR

(51 aluminum and 7 steel strands) conductors

on the same tower, as shown in the figure.

If the load currents supplied by the two lines are balanced, find the equivalent

star of the two lines, assuming: (a) complete transposition of the two circuits;

(b) no transposition at all.

2-7. Derive the expressions for the A, B, C, D constants for the T network of

Fig. A with voltages applied to 1 and 2 only. Express A, B, C, D in terms of Zi,

Zi,Z*.

(a) Assuming that the currents I, and /-j are positive when flowing as shown,

write EI, Et and /i, /2 in terms of the A, B, C, D constants as obtained above.

(A)

PROB. 2-7.

(b) Rewrite Ei, Ey and Ii, It as in (a), but assume that the positive direction

of /, is as shown in Fig. B.

2-8. Assume that the 2-winding transformer of Fig. A is converted into the

autotransformer of Fig. B by connecting together terminals 2 and 4.

11

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(A)

PROB. 2-8.

(B)

64

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

Draw the equivalent 3-terminal networks of the 2-winding transformer and

of the autotransformer. Why is the impedance of the autotransformer smaller

than that of the corresponding 2-winding transformer?

3-9. An autotransformer is composed of the high-tension portion of the winding

and the common portion of the winding. Subscript h is used for the former, and

subscript c for the latter portion. Thus Rk and Xk are, respectively, the resistance

and the leakage reactance, in ohms, of the high-tension portion; It, and A" are

the resistance and the leakage reactance of the common portion of the winding;

Zo is the series impedance in high-voltage terms corresponding to the magnetizing

current and to the hysteresis and eddy current losses.

(B)

PROB. 2-9.

(a) Show that the equivalent 3-terminal network of the autotransformer as

viewed from the high-voltage terminals is as shown in Fig. A, where

A = T.-

a = i^L^= I+A

(b) Give the equivalent 3-terminal network in terms of low voltage, as shown

in Fig. B.

2-10. Under what conditions can a 3-winding transformer be replaced by an

equivalent Y network?

2-11. The 287-kv, 3-phase, 60-cycle transmission line from Boulder Dam to

Los Angeles, which is 270 miles long, has hollow interlocking copper conductors

of outside diameter 1.4 in. and an area of 512,000 CM. For most of the length, the

line runs on single-circuit towers, with 32.5-ft horizontal spacing and 50-ft average

height above ground.f

Assuming that the line has the above spacings and arrangement for the whole

length, find

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f See Art. 9-9 for more details.

THE EQUIVALENCE OF ELECTRICAL NETWORKS 65

4- t t Power

kl4.5i-kl4.5H conductors

7^77777X77777777777777777 Gr0und

(a) The series impedance Z and the shunt admittance Y of the line.

(b) The approximate and exact equivalent pi and T networks and the A, B,

C, D constants.

(c) The correction factors Ki and tf2 1 + > Ground wires

for this line. 15' M7.5-H

(d) The apparent impedance Z, at

the sending end with the receiving end

unloaded.

(e) The apparent impedance Z at

the sending end with the receiving end 32,5'

short-circuited.

2-12. A 268.5-mile 154-kv transmis-

sion line has the configuration shown in

the figure. The line is single-circuit of

wood pole, H frame. The conductors

are 0.683 in. in diameter, 250,000 CM of Prob. 2-12.

hollow hard-drawn copper. The ground

wires are supported by a steel cross member and are 10 ft above the power con-

ductors at the structure and 18 ft at midspan. The following tests were made by

applying three voltages of positive sequence at the sending end:f apparent im-

pedance Z,t> at the sending end with receiving end unloaded:

Z,o = 21.2 -;648

and apparent impedance Z at the sending end with receiving end short-circuited:

Z = 85.0 + j243

Calculate

(a) The surge impedance Zo-

(b) The constants A, B, C, D.

(c) The line complex angle 81.

(d) The line series impedance Z and shunt admittance Y.

(e) The approximate and exact T and pi networks.

(f) The correction factors Ki and K* for this line.

2-13. The Fort Peck-Rainbow 161-kv interconnection is 288 miles long; one

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half is ACSR, 477,000 CM, and the other is copper conductor, 300,000 CM.

The equivalent spacing is 23 ft.

(a) Find the angle subtended by the line.

(b) Find the approximate and exact equivalent pi and T networks.

(c) Find the A, B, C, D constants.

(d) Repeat for 180 and 420 cycles.

214. A transmission line 288 miles longt has the following characteristics:

Zi = Ri +jXi = 0.1963 +J0.833 = 0.857e'7,-77

Z2 = -j'0.1964 X 10' ohms per mile

Find the exact and approximate pi and T and the A, B, C, D constants.

t C. A. Streifus, C. S. RoadhouBe, and R. B. Gow, loc. cit.

t Same as Prob. 2-13, taking average values.

66

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

2-15. Find the A. B, C, D constants of the circuit formed by a transmission

line connected to a transformer at the receiving end.

2-16. Find the per unit A, Bu, Ca, D constants of the transmission line of Prob.

2-15.

2-17. For the line of Prob. 2-12 obtain the values of the correction factors from

Figs. 2-19-4 and 2-19-5 and compare with values calculated for Prob. 2-12.

2-18. Following a method similar to that of Art. 2-13 for a 2-winding trans-

former, find the equivalent star network for a polyphase induction motor operat-

ing at a slip s. Assume that voltage is applied to both the stator and the rotor.

2-19. Consider two 3-terminal networks in series with voltages Ei, EZ applied

to two terminals only, as shown in the figure. In relay studies it is desirable to

K'\

E2\

PROB. 2-19.

obtain the values of E~ and It, the line to neutral voltages at, and the current

through, the junction of the two networks, in terms of the terminal voltages E

E: and of the constants of the networks.

Write the equations for 2 and /t and show that

where

E.

It

H,

HiEI -\-

1+

= Zr

1+

Gl =

B.

-c,

Xic,

BtCt

1-

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Dt

THE EQUIVALENCE OF ELECTRICAL NETWORKS

67

2-20. Using exponential forms, show that

(a) sinh 2a = 2 sinh a cosh a

(b) cosh2 a sinh* a = 1

(c) cosh 2a = sinh - a + cosh* a

(d) sinh (a ft) = sinh a cosh ft rfc cosh a sinh ft

(e) cosh (a ft) = cosh a cosh ft sinh a sinh ft

(f) sinh ja = j sin a

(g) cosh jot == cos a

(h) tanhja = j tan a

3-21. Plot cosh a, sinh a, tanh a for a real positive or negative.

PROB. 2-22.

2-22. A A network is made up of impedances ZI, Z* connected as shown in

the figure. From the junction points A, B, C, three equal impedances Z' are

connected in Y ungrounded.

Find the star equivalent connected to the three points a, b, c.

2-23. Two schemes are available for measuring zero sequence voltage, as

shown in Figs. A and B.

(A)

Meter

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PROB. 2-23.

68

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

As will be shown in the text later with respect to zero sequence quantities,

points a, 6, c are assumed to be at the same potential. Under this assumption

find the phase equivalent star of the two schemes.

2-24. Three capacitances Cu, Cu, Cti are connected in A. Find the capaci-

tances Ci, C2, C3 of the equivalent Y.

2-26. Two 3-phase stations A and B, 150 miles apart, are interconnected by

means of a 110-kv transmission line, 500,000-CM copper conductors having 15-ft

equivalent spacing. A load of 2000 + j'7500 kva is tapped off the midpoint M of

the line as shown in the figure.

Assume Ei = 110 kv; Ei = 13.8 kv; for the

transformer: 5000 kva, 5% reactance on

rating, and negligible resistance; ratio of

(2000+;7500)kva transformation 110/13.8.

Prob. 2-25. The line is completely transposed. Neglect

leakage.

Determine the per unit A, B, C, D constants, at 100,000 kva, of the network:

(a) including the effect of capacitance; (b) excluding the effect of capacitance.

2-26. A 3-phase 60-cycle transmission line 270 miles long has the following

characteristics:

Zi = i = (0.08 + j0.8) ohms/mile

= g +joC - +j5.2 X 10- mho/mile

Find

(a) The series impedance Z and the shunt admittance Y of the line.

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(b) The approximate and exact T and pi networks and the A, B, C, D constants.

CHAPTER 3

PER UNIT AND PER CENT QUANTITIES

3-1. Definitions. The resistance, reactance, and impedance of a circuit

are usually given in ohms. When dealing with short-circuit, stability,

and regulation problems, it is convenient to express them in per unit (frac-

tions) or in per cent of some reference value. These may be obtained as

follows: The impedance Z (in ohms) under consideration is part of a circuit

rated for a voltage En, called the normal voltage, and for a current /n, called

the normal current. The per unit value Zu of the impedance Z is obtained

by expressing the drop InZ (caused by the normal current when' flowing

through Z) as a fraction of the normal voltage En. That is,

or, writing

7s = Xn (3-1-2)

we see that the per unit value of Z is its value as a fraction of Xn. Xn is

called the normal impedance or normal reactance.

The per cent value is obtained in a similar manner by multiplying the

per unit value by 100.

Since the impedance Z is composed of a resistance R and a reactance X

in ohms, both of these components can also be expressed in per unit:

_ (R+jX)In

*u rp itu T JAU

where Ru = per unit resistance and Xu = per unit reactance.

From Eq. 3-1-1 it appears that both En and /n must be given in order to

determine per unit quantities. If En and /n are known, then 3EnIn

(three-phase circuits), the base volt-amperes, is also known. Ordinarily,

instead of /n and En, the base kilovolt-amperes (kva) and the normal line

to line voltage Vn are given.

Vn = V3E. (3-1-3)

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69

70

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

Since

1000 kva 1000 kva

T "vSFT <3~1~4,

from Eqs. 3-1-1 and 3-1-2 we obtain

1000 kva Z

Zu = (3-1-5)

In

*" = To^L (3"1-6)

From Eq. 3-1-5 we see that per unit impedances vary proportionally with

the kva and in inverse proportion to the square of the voltage. Thus, if,

instead of the current /n, a current n X /n is chosen as normal current,

although the voltage En is maintained constant, the kva base will increase

n times and the per unit impedance will also increase n times. If, on the

other hand, the kva base is kept constant but the normal voltage is varied,

the normal current /n will vary in inverse proportion to the voltage, the

normal impedance will vary in direct proportion to the square of the

voltage, and the per unit impedance will vary in inverse proportion to the

square of the voltage. These conclusions are evident from Eqs. 3-1^i,

3-1-5, and 3-1-6.

Let

Z be the impedance of a circuit in ohms.

Ziu be the per unit value at (kva)i kilovolt-amperes and V\ volts.

Z2u be the per unit value at (kva)2 kilovolt-amperes and V2 volts.

From Eq. 3-1-5 we obtain

(kva)2

Z2u Ziu

(kva)

One advantage derived from expressing impedances as per unit quanti-

ties arises from the fact that the impedance of generators, motors, and trans-

formers of the same design, when expressed in per unit on rated kva and

rated voltage, vary within a narrow range regardless of the rating, although

the ohmic values vary within wide limits with the rating.

Thus the synchronous reactance of solid rotor turbine generators ranges

between 0.95 and 1.45 per unit with an average value of 1.2 per unit re-

gardless of the size of the generator, t

Table 3-1-1 gives the range of variation of the reactances of synchronous

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machines.

f Electrical Transmission and Distribution Reference Book, 4th ed., Westinghouae

Electric Corp., p. 189; E. E. Knowlton, Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineers,

8th ed. )New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co. Inc.), p. 688.

TABLE 3-1-11

Typical Constants op Three-Phase Synchronous Machines

(Reactances are per unit values, time constants are in seconds. Values below the lines give a range of values;

those above give an average value.)

0.04-0.15

0.15-0.35

0.03-0.25

0.1-0.5

0.1-0.3

T.

0.09

0.2

0.15

0.30

0.17

0.02-0.05

0.02-0.05

0.01-0.05

0.02-0.05

T/'tt

0.035

0.035

0.035

0.035

0.35-0.90

0.8-1.8

0.5-3.3

1.0-3.3

1.2-2.8

0.6

1.3

1.8

2.0

2.0

2.8-6.2

4.0-9.2

1.5-9.5

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3.0-10.5

6.0-11.5

4.4

6.2

5.6

6.6

9.0

x.tt

0.01-0.08

0.015-0.14

0 02 0 20

0 04 0 25

0.02-0.15

( = AV')

(/

0.13-0.35

0.30-0.70

0.17-0.37

0.24

0.55

0.24

0.07-0.14

0.12-0.17

0.13-0.35

('*/)

0.18-0.38

0.09

0.14

0.24

0.25

0.12-0.21

72

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

TABLE 3-1-2

AverAge Per Cent ImpedAnce of 60-Cycle Two-Winding

Power TRANSFORMERsf

HV

LV

Ap-

plied

Test

kv

OA and OA Rating of

OA/FA and OA/FA/FA

FOW and FOW

KV

clan

BIL

kv

Ungrounded

neutral

Grounded

neutral

Ungrounded

neutral

Grounded

neutral

Min

Max

Min

Max

Min

Max

Min

Max

15 and

110 and

34 and

5.0

8.25

10.5

below

below

below

25

150

34

5.0

7.25

8.25

12.0

34.5

200

34

5.5

7.25

9.0

12.0

50

5.75

8.0

9.75

13.5

46

250

50

5.75

8.0

9.75

13.5

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6.25

PER UNIT AND PER CENT QUANTITIES

73

The reactance of two-winding transformers depends on the insulation of

the windings and the design of the transformer, ranging from a few per cent

to 30 per cent.f The resistance decreases as the rating increases, being

of the order of 0.5 per cent for 5000-kva single-phase and 10,000-kva three-

phase transformers, and of the order of 0.3 per cent for 50,000-kva single-

phase and 100,000-kva 3-phase transformers. t

Tables 3-1-2, 3-1-3, and 3-1-4 give, respectively, the average per cent

impedances of two-winding power transformers, distribution transformers,

and load-center unit substation transformers.

TABLE 3-1-3

Per Cent ImpedAnce of 60-Cycle Distribution TRANSFORMERst

(Maximum capacity 500 kva)

Primary Voltage Class

Range of Impedance, %

580-600

2,400-4,800

7,200-13,200

1.8-5.0

1.8-5.0

2.0-5.5

5.0-5.8

5.0-6.3

4.4-6.8

6.0-7.3

22,900

34,400

43,800

67,000

Impedance of 25-cycle transformers distribution transformers approx. 80% of

60-cycle values.

} Source: Allis-Chalmers Manufacturing Co.

TABLE 3-1-4

Per Cent ImpedAnce of LoAd Center Unit SubstAtion TrAnsformers!

Three-Phase Capacity, kva

Per Cent Impedance

Oil or Askarel

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Air

Sealed Air

1121

150

225

4.5

4.5

300, 500

5.0

750, 1000, 1500

5.5

5.5

5.5

2000

5.5

Source: Allis-Chalmers Manufacturing Co.

It should be noted that manufacturers of two-winding transformers

generally give the transformer impedance in per cent based on the kva

t Electrical Transmission and Distribution Reference Book, p. 99; Standard Handbook

for Electrical Engineers, figs. 6-7a and 6-7b, pp. 561, 562; L. F. Blume et al, Trans-

former Engineering, 2d ed. (New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1951), p. 91.

74

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

rating of the transformer and on a normal voltage equal to the rated

voltage of the tap for which the impedance is given, f

Another advantage of the use of per unit impedances derives from the

fact that, in problems involving the series combination of impedances at

different voltages, per unit impedances are added directly with complete

disregard of the differences in voltage, within certain limitations that will

Fig. 3-1-1.

be apparent from the discussion of the following pages. To illustrate this

point, let us suppose that a transformer is interposed between two stations

as shown in Fig. 3-1-1, where Z\ and Z2 are the impedances on the two

Fig. 3-1-2.

sides of the transformer. For simplicity we assume that the impedance of

the transformer itself is included in Z\ and Z2 and that the transformer is a

perfect one. The network of Fig. 3-1-1 can be replaced by the network of

either Fig. 3-1-2a or 3-1-3 (where a = ni/n2 is the ratio of transforma-

tion), giving the impedances as viewed from bus 1 and bus 2, respectively.

Let Eln, Iln, Xln, kva be the normal line to neutral voltage, current, react-

ance, and kva on bus 1. Obviously,

1000 kva

A in ~Z

Mn

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t "G. E. Network Analyzer," General Electric Publication, GET-1285A, p. 42.

PER UNIT AND PER CENT QUANTITIES 75

The per unit impedance in terms of the bus 1 normal voltage is

Z_1M2 = lL. + p (JM-7)

Now let E2n, I2n, X2n be the normal voltage, current, and reactance on bus

2. Assume the same normal kva on both bus 1 and bus 2, and in addition

assume that

Em = aE2n (3-1-8)

We obtain

or

and

j 1000 kva 1000 kva

hn = aIin (3-1-9)

x2n = fa = ^ (3-1-10)

It follows that Eq. 3-1-7 becomes

-*ln -A2n

where Ziu is the impedance Zi in per unit of Xin, and Z2u is the impedance

Z2 in per unit of X2n. Otherwise, from Fig. 3-1-3, in terms of the bus 2

normal voltage E2n, we obtain

Zi/a2 + Zi Z\ Zo

Y = ^ + y2- = *i + Z2u (3-1-11)

That is, the per unit impedance is the same regardless of which side of the

transformer it is referred to. It follows that, if impedances are expressed

in per unit, the effect of differences in voltage can be disregarded. The

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equivalent diagrams in per unit is shown in Fig. 3-1-2b, where

76

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

The per unit equation of the circuit is

Elu = (Ziu + Z2u)Iu + E2u (3-1-12)

3-2. Effect of Changing the Ratio of Transformation. In practice it

often happens that the ratio of transformation a = ni/712 is changed with

changing operating conditions while Ei and E2 remain constant. How do

the per unit impedances change? Start again from the conditions shown in

Fig. 31-1. Under the conditions specified in the preceding article the

per unit equivalent network is shown in Fig. 3-1-2b and the per unit equa-

tion is given in Eq. 3-1-12. Now, assuming the same voltages E\, E2 on

the two busses, change the ratio from a to 01. The equivalent circuit in

ohms referred to the bus 1 voltage will be as shown in Fig. 3-1-2a except

that a will be replaced by al and the current will change as shown in Fig.

3-2-1 a. The normal values on the bus 1 side are

, 3in/m Y

Eln, /,n, -^555-' *i

Assuming the same normal kva on both busses, the normal values on bus 2

depend on those of bus 1 and on the ratio of transformation according to

(a) (6)

Fig. 3-2-1.

Eqs. 3-1-8, 3-1-9, and 3-1-10. Thus, according to those equations, the

normal values on the bus 2 side should be

E2n' = ^ (3-2-1)

a\

hn = ajln (3-2-2)

X2n' = % (3-2-3)

and

3A'2n I In _ 3EinIia

1000 ~ 1000

Evidently, E2n', I2n', X2n' can be expressed in terms of the normal quan-

tities E2nj I2n, X2n on bus 2, which obtain when the transformer ratio is a;

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by combining Eqs. 3-2-1, 3-2-2, 3-2-3, respectively, with Eqs. 3-1-8,

PER UNIT AND PER CENT QUANTITIES

77

3-1-9, 3-1-10 we obtain

E2n' =

hn' =

aE.

In

13*

<*1

Ol

The equation of the circuit of Fig. 3-2-1a is

Ei = + ai2Z2) + 0!2

or, in per unit,

Obviously,

1l

Em

a\Z2h a\E2

liu - ~S I r

In

Eu

a\E2

~ETn

Eln

E.

2n

lu'lu

a\Z2h a\Z2I^ _ / ,

/ ^2u *2ti

where

In

ai#:

2n

^2u'

X2n

hi

(3-2-4)

(3-2-5)

(3-2-6)

(3-2-7)

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'2 _ "1*1 . /

Thus, if the normal voltage, current, and reactance on the bus 2 side are

changed from E2n, hn, X2n to E2n', I2n', X2n' as the ratio of transformation

changes from a to a\, the per unit network will be as shown in Fig. 3-2-1 b,

where Z2J and E2J are, respectively, impedance and voltage in per unit of

X2n' and E2n'. Otherwise, making use of Eqs. 3-2-4, 3-2-5, 3-2-6, we

obtain

Z2u

E2J =

Z2a\

X2r,a2

01 E2

a E2n

01'

'-2u

a2u

The per unit equivalent network will be as shown in Fig. 3-2-2b, where

Z2u and E2u are, respectively, per unit impedance and voltage in terms of

78 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

the normal impedance X2n and normal voltage E2n obtaining with the

ratio a. Figure 3-2-2a gives the corresponding network in ohms as viewed

(a) (6)

Fig. 3-2-2.

from bus 1. Currents, in amperes, with transformer ratios a and ai will be

given, respectively, by

Transformer Ratio

/. =

/. =

llul In

It' = liu'aJi. - ^/u')a/ta

fi*alln

Comparison of Figs. 3-1-2a and 3-1-2b with 3-2-2a and 3-2-2b, re-

spectively, shows that, starting with a ratio a and voltages Ei and E2,

if the ratio is changed it will be necessary to change the voltage on bus 2

by the ratio ai/a and the impedances on the same bus 2 side by the ratio

(ai/a)2. These changes may be troublesome. Can they be avoided?

To answer this question refer to Figs. 3-2-3a and 3-2-3b. Here an auto-

<bl

Fig. 3-2-3.

transformer is inserted between Z\ and a2Z2. Let it be assumed that the

autotransformer is a perfect one of ratio no/no'. The equation of the

circuit is

Ei

= 7/Zi + noc

n0'e

= a2Z2I2 + aE2

n0'l2

= no//

n0e

\n0 / \no /

= ZJl' + (^)\*Z2I1' + ^

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Vo / n0

PER UNIT AND PER CENT QUANTITIES

79

where e is the voltage per turn of the autotransformer. If no/no' = Oi/a,

the networks of Figs. 3-2-3a and 3-2-3b become identical with those of

Figs. 3-2-2a and 3-2-2b respectively. Thus, in making studies on a cal-

culating board, if a setup is made on the basis of a voltage ratio a, when the

transformer tap is changed it is not necessary to change the various im-

pedances and voltages if an autotransformer of the appropriate ratio is

inserted at the proper place.

3-3. Several Transformers in Series. If there are several transformers

in series relation as shown in Fig. 3-3-1, the impedance as viewed from the

voltage Ei is

Z\ + ai22[Z2 + a232(Z3 + a32Z4)]

where

Til n2 n3

di2 = 23 = fl34 =

Tl2 TI3 U\

Zl a

-3 *3 a3l

^" y

Fia. 3-3-1.

Let the normal kva be the same for all circuits. Assume the normal voltages

to be as shown in the first column of Table 3-3-1. The normal currents

TABLE 3-3-1

Normal Voltages

Normal Currents

Normal Reactances

Etn E\n

/ =n'r

V -^1"

ni

tin = iln

n,

Ab, = -

Oil'

v Xin

/in = >ln

nt

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A|

B - ^E*

n,'

7ta = ^/,a

n*

Y Xin

I-U

Ei. = a\jfflvftuE*.

I in

will be as shown in the second column and the normal reactances as shown

in the last column. The circuit is equivalent to the one shown in Fig. 3-3-2a

80

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

*1

'l

(a)

ai2a23a344

(M

Fig. 3-3-2.

in ohms as viewed from bus 1. The per unit impedance is

Zi + Oi22[Z2 + a232(Z3 + a342Z4)]

(3-3-1)

or

Z = + ~ + p- + = zi* + z* + Z3u + Z4u (3-3-2)

-,Mn -*2n A3n A4n

The equivalent circuit, in per unit, is shown in Fig. 3-3-2b, where

. *i

llu

E.

4u 012O23034

^4n

/in

/4n

3-4. Effect of Changing One or More Ratios of Transformation. This

effect can be handled in a manner similar to that given in Art. 3-2 for the

case of one transformer.

If, for instance, in Fig. 3-3-1, the ratio of transformer 1 is changed from

012 to 012', the networks of Fig. 3-3-2 become those of Fig. 3-4-1a and

3-4-1b, where:

n0

n0

Oi2

Oi2

Thus, in general, if a setup on a calculating board is made on the basis of a

given transformer ratio and this is changed, the setup can be used for

another transformer ratio provided that an autotransformer of the appro-

priate ratio is introduced at the point where the transformer is. The only

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correction that needs to be made is that due to the impedance of the auto-

transformer.

PER UNIT AND PER CENT QUANTITIES

81

Fig. J-4-1.

12 23 34 E*

Z2u

z3

n' (6)

'4u

3-5. Two Feeders with Transformers in Parallel. If there are two

feeders in parallel on two busses as shown in Fig. 3-5-1, the equivalent

network of Fig. 3-5-2 can be constructed as viewed from bus 1. From this,

where

z'

\ a65 /

Z'/6 + d65Es

Z\ + a122[Z2 + a232\Z3 + a342Z4\\

Z6 + <HS2ZS

(3-5-1)

(3-5-2)

(3-5-3)

(3-5-4)

Let Eln, 7ln, kva, Xin be, respectively, the normal voltage, normal current,

normal kva, and normal reactance on bus 1. Equations 3-5-1 and 3-5-2

can Be expressed in per unit of Ein as follows:

Eiu = = II J 095 + OB5 -=r~ (3-5-5)

lu

Z'h . Es

(3-5-6)

These equations are sufficient to express everything in per unit; how-

ever, they require first the conversion of all quantities to the bus 1 base.

What can be done to avoid this conversion? Using the same normal kva on

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bus 5, let ESn, 75n, X5n be the normal voltage, normal current, and normal

impedance, respectively, on this bus. Assuming that ESn is derived from

82

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

*5-6

it! _ n'z /I3 n6

12' n2 23 * n3'' 34 * n4 65 = "57

Fio. 3-5-1.

5(65-al2 a2334>

Ct>,

-A/v mnp-

aesEs

Fio. 3-5-2.

Em = aes^sn (3-5-7)

the normal current /5n and the normal reactance Xsn will be given by

hn = 065/, n (3-5-8)

V_

065

(3-5-9)

Substituting in Eq. 3-5-6, using Eq. 3-5-4, and noting that /5 = aes/e.

we obtain

or

lu = F *~ P h F~

.sn Hsn

(3-5-10)

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(3-5-11)

PER UNIT AND PER CENT QUANTITIES 83

where

- _ ^6 . h

^6u v '6u r

Aln *ln

Zu = 4*~ hu = y~ (3-5-12)

-<*5n 15n

-A

Substituting Eq. 3-5-3 in the first term of the second member of Eq. 3-5-5,

we obtain

ZI\ ZJi + a\22[Z2 + a2321^3 + a342i}]/i

(3-5-13)

Using the same kva on circuits 2, 3, and 4, let E2a, E3n, Ein be the corre-

sponding normal voltages defined, respectively, by the relations

j? _ Eln

&2n

O12

E3n = -^=- (3-5-14)

a23<ii2

&in =

a34Cl23ai2

The corresponding normal currents 72a, I3a, /n and the normal react-

ances will be given, respectively, by

012

hn = 012023/11, X3n = 52 (3-5-15)

012 a23

An = 012023034-Zln Xtn = 5

O12 023 O34

Now, noting that

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Z.

84

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

Equation 3-15-13 becomes

zu

Eln

and, from Eq. 3-5-5,

Eiu = Z\uI\V + Z2vl2u + Z3uI3u + Z\J.Ku ^1

ai2<l23a34\ _

(3 -5-17)

This and Eq. 3-5-11 constitute the per unit equations of the two parallel

circuits. In setting up the per unit equations of either circuit, the normal

quantities at any point are obtained by starting from the normal quantities

of bus 1, converting them by the ratio of transformation, or product of

ratios of transformation, of the transformers interposed between bus 1 and

the circuit under consideration. Thus, in setting up the per unit equivalent

of circuit 5-6, starting from bus 1 the normal quantities on the bus 1 side

are converted to those of bus 5 by taking into consideration the transformer

5-6 but disregarding the transformers on the other circuit. The per unit

quantities on the other circuit are also obtained by starting from bus 1 and

proceeding toward bus 5, taking into consideration the various transformers

on this circuit but disregarding the transformers on circuit 5-6. The differ-

ence in the over-all ratios in going from bus 1 to bus 5 is accounted for by

the insertibn of the series voltage ( 1 ai2a23Cl34 J 5u The equivalent

V a65 /

network and the normal values are shown in Fig. 3-5-3.

Fig. 3-5-3.

How can the series voltage (1

Eau be obtained? An ar-

065

tifice which is useful when making studies on an a-c calculating board is

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to inject the series voltage by means of an autotransformer as shown in

PER UNIT AND PER CENT QUANTITIES 85

Fig. 3-5-4. Let

Zu = Z\u + Z<iu + Z3u + Z\u

Zu = Zqu -f- ^5u

The equations for Fig. 3-5-4 are

Eiu = ZJiu + N0e

E\u = Zu'hu + Esu

N0'e = ESu

Fig. 3-5-4.

where e is the voltage per turn of the autotransformer. From these equa-

tions,

E\u = ZuIiu + 7 E6u (3-5-18)

Wo

Eiu = ZJh + Ehu (3-5-19)

If the ratio N0/N0' is chosen so that

A _ Ol2023a34\ _ A^O

\ a65 / AV

the network of Fig. 3-5-4 will be identical with that of Fig. 3-5-3, since

Eqs. 3-5-18 and 3-5-19 become identical with Eqs. 3-5-17 and 3-5-11,

respectively.

3-6. Effect of Changing One or More Ratios of Transformation on

Parallel Circuits. If the ratio of one transformer is changed (say trans-

former 1-2 from aw to 012'), instead of changing the per unit impedances

an autotransformer can be inserted as discussed in Art. 3-4 and as shown

in Fig. 3-6-1, where

no _ 012'

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n0' Oj2

86

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

Fig. 3-6-1.

3-7. Per Unit Susceptance. Per unit susceptances can be obtained in a

manner similar to per unit impedances. Since susceptance b is given by

I IE, it is expressed in mhos if / is given in amperes and E is in volts. Per

unit susceptance bu is given by

bb

K = 7-77T = (3-7-1)

In/En

where

= = Bn = normal susceptance

En Xn

(3-7-2)

If /n, En, Xn are given in amperes, volts, and ohms, respectively, Bn will

be expressed in mhos. From the expression for /n and En for three-phase

circuits derived in Art. 3-1, we also obtain

and

Bn =

K=

1000 kva

V2

rn

in mhos

b(in mhos)Fn

1000 kva

(3-7-3)

(3-7-4)

This shows that the per unit susceptance varies proportionally to the square

of the voltage and inversely to the kva. The susceptance is ordinarily

used in connection with transmission lines. For such applications the

mho is usually too large a unit. It is more convenient to use the micromho.

Since 106.micromhos = 1 mho,

10" kva. .

Bn = , in micromhos

bu =

V2

b(micromhos)Fa2

(3-7-5)

(3-7-6)

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109 kva

PER UNIT AND PER CENT QUANTITIES

87

PROBLEMS

3-1. Why have per unit quantities become of general use? What are their

advantages over ohmic values?

32. In electric power system interconnections it often becomes necessary to

change the ratios of transformation of the transformers on the interconnecting

lines. How is the effect of these changes accounted for on board studies?

3-3. With the data of Prob. 2-9 show that, if a 2-winding transformer is used

as an autotransformer, the ratio of (Zu)au, the per unit impedance as an auto-

transformer, to (Zu)2,c, the per unit impedance as a 2-winding transformer, is

given by

(Z)au = a - 1 = A

(Iu)tm a 1 + A

3-4. Consider the system shown in the figure, and assume the following char-

acteristics:

Rating, kva

Generator G,, 3 phases, 13.8 kv, 60 cycles

Generator Ot, 3 phases, 13.8 kv, 60 cycles

Transformer Ti

Transformer Tt

50,000

100,000

20,000

20,000

0.23 p.u. at 50,000

0.23 p.u. at 100,000

0.07 p.u. at 20,000

0.07 p.u. at 20,000

Line

15 miles long

0.08 + j0.8 ohms/mile

(a) Express all resistances and reactances in per unit at 100,000 kva.

(b) Express all resistances and reactances in ohms at 33 kv.

13.8/^3 kv 33/13.8 kv

Prob. 3-4.

(c) A 3-phase fault occurs at F on the 33-kv terminals of transformer TV

Calculate the current distribution in per unit at 100,000 kva, and in amperes.

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(d) Suppose now that the ratio of transformer T\ is changed so that the line

to line voltage ratio is 13.6/33 kv. Draw the impedance diagram as for (a) and

(b). If you were making a calculating board setup, what would you do to take

into consideration the effect of the change in ratio of the transformer?

3-6. Consider again the Fort Peck-Rainbow interconnection of Prob. 2-13.

Assume that G is the generator at Fort Peck and M is the system at Rainbow and

that two transformers T\, Tj are used at the ends of the line as shown in the figure.

The ratings and constants of the equipment are as follows:

Generator O

One 38,888 kva at 0.85 lagging pf, 13.8 kv, 3 phases, 60 cycles, 128.5 rpm

xd' - 0.3 p.u. at 38,888 kva

88

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

Generators of system M

Five 60,000 kva each

Equivalent transient reactance of system M: 0.15 p.u. at 300,000 kva

Reactors Ri

15,000 kva total 3-phase reactive power

Transformers Ti

Three 16,667 kva each, single-phase transformers

Reactance 0.1 p.u. on rating

Ratio as shown in the figure.

Transformers Ti

Three 20,000 kva each, single-phase 3-winding transformers

Equivalent reactance of transformer between the 161- and the 105-kv windings, 0.07

per unit at 20,000 kv.

Rainbow

Prob. 3-5.

Assuming 13.8 kv at A, and transformer ratio as shown in the figure, and

breaker Ci open, calculate the following quantities with and without the reactors

Bi:

(a) The voltages at A, B, C.

(b) The currents at A, B, C.

(c) The power factor at A.

(d) The loading of the generator at A.

(e) The per unit impedance diagram of the whole interconnection at

100,000 kva.

(f) If the reactors R\ were not used, would it be possible to synchronize

Fort Peck with Rainbow at breaker Ci?

3-6. An autotransformer is used to step down voltage from 139.2 kv to 69.9 kv

13g 2 . and is equipped with a tertiary winding

at 4.16 kv, as shown in the figure. The

69 9 kv

__! M impedances measured between the vari-

ous windings are

ytv l/4-16 Zhm = j'7.04% at 15 mva

'-4-^ Zml = j'3.18% at 2760 kva

Prob. 3-6.

K4J

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Zhl= j'4.8% at 2760 kva

(a) Find the equivalent star at 100,000 kva.

(b) Find the equivalent delta at 50,000 kva.

(c) Find the equivalent delta, in ohms, at 69.9 kv.

3-7. A 3-winding transformer transforms from 110 kv to 33 and 13.8 kv.

The 110-kv and the 33-kv windings are both connected in Y grounded. The

PER UNIT AND PER CENT QUANTITIES 89

13.8-kv windings are connected in A. The reactances measured between windings

an

Xhm (HO to 33 kv) 0.08 p.u. at 25,000 kva

X hl (110 to 13.8 kv) 0.12 p.u. at 10,000 kva

XmL (33 to 13.8 kv) 0.12 p.u. at 20,000 kva

Find the reactances of the equivalent Y in per unit at 100,000 kva and in ohms

atllOkv.

3-8. A 3-phase 60-cycle transmission line 100 miles long is composed of

795,000-CM ACSR conductors. The equivalent spacing is 20 ft. The nominal

voltage is 138 kv.

(a) Find the per unit approximate equivalent T and equivalent pi at 100,000

kva.

(b) Find the per unit A, B, C, D constants at 100,000 kva.

3-9. A tabulation of typical constants for small and medium-size induction

motors is given in Electrical Engineers' Handbook.i

Consider a number of motors from the table. Convert the various resistances

and reactances given in the table in per unit on rating and compare. What con-

clusions do you draw? The normal current is the motor input current at full load.

t H. Pender and W. Del Mar, Electrical Engineers' Handbook (Electric Power Volume),

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4th ed. (New York: John Wiley 4 Sons, Inc., 1949), table 3, p. 9-62.

CHAPTER 4

CALCULATING BOARDS

4-1. General Discussion of Calculating Boards. A calculating board

is a device on which a network is represented in miniature, that is, on a

reduced scale. Calculating boards are available which are energized from

d-c or a-c sources.

On d-c boards the components of an impedance (usually resistance and

reactance) cannot be represented separately. Only impedances or (if the

resistance is relatively negligible) reactances can be represented. In

addition, all generator voltages must be assumed to be equal in phase and

magnitude. On a-c boards all three elements (resistance, inductive react-

ance, capacitive reactance) of electric circuits can be represented. Gen-

erator voltages can also be simulated, their magnitudes as well as their

phase angle differences being taken into consideration. D-c boards are

commonly used for short-circuit calculations. A-c boards are used for

stability, regulation, short-circuit, relay and load studies. The following

discussion will be limited to a-c boards.

On a calculating board, the voltages, currents, impedances, etc., relative

to the elements of a given network are simulated by multiplying them by

factors called conversion factors. The circuits of the board have certain

current-carrying limitations which cannot be exceeded. There is also a

limitation, dictated by considerations of safety, on the voltage that can be

applied to any circuit of the board. Considerations of size of reactors,

resistors, and connections would require that the board voltages and

currents be as small as possible. On the other hand, from the standpoint

of meter reading, it would be desirable to have the board currents and

voltages sufficiently large consistent with safety. Actual boards must

therefore be designed so that both these conditions are satisfied. React-

ances are simulated by means of reactors. These reactors are usually made

of copper and iron and therefore inherently have a certain amount of

effective resistance.

For average 60-cycle power lines the ratio of the resistance to the react-

ance of the line ranges between 0.1 and 0.4. In extreme cases, however,

depending on the size and spacing of the conductors, the resistance may

be anywhere from 5 to 540 per cent of the reactance at 60 cycles and from

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90

CHAPTER 5

THEOREMS USEFUL IN CIRCUIT STUDIES

6-1. The Superposition Theorem. For the terminal currents discussed

in Art. 2-1 this theorem is apparent from inspection of Eqs. 2-1-3. For

general purposes let us consider a network composed of n loops or meshes.

Let l\, I2, , In be the corresponding circulating or loop currents. The

positive direction of these loop currents may be chosen arbitrarily, al-

though ordinarily they are taken as positive when flowing in the same direc-

tion, either clockwise or counterclockwise.

The current flowing in an impedance which I\ zi Z2 li

is common to two or more loops is the alge-

braic sum of the currents flowing in the

loops of which the impedance is a member.

This is illustrated by the network of Fig.

5-1-1, which is composed of two loops. I\

and /2 are the loop currents. The current Fig. 5-1-1.

flowing in impedance Z3, which is common

to the two loops, is 7i /2. By applying Kirchhoff's second law to each

loop of the n-mesh network, we find that the n-mesh currents satisfy n

independent equations of the form

Z\\I\ + Z12I2 + + Ziklk + '' + Zinln = Ei

Z1i2l\ + ^22/2 +' '+ Z2kh + ' - + Z2nln = E2 , , s

%n\I\ + ^712/2 + ""' + Znkh + 1 '+ Znnln En

Here Zn, Z22, , Znn are, respectively, the self-impedances or the total im-

pedances of the n meshes. All other Z's represent the mutual impedances

among the various meshes. The mutual impedances between two meshes

are equal, or

Z.k = Zk, (5-1-2)

for all values of s ^ k.

Eir E2, "' , En are, respectively, the voltages impressed in the n meshes.

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103

104

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

For the network of Fig. 5-1-1, Eqs. 5-1-1 reduce to

(Z, + Z8)/, - Z3/2 = E

- Z3h + (Z2 + Z3)I2 = 0

Thus, here the self-impedances Zn, Z22 and the mutual impedance Z\2

are given by

Z\\ = Z\ + Z3

Z22 = Z2 + Z3

Z12 = Z2i = Z3

Let us now solve Eqs. 5-1-1 for the various mesh currents. Let

Zu Z12 Z\k zln

Z21 Z22 Z2k z2n

D=

Zal Za2

Znk

Znn

(5-1-3)

The current /* in the fcth loop is given by

h=hD

(5-1^)

where M,i is the minor of D obtained from D by omitting the kth vertical

and the sth horizontal. Because of Eq. 5-1-2 the corresponding hori-

zontals and verticals of D are equal and

Msk = Mk, (5-1-5)

for all values of s k.

Mkk/D, for all values of k from 1 to n, represents the driving admittance

of the kth mesh; its inverse, D/Mkk, is the corresponding driving impedance.

M,k/D represents the transfer admittance between the sth and the kth

meshes; its inverse, D/M,k, is the corresponding transfer impedance.

When, in Eq. 5-1-4, A; is given all values from 1 to n, we obtain again

Eqs. 2-1-3 except for the difference in the assumed positive signs of the

currents.

It is evident from Eq. 5-1-4 that the current h in the fcth loop is the sum

of the currents obtained by considering each applied voltage separately

and adding the results. This is the superposition theorem. This theorem is

perhaps one of the most commonly used theorems in circuit analysis.

It can briefly be stated as follows:

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If voltages are applied to a network, the voltages and currents in any part of

the network are obtained by superposing the voltages and currents due to the

action of each applied voltage taken separately. Implicitly this assumes that the

THEOREMS USEFUL IN CIRCUIT STUDIES

105

parameters of each part of the network, that is, resistance, inductance and

capacitance, are independent from the currents flowing through, or the voltage

applied across, it. Iron saturation and hysteresis are neglected. In addition, in

short circuit studies involving rotating machines it is further assumed that the

position and speed of the rotors do not change during the short circuit, f

6-2. The Reciprocity Theorem. From Eq. 5-1-4 we see that the

current flowing in the kth loop with a unit voltage applied in the sth loop is

M,k (-!)<+*>

Because of Eq. 5-1-5 this is the same as the current flowing in the sth loop

with a unit voltage applied in the fcth loop. This is the reciprocity theorem.

For the terminal currents of Fig. 2-1-1, we know, from Eqs. 2-1-3, that

the current flowing into the fcth terminal with a unit voltage applied to the

sth terminal is

-Ykt

This is the same as the current flowing into the kth terminal with a unit

voltage applied to the sth terminal.

5-3. Replacement of a Voltage Drop through an Impedance, with a

Generated Emf. This artifice will also be used extensively. To illustrate

the concepts involved, let us consider a very simple circuit consisting of a

voltage E applied to two impedances Zi, Z2 in series (Fig. 5-3-1).

Fig. 5-3-1. Fio. 5-3-2.

Let / be the current. The drop across Z2 is Z2I. The impedance Z2

can be eliminated provided that the emf, E2 = Z2I, is applied as shown in

Fig. 5-3-2. The current / is now found as the difference of the two currents

Ji, I2 due, respectively, to Ei and E2 as shown in Fig. 5-3-3, from which

/=/1_/2 = -^_^? =

Z\ Zi Z\ Z\

or

/=-*-

zl + Z2

t R. H. Park and D. L. Robertson, "The Reactance of Synchronous Machines,"

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Transactions, AIEE, XLVII (April 1928), 514-36.

106

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

The current /' obtaining with a short circuit across Z2 is obtained by making

E2 = 0:

/' = / + I2 = h

That is, the current with a short circuit across Z2 is equal to the sum of the

current flowing prior to the short circuit plus the current /2 due to the

voltage E2 existing prior to the short circuit as shown in Fig. 5-3-4.

Fio. 5-3-3. Fig. 5-3-4.

Of course, in the simple case just analyzed the currents obtaining under

the different conditions could be found directly. It is in more complicated

networks that the principle is useful.

Consider the network of Fig. 5-3-5. What is the effect of a short circuit

from A to B? Let / be the current flowing through Z prior to the short

circuit. The voltage from A to B is Eab = ZI. Figure 5-3-5 can be re-

Fio. 5-3-5. Fig. 5-3-6.

placed by Fig. 5-3-6, where G is an impedanceless generator generating

the emf Eaa. The current / can now be considered to be the sum of two

currents:

1. The current ! due to the generator's emf's Ei, Et, ,a applied to the

network, assuming Eab = 0 as shown in Fig. 5-3-7.

2. The current I\ due to Eab alone as shown in Fig. 5-3-8:

where Za is the impedance of the network as viewed from A and B as

terminals.

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/ = /,~/!

THEOREMS USEFUL IN CIRCUIT STUDIES

107

Fig. 5-3-7. Fio. 6-3-8.

Similarly, the current /' in any other circuit, such as the one between

C and D, is

r = // - h'

The corresponding currents with a short circuit from A to B are, respec-

tively, Ig and /g'; that is,

/g = / + h

U - r + h'

Thus the currents obtaining with a short circuit across an impedance Z

of the network are equal to the currents flowing prior to the short circuit

plus the currents due to the voltage Eab existing between the two points A

and B prior to the short circuit.

The same conclusion applies when Z = , in which case 7=0.

If, in Fig. 5-3-5, the impedance Z is changed from Z to Z + AZ, the

effect of the change may be analyzed by connecting in series with Z an

impedanceless generator G generating an emf I AZ, equal to the drop across

AZ caused by the current 7 flowing through Z prior to the change as shown

in Fig. 5-3-9. The currents / and /' have two components:

1. /g and // due to all generators of the network, assuming G short circuited.

2. 11 and // due to G, assuming that all other generators generate no emf's:

Z+ Zn + AZ

I=h+h

If G is short-circuited, /g = 7 7i

/.' = 7' - 7/

That is, the currents obtained after Z has been increased by AZ are equal

to those existing prior to the change, decreased by the currents due to the

emf 7 AZ (needless to note, Ig, Ig', I\ , 7/ here are different from 7g, 7/ of

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Fig. 5-3-7 and from Zlf 7/ of Fig. 5-3-8).

108

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

The effect of disconnecting Z in Fig. 5-3-5 is simulated by the applica-

tion, in series with Z, of an imaginary generator G generating the emf

i\z

Fio. 5-3-9.

Fio. 5-3-10.

I(Z + Zn) as shown in Fig. 5-3-10. Under these conditions the currents

flowing in the impedance Z and in the general circuit have two components:

1. /, /', due to the applied voltages Ei, Et, Ej, , as shown in Fig. 5-3-5.

2. 11, I\, due to the generator G. I is equal to h given by

l = 7(7 + Za) =

1 (Z + Zn)

The resultant currents from A to B and from C to D will be respectively

/ - / = 0 and /' - //.

6-4. Thevenin's Theorem. In the network of Fig. 5-4-1, what is the

effect of connecting an impedance Z between any two points of the network,

say between A and B, as shown by the broken lines?

In series with Z imagine a generator G generating the voltage Eab equal

to the voltage existing from A to B prior to the connection of Z as shown

in Fig. 5-4-2. The network of Fig. 5-4-2 is equivalent to that of Fig. 5-4-1.

Fio. 5-4-1.

Fig. 5-4-2.

Since the current through Z in Fig. 5-4-2 is zero, by applying the super-

position theorem we see that this current has two equal and opposite

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components due, respectively, to (a) the applied emf's Ei and E2, and (b)

THEOREMS USEFUL IN CIRCUIT STUDIES

109

the voltage Eab generated by the generator G. The current due to Ei

and E2 alone in the direction from A to B is equal to /. The current due to

Eab flowing in the direction B to A is also /; thus

/ _ ^ab

~ Z+Zn

where, as before, Zn is the impedance of the network as viewed from A to B

with the two emf's E\ and E2 reduced to zero. It follows that the current /

flowing from A to B is given by the voltage Eab

existing from A to B prior to inserting the imped-

ance Z, divided by the impedance Z + Zn. From

the standpoint of the current through Z the

whole network back of AB can be replaced by a

generator generating the voltage Eab having an

impedance Zn as shown in Fig. 5-4-3. This is an

important conclusion because it permits us to

calculate the short-circuit current / when a short

circuit occurs between two points A, B of a net-

work, through an impedance Z, if we know the

voltage Eab existing prior to the short circuit. It will be used extensively

in the following pages.

Fio. 5-4-3.

PROBLEMS

6-1. In the network of Prob. 3-5 determine the driving admittance from G

and the transfer admittance between G and M.

5-2. Given the 3-terminal network of the

figure:

(a) Find the driving impedances and ad-

mittances of terminals 1 and 2, respectively,

and the transfer admittance and impedance

between these two terminals.

(b) Express the driving and transfer imped-

ances in terms of the A, B, C, D constants of

the network.

Prob. 5-2. (c) Find the self-impedances Zn, 722, and

the mutual impedance Zu.

5-3. With reference to Fig. 5-4-1, what value of Z must be connected from

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A to B in order that maximum true power will be transferred from the system to

the impedance Z1

5-4. The network shown in Fig. A is the phase equivalent of a 3-phase induc-

tion motor.

Ei is the line to neutral voltage applied to the motor terminals.

Rp + jXp is the per phase stator impedance.

110

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

Rn + jXn is the per phase rotor equivalent impedance.

Zo is the equivalent impedance of the magnetizing circuit including

eddy currents and hysteresis losses.

(A)

a I.

Eab

s a-t)

(B)

Prob. 5-4.

(a) Show that the rotor current It* and thus the motor torque and mechanical

gross output can be calculated from the network of Fig. B, where, assuming the

impedance of the source to be negligible,

R i + jXi

Z0(Rp+jXp)

Rp + jXp + Zo

Eab is the voltage appearing from a to 6 with the motor unloaded, or

Eab Ei (Rp -\-jXp)Ipo

where Ipa is the stator no-load current.

(b) How is Fig. B modified if the impedance of the source is not negligible?

Q.5Rr j0.5Xr

Backward

l'VVs,TfoTP-J *-/VW'TrffTT'I

0.5 Zn

0.5 Zn

(B)

Pbob. 5-5.

6-6. Show that the equivalent network of a single-phase induction motor with

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blocked rotor is as shown in Fig. A, where

THEOREMS USEFUL IN CIRCUIT STUDIES

111

V is the voltage applied to the stator.

Rp is the stator resistance.

Xp is the stator leakage reactance at stator frequency.

Rr is the rotor resistance in stator terms.

Xr is the rotor leakage reactance in stator terms and at stator frequency

or at standstill.

Zo is the excitation equivalent impedance in stator terms.

By applying the revolving field theory and the superposition principle, show

that the equivalent network of Fig. A can be replaced by the network of Fig. B.

Rp* jXp 2

Forward

0.5 Zn

1 lRbr .v \

Backward

0.5 zn

Prob. 5-6.

6-6. By applying the revolving field theory and the superposition principle,

show that the equivalent network for the single-phase induction motor of Prob.

5-5 operating at slip s is as shown in the figure, where

Rjr = per phase rotor resistance to current of frequency s/, in stator terms t

Rbr = per phase rotor resistance to current of frequency (2 s)f, in stator

terms t

X/, = rotor leakage reactancet at frequency sf, in stator terms

Xbr = rotor leakage reactance at frequency (2 s)f, in stator terms

V = impressed voltage

Rp = effective stator resistance at stator frequency /

Xp = stator leakage reactance at stator frequency /

6-7. In the figure, N is a general network which supplies a constant current /

to the impedance Z across the terminals a, b.

Show that, if an impedance Z' is con-

nected across a, b in parallel with Z, as

long as / remains constant the current /'

through Z' is given by

j , _ Eab

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"~Z + Z'

where Eab is the voltage from a to 6 prior Prob. 5-7.

to the connection of the impedance Z'.

6-8. By application of the superposition theorem show that a 2-phase induc-

tion motor can be analyzed by considering the two networks shown in the figure,

t Approximately, R/, = Ru = R, of Prob. 5-5.

t Approximately, X/, = X* = X, of Prob. 5-5.

112

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

where

Pbob. 5-8.

phase, and Va is the voltage applied to the other stator winding. The rotor may

be polyphase wound or squirrel cage.

8 is the rotor slip.

Ftp is the stator resistance of one phase.

Xp is the stator leakage reactance per phase.

Xif is the rotor leakage reactance, in stator terms, corresponding to the

rotor leakage flux which obtains at slip frequency /

is the rotor leakage reactance, in stator terms, corresponding to the

rotor leakage flux which obtains at slip frequency (2 a)/.

Eif is the rotor resistance, in stator terms, which obtains at rotor slip

frequency sf.

Rib is the rotor resistance, in stator terms, which obtains at rotor slip

frequency (2 s)f.

6-9. Consider the general network of Fig. 2-1-1.

(a) What is the value APk, of the average power input into the kth terminal

caused by the application of the voltage E, to the sth terminal? Conversely,

what is the A/*,* of the average power input into the sth terminal caused by the

application of the voltage Ek to the fcth terminal?

(b) What is the value of the ratio APk./AP.k?

(c) What condition must be satisfied for APk. and AP.k to be conjugate

phasors?

(d) Is the reciprocity theorem applicable to powers as well as to currents?

6-10. The A network shown in the figure is supplied from an impedanceless

3-phase generator. a, b, c are the three terminals of the A, and Ea, , Ec the

three generator voltages applied to them. ZA, Zb, Zc are three impedances

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connected in Y grounded.

THEOREMS USEFUL IN CIRCUIT STUDIES

113

Prob. 5-10.

Show that, if the switches SA, Sb, Sc are closed, the steady state currents

I A, Ib, Ic through ZA, Zb, Zc are given by

, EA

ZA +

Ib =

Z1Z2

Zi + Zt

EB

Ic

ZB +

Zc +

Z\Zi

Zi + Zt

Ec

Z1Z2

Zi + 7S

where EA, EB, Ec are the three voltages, respectively, from A, B, C to N with

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SA, Sb, Sc open.

CHAPTER 6

THE MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF SYMMETRICAL

COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE CIRCUITSt

6-1. The Concept of Sequence. The following definitions are of funda-

mental importance.

Let us imagine three conductors, a, b, and c, displaced 120 degrees one

from the other and revolving in the field of a two-pole machine, as in Fig.

6-1-1. If the movement is clockwise, conductor a will pass first under

either pole; conductor b will follow; and conductor c will be the last. As-

suming that the three conductors are identical and revolving at constant

speed in a sinusoidally distributed field, there will be generated in them

three emf's, equal in magnitude and displaced 120 degrees one from the

120/

\120

Fig. 6-1-1.

120

Fig. 6-1-2.

Fig. 6-1-3.

other, which will be represented by three phasors equal in magnitude but

120 degrees apart, as shown in Fig. 6-1-2. If the three conductors in

Fig. 6-1-1 revolve counterclockwise, and the positive sense of phasor

rotation in Fig. 6-1-2 is retained, the three emf's will be represented by the

phasor diagram of Fig. 6-1-3. In Figs. 6-1-2 and 6-1-3 the sense in which

t C. L. Fortescue, "Method of Symmetrical Coordinates Applied to the Solution of

Polyphase Networks," Transactions, AIEE, XXXVII, pt. II (1918), 1027-1140; E

Bottani, La moderna matematica dei circuili trifasi (Milano: Stab. Tip-Lit. Stucehi-

Ceretti, 1924); C. L. Fortescue and G. Calabrese, "L'Applicazione delle coordinate

simmetriche alia risoluzione delle equazioni algebriche," Atti del Congresso International/

dei Matematici (Sept. 1928), 159.

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114

MATHEMATICAL THEORY 115

the phasors rotate is the same; the order or "sequence" in which they fol-

low, that is, in which they attain a certain value, say the zero value, is not

the same; for instance, in Fig. 6-1-2 the zero value is attained by o first,

by 6 next, and by c last, while in Fig. 6-1-3 the zero value is attained by

a first, by c next, and by b last. By convention we shall call positive the

sequence of Fig. 6-1-2, and negative the sequence of Fig. 6-1-3.

If the three conductors a, b, and c were superimposed, the three emf's

would be equal in phase and magnitude. They would then be represented

by three phasors equal in phase and magnitude, as shown in Fig. 6-1-4.

By convention we shall call zero the sequence of Fig. 6-1-4.

Uu

\b'

f'\

if M

lc'

Fig. 6-1-4.

Fig.

6-1

-5.

Let us again refer to Fig. 6-1-1, which is repeated in Fig. 6-1-5 with the

leads brought out. Suppose that the three conductors are revolving in the

clockwise direction. The induced emf will follow in the order a, b, c; that is,

their sequence will be positive. Let us now interchange two of the three

conductors. Suppose we are in section M and know nothing about the

connections of the generator and the sense in which it rotates. If we now

analyze the order, the sequence in which the emf's or the currents relative

to a!, V', c' follow each other, that is, the order in which they attain the

same value, we shall find that a' is first, c' is next, and b' last. The sequence

of the three conductors a , b', c', considered in the order a, b', c', is negative.

It is then clear that the "sequence" depends on the sense of rotation of the

generator and the order in which the three conductors are taken.

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6-2. Systems of Phasors. Let us consider in Fig. 6-2-1 the three

phasors Va, Vb, Vc. We shall say that these three phasors considered to-

gether constitute a system of three phasors. Va, Vb, Vc are the components

of the system. If the order in which the phasors follow is Va, Vb, Vc, we

shall indicate the system by either of the two symbols

S(Va) or (Va, Vb, Ve)

6-3. Sum, Difference, Product, and Quotient of Phasor Systems.

Let us consider in Fig. 6-3-1 another system of phasors:

S(Va') = (K.', Vb', V/)

116 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

V'

K'- <cT~

"^^v;

.a3^

FIG. 6-2-1. Fio. 6-3-1.

We shall c&\\ the sum of the two systems of Figs. 6-2-1 and 6-3-1 the

system (Fig. 6-2-1) obtained by adding the phasors occupying the same

position in the two systems, that is,

S(Va) + S(V.') = (Va, Vb, Vc) + (Va', V,', Vc')

= S(Va + Va') = (Va + Va', Vb + Vb', Vc + Vt')

Similarly, the difference of two systems is obtained by taking the differ-

ence of the phasors occupying the same position; that is,

8(V.) - S(Va') = (Va, Vb, Vt) ~ (Va, Vb', Vc')

= S(Va - V.') = (Va ~ Va', Vb - Vb', Vc - Vt')

The product of the two phasor systems is the system

S(Va) X S(Va') = (Va, Vb, Vc) X (Va', Vb', Vc')

= S(V.Va') = (VaVa', VbVb', VcVc')

If the two systems, S(Va) and S(Va'), are the sum of other systems,

8(Va) = S(Ra) + S(Pa)

O/?7 /\ Cf/D I I O/D 'I

ij^ra / iJ^**n ) I i^ \* a )

their product is

S(Va)S(Va')-iS(ltJ+8(P.)}iS(R.')+S(P.')}

The quotient of the two systems is

S(V.) (Va, Vb, Vc) (Va\ ^(Va_ V^ KA

S(Va') = (V.', Vb', V,') ~ WJ' \Va' ' Vb' ' Vc')

These definitions can be extended to phasor systems other than three-

phase systems and to more than two systems.

6-4. Balanced Symmetrical Positive, Negative, and Zero Sequence

Systems. The three phasors in Fig. 6-4-1, Vi, aVi, o?Vi, are equal ir

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magnitude and 120 degrees apart. Their sense of rotation is counterclock-

MATHEMATICAL THEORY

117

wise, as shown by the arrow. Taken in the order V\, a2V\, aV\, they con-

stitute a balanced symmetrical, positive sequence system; balanced because

the three phasors are equal in magnitude, symmetrical because they are

displaced 120 degrees from each other. Symbolically, the system is indi-

cated by (V\, a2V\, aVi). In Fig. 6-4-2 are three phasors similar to those

a2K

Fig. 6-4-1.

a2K

Fig. 6^-2

Fig. 6-4-3.

y0

of Fig. 6-4-1, also revolving in a counterclockwise direction, but their

order is V'2, OCV2, a2V2. They constitute a balanced symmetrical, negative

sequence system:

(V2, <*V2, a2V2)

Consider now, in Fig. 6-4-3, three phasors equal in phase and magnitude.

They constitute a balanced symmetrical, zero sequence system:

(V0, V0, Vo)

balanced because the three phasors are equal in magnitude; symmetrical

because they are equally displaced in phase.

Systems such as those of Figs. 6-4-1, 6-4-2, and 0-4-3 are important in

the study of three-phase networks. They are generally referred to as

positive sequence system

negative sequence system

zero sequence system

6-6. Resolution of a Phasor into the Sum of Component Phasors.

In the plane xy (Fig. 6-5-1) a phasor 0A is completely determined when

its components x and y are given, or when its magnitude and the angle 6

it makes with the x axis is given. This is usually expressed by saying that

t he phasor OA has two degrees of freedom and therefore two conditions are

necessary to determine it. Similarly, two other conditions are required to

determine another phasor, OB. Altogether, four conditions are necessary

to determine the two phasors 0A and 0B. This is usually expressed by

saying that a system of two phasors has four degrees of freedom. Again, a

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system of three phasors has six degrees of freedom, as six conditions arc

necessary to determine it.

118

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

FIG. 6-5-1.

FIG. 6-5-2.

Let us consider the phasor OA of Fig. 6-5-2. This phasor may be con-

sidered the sum of the phasors 01, 12, 2A whenever there is convenience in

doing so.

6-6. Resolution of a System of Three Phasors into Three Systems of

Three Phasors: One of Positive, One of Negative, and One of Zero Se-

quence. Of the three generators A, B, and C in Fig. 6-6-1, A and B revolve

in opposite directions so that, with the three conductors taken in the order

a, b, c as shown, they generate emf's of opposite sequences. Generator .4

.Ld

br

1. 1,

Section.

FIG. 6-6-1.

generates emf's of what we have denned as positive sequence, while ger

erator B generates emf's of what we have denned as negative sequence. I

order to obtain emf's of negative sequence, we could assume that genen

tor B is revolving in the same direction as A, and label the three conductoi

of B in the opposite sense to that of A. Generator C generates three emf

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equal in phase and magnitude, that is, emf's of what we have defined .

MATHEMATICAL THEORY 119

zero sequence irrespective of the sense in which the generator revolves.

The generated emf's are shown in Fig. 6-6-1 under each generator.

Here we have generated three perfectly balanced systems of emf's.

However, if we measure the voltages from conductors to neutral in section

M, we shall find that they are unbalanced, as shown in Fig. 6-6-1. That is,

given three perfectly balanced sources of emf's, we arrive at three un-

balanced emf's. In Fig. 6-G-1, it has been assumed for simplicity that no

drop exists between the generators and section M. Conversely, if in a

section of a network we measure three unbalanced voltages, currents, etc.,

can we imagine them as being equal to the sum of three balanced systems

of emf's or currents, one of positive, one of negative, and one of zero

sequence?

The voltage system existing in section M is (Va, Vb, Vc). If it can be re-

solved into the sum of three balanced systems of the type shown in Figs.

ft-4-1, 6-4-2, and 6-4-3, that is, into the sum of the three systems,

(K!, a'K,, aK!) (6-6-1)

(V,, aK2, a2K2) (6-6-2)

(V0, V0, Ko) (6-6-3)

The system must be

(Va, Vb, Vc) = (K0, Ko, Ko) + (K,, a2K,, a",) + ;"-,. aK2, a2K2)

or

Va = Ko + Vl + K2

Kt = Ko + "2Ki + aK2 (6-6-4)

( Vc = Ko + aVi + a2K2

from which, given Va, Vb, Kc, the values K0, Vi, V2 can be obtained. We

conclude, then, that, given three phasors Ka, K6, Kc, it is always possible

to determine three other phasors, KO, Vi, K2, such that

(K., Vb, Kc) = (K0, Ko, Ko) + (K,, c?Vlt aK,) + (K2, aK2, a2K2)

That this is possible may be seen also from the fact that six conditions are

necessary to determine three phasors KO, Vi, K2, and that each of Eqs.

6-6-4 gives two relations binding K0, Klt K2 to Ka, Vb, Vc, a total of six

relations. The problem is then mathematically defined; or, given three

phasors Ka, Vb, Kc, the three phasors KO, KI, K2 are uniquely determined.

The determination of K0, Vi, K2 from Va, Vb, Vc follows immediately from

Eqe. 66-4. In fact, by adding the three equations, and noting that

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1 + a + a2 = 0

120 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

we obtain

K + Vb + K,

- ;;

By multiplying the second of Eqs. 6-6-4 by a and the third by a2, and

adding the results to the first equation, we obtain

By multiplying the second of Eqs. 6-6-4 by a2 and the third by a, -and

adding the results to the first, we obtain

Ka + a2Kt + aKr

K2 = - - - (6-6-0

The unbalanced unsymmetrical phasor systems (Va, Ki,, Vc) can then be

decomposed into the sum of three symmetrical phasor systems:

(K0, KO,

(K2, aK2, a2K2)

respectively called the zero, the positive, and the negative sequence systems.

The fundamental equations which permit us to pass from the given

phasor system to its component phasor systems are Eqs. 6-6-5, 6-6-6, and

6-6-7.

The phasor K0, given by Eq. 6-6-5, is called the zero sequence com-

ponent.

The phasor Vi, given by Eq. 6-6-6, is called the positive sequence

component.

The phasor K2, given by Eq. 6-6-7, is called the negative sequence

component.

These components can also be determined graphically. For all practical

computations, graphical methods are not so important as analytical ones,

but they give a better understanding of certain properties of phasor systems.

6-7. Graphical Determination of the Zero Sequence Component. We

have in Fig. 6-7-1 the system (K, K6, Vc). A' is the midpoint of AB, and

CM' = ^

and therefore

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CA' = OA' - Vr = VatV" ~ Vc

MATHEMATICAL THEORY

121

Now, on CA' take D, such that

CD = - CA

from which

OD = OC + CD = Vc +

va + Vb + V,

'-!(***-'.)-

K. + Vb 2

33e

Va+Vb 2

3 3Kc

= V0 = zero sequence component

Now, point Z) is the baricenter of the triangle ABC, constructed on the

terminals of the phasors Va, Vb, Vc, and therefore we can conclude that the

zero sequence component of the three phasors Va, Vb, Vc is the phasor from

the origin 0 to the baricenter of the triangle constructed on the terminals

of the three phasors. This conclusion leads

to interesting considerations. If point 0

coincides with D, then OD (that is, Vo)

vanishes.

From Fig. 6-7-1, by putting DA = Va',

DB = Vb', DC = Vc', we have

Va = V0 + Va'

Vb = V0 + Vb'

Vc = V0+ Ve'

Comparing with Eqs. 6-6-4, we obtain

Va' = V, + V2

Vb' = a2Vx + aV2

Ve' = K, + a2V2

That is, the two systems (Va, Vb, Vc) and

(Vaf, Vb, Ve') have the same positive and

negative sequence components; they differ Fig. &-7-1.

only in the zero sequence component.

If three other phasors Va", Vb", Vc" are drawn from another point 0'

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to A, B, C, their zero sequence component V0" will be 0'D, and their posi-

tive and negative sequence components will be the same as for the system

(Va, Vb, Vc). Therefore we may say that all phasors ending in the same

points, A, B, C, have the same positive and negative sequence components

and differ only in the zero sequence component.

To determine the positive and negative sequence components of a given

system, we can determine the positive and negative sequence components

122 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

of any one system ending in the same points as the given system. In

particular, the system (Va, Vb, Vc) has the same positive and negative

sequence components as any one of the following systems:

(0, AB, AC)

(BA, 0, BC)

(CA, CB, 0)

From Fig. 6-7-1,

Ko = 00' + V0"

That is, the zero sequence component of the system (Va, Vb, Vc) is equal

to the zero sequence component K0" of any other system (Va", Vt", Ve")

terminating in the same points A, B, C, plus the phasor 00' from the origin

0 of the first to the origin 0' of the second system.

As an example, consider a generator in Fig. 6-7-2, with the neutral

grounded through an impedance Z, supplying loads over a distribution line.

Ea, Eb, Ec are the three voltages from line to return conductor in section M.

that is, the voltages from A, B, C to 0, respectively.

AM

O" O

Fro. 6-7-2. FIG. 6-7-3.

Let us assume that current is flowing in the return conductor and there-

fore there is a drop between 0 and 0'. JE0o' is the voltage from 0 to 0' that

compensates for this drop. The voltage from 0' to 0 is EO-O. Evidently

E0,o = -EM,.. The voltages Ea', Eb', Ec' from A, B, C to 0' will be

Ea = Ea + QO

Eb = Eb + EOO,

Ec = Ec + EOO-

In Fig. 6-7-3 the three voltages Ea, Eb, Ec are drawn from 0 to A, B, C,

respectively. Their zero sequence component is OD. Now, if a point 0'

is chosen, such that 0'O = 00- or 00' = E00- = E0-0, the three phasors

O'A, 0'B, 0'C will be equal, respectively, to a', Eb', Ec'; that is, taking

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0' as origin, the triangle ABC of the three voltages Ea', Eb", Ee' is the same

MATHEMATICAL THEORY 123

as for the three voltages Ea, Eb, Ec. The zero sequence component of

Ea', Eb , Ec' is 0'D = Eoo' + OD. Their positive and negative sequence

components are the same as for the three voltages Ea, Eb, Ec. If, instead

of 0, we take as reference point another point 0", so that the voltage com-

pensating for the drop from 0 to 0" is 0o", then the three voltages Ea"',

Eb", Ec", respectively, from A, B, C to 0" in Fig. 6-7-2 will be represented

in Fig. 6-7-3 by the phasors from 0" to A, B, C, where 0" is such that

O"0 = 0o" = -E0:0. Again, the system (a", Eb", Ec") differs from

the two other systems, (Ea, Eb, Ec) and ('/, Eb, Ec'), only in the zero

sequence component.

It can be concluded then that, in general, in the network of Fig. 6-7-2 a

change in the point of reference changes only the zero sequence component.

6-8. Graphical Determination of the Positive and Negative Sequence

Components. The graphical determination of the positive and negative

sequence components does not lend itself to considerations as interesting as

those for the zero sequence component. It is, however, given here for the

convenience of the reader. It has been shown in the preceding pages

that the determination of the positive and negative sequence components

can always be reduced to the determination of the components of a system

of phasors from the baricenter to the terminals of a triangle. We shall,

therefore, limit ourselves to this case.

We have, in Fig. 6-8-1, a phasor system (Va, Vb, Vc) from the baricenter

D of the triangle ABC to its vertexes A, B, C. Construct the equilateral

triangles BCG and BCH.

DE =

Va + Vb + Vc = 0

Vb + Vc.+ DG -Va + DG

and

CB = Vb - Vc

BG = aCB = aVb - aVc

DG = Vb + BG = Vb + aVb - aVc = -a2Vb - aVc

BH = a2CB = a2Vb - a2Vc

DH = Vb + a2Vb - a2Vc = -aVb- a2Vc

DE

VVa + a2Vb + aKc1

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DF = - \Va + aVb + ^M

124

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

FIG. 6-8-1.

FIG. 6-8-2.

The two phasors DF and DE are therefore equal in magnitude but of

opposite sign to the positive and negative sequence components. In

general, therefore, given the phasor system (Va, K6, Vc) of Fig. 6-8-2,

the zero sequence component will be

The positive sequence component will be

Ki = FD

The negative sequence component will be

K2 = ED

6-9. Sequence Operators. Let us consider again the zero sequence

system

(V0, V0, V0)

Using a property similar to the associative property of ordinary algebra.

this system may be written

0,1*1)*

In developing the expression (1, 1, 1)K0, we have to multiply V0 suc-

cessively by 1, 1, 1. The symbol (1, 1, 1) may then be interpreted as a

system of three unity phasors, zero degrees apart. Multiplying the system

(1, 1, 1) by V0 means, then, operating with V0 upon each unity phasor of

the system, in the ordinary way.

The symbol (1, 1, 1) is rather long to write. It may be replaced by the

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shorter symbol S. Therefore, S is used to represent a system of three

MATHEMATICAL THEORY 125

unity phasors, zero degrees apartwhat we may call the zero sequence

unity system.

Similarly, the positive sequence system

(Ka*K\,aF,)

may be written

(iy,)K,

This expression means that the phasors 1, or2, a, composing the system

(1, a2, a), must be multiplied by Vi in order to obtain the system (V\,

a2V\, aVi). The system (1, a2, a), composed of three unity phasors 120

degrees apart in the clockwise direction, may be called the positive sequence

unity system. For brevity's sake, the symbol S' will be used to indicate the

system (1, a2, a). Sl is therefore used to represent the positive sequence

unity system that is a system of three unity phasors 120 degrees apart,

the second lagging the first by 120 degrees or leading it by 240 degrees,

the third lagging the first by 240 degrees or leading it by 120 degrees.

Considering now the system

(K2, aV2, a2V2)

and writing it in the form (1, a, a2)V2, we can similarly conclude that the

system (I, a, a2) is the negative sequence unity system. We may indicate it

by the symbol S2. S2 is composed of three unity phasors 120 degrees

apart with the second and third phasors lagging the first by 240 and 120

degrees respectively. We then have

(V0,V0,V0) = (1, 1, 1)K0 = SK0

(Klf aK aVO = (l,aa,aK,) = SlVl

(V2, aV2, a2V2) = (1, a, a2)V2 = S2V2

'S, Sl, S2 are called sequence operators.

With the new symbols the expression of the general system S(Va)

becomes

S(Va) = (Va, Vb, V() = ^K0 + SlVl + S2V2

6-10. Operations with Sequence Operators. Sequence operators are

special phasor systems. They therefore obey the laws obeyed by phasor

systems. Let us apply to them the concepts of product and quotient estab-

lished for general systems.

6-11. The Product of Sequence Operators. We have indicated se-

quence operators by the symbols S, Sl, S2. So far, however, no signifi-

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cance has been attached to the exponents 0, 1, 2. Let us find the laws, if

any, obeyed by these exponents. Let us consider, for instance, the product

126 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

= (1, 1,

The same result could have been obtained directly by adding the ex-

ponents:

IPS1 = S0+1 = Sl

Again

SlSl = (I, a2, a)(l, a2, a) = (1, a, a2) = S2

SlS 2 = (I,a2,a)(l,a,a2) = (1, 1, 1) = S

S2S* = (1, a, a2)(1, a, a2) = (1, a2, a) = S1

S^= (l,a2,a)(l, 1,1) = (l,a2,a) = S'

or directly by adding the exponents:

SlSl -

S2S2 = S2+2 = S4 = S1

S^ = Sl+3 = S4 = Sl

It is seen, then, that as far as the product of sequence operators is con-

cerned the ordinary laws of exponents may be applied provided it is noted

that sequence operators repeat periodically for multiples of 3.

6-12. The Quotient of Sequence Operators. Let us consider the two

systems

= (Va, Vb, Vc)

S(Ia) = (/a, /, /,)

We have already defined the quotient of the system S(Va) by the system

8(1.)

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Applying this definition to the quotients of sequence operators, we obtain

MATHEMATICAL THEORY 127

If the law of exponents is applied, we have

eO

Sl

cO

- v

from which S~1 = S2

The quotients S $', S S2, etc., give us a means of interpreting sequence

operators with negative exponents. Once this is done. quotients of sequence

operators are obtained according to the law of exponents.

6-13. Conjugates of Sequence Operators. At this point let us deter-

mine the conjugate of a sequence operator which we shall use later on. We

have already seen that the conjugate of a phasor K = IV* is V = Ve~i

The conjugate of the operator a is then

The conjugate of a2 is

We readily see, then, that the conjugate of the operator S2 = (I, a. a2) is

(1, a~l, a"2) = (1, a2, a) = S~2 = Sl

In a similar manner we see that the conjugate of Sl = (1, a2, a) is

(l,a-2,a-') = (l,a,a2) = IT* = S2

from which we can conclude that the conjugate of a sequence operator is

obtained by changing the sign of its exponent.

In speaking of sequence operators, we have confined ourselves to three-

phasor systems because these are the most important for the study of

electric power networks. However, the conclusions reached may be

extended to phasor systems of any number of phasors, the corresponding

sequence operators denned, and the laws of product, quotient, etc., easily

extended to them.

6-14. Change of the First Phasor. In the preceding pages we have

learned how to calculate the sequence components Ia0, Ial, Iot of a given

phasor system S(Ia) = (/a, /<,, /,.). Let us consider now the phasor system

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= (ib, Jr, Ia)

128 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

obtained from the given one by considering Ib the first, Ic the second, and

I a the third phasor. The sequence components /<*>, h\, hi of the phasor

system S(h) can be obtained in the usual manner and their relations to

h0, /ail /a2 derived by inspection:

h+h+h.

J6O = = 'oO

h + aIc + <*2I a 21

h\ = ~ = 'ol

/6 + a2h + ah

hi = , = <"a2

and

8(h) = S/w + S7M + S2Ib2 = S/ao + a2S7ffll + aS7o2

Similarly, from

S(h) = (h, h, h)

we obtain

+ /. + / .

3 ~'a0

Ico

+ ah + a2h

In

ahi =

- a2hi

+ a2Ia + ah

hi

a2h2'

= ahi

and

8(h) = S/co + S7el + 8*h2

= S/a0 + aS7al + a2S7a2

= S/M + a2S7bl + aS2Iu

6-16. The Product of Phasor Systems. Two phasor systems Sh.

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SZa, expressed in terms of their symmetrical components, are given by

S/ = o /aO + S hi + 8 Iai

SZa = o Zo + S Za\ + S Za2

where

SI. = (/., h, h)

SZa = (Zai Zb, Zc)

. Ia+h+h

*ao

MATHEMATICAL THEORY 129

la

+1

a2Ib + aIc

Za

+ zb + zc

Za

aZb + a2Zc

Za

a2Z0 + aZc

/a + aIb + a2Ic

'ol -

Za0 =

z, =

Za2= 3

Their product SIaSZa is

(S/o + S7, + S2/a2)(SZa0 + S'Z., + S2Za2)

= O laO'J Zao + SIaoS Zai 4 Ia0" Za2

+ >S Ial&Zaq + S /alS Zai + $ ^olS Za2

+ ,S /a20 Zo + S /a2'S Zai + /a2S Za2

But

'Sr/ao Zao = o /aoZaO = o/aoZao

SIaoS Zli = O S /'oZi = >S /aoZil

and so on. Therefore

SIaSZa = S^(/aoZao + /alZa2 + ^Zal)

+ S (/()Z] + /alZaO + la2Za2)

+ S (/aoZi>2 + Ia\Za\ + Ia2Zao)

The same result may be obtained directly by noting that

SIaSZa = SIZ = (IaZa, IbZ0, IcZc)

= SVaO + S'Kai + S2^

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where

/Za + 7Z0 + /cZ(

"oO

Kai =

K2 =

/qZq -f- a/pZo -r- a2IcZc

/aZ + a76Z6 + a/cZc

130 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

Substituting for Ia, h, h, Za, Zb, Zc their equivalent expressions:

/a Iaq + Ia\ + la2 %a ~ %a0 + Za\ + Za2

h = Ia0 + a Ia\ + OtIa2 %b = Zo + a Za\ + aZa2

Ic = JaO + 7ai + a 72 %c = Zao + OCZa\ + a Za2

we obtain

Vaq = laoZaq + Ia\Za2 + /a2Zal

Pal = laoZal + Ia\Za0 + /a2^a2

Ki2 = IaaZa2 + la\Za\ + Ia2*a0

6-16. Conjugate of a Phasor System. For future needs it is important

to find the sequence components of the conjugate of a phasor system:

'S7 = (/a, 70, 7c) = S*o0 + S /ai + S /a2

that is, the sequence components of

S7*a - (/*,, 7*, f*.)

Calling them 7*1a0, 7*1<,!, 7*1a2, they are

I*a + 7*6 + 7*c

'oO

I*1.! =

7*a

a7*

+<

*27*c

7*a

a2I*t

,+

al*c

^- = 3

Comparing with the expressions for /a0, /all 7a2,

. _ 7a + Ib + Ic

*a0

7a, =

/a2 =

+ aIb

+ aIc

+ a%

, + aIc

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we see that

7*1 _ F*

* oO * oO

7*1., = 7*a2

7*'a2 = 7*al

MATHEMATICAL THKORY 131

Therefore

sra = SI*ao + &I*a* + S2I*al

The same result can be obtained directly from

SIa = O /a0 + S Iai + S /2

by recalling that the conjugate of a phasor sum of other phasors is equal

to the sum of the conjugate of the latter, and that the conjugate of the

product of two phasors is equal to the product of their conjugates.

The conjugate of SIa is equal to the sum of the conjugates of 'S/a0,

S Ia\, S Ia2-

The conjugate of

S*aO IS S I*a0

S'/., is S-'f*.,

S2Ia2 is S~2I*al

Therefore

sra = s/*a0 + s-7*al + s-2i*a2

= Si*a0 + s'/*a2 + s2i*al

Let us consider now the system obtained by multiplying SIa, S/6, and

SIc; that is,

SlJbII c = SIaSIbSIc = (Ia, h, Ic) X (/6l Ic, la) X (/c, /, /)

= (Wc. IJJa, IJM

The three phasors of this product phasor system are all equal, and therefore

its positive and negative sequence components are both zero, and each

phasor is equal to the zero sequence component of the system. This zero

sequence component can be obtained directly from the expressions for

SIa, Sib, SIc; that is, from

SIa SIa0 + S Ia\ + 6 /a2

SIb = SIa0 + a2SlIal + aS2Ia2

SIc = S/a0 + aSlIal + a2S2Ia2

by multiplying them and considering only l ose terms of the product con-

taining S. Since

SIaSIb = S(Ia02 - IalIa2) + aSl(Ia22 - /o0/.i) + a2S2(Iai2 - /a0/a2)

the zero sequence component of SIaIiJc will be

Iao(IaO ~ Ia\Ia2) + Ia2(Ia2 ~ laolal) + Ial(Ial ~ /a0/a2)

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= la( ) + Iai + Ia2 ~ 3/a(j'al*a2

132

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

and therefore

SIMc = S(/o03 + /13 + /a23 - 3/a0/al/a2)

W( = JaO + 'ol + fa2 ~ 3Jao/ai/a2

Suppose, now, that the system jS/q is given and that the sequence compo-

nents of the system

must be calculated. We obtain

/a S/'

-\uJc'uJc'7JjJ-JJJc m'IJa'Ub)

SIbSIc

SIbSIc =

SIaSIbSIc 1S1 (/aO + Jal + /a2 3/ao/ol/a2)

o CaO - Ia\Ia2) + S (/a2 AiO/al) + Col - IaoIa2)

.s(/a03

fal + /a2 3/a(>/ol/a2)

This expression will be useful in trans-

forming impedance systems into ad-

mittance systems, and vice versa.

6-17. Impedance and Admittance

Symmetrical Components. The sym-

metrical components of three imped-

ances Za, Zb, Zc (Fig. 6-17-1) can be

calculated very easily in the manner explained in the preceding articles.

Let us call them Za0, Zal, Za2; they are

Z + Zb + Zr

.awnsinp-

w nnnr>-

-w*-^Tnnr1-

Fig. 6-17-1.

Za0

Za, =

Za2

Za + aZ6 + a2Zc

Za + a2Z6 + aZc

(6-17-1)

a = ~z

'=A

Yr =

zr

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To the three impedances Za, Zb, Zr correspond the three admittances:

which admit three symmetrical components:

loOi 'all *a2

MATHEMATICAL THEORY

133

To the impedance system SZa corresponds, then, the admittance system

SYa such that

.1

From the preceding article we then obtain

ZaO 7

Yal

((M7_2)

ai ZaoZ

a'2

where

D=

Zn23 - 3Z,Zo2Za0

(6-17-3)

&-18. Delta-Wye Impedances. It has been shown that three impe-

dances ZA, ZB, Zc connected in delta are

equivalent to three impedances Za, Z6, Zr

(Fig. 6-18-1) connected in wye:

Zo =

ZA + ZB +

ZCZ

Let us put

We obtain

ZA + ZB + Zc

ZAZB

ZA -(~ ZB T Zc

SZa = SZa0 + S'Z.1 + i

+ SlZAl + S

+ ZB + Zc = 3ZX0

,SZB = SZAO

SZC = SZAO

2*" Z.

X!

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It follows that

SZa = SZ0 + SlZal

aSlZ

A1

134 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

That is,

- _ ZA

LAI

6o2 = -

T2

&A\

Conversely, if the three star impedances are known and the three delta

impedances are to be found,

Z Z -(- Z Z -\- Z. Z

ZaZb + ZbZc + ZcZa

ZaZb + ZbZc + ZcZa

Zc

Therefore

_ sZa8Zb + sZbsZc + SZcSZa

Now,

and therefore

. , x SZbSZc

3 ,7 3 ,

'aft r ^al r

7 3 I 7 3 I 7 3 07 7 7

X !S(Za02 - ZalZa2) + 8l (Za22 - Za0Zal) + S2(Zal2 - Za0Za2} \

from which the values of ZAO, ZAi, ZAZ can be calculated in terms of /ao-

Zai, Za2- The formulas are rather long. They are given here only to show

the process for obtaining them, as they can be calculated more readily by

first calculating ZA, ZB, Zc.

6-19. Star-Delta Voltages. The three conductors a, b, c of a three-

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phase line are shown in Fig. 6-19-1. En, Eb, Er are the voltages from a, b, c,

MATHEMATICAL THEORY 135

respectively, to an arbitrary point of refer- a _____ ...

ence 0. If, instead of 0, another point 0' ?x/ \

is chosen, and Ea', Eb', Ec' are the voltages b /^V" II *

from a, 6, e to 0', c -- // v^

Ec = / + E

Fio. 6-1fr-l.

where is the voltage from 0' to 0.

We have already seen that the two systems Sa and Sa' have the same

positive and negative sequence components and differ only in the zero

sequence component, which is Ea0 for the former and Ea0' for the latter:

From Fig. 6-19-1 we have

Va = Eb - Ec

Vb = Ec- Ea

Vc = Ea - Eb

from which

SKa = SKa0 + .S'K,,!

Sa = O Q "i" S al

= Sa0 + a2^1

o "aO "^ ^al Ot o a

S'SaiC"2 - a) + S2o2(a - a2)

That is,

Kai = (a2 -

Ka2 = (a -

and

,--

J ,-

\/3

From these expressions it is seen that the line voltages have no zero sequence

component, irrespective of whether the phase voltages have one or not.

Therefore, given the phase voltages, the line voltages are completely known.

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The converse, however, is not true. Given the line voltages, the phase

136

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

voltages are not known. Their positive and negative sequence components

are known, but their zero sequence component is not. We have already

seen that this zero sequence component depends on, or rather, in general,

varies with, the point of reference. Starting from the consideration of

symmetrical components, we arrive at the formulation of the well-known

fact that the line voltages may be given without choosing a reference point,

that is, a "neutral." The phase voltages are not completely determined

unless the physical location of the point of reference is given.

Any point may be chosen as a reference point. Of all points, however,

there is only one for which the zero sequence component of the phase

voltages is zero. This is the baricenter of the triangle formed by the line

voltages Va, Vb, Vc. This point is usually referred to as the neutral of the

system in the location under consideration. We shall see how this neutral

may be easily determined in practice when it is needed.

For the present it suffices to say that in a generator which generates only

positive and negative sequence voltages, or either, but no zero sequence

voltages, the common connection of the three windings coincides with the

neutral of the system.

aEa2 Va2

Fig. 6-19-2.

From Fig. 6-19-1, by considering the positive and negative sequence

voltages independently, we have the phasor diagrams of Fig. 6-19-2.

where, for simplicity, Eai and a2 have been drawn in phase. Usually the

line voltages are indicated by these symbols:

Vab = voltage from a to 6

Vbc = voltage

from b to

Vca = voltage from c to

From Fig.

6-19-3 we see that

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va = Vbe

Vb = Vea

Fig.

6-19-3.

vc = vab

MATHEMATICAL THEORY 137

and therefore

SVab = SVe

SVab = S'K.M -f - S2Vab2 = aSlVal + a2

from which

V<ibi = aVai

Vab2 = a Va2

and

PROBLEMS

6-1. Consider the phasor systems

, 20e-'20, 10e'")

', 15e"00, 30e-"")

Find the sum, difference, product, and quotient of the two systems.

6-2. Find the three sequence components of each of the two phasor systems

ofProb. 6-1.

6-3. The line currents of a three-phase circuit are

/. = 365e-'"

/6 = 373e'"

Ie = 386e-'19t>0

Find the sequence components. Is the system grounded?

6-4. A 60-watt lamp is connected between one phase and the neutral of a

{-phase 208- volt generator with neutral grounded.

Find the sequence components of the currents supplied by the generator.

6-5. A single-phase 10-hp motor of average characteristics is connected across

two phases of a 3-phase 460-volt source.

(a) Find the sequence components of the currents supplied by the source.

(b) Generalize by finding the relations existing among the sequence compo-

nents of the currents supplied to a single-phase load from a 3-phase source.

Assume successively that the load is connected across phases 0-6, b-c, c-a.

6-6. A line to ground occurs at the terminal of an unloaded 3-phase 13,800-

volt generator connected in Y ungrounded.

(a) Find the sequence components of the line to ground voltages and of the

line to line voltages at the generator terminals.

(b) Generalize by finding the general relations existing among the three line

to ground voltages when one of the three voltages becomes zero as the result of a

line to ground fault. Assume that the grounded phase is successively a, 6, c.

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(c) Do the line to line voltages have a zero sequence component? Why?

138 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

6-7. The line to ground voltages on two phases at a point of a 3-phase system

collapse to zero. The voltage on the third phase is different from zero.

What are the sequence components of the three line to ground voltages and

what relations pass among them? Assume that the two affected phases are

successively 0-6, b-c, c-a.

6-8. Two lamps, respectively 60 watts and 100 watts, are each connected across

two phases of a balanced 115-volt 3-phase source.

Find the sequence components of the currents in the lamps and in the supply

lines.

6-9. A 3-phase grounded neutral system has voltage sequence components

equal, respectively, to Eao, Eah Eai.

Show that, if the ground is removed and phase a is grounded, the voltage

sequence components will be

(Eaa E), Ea\, Ea2

That is, only the zero sequence component will change.

6-10. Three resistances, respectively of 5, 10, 20 ohms, are connected in Y

across the three phases o, 6, c of a 3-phase line.

Find their sequence components and the components of the corresponding

admittances.

6-11. A transformer is connected in Y grounded on both the primary and

the secondary. The following voltages were read on the secondary:

A-N 64.5 volts A-B 112.5 volts

B-N 63.5 volts B-C 113.0 volts

C-N 67.5 volts C-A 113.8 volts

Find the sequence components of the line to neutral and of the line to line

voltages. Are the line to neutral readings consistent with the line to line readings'"

6-12. The three line to line voltages on a 3-phase system are given by

a-b b-c c-a

Vc = KCVA VA VB = KBVA

where Kb and Kc in general are complex factors. If the three voltages are

balanced and symmetrical,

KB = a2

Kc = a

In the general case, if we put

KB = a2 + Ko+jKi

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we obtain

Kc = a Ko jKi

Find the sequence components of the three voltages Va, Vb. Vc in terms of

VA, Ko, and X,.

6-13. A 30-hp, 440-volt, 3-phase, 60-cyele, 8-pole, A-connected induction

motor is operated under unbalanced voltage conditions. The three conductors

MATHEMATICAL THEORY 139

supplying the motor are arbitrarily labeled a, b, c, and readings of the line voltages

and currents are taken with the following results:

Voltages Currents

Vhc 446 volte h 53.6 amp

Vca 380 volte Ic 52.5 amp

Va b 430 volte / 24.7 amp

(a) Taking voltage b-c as reference, calculate the sequence components of

the line to neutral voltages Ea, Eb, Ec applied to the motor.

(b) Taking the current Ia as reference, calculate the sequence components of

the line currents Ia, h, Ic-

(c) Assuming that at full load the motor efficiency and power factors are both

0.9, calculate the sequence components as under (a) and (b) in per unit of rated

values.

6-14. Following the method of Arts. 6-9, 6-10, 6-11, and 6-12, define the

operators S, 81, S2, S3 for a 4-phase system and determine their properties.

Repeat for a 5-phase system.

616. Find the sequence components of the three impedances

Za = 121 ohms Zh = ji'121 ohms Zc = 121 ohms

6-16. Find the sequence components of the admittances of Prob. 6-15.

6-17. Three impedances connected in Y ungrounded are supplied from a

3-phase, 60-cycle, 110-volt balanced source of voltages. Assume

Z = 121 ohms Zh = j\2\ ohms Zr = 121 ohms

I'sing symmetrical components, calculate

(a) The currents /, h, Ic-

(b) The voltage Eo from the common point 0 of the three impedances to

ground.

(c) Calculate the ratios Eal>/Eah Eai/Eai, Ino/hu In2/hi.

618. What is a system of phasors?

6-19. How are systems of phasors added, subtracted, multiplied, and divided?

6-20. What is sequence?

6-21. Can you change a positive sequence system of currents into a system of

negative sequence, and vice versa? If the answer is in the affirmative, what

would you have to do physically?

6-22. What is a positive sequence system of phasors? a negative sequence

system of phasors? a zero sequence system of phasors?

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6-23. How can a system of three phasors be resolved into the sum of 3 systems

of phasors of positive sequence, negative sequence, and zero sequence, respec-

tively?

6-24. How is the zero sequence component of three voltages obtained graph-

ically?

6-26. What is the effect of changing the point of reference of the three sequence

components of three voltages?

140 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

6-26. How are the positive and negative sequence components obtained

graphically?

6-27. What is a sequence operator?

6-28. Do sequence operators obey the laws of exponentials?

6-29. How are sequence operators multiplied? Illustrate.

6-30. How are sequence operators divided? Illustrate.

6-31. What are the conjugates of S, S\'a.nd S2?

6-32. What happens to the sequence components of a system of phasors IB,

h, Ic if h is taken as the first phasor or if lc is taken as the first phasor?

6-33. Express the sequence components of the phasor product (voltage) in

terms of the sequence components of the factors (current X impedance).

6-34. What are the sequence components of the conjugate of a system of

phasors?

6-36. The total average power phasor in a 3-phase system is EJ*a + &/** +

EJ*c where Ea, Eb, Ec are the three line to neutral voltages and /<,, h, Ic the line

currents.

Find the expression of this power in terms of the symmetrical components

EaQ, Eal, E2, IaO, foli 'o2-

6-36. Two-phase motors are used extensively. The ideal 2-phase motor is

one in which the stator has two similar windings sinusoidally distributed, dis-

placed 90 electrical degrees, and supplied by two voltages at 90 degrees in time

position. The rotor windings are symmetrical, of the squirrel-cage or wound

type. The air gap flux in such a motor is revolving at synchronous speed in

what may be called the forward direction. It is a well-known fact that, if the

leads of one of the stator phases are interchanged, the direction of the air gap

revolving field will be reversed and the air gap flux will revolve in what may be

called the backward direction.

Consider a system of two phasors (Ki, V2).

(a) Express it as the sum of a forward system and a backward system.

(b) Find the forward and backward components, Vf and Vb, in terms of

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Vi and V2.

CHAPTER 7

APPLICATION OF SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

TO THREE-PHASE CIRCUITS

7-1. Kirchhoff's First Law. Let us consider the three-phase network

shown in Fig. 7-1-1. G\, G2, G3, are used to represent generators, and

L\, L2, L3, loads.

Only one conductor is shown, but it is understood that, in general,

there are three conductors. Let us indicate these conductors by a, b, c. The

same letters will be used as subscripts of currents and voltages to indicate

the phase being considered.

/' Na

w nil

n nc

A*

yr

Y'

ni

Fio. 7-1-2.

Ac

N is a node of the network, and Na, Nb, Nc the three corresponding

nodes on phases a, b, c, respectively, as shown in Fig. 7-1-2. By applying

Kirchhoff's first law successively to Na, Nb, Nc, we obtain

E/. = la + Ia" + U" + /.""

6+

Zh = ti + h" + ti" + h

E/c = Ic + h" + //" + I.""

=0

=0

=0

(7-1-1)

(7-1-3)

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(7-1-2)

Let us call E/a0, E/a\, E/a2 the zero, positive, and negative sequence

components of the currents /<,, Y.h, Hh- Then

^,, ^ (/. h + I.) la' + h' + U , la" + h" + I"

2^'aq 2^ Z = Z T

=0

141

142 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

(/. + ah + a2Ic) /' + aIb' + a%'

Z7.i = E

I " -1- T" -L 2r"

/a + a/fr + a ic = -

_< (/. + a2Ib + ah) Ia' + a2h' + ah'

Elrt-S 3 - |

| /." + a2h" + alc" | =Q

or

E/ao = Iao + Iao" + ho" + 0 (7-1-4)

E/ai = Iai + hi" + Iai" + 0 (7-1-5)

E/a2 = /a2' + /2" + Iai" + 0 (7-1-6)

From the last two equations,

a2E/ai = a2Iai' + a2Ial" + a2hx" + 0 (7-1-7)

aZh2 = ala2' + ala2" + ahi" + = 0 (7-1-8)

E/ai = ahi + ah" + aIax" + ' =0 (7-1-9)

a2E/2 = a2/a2' + a2/a2" + V + - 0 (7-1-10)

From these equations it is seen that each of the three sequence com-

ponents of the currents satisfies KirchhofT's first law. What has been said

for the node N holds true for any other node of the network.

The current distribution in each of the three phases o, b, c of the network

may therefore be visualized as the sum of three independent current dis-

tributions (independent as far as Kirchhoff's first law is concerned), the

zero, positive, and negative sequence current distributions.

For phase a there will be three distributions: the distribution of the zero

sequence current (Fig. 7-1-3 ao and Eq. 7-1-4); the distribution of the

positive sequence current (Fig. 7-1-3 a\ and Eq. 7-1-5); and the dis-

tribution of the negative sequence current (Fig. 7-1-3 a2 and Eq. 7-1-6).

For each of the phases 6 and c there will be three distributions as shown

in Fig. 7-1-3 (b0, b\, b2 and c0, c\, c2 respectively).

So far we have considered only Kirchhoff's first law. We shall consider

the second law in Arts. 7-6 and 7-7. We shall find that the nine currents of

Fig. 7-1-3 in general are not independent as far as the second law is con-

cerned. In the most general case, that is, when the three phases a, b, c are

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unsymmetrical and inductively coupled, any one of the nine currents is

affected by the mutual induction from the other eight. When the three

phases a, b, c are symmetrical and inductively coupled, there is mutual

APPLICATION TO THREE-PHASE CIRCUITS 143

induction only between currents of the same sequence, but no mutual in-

duction between currents of different sequence; that is, in Fig. 7-1-3 there is

mutual induction only among the networks situated on the same vertical.

Phase a

Phase 6

Phase c

'oO

'ol

'.2

'o2

'.0

Ot%2

/>

Fig.

7-

1-3.

When the three phases a, b, c are unsymmetrical but not inductively

coupled, there is mutual induction only among the networks situated on

the same horizontal.

Equations 7-1-4, 7-1-5, 7-1-6, etc., may be obtained in a different

manner. Using the symbols of sequence operators, Eqs. 7-1-1, 7-1-2,

7-1-3 can be written

ST,Ia = SIa' + SIa" + SIa'" + = 0

where

SIa = 'aq ~\~ S la\ + S la2

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SIa = O Iao + S Ia\ + S 72

After a few substitutions, we obtain from the above equations:

S(/ao' + W + ) =0

Sl(Ial' + la" + ) =0

SW + Ia2" + ) =0

which are identical with Eqs. 7-1-4, 7-1-5, 7-1-6, etc.

Before passing to the consideration of Kirchhoff's second law, let us apply

the foregoing conclusions to a few particular instances in order to clarify

the general principles involved.

7-2. Wye-Wye Transformation. The generator in Fig. 7-2-1 supplies

a load through a wye-wye transformer with grounded neutrals. The neutral

of the generator is grounded and so is the neutral of the load. The return

144 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

ground paths are shown by broken lines. Ia, h, Ic and /', Ib', Ie' are the

primary and secondary currents. In terms of symmetrical components

they are

SIa = (la, h, h) = ulaq + S'/ai + S2/a2

SIa = (Ja , h , h ) ~ O Ia0 + S Iai + S /2

As has been said, each sequence component may be supposed to flow

independently of the others. The zero sequence currents flowing in phases

a, b, c are equal in magnitude and phase. In compliance with Kirchhoff s

Transformer

Fio. 7-2-1.

first law applied to the neutrals, they can flow only if a return path is

provided. The return current will be three times the zero sequence current

flowing in each wire. No return path is necessary for the positive and nega-

tive sequence currents. If the generator neutral were ungrounded, no

zero sequence current could flow in the primary circuit. Zero sequence

current could flow in the secondary circuit. However, with respect to it,

the transformer would behave as if its primary were open. Its magnitude

would therefore be limited by the large magnetizing impedance of the

secondary winding.

If the generator and transformer are grounded but the load is un-

grounded, or is delta-connected, no zero sequence current can flow in the

secondary. /a</ will be zero. Io does not need to be zero. However, with

respect to it, the transformer will behave as if its secondary were open and.

therefore, the impedance offered to its flow is very large, so large that in

practical calculations it is assumed that it is infinite and that /a0 cannot

flow.

7-3. Delta-Wye Transformation. Because the delta-wye connection,

with the neutral of the wye grounded, is so important, it is given a little

more consideration. In Fig. 7-3-1 is shown a delta load supplied over a

transmission line a, b, c. The delta-connected load may be the primary of a

transformer, or the stator of a motor, or any other kind of load connected in

that fashion. Ia, Ib, Ic are the three currents flowing in the supply line, and

^ao> 'o1, Ia2 their symmetrical components. Ia, Ib, Ic are the three current*

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flowing in the three legs of the delta and Ia0, Ia\, Iai are their component*

APPLICATION TO THREE-PHASE CIRCUITS

145

Then we have

S/. =

SI A -

/6, /c) = S/a0 + S1/ai +

IB, /C) = S%o + SlIA1

/. = /C - IB

and

from which we obtain

Ic = IB ~ I A

SIa = S/C - SIB

(7-3-1)

or

Ia + Ik + Ic = 0

/.o = 0

The first two equations will then become

S/a =

SIA =

SlIAl + S2IA2

(7-3-2)

As far as Kirchhoff's first law is concerned, the current distribution of

Fig. 7-3-1 is equal to the sum of the three current distributions of Fig.

Fio. 7-3-1.

7-3-2. The three currents IAO in the three legs of the delta (Fig. 7-3-2a)

are in phase, they have no correspondents in the three conductors a, b, c,

and therefore they represent circulating currents which may be present.

'., h, Ic can be calculated once IAi and IAZ are known, but, in order to

determine I A, IB, Ic, it is necessary to know /x0 as well.

In Fig. 7-3-3 is shown the network of Fig. 7-2-1 with the transformer

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delta-wye instead of wye-wye. The transformer is assumed to be of

146 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

additive polarity, although in practice power transformers are as a rule of

subtractive polarity. In this case no zero sequence current can flow in

conductors a, 6, c. Zero sequence current can flow in conductors a', b', c

and inside the delta. As far as Kirchhoffs first law is concerned, the current

distribution of Fig. 7-3-3 is equal to the sum of the three current distribu-

tions of Fig. 7-3-4. Needless to say, the ground returns in Fig. 7-3-4b and

7-3-4c are not necessary. Any change in the load affecting only the zero

~ iy\

- T^ \

*aO

\ , ft 7

,/^--o:A

.72

a2!',

sequence component, that is, /ao', will not affect /a, /6, /r at all, but will

affect I A, IB, Ic- The relations between Ial, /a2 and IA i, /^2 can be obtained

directly from Fig. 7-3-4 or from Eq. 7-3-1. Substituting Eq. 7-3-2 in

Eq. 7-3-1 gives

from which

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/o2 = (a2 a)/.i2 = ~j

APPLICATION TO THREE-PHASE CIRCUITS

147

or, conversely,

Iai = ~j

./.i

V3

(7-3-3)

Iai =;'

V3

If the three sides of the triangle of Fig. 7-3-5 represent the three currents

7,1, a2/ai\, a/ai in phase and magnitude, the three currents Ia\, c?Ia\, <*Iai

are represented in phase and magnitude by the phasors from the centroid

to the vertices of the triangle. Similarly, if the three sides of the triangle

of Fig. 7-3-6 represent the three currents Ia2, ala22, <*2Ia2 in phase and

magnitude, the three currents Ia2, <*Ia2, <^Ia2 are represented in phase and

magnitude by the phasors from the centroid to the vertices of the tri-

ZZx

Fig. 7-3-7.

angle. If, instead of taking as positive the counterclockwise direction for

the currents I a, Ib, Ic, as shown in Fig. 7-3-3, we take the opposite (clock-

wise) direction, as shown in Fig. 7-3-7, we shall arrive at the relations

Iai = a2Ia\ ~ aIAl = -jV3Ia\

. r (7~3-4)

7a2 = alA2 a IA2 ~ +J V 37x2

This is done phasorially in Fig. 7-3-8. We would obtain the same result if,

in Fig. 7-3-3, we changed the signs of 7, 76, Ic instead of reversing I a, Ib,

Ic- It is therefore clear that the sign of the relations between Ia\, 72, and

7/i\, T42 depends on the relative directions chosen as positive for the current

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systems SIa and S7^.

148

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

Fio. 7-3-8.

From Fig. 7-3-4, if a is the transformer ratio, we obtain

/a0 =

T'

/ol =

V3

(7-3-5)

f / f .o2

/o2 = iMx2 = J ^

V3

where a = ni/n2, ni and "2 being, respectively, the number of turns of the

delta and wye windings of the transformer.

7-4. Double Transformation. As another example, let us consider

the circuit a"b"c" in Fig. 7-4-1, supplied from another circuit abc by means

FIG. 7-4-1.

of two transformers and an intermediate line a'b'c'. n,

numbers of turns of the different transformer windings.

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i, n2, n3 are the

APPLICATION TO THREE-PHASE CIRCUITS 149

Let us determine the sequence components of the currents in a"b"c"

and in abc:

SIa = SIc - SIB

from which

J-V 2

= +j ^

Also from the figure,

Iai' = IAi = j p

fii ni Vo

7 "7 j- n /a2

'02 = 1x2 = +j

V3

Ial

V3

, / "2 . / . . nn2 /a2

M2 = 'o2 = -Tj -- 7^

"3 "l"3 V3

Now

SI." = S1c' - SIB'

and therefore

7"

/<,I =

'o2

In the above formulas, reference has been made only to the currents

from abc that reach a"b"c", that is, to positive and negative sequence

current components. If S/x has a zero sequence component, this will

appear in SIa' and SI A', changed by the ratio of transformation of the

two transformers.

7-5. Currents Expressed in Per Unit. For the reasons given in

Chapter 3, in short-circuit calculations it is convenient to express currents

in per unit on a given base kva, because, in passing through a transformer,

if it is wye-wye (as shown, for instance, in Fig. 7-2-1), the per unit values

as well as the phase positions of the currents remain unchanged. If the

transformer is delta-wye (as shown in Fig. 7-3-3), the per unit values of

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the currents remain unchanged but their phase positions change by an

angle of 90.

150 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

Consider again Fig. 7-3-4b. Let En, En' be the normal line to neutral

voltages on the generator side and on the wye side of the transformer,

respectively. Since a = ni/n2 is the ratio of transformation,

\/3X = aEn' (7-5-1)

Let kva be the base kilovolt-amperes, /a, /An, and /a' the normal currents

on the generator side, inside the delta, and on the wye side of the trans-

former, respectively. Then, from Chapter 3,

1000 kva , 1000 kva

3En 3En'

Ia \/3 1000 kva

Thus, because of Eq. 7-5-1, the three normal currents satisfy the^elations

In = /a = V3/A.

The sequence components of Figs. 7-3-4a, 7-3-4b, 7-3-4c satisfy Eqs.

7-3-5. Expressing these currents in per unit, from the above relations

and Eqs. 7-3-5, we obtain

Positive

Sequence

Negative

Sequence

Zero

Sequence

Generator side

/.i

/.

-I.,.

'f = /.

Wye side of trans-

former

/alu

= 77

, ,_/..'

/ot, = YT

/.. , ,

= -J/.i.

= y/.j.

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-j"i *,n,

Inside the delta

. _ IAI _ /.i'

/Xl /.t

/xo /.o

winding

= /A. /.'

/An /n

7Z ~ 77

= /,lu' = jItlt.

= ;7.i.

= /.o.

That is, the sequence components of the currents in per unit of the normal

currents, respectively, on the generator side (/a), on the wye side (/n').

and inside the delta winding (/An) of the transformer are equal in mag-

nitude, except, of course, that the zero sequence currents on the wye

side have no counterparts on the generator side. Thus, in per unit form.

Figs. 7-3-4a, 7-3-4b, and 7-3^c will become Figs. 7-5-1a, 7-5-lb, and

7-5-1c, where the subscript ?/ indicates per unit quantities.

APPLICATION TO THREE-PHASE CIRCUITS

151

'aOu

b mh

/c

Eb

E* Return r

5- 3/aT

Fio. 7-6-1.

7-6. Kirchhoff's Second Law. The General Case with Unsymmetrical

Phases. So far we have considered the distribution of the zero, positive,

and negative sequence current components in relation to Kirchhoff's first

law. Let us investigate now how the

same components behave in relation to

Kirchhoff's second law. In Fig. 7-6-1 is

a branch of the network of Fig. 7-1-1,

for instance, the branch between two sec-

tions A, A'. Again, a, b, c are the three

conductors. Ea, Eb, Ec are the voltages in

A, from o, b, c, respectively, to the point

O chosen as point of reference for the volt-

ages in section A, usually the ground in

section A. Ea', Eb, Ec' are the voltages

from a, b, c in A' to 0', the point of reference for the voltages in section A',

usually the ground in section A'. E is the voltage drop from 0' to 0.

The three currents /, Ib, Ic flowing in the three conductors a, b, c, after

having passed through the utilizing devices will return to the points of

generation via the return circuit. The return circuit, generally constituted

of return wires, piping systems, and the ground itself, is not similar to the

network of the main conductors although it follows the latter topographi-

cally.

Since the main and the return networks are topographically similar,

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the three currents /a, Ib, Ic, flowing, respectively, in the three conductors

152 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

of a branch of the main network, will return through the corresponding

branch of the return. The total return current is

la + h + h = 3/a0

Let us call

Mar the coefficient of mutual induction between a and r, the return

network

Mor the coefficient of mutual induction between 6 and r, the return

network

Mcr the coefficient of mutual induction between c and r, the return

network

Mb the coefficient of mutual induction between a and b

Mbc the coefficient of mutual induction between 6 and c

Mca the coefficient of mutual induction between c and a

Let Za be the impedance of conductor a between the two sections, A, A1,

when considered isolated from any other conductor; Zb, Zc the impedances

of b and c, respectively, in similar circumstances. Let the M's and the Z's,

that is, the constants of the circuit, be independent of the current flowing

through and the voltage applied to the conductors.

From Fig. 7-6-1,

Ea - Ea' = ZJa + jw(MabIb + MacIc - ZMarIM) + E (7-6-1)

Eh - Eb' = ZbIb + jw(MbcIc + M^h - WbrIao) + E (7-6-2)

Er - Ec' = ZcIc + jo,(McaIa + McbIb - 3Mer/o) + E (7-6-3)

where w = 2wf, and / = frequency, and, as already stated, E is the voltage

drop from 0' to 0 given by

E = Zg(Ia + Ib + Ic) - MM aria + MbrIb + M erIc)

111 terms of symmetrical components,

SEa = (Ea, Eb, Er) SEao + S Eai + S Ea2

SEa = (Ea , Eb , Ec ) = yEao + S Ea\ + S Ea2

SIa = (Ia, h, Ic) = O /o + S Ia\ -\- S /2

SZa = (Za, Zb, Zc) = T Zao + S Za\ + S Za2

SMao = (Mab, Mbc, Mca) = SA/a60 + SlMabl + S2A/a62

SMar = (Mar, Mbr, Mcr) = SMar0 + SlMarl + S*Mar2

SIb = (Ib, Ic, la) = SIa0 + a2S7ol + aS2Ia*

Sic = (Ic, la, h) = SIa0 + aS'/al + *2S2Ia2

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SMar = (Mca, Mab, Mbc) = SMabq + aSlMabi + a2S2Mab2

APPLICATION TO THREE-PHASE CIRCUITS 153

Substituting these expressions in the equation

SEa - SEa' = SZaSIa + ju(SMabSIb + SMaeSIc - 3Ia0SMar) + SE

obtained from Eqs. 7-6-1, 7-6-2, 7-6-3, we have

- .o') + Sl(Etl - *.,') + S2(Ea2 - *.2')

(SZa0

- 3/ao(SMor0 +

= o Zo/aO + S Zao

+ O Zai/a2 "I" S

S Za

ao +

SMabiIa2

- S3/aoMar0 -

from which we obtain

"(^o2 ~ ^a2 ) = S \Za0Ia2

+ ja)

+ a2

and finally

+ SlIa, + S2/a2)

S2Mab2)(SIa0 + a2Sl

aS2Ia2)

S Z,,\l ,\

+ S2MMIa0

a2S2MaboIo2

~ 3/a0Mar0)

<XMab2Ia2 3

.,/.,. + Za2IaO

+ a*Mabi1ai + Mab2Ia0

a2MablIal + a2Mab2Ia0 -

o - 3Mar0])

M) + E\

(., - .,') = |/ao(Z, -;o,[a2Ma61 + 33/orl])

(7-6-4)

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(7-6-5)

154 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

+ 3Mar2])

) } (7-6-6)

The voltage drop E from 0' to 0 is given by

= 3Z/aO - ju(/aMor + ItM* + /eJfer)

where / is the self-impedance of the return circuit between the two points

0 and 0'. Now

SIaSMar = (IaMar, ItMbr, IcMcr)

= (S/a0 + S'/.! + 52/a2)(SMor0

Thus IaMar + IbMbr + IcMcr is equal to three times the zero sequence

component of SIaSMar, which, from the above, is

Therefore

E=

Substituting this expression of E in Eq. 7-6-4, we obtain

Eao - Ea0' = Ia0[Za0 + 3Zg + ju(2MM - 63for0)]

,)] (7-6-7)

Equations 7-6-4, 7-6-5, and 7-6-6 apply in the general case. Equations

7-6-5, 7-6-6, and 7-6-7 apply when 0 and 0' are chosen on the return

network, usually the ground in sections A and A'. Equations 7-6-7,

7-6-5, and 7-6-6 may be briefly rewritten as follows:

EaO ^ao = ZooIao ~1~ Z0Jai + Z,,j /..._ (76-8)

Eai - Eai' = ZioIa0 + ZnIal + Zi2/a2 (7-6-9)

EaZ Erf = Z :, !,.,, + Z2iIal + Z22/2 (7-6~10)

where

Z00 = ZaO + 3Z8 + Ju(2MaW - 6-Mar0)

= impedance to zero sequence cur-

rents with symmetrical phases (7-6-11)

Z0i = Za2 ju(aMab2 + 33for2)

= mutual impedance from the posi-

tive sequence into the zero

sequence network (7-6-12)

Z02 = Zal -ju(a2MM + 3Mari)

= mutual impedance from the

negative sequence into the zero

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sequence network (7-6-13)

APPLICATION TO THREE-PHASE CIRCUITS

155

mutual impedance from the zero

sequence into the positive

sequence network

(7-6-14)

impedance to positive sequence

currents with symmetrical phases

mutual impedance from the

negative sequence into the

positive sequence network

mutual impedance from the zero

sequence into the negative

sequence network

Zai + j2ua2Mabi

mutual impedance from the

positive into the negative

sequence network

impedance to negative sequence

currents with symmetrical phases

(7-6-15)

(7-6-16)

(7-6-17)

(7-6-18)

(7-6-19)

Equations similar to Eqs. 7-6-4, 7-6-5, 7-6-6, or the equivalent Eqs.

7-6-8, 7-6-9, 7-6-10, may be written for every branch of the given network.

They all would show that, as far as Kirchhoff 's second law is concerned, the

three components of the voltages, in general, are not independent. In

general, therefore, the three networks of Figs. 7-3-4a, 7-3-4b, 7-3-4c are

not independent, but they must be visual-

ized as superimposed the one on the other.

For the purpose of determining the current

distribution, as far as Kirchhoff 's first law

is concerned, they may be analyzed inde-

pendently, but when Kirchhoff 's second law

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comes into play they must be brought to-

gether and superimposed. If they are con-

sidered separately, they should be mutually

coupled with mutual impedances, between any two sequences, depending

on the direction in which they are taken, as shown in Fig. 7-6-2 and given

by Eqs. 7-6-12, 7-6-13, 7-6-14, 7-6-16, 7-6-17, and 7-6-18.

Fio. 7-6-2.

166 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

Thus it is apparent that, in general, the coefficient of mutual of one

sequence into another is not equal to the coefficient of mutual of the latter

into the former and so we are led to the conclusion that the theory of

symmetrical components, in the general case, does not introduce any sim-

plification of practical importance.

7-7. Kirchhoff's Second Law. Complete Symmetry. Let us apply the

equations of the preceding article to the ideal case of a line composed of

three identical conductors symmetrically located with respect to each other

and with respect to the return path. A three-conductor cable, when the

return path is constituted only by the sheath and the three conductors are

exactly alike and symmetrically located with respect to each other and

to the sheath, is a case of complete symmetry. For such a line,

Za = Zb = Zc = ZaO

Mab = Mbc = Mca M. ato

Mar = Mbr = Mcr = MarO

from which

Z.i = Z*2 = 0

Mabi = Mab2 = 0

Marl = Mar2 = 0

Thus Eqs. 7-6-7, 7-6-5, 7-6-6, and their equivalent Eqs. 7-6-8, 7-6-9,

and 7-6-10, become

- 3Mor0)]

= S/aoZoo (7-7-1)

Sl(Eal - Eai') = S'/al[Za0 - j<oMaW] = S'/.,*!! (7-7-2)

~ Eat) = S2Ia2[Za0 - juMabo] = S2IaZM (7-7-3)

These equations were written for the circuit between the two sections ..4

and A' of the network shown in Fig. 7-1-1 . Let the conditions of symmetry

assumed for this circuit be satisfied by all circuits of the network. A set of

equations similar to Eqs. 7-7-1, 7-7-2, 7-7-3 can be written for each circuit.

At the same time, a set of equations similar to Eqs. 7-1-4, 7-1-5, 7-1-6,

7-1-7, 7-1-8, 7-1-9, and 7-1-10 can be written for each node of the net-

work. All these equations, those similar to Eqs. 7-1-4, 7-1-5, 7-1-6,

7-1-7, 7-1-8, 7-1-9, and 7-1-10, and those similar to Eqs. 7-7-1, 7-7-2,

and 7-7-3, exist simultaneously. The resistance, inductance, and capaci-

tance, in other words, the constants, of the circuits under consideration are

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here assumed to be independent of the current flowing through, and the

APPLICATION TO THREE-PHASE CIRCUITS 157

voltages applied to, them. All equations similar to Eqs. 7-1-4 and 7-7-1

are the equations that would be written if only the zero sequence com-

ponents of the voltages were applied to the network and the other com-

ponents neglected. It is to be remembered that Eq. 7-1-4 applies to all

three phases. Similarly, all equations similar to Eqs. 7-1-5, 7-1-7, 7-1-9,

and 7-7-2 are the equations of the same network when only the positive

sequence components of the voltages are applied and the zero and negative

sequence components neglected. Again, all equations similar to Eqs.

7-1-6, 7-1-8, 7-1-10, and 7-7-3 are the equations of the network that

would be obtained if the negative sequence components of the voltages

only were considered and the other components disregarded. This means

that, if the conditions of symmetry and of the independence of the circuit

constants from currents and voltages are satisfied, the network of Fig.

7-1-1 can be studied by separately applying to it the zero positive and

negative sequence components of the generator emf 'a and adding the results.

This completes the statement of Art. 7-1 that, as far as Kirchhoff 'a first

law is concerned, the three current components may be considered inde-

pendently. Because each sequence is considered separately in Fig. 7-1-3,

there is mutual coupling only among the currents on the same vertical.

Consequently, we reach this important conclusion:

Symmetrical networks, composed of circuits whose constants are

independent of the currents flowing through and the voltage applied

to them, can be studied and analyzed by applying separately each of

the three sequence components of the generator emf's and adding

the results.

In this conclusion lies the great practical importance of the theory of

symmetrical components.

Strictly speaking, in practice there are no circuits whose constants are

independent of the currents and voltages respectively flowing through and

applied to them. In general, for all practical purposes, circuits of networks

met with in practice may, however, be assumed to satisfy this requirement.

This applies especially to circuits which do not contain magnetic materials,

such as copper and aluminum conductors. For circuits which contain

magnetic materials, as transformers and generators, an average value may

be chosen for the permeability of the material with very satisfactory

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results from the practical standpoint. As an example, to clarify further the

underlying principles, let us consider again the network of Fig. 7-2-1. In

Art. 7-1 we established that, as far as Kirchhoff's first law is concerned, the

current distribution in this network is equal to the sum of the current dis-

tributions of Figs. 7-7-1, 7-7-2, and 7-7-3; that is, the currents in phases

, b, c of Fig. 7-2-1 are equal to the sum of the currents in phases a, 6, c,

respectively, of Figs. 7-7-1, 7-7-2, and 7-7-3. Nothing was or could be

158

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

/no

'oO

Fio. 7-7-1.

said at that time regarding the calculation of the currents in the networks

of these figures.

'a,

a2/'

al

at.

al

a/'

al

Fio. 7-7-2.

The conclusions of the present article permit us to go one step further.

If the conductors of the network are identical, and symmetrically located

with respect to each other and to the return path, the network of Fig

Fio. 7-7-3.

7-2-1 can be studied by applying separately the three sequence components

of the applied voltages as shown in Figs. 7-7-4, 7-7-5, and 7-7-6 and

adding the results. The networks of these figures are identical with the

network of Fig. 7-2-1 in all respects except for the generator emf's. We

/.

.o

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FIG. 7-7-4.

APPLICATION TO THREE-PHASE CIRCUITS

159

know now how to calculate the currents of Figs. 7-7-1, 7-7-2, and 7-7-3.

Furthermore, we also know how to calculate the voltage distribution of the

network of Fig. 7-2-1. This voltage distribution can be obtained by noting

that the voltage between any two points of the network of Fig. 7-2-1 is

I"2/.!

b[

1 ti

f;

a/.,

C1 tt/al

FIG. 7-7-5.

equal to the sum of the voltages between the three corresponding sets of

points of the networks of Figs. 7-7-4, 7-7-5, and 7-7-6. In these figures

it was assumed that the generator generates the system of emf's:

SE

that is, that it generates emf's of all three sequences. This is not generally

the case. Generators usually generate only emf's of positive sequence.

Occasionally, however, conditions may arise in a network which are equiva-

aEgaZ L 1

FIG. 7-7-6.

lent to having connected to it one or more generators generating emf's of

sequences other than positive. Figures 7-7-4, 7-7-5, and 7-7-6 were

derived by starting from Eqs. 7-7-1, 7-7-2, and 7-7-3. Conversely, these

equations may be written from Figs. 7-7-4, 7-7-5, and 7-7-6 respectively.

This is an important conclusion of which we shall make use in determining

the impedance of a circuit to the flow of currents of different sequences in

practical cases when the condition Zai = ZaZ = 0 is satisfied but conditions

-Won = Mabz = Mari = Mar2 = 0 are not satisfied completely. In these

cases, Mabi, Mat2, Marl, Mar2, though different from zero, are small. They

can thus be neglected with no great loss of accuracy but tremendous gain

in simplicity, since this very assumption permits treating the circuit as a

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symmetrical circuit so that Eqs. 7-7-1, 7-7-2, and 7-7-3 can be applied.

160 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

7-8. Power in Three-Phase Circuits, f So far we have dealt only with

currents and voltages. We have found that the distribution of the sym-

metrical components of currents and voltages in a symmetrical three-phase

network may be obtained by separately applying to the same network each

of the three sequence components of the generator emf's. Thus the dis-

tribution of the sequence components of the currents and voltages of the

network shown in Fig. 7-2-1 is obtained by applying separately each of

the three sequence components of the generator emf's as shown in Figs.

7-7-4, 7-7-5, and 7-7-6. The question now arises, can the power in a

section of the network of Fig. 7-2-1 be obtained from the power in the

corresponding circuits of Figs. 7-7-4, 7-7-5, and 7-7-6 and, if so, how?

In order to answer this question, let us first write the expression for the

power in a section of a three-phase circuit in terms of the symmetrical

components of its voltages and currents. Let us refer again to Fig. 7-6-1

and assume that this figure represents the portion of the circuit of Fig.

7-2-1 between the two sections A and A'. In accordance with the con-

vention of Art. 1-6, the instantaneous power flowing at A in each phase

is given by the real components of

Pa = EJ\ + EJa

Pb = >/*6 + EbIb

Pc = EcI\ + EJc

in which the symbols used for currents and voltages indicate effective

values. Symbolically, these three equations may be written

SPa = SPa0 + SlPal + S2Pa2 = S (EJ\) + S(EJa)

where Pa0, Pal, Pa2 are the symmetrical components of the three power

phasors, Pa, Pb, Pc', that is,

Pa ~ PaO + ^*al + Pa2

Pb = PaO + ""Pal + aPa2

Pc = PaO + aPai + <X2Pa2

Then

SPa = (SEa0 + SlEal + S2Ea2)(&,I*a0 + SlI*a2 + S2I*al)

f C. Fortescue, "The Measurement of Power in Polyphase Circuits," Transactions,

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AIEE, XLII, 358-71.

APPLICATION TO THREE-PHASE CIRCUITS 161

The actual power of the circuit is obtained by taking the real component

of Pa + Pb + Pc- From Arts. 6-15 and 6-16 we have

S(Pa) = SPa0 + SlPai + S2Pa2

EaoIa0 + S Ea0Iai + iS EaoIa2

+ 'Si Ea\Ia2 + S Eaila0 + S Eailai

+ yEa2Ial + S Ea2Ia2 + S Ea2Ia0

+ SEa0I*a0 + SlEa0I*a2 + S2Ea0I*al

+ Sal/*al + S'^,/%0 + S2EalI*a2

+ Sa2/*a2 + S'^/*,, + S2a2/*a0

This is the general expression for the phasors representing the instantaneous

power flowing in a section (such as A of Fig. 7-2-1) of a three-phase circuit,

in terms of the symmetrical components of currents and voltages. From

the last expression for S(P) we obtain

Paq = Ea()I*a0 + Eail*ai + Ea2I*a2 + Eaola(0 + Eaila2 + Ea2Iai (7-8-1)

Pal ~ Ea0I*a2 + EaiI*a0 + Ea2I*ai + a0^ol + EalIa0 + Ea2Ia2 (7-8-2)

Pal EaoI*al + Ea\I*a2 -I- Ea2I*ao + ao/a2 + Ealla\ + Ea2Ia0 (7-8 3)

The power in phase a is represented by

Po = Pa0 + Pol + ^a2

The instantaneous real power in phase a is given by the real component of

Pa. From the three networks obtained by applying separately the three

symmetrical components of the generator emf's, as shown in Figs. 7-7-4,

7-7-5, and 7-7-6, the sum of the phasors representing the instantaneous

powers flowing in phase a of the three corresponding sections A0, A\, A2 of

the three figures is

(EaoI*aq + Ea0Iao) + (Ea\I*a\ + Eallai) + (Ea2I*a2 + Ea2Ia2)

wrhich is different from the expression for Pa obtained from Eqs. 7-8-1,

7-8-2, and 7-8-3. The same conclusion is arrived at for phases b and c.

Thus the instantaneous power of any phase in any section A of the network

of Fig. 7-2-1 cannot be obtained by adding the instantaneous powers of

the corresponding phases in the corresponding sections A0, A\, and A2 of

Figs. 7-7-4, 7-7-5, and 7-7-6. The reason is that, in each phase of the

network of Fig. 7-2-1, there is interaction between voltage and current

components of different sequences. In the networks of Figs. 7-7-4, 7-7-5,

and 7-7-6 this interaction is lost. What about the total instantaneous

power, that is, the sum of the instantaneous powers in the three phases in

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section A? By adding Eqs. 7-8-1, 7-8-2, and 7-8-3, we see that this power

162 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

is given by the real component of the phasor:

Pt = Pa + Pk + Pc = 3Pa0

= 3(a0/*a0 + al/*ol + a2/*a2)

+ 3 (Ea0Ia0 + EalIa2 + Ea2Ial) (7-8-4)

The first component

Pa, = 3(a0/*ao -(- .i/*ai + Ea2I\2) = P+jQ (7-8-5)

represents the average power, the second component, 3(Ea0Ia0 + ai/a2 +

Ea2Ial), represents the double frequency component of the total instan-

taneous power in section A of the network. The expression we arrive at

by adding the instantaneous powers in the three corresponding sections

A0, Ai, A2 of the networks of Figs. 7-7-4, 7-7-5, and 7-7-6 is

which is also different from the vector representing the sum of the instan-

taneous powers in the three conductors, as given by Eq. 7-8-4. Again,

the reason is that in Figs. 7-7-4, 7-7-5, and 7-7-6 there is no interaction

whatsoever between voltages and currents of different sequences, while the

expression for Pt contains terms including voltages and currents of different

sequences. The average power, as obtained by adding the average powers

in sections A0, Ai, and A2 of Figs. 7-7-4, 7-7-5, and 7-7-6, is represented

by

Q I JC" 7 * i JP 7 * 'V T * I - - P

"f^oO* oO T **ol* al T *>o2' o2l "'or

and coincides with Eq. 7-8-5 obtained for section A of Fig. 7-2-1. We can

therefore conclude that the average power Pat in any section A of the net-

work of Fig. 7-2-1 is equal to the sum of the average powers in the corre-

sponding sections A0, Ai, and A2 of Figs. 7-7-4, 7-7-5, and 7-7-6. The

real component of P is the average true power. Its imaginary component

is the reactive power.

Let <po, <pi, <f2 be the phase angle differences, respectively, between Jo0,

Eal, Ea2 and /oo, /ai, /a2- In terms of <pO, <fi, <f2, we have

Pan = 3(EaoIao COS <po + ^ol^ol COS ipi + Ea2Ia2 COS ^2)

+ j3(ao/a0 sin <f0 + EalIal sin <pi + Ea2Ia2 sin <&) (7-S-6)

It will be recalled that a lagging current gives rise to positive reactive

power and vice versa.

7-9. Power Factor in Terms of Symmetrical Components. For a

single-phase circuit, power factor is defined as follows. Let

and

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P = true component of average power or simply true or active power

Q = reactive component of average power or simply reactive power

APPLICATION TO THREE-PHASE CIRCUITS 163

Then p

Power factor (pf) =

The power factor for a polyphase circuit is also defined by this expression.

From Eq. 7-8-6, for a three-phase circuit,

P = true component of total average power

= i-iiA',,,,/,.,, COS ipo + EaiIai COS <pi + Ea2Ia2 COS <py)

Q = reactive component of total average power

= 3(#oO/aO Sin <fo + EalIal Sin <pi + Ea2Ia2 Sin <&)

Thus, dropping the subscript a for simplicity, that is, letting /,, - /,,,

fai = 11,1*2 = 12, etc.,

0/0 COS ipo + EiIi COS <pi + E2I2 COS tp2

pf =

j(EoIo cos <po + EJi cos <p1 + E2I2 cos <p2)

\ + (E0I0 sin <f0 + EII i sin <pi + E2I2 sin ?,2)2

/?0/0 COS ^Q + EiIi COS ^i + .Z?2/2 COS <p2

JE02I02 COS2 ^0 + l2/!2 COS2 *>, + 22/22 COS2 <&

+2E0I0ElIi cos <po cos ^i + 2EoIoE2I2 cos *io cos

cos ^i cos ^2 + 02/o2 sin2 ^o + #i2/i2 sin2

sin2 ^2 + 2EoIoEiIi sin ^0 sin vi

! sm <po sin <& + ziYiA2/2 sm <pi sin

Doting that

cos <PO cos <pi + sin <p$ sin <pi = cos (^o ~ <P\)

cos ipo cos <p2 + sin ^0 sin <p2 cos (*io ^2)

cos ^i cos ^2 ~\~ sin ^i sin ^2 = cos (<pi ip2)

we obtain

EnIn COS Wn ~i~ ^1/1 COS ipi + /?2/2 COS ipZ

P ,_ -

COS (^0 ~

, COS (*i0 *i2) + Ai/1A'2/2 COS (^i

or, dividing the numerator and denominator by EiIi and lettingf

T 0 jf if

Ei Ii

E* /2 ^

A2 ~ A2i

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f J. F. Lamb and D. B. Brandt, "Vector Power Factor of a 3 Phase Circuit," Electrical

Engineering, LXVIII, No. 11 (Nov. 1949), 957.

164 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

VP2 + Q2

KO COS ifo + COS ip i + K2 COS *i2

1 + K0* + K22

+2{Ko cos (<po <pl) + K2 cos (<p2 <fl) + KoK2 cos (<PO

The ratios 0/^1 = ^o and E2/El = K2v are called, respectively, the

zero and negative sequence voltage unbalance factors. Similarly the ratios

/o/A = ^ot and /2// i = K2i are called, respectively, the zero and negative

sequence current unbalance factors.

7-10. Losses in Terms of Symmetrical Components. Let Ra, Rb, Rc

be, respectively, the resistances of the three conductors a, b, c of the three-

phase circuit through which the three currents /., /6, Ic are flowing. The

losses in the three resistances are

W = RaI2 + RbIb* + c/c2

This expression may be written in the form

and is equal to three times the zero sequence component of SRaSIaSI*a.

where

SRa = (Ra, Rb, Rc) ~ >RaO ~H S Ral ~\~ S Ra2

SIaSI*a = (/./*a, V*6, /e/*c )

= (S/a0 + S'/., + ^Ia^(^I\0 + SlI*a2

= S(/a0/*.o + /ai/*al + /a2/*a2)

+ /ai/*aO + /a2/*al )

+ /.,/* + /a2/*oo)

We see that, in general, the expression for the losses in terms of sym-

metrical components is quite complex. Usually, however, Ra = Rb =

Rc = R, and the expression for the losses W becomes

W = 3R(/a02 + /,2 + /a22)

This value can be obtained directly by noting that, under the assumed

condition of complete symmetry, losses in the actual network are equal to

the sum of the losses in the three sequence networks. The same conclusion

applies to the reactive power absorbed by three reactances Xa, Xb, Xc

through which the three currents /., /6, /c are flowing. If the three react-

ances are equal, that is, if

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Xa = Xb = Xc = X

APPLICATION TO THREE-PHASE CIRCUITS

165

the reactive power required by them is

3X(/02 + Jal2 + Ia22)

7-11. Symmetrical Networks with Unbalanced Loads. In common

practice it often happens that unbalanced loads are connected to an other-

wise symmetrical network or to a network that can be, or is, considered

symmetrical. It also happens that parts of a symmetrical network become

temporarily unsymmetrical, as, for instance, during fault or switching

conditions. The conclusions of the preceding articles which lead to Figs.

7-7-4, 7-7-5, and 7-7-6 may be extended to cover these networks by re-

moving the unbalanced loads, or unsymmetrical parts, and applying in

their stead equivalent voltages. In the subsequent analysis these equiva-

lent voltages must be considered generator emf's, although they are not

known a priori.

This procedure will lead to the formulation of the relations between the

sequence components of the unknown equivalent voltages, the system

generator emf's, and the constants of the network. In general, these rela-

tions are complex and of laborious solution; however, in special cases of

great practical importance they are very easy to solve and permit in a

simple manner the solution of problems that otherwise, and at best, would

be very difficult to solve.

An example will facilitate the understanding of the principles involved.

We have in Fig. 7-11-1 a three-phase symmetrical network. G\, (?2,

G3, , G are generators. L\ is a balanced load. Eia, Eib, Eu, E2a,

E^b, E2c , i Ena, Enb, Ec are the emf's generated by the generators. For

simplicity only three generators are shown in Fig. 7-11-1. Let us now con-

E3b^ E3c

Fig. 7-11-1.

nect to the network the unbalanced loads L2, L3, L4, , in different sec-

tions T, Q, R, , as shown in Fig. 7-11-2. Let ETa, ETb, Etc, Eqa, Eq,,,

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Eqc, Etta, Enb, Erc, be the voltages existing from the three conductors to

166

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

neutral in sections T, Q, R, . ITa, hb, ITc, /Qa, /6, IQc, IRa, IRb, IRc,

are the currents supplied, respectively, by the three conductors to the

loads in the same sections. Some of these currents may be zero. Let

/io, /i6, Iic, /2o, /2b, hc, ", /no, /n6, /TIc be the currents supplied by the

generators. Let I La, ILb, ILc indicate the currents supplied to the balanced

load. As positive directions of the different currents and voltages, let us

FIG. 7-11-2.

choose those indicated in Fig. 7-1 1-2, that is, as positive direction for the

generators we assume the one from neutral to conductor terminal and, for

the loads, from the conductor terminal to the neutral. We can now elim-

inate the unbalanced loads, and in their stead apply, respectively, the emf's

ETa, ETb, ETc, EQa, EQb, EQc, ERa, ERb, ERc, from the neutral to the

conductors as shown in Fig. 7-11-3. The generators' emf's may be sym-

metrical or unsymmetrical. In practice they are symmetrical; however, for

greater generality, let us assume that they are not symmetrical. Let

SEla = (Ela, El(,, EIc) = iSi EIO + S EH + jS 12

SE2a = (Eya, Eft), EZc) = -S, 20 4 S E21 -\- S EM

SEna = (Ena, Enb, Enc) = Sn0 + SlERl

SETa = (ETa, ETb, ETc) = SETO + SlETl + S2ET2

SEQa = (EQa, EQb, EQc) = iSi EQO 4- S EQI + S EQ2

SEKa = (Ena, ERb, ERc) = SERO + SlERi + S2ER2

6, /,r) = S/

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io

APPLICATION TO THREE-PHASE CIRCUITS

167

SI2a = (/2a, /2t, /2e) = .S/20 + S1/2i + S2/22

S/na = (/na, /.6, /) = S/nO + S1/nl + S2/n2

5/r. = (/r ITb, /r.) = S/ro + S1/n + .S%2

S/Qa = (/Qo, /Q6, /Qc) = S/QO + S'IQi + S2IQ2

SIRa = (/., /A6 , /*e)

5/i. = (/i., /, /i.) = .S/iO + S1/Ll + S2/

L2

The network of Fig. 7-11-3 may now be considered a symmetrical network

with emf's applied at GI, G2, G3, , T, Q, R, . The conclusions of the

FIG. 7-11-3.

preceding articles can therefore be applied to it; that is, it can be studied by

considering separately the networks of Figs. 7-11-4, 7-11-5, 7-11-6.

To be sure, the voltages ET0, ETi, ET2, EQO, EQI, EQ2, ER0, ERi, ER2,

of these figures are not known; however, we shall soon show how, starting

from these figures, we can express them and the sequence components

ho, ITI, Ir2, IQO, IQI, IQZ, of the currents supplied to the unbalanced

loads, in terms of the sequence components of the generators' emf's and of

the constants of the network. Once ETO, ETi, ET2, EQo, EQI, ij2, are

known, the three sequence networks remain solved and the distribution of

the sequence components of voltages and currents in any section or circuit

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can be calculated. In particular, the positive sequence component of the

APPLICATION TO THREE-PHASE CIRCUITS

169

I12 T

T, Q, R. This network is similar to

drop between the generator and the point under consideration. The nega-

tive sequence component is obtained in a similar manner from the negative

sequence network. The zero, negative, and positive sequence components

of the voltages at any two points differ by the drop between the two points,

in the zero, negative, and positive sequence networks respectively. The

average power flowing past any section is calculated from the sequence

networks as explained in Art. 7-8 and Eq. 7-8-5.

7-12. Positive, Negative, and Zero Sequence Networks. In Fig.

7-11-5 we have a perfectly symmetrical network with symmetrical emf's of

positive sequence applied at GI, GZ,

any ordinary three-phase network

with symmetrical emf's and bal-

anced loads. ' Like any ordinary

network, it can be studied by con-

sidering only one phase, for instance

phase a, as shown in Fig. 7-12-1.

The impedance of any circuit in Fig.

7-12-1 is equal to the impedance

offered to the flow of positive se- G3

quence currents by the correspond- Fio. 7-12-1.

ing circuit of Fig. 7-11-5; that is,

from Fig. 7-11-5, the impedance is equal to the ratio of the voltage applied

to any phase to the current flowing in the same phase. We shall refer to

the single-phase network of Fig. 7-12-1 as the "positive sequence net-

work" or the "single-phase positive sequence network" whenever it be-

i /21

f, Jfa

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170 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

comes necessary to distinguish it from the network of Fig. 7-11-5, which

we shall refer to as the "three-phase positive sequence network."

For a line section the impedance of the single-phase positive sequence

network derived from Eq. 7-7-2 is given by

Zn = Za0 -jcoJfaw (7-12-1)

where

Mob + Mbc + Mca

In Fig. 7-11-6 we have also a perfectly symmetrical network with sym-

metrical emf's of negative sequence applied at Gi, G2, 63, T, Q, R. This net-

work may also be studied by considering one phase only, as shown in Fig.

7-12-2. The impedance of any circuit of Fig. 7-12-2 is equal to the im-

pedance offered by the correspond-

ing circuit of Fig. 7-11-6 to the flow

of negative sequence currents; that

is, from Fig. 7-11-6 the impedance

is equal to the ratio of the voltage

applied to any phase to the current

flowing in the same phase. For a

line section, from Eq. 7-7-3, this is

given by

Fio. 7-12-2. % % ju3foW (7-12-2)

For rotating circuits due to the presence of the rotor windings, Zn and

Z22 will differ from one another. The network of Fig. 7-12-2 will be re-

ferred to as the "negative sequence network" or the "single-phase negative

sequence network" if it is necessary to distinguish it from the network of

Fig. 7-11-6, which will be referred

to as the "three-phase negative se- r Q

quence network." H * ? I/I/

In Fig. 7-11-4 we have another I^0 1^ T^,

perfectly balanced network with ==" -=t ** -4=-M

symmetrical emf's of zero sequence Gi

applied at GI, G2, G3, T, Q, R. This

network may also be studied by con-

sidering one phase only, as shown in

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Fig. 7-12-3. The impedance of any Fio. 7-12-3.

circuit in Fig. 7-12-3 is equal to the

impedance offered by the corresponding circuit of Fig. 7-11-4 to the flow

of currents of zero sequence; that is, in Fig. 7-11-4, the impedance is equal

to the ratio of the voltage applied to any phase to the current flowing in the

same or any other phase. The network of Fig. 7-12-3 will be referred to as

APPLICATION TO THREE-PHASE CIRCUITS 171

the "zero sequence network" or the "single-phase zero sequence network"

whenever it is necessary to distinguish it from the network of Fig. 7-11-4,

which will be referred to as the "three-phase zero sequence network."

For a line section, from Eq. 7-7-1, this impedance is given by

Z0o = Zoo + 37g + jw2(Mabo - 3Maro) (7-12-3)

where Zg is the impedance of the return network and

Mgr + Mjr + Mcr

Mar0 = ~

Methods for calculating Z00 will be discussed in Chapter 9.

The preceding conclusions apply to any network of any complexity

irrespective of the number of generators and loads. Thus three single-

phase networks correspond to any given three-phase symmetrical network:

the positive, the negative, and the zero sequence networks. If all generator

emf's are symmetrical and there are no unbalanced loads, there will be no

applied emf's, and therefore no currents, in the zero and negative sequence

networks. The positive sequence network is then the only one to consider.

If, however, we connect unbalanced loads to the network, emf's will be

applied immediately to both the zero and the negative sequence networks

or to the negative sequence network only, depending on the nature of the

loads. These emf's will cause currents to flow in these networks.

Later on we shall see how the impedance of the circuits of the zero,

positive, and negative sequence networks are calculated. For the present

let us endeavor to calculate the voltages to be applied in the sections of the

zero, negative, and positive sequence networks corresponding to the points

of application of the unbalanced loads, in special cases of practical im-

portance. Once these voltages are known, it is easy to analyze the networks

of Figs. 7-12-1, 7-12-2, and 7-12-3.

7-13. Zero Sequence Network. The zero sequence network is essen-

tially different from the positive and the negative sequence networks in that

the emf's applied to the three conductors in any section are equal in magni-

tude and phase. The currents flowing in the three conductors in any section

will also be equal in phase and magnitude. It follows that the zero sequence

current cannot flow in any circuit unless a return path is provided.

Each applied emf in the zero sequence network will tend to force a cur-

rent in the network. Whether it can do this or not depends on whether this

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current can return, or not, to the point of generation. If there are different

circuits in parallel, only those need be considered which provide such a

return path. Thus, in the network of Fig. 7-3-3, zero sequence currents

can be forced from any section of the three conductors a, b', c into the

wye windings of the transformer because they will be compensated by the

172 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

currents circulating in the delta windings. No zero sequence currents

can be forced into the delta of the transformer from any section of the

three conductors a, b, c, but they can be forced into the generator the

neutral of which is grounded. Thus, if an unbalanced load involving the

ground is connected to the conduc-

A 3 wdg. transf. B tors between the generator and the

transformer, all the circuits to the

right of the load can be neglected

in the zero sequence network.

Gi / * 7\ G2 As another example, let us con-

sider the network of Fig. 7-13-1.

Let us apply an unbalanced load

Fio. 7-13-1. involving the ground successively

at A, B, C. With the unbalanced

load at A, the zero sequence network is made up of generator 1 and the

line between this generator and A, as shown in Fig. 7-13-2. The rest of

the network need not be considered.

With the unbalanced load at B, only generator 2 and the line between it

and B need be considered, as shown in Fig. 7-13-3.

AB

-* --

Fio. 7-13-2. Fio. 7-13-3. Fio. 7-13-4.

With the unbalanced load at C, the line between the transformer and C

and the two windings of the latter only need be considered, as shown in

Fig. 7-13-4.

Again, in Fig. 7-13-5, we have a generator connected to a line through a

polyphase induction regulator with delta-connected shunt windings. If an

unbalanced load involving the ground is connected at A, as far as the zero

sequence network is concerned things are as if the regulator were connected

as shown in Fig. 7-13-6.

The best way to find out which circuits must be included and which must

be excluded in making up the zero sequence network is to refer to the three-

phase zero sequence network. With voltages of zero sequence imagined

applied in the section where the unbalanced load is connected, all the cir-

cuits should be excluded, that is, considered of infinite impedance, through

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which currents of zero sequence cannot flow. With this in mind, it should

APPLICATION TO THREE-PHASE CIRCUITS

175

be easy to draw the zero sequence network. In case of doubt, the same

principle should be applied in drawing the positive and negative sequence

networks. A few more instances will further clarify the procedure to follow

in actual practice.

Fig. 7-13-5.

Fig. 7-13-6.

In Fig. 7-13-7, we have a 13,800-volt generator connected to a 220-volt

line through a delta-delta transformer. The secondary winding of the

transformer has taps brought out from the middle of the winding to obtain

110 volts. A grounding transformer is connected to the 110-volt line.

Transformer

110 volts

Grounding

transformer

Fig. 7-13-7.

Each winding of the grounding transformer is divided in two halves inter-

connected as shown in the figure. One half of the winding of each phase

is on the magnetic core of the next phase. The instantaneous mmf of each

core is the difference between the instantaneous mmf's of the two half-

windings. Now let us assume an unbalanced grounded load at A, on the

110-volt side. The only circuit to consider in setting up the zero sequence

network is the grounding transformer and the line between it and A, be-

cause, from A in Fig. 7-13-7, currents of zero sequence can be forced only

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through this circuit.

172

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

Fig. 7-13-8.

/ fS jnbalanced load at B, involving the ground, the circuits to

i those shown in Fig. 7-13-8 because, from B, currents of zero

B sequence can be forced only through these

circuits. The other parts of the network

need not be considered. The case when

Tv . -' I the taps are brought out at other than the

'?? i midpoints of the secondary windings is an-

alyzed in a similar manner by recalling

that (disregarding the excitation current)

the total ampere-turns in a transformer

magnetic circuit must add up to zero.

Another important case to consider is

that of the capacitances existing in three-

phase circuits between phases and from

each phase to ground. It is evident from

the preceding discussion that both capaci-

tances appear in the positive and negative

sequence networks, whereas only the ca-

pacitance from conductors to ground need be considered in the zero sequence

network, as discussed in greater detail in the following article.

7-14. Sequence Networks. Effect of Capacitance. Effect of Imped-

ance in the Neutral. Capacitance may be found in transmission networks

connected in either series or shunt.

Series capacitors have been suggested and used for regulation and

stability purposes. Their effect under fault conditions may be studied as

discussed in Chapter 8. In general, it will be found that under fault condi-

tions the voltage across the capacitor may attain large values. For this

reason the capacitors are provided with means to short-circuit them when-

ever the voltage across them becomes dangerously high.

Shunt capacitors are used for power factor correction and regulation.

Furthermore, shunt capacitance is inherently present in transmission and

distribution lines, although its effect is negligible except incables or Tong

lines.

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The shunt capacitance of cables is an important factor in determining

their loading, f In fact, for a cable of given voltage and of a particular

construction there is a critical length at which the charging current equals

the maximum permissible conductor current at the sending end. For this

length no output current is possible at unity or leading power factor without

overloading the sending end of the cable. This critical length is of the

order of 46 miles for 132-kv cable, 29 mileB for 220-kv cable of the same type

t "Transmission Cable Talks, Focus and Design," Electrical World, XLIII, No. 8

(Feb. 21, 1955), 96-8.

APPLICATION TO THREE-PHASE CIRCUITS

175

of construction. Cable lines whose lengths are greater than the critical

length may be operated only with lagging power factor loads. As an

illustration let us consider the network shown in Fig. 7-14-1 with an un-

balance in section Q involving ground. The generator is assumed to gen-

erate voltages of positive sequence

only. Eq\, Eq2, Eqq are the se-

quence components of the line to

ground voltages in section Q. It is

assumed here that two sets of ca-

pacitors are present, both connected

across the line, one in delta, the

other in wye grounded. In the prac-

tical case the first set simulates the

capacitances between conductors,

and the other the capacitances from

conductors to ground. This distinc-

tion is necessary in setting up the three sequence networks shown in Figs.

7-14-2, 7-14-3, and 7-14-4; Z,\, Z,2, Z,0 are the impedances of the genera-

tor and line up to the capacitors C\ to positive, negative, and zero se-

quence currents respectively. Z\, Z2 are the impedances of the lines to

Fig. 7-14-1.

Fig. 7-14-2.

(DSV Z,0

Fig. 7-14-3.

Fig. 7-14-1.

positive and negative sequence currents. Zi0, Z20 are the impedances of

the lines to zero sequence current, usually different from Z\, Z2. C\ is the

line to neutral capacitance equivalent of the capacitance, C\, between con-

ductors. With reference to Fig. 7-14-4 we note that C\, the line to neu-

tral equivalent of the line to line capacitors, C\, is omitted, because no zero

sequence currents can flow through C\. From this we see that for trans-

mission lines and cables the capacitances to be used in the three sequence

networks are different. In the positive and negative sequence networks

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they are the same; both the line to line (Ci) and line to ground (Co) ca-

176 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

pacitances must be used. In the zero sequence network, only the capaci-

tance Co from line to ground is present.

Sometimes the shunt capacitance from line to ground is the only return

path provided for the zero sequence current. This would be the case in

Fig. 7-14-1 if the generator were ungrounded. The positive and negative

sequence networks of Figs. 7-14-2 and 7-14-3 remain unchanged, but the

zero sequence network of Fig. 7-14-4 is modified by making Z,0 infinite.

If the neutral of the generator is

grounded through an impedance Z,

the positive and negative single-

phase sequence networks will not be

affected. The zero sequence single-

phase network of Fig. 7-14-4 will

be modified by the addition of the

Fio. 7-14-5. impedance 3Z in series with Zjo as

shown in Fig. 7-14-5.

The setting up of the sequence networks involves a checking of the

electric connections as well as of the magnetic circuits involved. This is

particularly important for transformers. The zero, positive, and negative

sequence magnetic paths of three single-phase transformers connected in

wye grounded are identical for the same degree of saturation. The same is

true of polyphase shell-type transformers. On the other hand, the zero

sequence magnetic paths of polyphase core-type transformers are essen-

tially different from the positive and negative sequence magnetic paths;

therefore the impedance to zero sequence currents of a polyphase core-type

transformer differs from the impedance to positive and negative sequence

currents.

7-16. Sequence Impedance of Synchronous Machines. When a

synchronous machine carries load, the armature currents generate mmf s.

In an ideal machine, as assumed here, the mmf due to the current in a phase

of the armature is assumed to be distributed sinusoidally about the axis of

the particular phase. The base of the sinusoid extends circumferentially.

on either side of the axis of the phase, by one half the polar pitch. The am-

plitude of the sinusoid is given by the instantaneous value of the current in

the particular phase multiplied by the effective number of turns N\, in

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series per phase per pair of poles. Thus in the ideal machine considered

here the mmf of each phase must be visualized as a stationary wave

distributed sinusoidally around the air gap and composed of as many

complete space half-sinusoids, all of the same amplitude, as there are poles

In an actual machine the space mmf's due to the armature currents in

addition to the sinusoid of full polar pitch generate harmonics which anr

disregarded in the present discussion.

'APPLICATION TO THREE-PHASE CIRCUITS

177

Let ia , ib , ic be the instantaneous values of the currents in the three

phases of the armature of the machine. As stated above, these currents

generate three stationary sinusoidal waves of armature mmf's. The am-

plitudes of these waves are, respectively,

N,ia', NiiJ, N!W

These three waves are displaced 2t/3 electrical radians from one another or,

more specifically, Nxib, Niic' are, respectively, 22t/3 and 2(2t/3) electrical

radians from Niia'.

The sinusoid of the mmf of phase a can be represented by a phasor of

magnitude Niia' along the axes of phase a. Similarly the mmf waves of

phases b and c can be represented by phasors of magnitudes Niib and

Niic' respectively.

The rotor is assumed to be revolving at the synchronous speed

a) = 2*/

in electrical radians per second. Here / is the frequency.

The position of the rotor at the instant t, in seconds, is located by means

of the angle 8, in electrical radians, made by the axes of the rotor poles, or

direct axes, with the axes of phase

a. Time is measured from the in-

stant when the direct axes of the

machine are at an angle 80 from the

axes of phase a. Thus

8 = wt + 0O (7-15-1)

Direct

axis

Quadrature

axis

Rotor

mmf

Direct

axis

In evaluating the effect of the

armature currents it is convenient

to decompose the armature mmf

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produced by the armature currents

into two components, namely, one

component along the direct axes, Fig. 7-15-1.

and the other component along the

axes midway between adjacent poles or along the so-called quadrature axes.

Because of the assumed sinusoidal space distribution of the mmf due to each

phase, the mmf's along the two axes due to the armature currents will be

iVj ia cos 6 + ib' cos U - J + ic' cos (6 - 2 -^J = JVW

JV, ia' sin 8 + ib' sin (d - J + ie' sin (d - 2 ^ j = Nii,'

(7-15-2)

These components of armature mmf are shown in Fig. 7-15-1.

178 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

(7-15-3)

(7-15-5)

Assume now that the three currents ia', i0', ie' are balanced steady

state values and lag by the angle <p the voltage generated by the excitation

current. This voltage is maximum in phase a when the direct axes pass

through the center point of phase a belt. On this basis, counting the time /

from the instant when the current in phase a is maximum, or letting

'' = V2I' cos wt

ib' = V2I' cos (wt - J

i.' = V2I' cos (w - 2 y)

where /' is the effective value of the phase current, we obtain

80 = ^ + ip (7-15-4)

Substitution in Eqs. 7-15-1 and 7-15-2 gives

iW = f JV, V2/'Bin #

iVnV = ^N^y/21' cornp

Thus under balanced load conditions the mmf of armature reaction can

be decomposed into two components, Niid' and Niiq' given above with

respect to the rotor, that are revolving synchronously with it with respect

to the armature windings.

If / is the armature effective rated current, the maximum mmf of

armature reaction with rated current, or normal mmf of armature reaction,

will be

iNis/2In (7-15-6)

We can express Eqs. 7-15-2 in per unit of this normal mmf of armature

reaction:

- ia cos 8 + ib cos 16 - J + ic cos f 6 - 2 J = id

- ia sin 8 + 26 sin 16 - y J + ic sin ( 8 - 2 J = 2,

where ia, ib, ic are the phase currents in per unit of V27n or

2 ia'

V2/n

ib'

tb = ^~ (7-15-8.

V2/n

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(7-15-71

APPLICATION TO THREE-PHASE CIRCUITS

179

In per unit of %Ni'v2Ia, the two components of armature mmf along

the two axes will be id and ig respectively (from Eqs. 7-15-7).

Let us now force through the machine three currents of positive sequence.

These currents will generate fluxes which, for convenience, may be thought

of as being composed of two parts, namely, the leakage fluxes linking only

the armature windings without linking the rotor windings, and the flux

linking all three-phase armature windings and in addition the rotor wind-

ings; this constitutes the so-called flux of armature reaction. In an ideal

machine the flux of armature reaction is that due to the mmf of armature

reaction, which is a space mmf sinusoidally distributed around the air

gap, rotating at synchronous speed in the positive direction and having

the two components id and iq along the two axes. The two space com-

ponents id and iq are distributed sinusoidally in the air gap with their

maxima in line, respectively, with the axes of the poles, or direct axes,

and with the axes midway between poles or quadrature axes, id and iq

both produce a flux which is obtained by multiplying the mmf by the

*H

j(xn+2xm)

'000' I

Armature

| *ad

t> Direct

2 axis

'Field leakage

'^

'HRflP'

Field circuit v *>p

fmnr>-

nsvis^-

Additional rotor

windings leakages

] J Direct axis

y additional

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rotor

windings

Fig. 7-15-2.

j(xn+2xm)

<Tnnn

Quadrature

axis

i Leakages

Fio. 7-15-3.

fr-i

Quadrature

'axis additional

rotor windings

permeance of the corresponding magnetic circuit: the permeance of the

direct axis magnetic circuit and the permeance of the quadrature axis

magnetic circuit. The flux of armature reaction is obtained by adding at

each point of the air gap the flux due to each mmf component. To each

flux component corresponds a reactance of the armature which is obtained

by dividing the voltage induced in each armature winding by the particular

flux by the corresponding current component in the same armature winding.

We thus have a direct axis reactance and a quadrature axis reactance

180 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

corresponding to the two flux components along the direct axis and along

the quadrature axis.

Under steady state conditions the rotor windings, except for saturation,

which is neglected here, have no effect on the fluxes produced by the com-

ponents of the armature reaction.

Conditions are as shown schematically in Figs. 7-15-2 and 7-15-3, where

)f/jd = direct axis excitation air gap flux produced by field current in'

tad = direct axis air gap flux of armature reaction

E/d = excitation voltage

$aq = quadrature axis air gap flux of armature reaction

The additional rotor windings referred to in connection with Figs. 7-15-1

and 7-15-2 are the windings that may be found on the rotor such as damp-

ers, short-circuiting pole collars, and metal wedges. It follows that under

Fig. 7-15-5.

steady state conditions the impedances offered to armature currents

along the two axes are as shown in Figs. 7-15-4 and 7-15-5, where

r = armature phase resistance

xn phase leakage reactance corresponding to the leakage flux

linking only one phase winding and nothing else

xm = phase leakage reactance corresponding to the leakage flux

linking the three armature windings but not the rotor windings

Xad = reactance of armature reaction corresponding to the direct

axis component of the armature mmf and the corresponding

flux Unking the three armature phases as well as the rotor

windings along the direct axis

xaq = the reactance of armature reaction along the quadrature axis

(defined in a manner analogous to that for xad)

The steady state direct axis synchronous reactance xj of the machine if

thus given by

Xd = Xn + 2xm + Xad

Similarly, the steady state quadrature axis synchronous reactance xc is

given by

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Xn = Xn + 2xm + Xad

APPLICATION TO THREE-PHASE CIRCUITS

181

The leakage reactance x; is given by

xi = xn + 2xm

The values of n, xad, and xaq are affected by the degree of saturation of the

iron. Under short-circuit conditions, when the degree of saturation is low,

the reactances are larger than under normal operating conditions, when the

degree of saturation is greater.

A good approximation of the unsaturated value of xi is obtained from

Potier's triangle by means of the no-load and the zero power factor rated

current characteristics. t

It can be shown that the per unit values of the reactances of armature

reaction xdu and xaqu are given by

Xadu v Pd \t t Xaqu pq

where

Xn = En/I = normal reactance of the machine, in ohms

En = effective rated or normal line to neutral voltage, in volts

I = effective rated or normal phase current, in amperes

N\ = effective number of turns in series per phase per pair of poles of

each armature winding

Ndf = number of field turns per pair of poles

// = normal excitation current, in amperes, required to generate

the normal voltage En at no load with the rotor revolving at

synchronous speed

Pd = per unit permeance of the direct axis magnetic circuit in per

unit of the permeance pu of the magnetic circuit of mutual

induction between the direct axis excitation winding and any

armature winding when the direct axis coincides with the

axis of this winding, at no load with the normal excitation //

pq = per unit permeance of the quadrature axis magnetic circuit

in per unit of pu'

Variable conditions arising from changes in the armature currents ia, h, ic

or the rotor position 80 or both will cause changes in components id and iq

and the fluxes associated with them. The flux due to id links the armature

windings as well as the direct axis rotor windings. The flux due to iq links

the armature windings as well as the quadrature axis rotor windings. It

follows that during variable conditions transient currents are induced in the

rotor windings which affect the reactances of armature reaction in about

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t Consult, for instance, Electrical Transmission and Distribution Reference Book, op.

cit., p. 148, or A. S. Langsdorf, Theory of Alternating Current Machinery, 2d ed. (New

York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 1955), p. 404.

182

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

the same fashion as the secondary currents in a transformer affect the

apparent reactance of the transformer. At the first instant of the occur-

rence of the change the currents induced in the rotor windings have their

maximum effect; afterward they decay exponentially according to time

constants governed by the resistances and inductances of the various rotor

circuits. Correspondingly, the reactance of the armature will vary as a

function of time. Which reactance to use depends on the problem at hand.

In general, the following reactances are given for synchronous machines

along the direct and quadrature axes.

SubtrAnsient ReActAnces Xd", xq". These are the reactances effective

at the very first instant of a transient when the transient currents induced

in all the rotor windings have their maximum effect in reducing the react-

ances of armature reaction, or

Xd" Xu + Xad"

II _ I II

Xq X\q | Xaq

where xu and xiq are the leakage reactances along the direct and quadrature

axes respectively. Both are equal to the armature leakage reactance

xn + 2xm obtaining under steady state conditions except for the effect of

saturation.

Xad" is the direct axis reactance of armature reaction at the inception of

the transient when the currents induced in the direct axis rotor windings

by transformer action have their maximum effect. This reactance is thus

equal to the leakage reactance of all direct axis rotor windings with respect

to the direct axis mutual flux. This reactance is thus smaller than the

value Xad obtaining under steady state conditions.

Similarly xaq" is the quadrature axis reactance of armature reaction at

the inception of the transient when the currents induced in the quadrature

axis rotor windings by transformer action have their maximum effect. If

there are no rotor windings in the quadrature axis, xaq" will not differ

from xag.

TrAnsient ReActAnces Xd , xq'. These are the reactances effective

at the instant when the effect of the currents induced in the additional rotor

windings in reducing the reactances of armature reaction has become

negligible. In contrast, the effect of the currents induced in the rotor

excitation windings in reducing the reactances of armature reaction is still

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very large, or

%d Xu + Xad'

Xq Xid T Xaq

where xtd and xiq still have the same values as above if the effect of satura-

tion is disregarded. xad is the direct axis reactance of armature reaction

APPLICATION TO THREE-PHASE CIRCUITS

183

obtained, disregarding the effect of the transient currents in the additional

direct axis rotor windings, but not the effect of the transient current in the

direct axis excitation winding. xaq' is the corresponding reactance for the

quadrature axis. Since, in general, there is no excitation winding in the

quadrature axis, xaq = xaq.

The reactance Xd" can be obtained by applying a three-phase short

circuit at the terminals of the machine, measuring the current i" at t = 0

on the envelope of the a-c symmetrical component of the short-circuit

current as shown in Fig. 7-15-6. Xd" is equal to E/i". If both the current

FIG. 7-15-6.

and the voltage are expressed in per unit, their ratio will give the per unit

subtransient reactance. If for the excitation required the voltage is read on

the air gap line, the reactance obtained is the unsaturated reactance. If the

voltage is read on the no-load characteristic, the reactance obtained is the

saturated value.

The reactance Xd can be obtained from the same envelope by dis-

regarding the first few cycles and extending it to 2 = 0, as shown in

Fig. 7-15-6. Xd' is equal to E/i'.

Values of Xd, xq, Xd", xq", Xd, xq' for various types of machines are

given in Table 3-1-1.

Let us assume now that with the rotor revolving at synchronous speed

we force through the machine three currents of negative sequence. These

currents will generate an mmf revolving at synchronous speed with respect

to the rotor. This revolving mmf will cause voltages, and thus currents,

to be induced in the rotor windings. From the above, it appears that the

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reactance x2 encountered by armature currents of negative sequence is

184 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

equal to the average of the subtransient reactances x/' along the direct

axis and xq" along the quadrature axis. This conclusion, however, dis-

regards the effect of the dynamic voltages and currents induced by the

varying rotor currents on the armature reactance. A more thorough analy-

sis would show that the negative sequence reactance x2 depends on the type

of fault, t Values of x2 for typical machines are given in Table 3-1-1.

Let us assume now that with the rotor revolving at synchronous speed

we force through the machine three currents of zero sequence. As the

mmf produced by these currents will be zero, the reactance x0 encountered

by a current of zero sequence is the leakage armature reactance. Values of

x0 for typical machines are also given in Table 3-1-1.

The value of the reactance to be used depends on the problem at hand. J

Short-circuit calculations made to determine relay settings are usually

based on transient reactances, although it is conceivable that with very

fast trippings subtransient reactances may have to be used. If external

reactances are involved, the choice is not critical. Transient reactances are

generally used in stability studies. In both cases the difference between

the reactances along the two axes is usually neglected and x<j", x/, or a is

used, depending on the problem at hand. In studies involving electro-

mechanical stresses the subtransient values should be used; here, as in all

cases requiring the use of subtransient reactances, it is usually necessary

to take into consideration the d-c components of the currents. The com-

plete analysis of the problem is outside the scope of this book.f Suffice it to

say that, when a three-phase balanced fault occurs starting from no load,

the following happens:

1. Prior to the fault, the flux linking the rotor and armature windings

is that due to the rotor excitation. When the fault currents reach

their steady state values, the flux of armature reaction will be super-

imposed on the flux Unking the rotor excitation winding due to the

excitation current. The change will cause currents to be induced

in the rotor excitation circuit, which will decay exponentially.

Except for the effect of saturation and if there is no change in rotor

speed, the air gap flux and thus the envelope of the symmetrical

a-c armature currents will follow the shape of the resultant mmf

produced by both the steady state and the induced rotor current*

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2. The flux produced by the rotor excitation prior to the fault occupies

a certain space position at t = 0 when the fault is applied. The

application of the fault will tend to change this flux, with the result

t See, for instance, Electrical Transmission and Distribution Reference Book, 4th ed,

Westinghouse Electric Corp., ch. 6; C. Concordia, Synchronous Machines: Theory a*4

Performance (New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1951).

t W. M. Hanna, H. A. Travers, C. F. Wagner, C. A. Woodrow, and W. F. Skeats.

"8ystem ShorKSrcuit Currents," Transactions, AIEE, LX (Sept. 1941), 877-81.

APPLICATION TO THREE-PHASE CIRCUITS

185

that a d-c transient flux fixed in space position is induced. This

d-c transient flux will have two effects: it will induce a unidirec-

tional transient voltage in the armature

windings which will cause unidirectional

currents to flow; owing to the motion

of the rotor, it will induce decaying

currents of fundamental frequency in

the rotor windings, which in turn will

induce decaying voltages of double fre-

quency in the armature windings.

The complete expression for the current in a

phase, if it is assumed that a generator is short-

circuited through an external reactance x, as shown in Fig. 7-15-7, is

given by

_J 1\

A" + xe Xd' + xj

_1 \_\

i + xe Xd + Xj

0-tlTd"

,-HTd'

+ X,,

COS (ut + 00 )

cos 00

+-

(7-15-9)

where xj", xq", Xd', Xd are the reactances of the machine discussed in the

preceding pages, xe represents the external reactance, E is the no-load

excitation voltage, 00 is the angle made at t = 0, or at the beginning of

the fault, by the direct axis and the axis of the phase under consideration.

Ti" and Tj' are, respectively, the direct axis short-circuit subtransient

and transient time constant, given by

Xc

(7-15-10)

Id=

Xd

where

.,

- 1 dO

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T,

(7-15-11)

P~

Rfd

is the direct axis open-circuit time constant or the time constant of the

direct axis excitation circuit with the armature and all other rotor ad-

186 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

ditional windings open-circuited. T,,,,' is thus equal to the ratio of the

self-inductance /.,., and the resistance i!,,t of the direct axis excitation

circuit. TJO" is the direct axis subtransient time constant. This is the

time constant of the direct axis excitation circuit, if it is assumed that

the armature windings and all other additional rotor windings are short-

circuited. It is usually calculated on the basis of the assumption that

the resistances of the armature winding and of the additional rotor circuits

are zero.

Td" and TV can be determined graphically as shown in Fig. 7-15-6 for

a three-phase short circuit at the terminals of the machine.

Ta is the d-c time constant of each armature winding, obtained with

the assumptions that the rotor is revolving at synchronous speed and that

all rotor windings are of negligible resistance and are short-circuited, or

where ra is armature phase resistance.

The currents in the other two phases are obtained by replacing 00 with

60 120 and 60 + 120, respectively.

If the machine is short-circuited through an external impedance,

Zc = re + jx, = Z,eiy in Eq. 7-15-9 xe is replaced by Ze. Eqs. 7-15-10

and 7-15-11 remain unchanged, but in Eq. 7-15-12 ra is replaced by

ro + r.-f

With faults other than three-phase, Eq. 7-15-9 will give the positive

sequence component of the generator current. The values to be used for

Ze will depend on the type of fault and will be determined with the methods

developed in the following chapters. As mentioned before, with faults of

different types the expressions for the armature currents will not be so

simple as Eq. 7-15-9; however, for general studies the values obtained

from Eq. 7-15-9 modified as indicated above will suffice.J

PROBLEMS

7-1. What are the relations between the sequence components of the line to

neutral and line to line voltages?

7-2. Do the sequence components of the currents flowing in a 3-phase network

obey Kirchhoff's first law? Do the sequence components of the voltages in a

3-phase network obey Kirchhoff's second law?

f W. M. Hanna, "Uses of Synchronous Machines Quantities in System Studies,"

General Electric Review, XXXVI (March 1933), 116-28.

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t W. M. Hanna, loc. cit.; C. Concordia, op. cit.; C. F. Dabsiel, "Decrement Curvee for

Power Systems," Transactions, AIEE, LIII (Feb. 1934), 331-38.

APPLICATION TO THREE-PHASE CIRCUITS

187

7-3. Can the voltage distribution in a 3-phase network be obtained from the

corresponding voltages in the three sequence networks?

7-4. Can the instantaneous power and the average power at any point in a

3-phase network be obtained from the current and voltages in the three sequence

networks?

7-5. How are losses obtained in terms of sequence components?

7-6. How do you determine which parts of a system must be included in the

positive, in the negative, and in the zero sequence networks for fault studies?

7-7. Are the impedances of a shell-type transformer to currents of zero, posi-

tive, and negative sequence the same? Why?

7-8. Are the impedances of a core-type transformer to currents of zero,

positive, and negative sequence currents the same? Why?

7-9. Given three currents

Ia = 100

/6 = 50 - j50

/c = 50 + jlQO

find their sequence components. Can these three currents be the line currents

flowing from a Y-connected generator with grounded neutral to a A-connected

load?

7-10. A 3-phase ungrounded generator supplies an unbalanced Y-connected

load. The three currents are, respectively, 100, 200, and 86.7 amp. i * '-:

Find the sequence components of the currents.

7-11. The network shown in the fig-

ure consists of a Y-grounded generator

and a bank of three single-phase auto-

transformers connected in A. The tap

of each autotransformer divides the

total winding into two parts having,

Generator

Autotransformer

bank

PROB. 7-11.

respectively, n and 2n turns. A line to

ground fault occurs at F, drawing a

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fault current of 3000 amp.

Draw four networks, duplicates of the original one, showing, respectively,

(a) The flow of the zero sequence currents.

(b) The flow of the positive sequence currents.

(c) The flow of the negative sequence currents.

(d) The flow of the total currents in the three phases.

7-12. A A-connected generator is grounded through a grounding transformer

as shown in Fig. A or B. A line to ground fault occurs on phase a causing 3000

amp to flow to ground. For each type of grounding transformer draw four

networks, duplicates of the original one, showing, respectively,

(a) The flow of the zero sequence currents.

(b) The flow of the positive sequence currents.

188

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

PBOB. 7-12.

(c) The flow of the negative sequence currents.

(d) The flow of the total currents in the three phases.

7-13. A 3-phase, 13.8-kv, 60-cycle generator A is connected to a 138-kv trans-

mission bus by means of a transformer as shown in the figure. The generator is

connected in A and the transformer in

138 kv A-Y grounded.

/\ A I ^ Starting from no load and normal gen-

"^ ' - erator voltage, assume that a current of

1000 amp flows from phase a to ground

on the 138-kv bus with no current flowing

PROB. 7-13. m *he other two phases, 6 and c. Cal-

culate the sequence currents (both in

per unit at 100,000 kva and in amperes) flowing in the transformer and gener-

ator windings and in the line between the generator and transformer.

7-14. Consider the network of the figure. Under certain fault conditions at F,

assuming j 1.0 per unit positive sequence voltage prior to the fault, the following

per unit currents are supplied by transformer 2 to the fault:

Positive sequence

Negative sequence

13.8 kv

0.69 p.u. at 100,000 kva

0.82 p.u. at 100,000 kva

138 kv

13.8 kv

Transformer ~

PROB. 7-14.

Find the currents in per unit and in amperes:

(a) On the A side of transformer 2.

(b) Inside the A of transformer 2.

(c) On the Y side of transformers 2 and 1.

(d) Inside the A of transformer 1.

(e) On the A side of transformer 1.

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Transformer

APPLICATION TO THREE-PHASE CIRCUITS

189

7-16. The voltage of an 11,000-volt, 25-cycle, 3-phase generator is stepped up

to 22,000 volts by means of two autotransformers as shown in the figure. A

single-phase load is connected from phase A to ground, drawing 1000 amp.

11 kv

i tii

,|_i? 0,433 n

1000 amp

22 kv

foooobV.:

l*0.866n"l

22 kv

_L_

Prob. 7-15.

Show the flow of the sequence components of the currents in the autotrans-

tormer and in the generator.

7-16. A 13,800-volt, 60-cycle, 3-phase generator is connected to a feeder

through two single-phase induction regulators, 8% each, as shown in Fig. A.

ToTP-

N (ground)

Induction regulator

Induction regulator

Generator

6h

-rnnr1-

r-^TVoT^

Ind. reg.

iTflnP

(B)

Ind. reg.

Load

, nsins^-

(C)

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tlffli

Prob. 7-16.

(a) Find the numerical values of the sequence components of the line to neutral

voltages EA, Eb, Ec from A, B, C, respectively, to N, with the regulators in the

boosting position under no-load conditions.

190 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

(b) Repeat with the regulators in the bucking position, also under no-load

conditions.

(c) For (a) and (b) find the sequence components of the line voltages VAB,

VBC, VCA-

(d) Assume that the regulators are in the maximum boost position as in (a).

Assume also that a load composed of three resistors, 1000 ohms each, connected

in Y ungrounded, is connected across A, B, C as shown in Fig. B. Disregarding

the impedances of the generator and of the regulators, calculate the numerical

values of the sequence components of the currents I A, IB, Ic and those of the

currents /., Ib, Ic.

(e) Repeat (d), assuming that the load is connected in Y grounded.

(f) Refer to Fig. A. Give the answers to (a), (b), (c), (d), (e), assuming that

'by mistake" the connections of the excitation winding phase c are reversed as

shown in Fig. C.

7-17. Same as Prob. 7-16 except that regulators are connected as shown in the

figure.

(a) Find the numerical values of the sequence components of the line to neutral

voltages EA, EB, EC from A, B, C, respectively, to ground, with the regulator in

the boosting position.

(b) Repeat with the regulator in the bucking position.

(c) For (a) and (b) find the sequence components of the line voltages VAB,

VBC, VCA.

(d) Assume now that the regulator is in the maximum boost position as in (a).

Assume also that a load composed of three impedances 1.5 p.u. (at 0.85 pf lagging)

Induction regulator

Generator induction regulator

PROB. 7-17.

on the generator rating are connected in Y ungrounded across A, B, C. Assume

the generator to have the following per unit reactances on rating:

Z0 = 0.03

Xd = 1.20

X2 = 0.09

Disregard the impedance of the regulator. Find the sequence components of the

currents IA, IB, Ic and of the generator, /., /6, /c.

(e) Repeat (d), assuming that the Y of the load is grounded.

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7-18. Consider the system of the figure. The characteristics of the equipment

are as follows.

APPLICATION TO THREE-PHASE CIRCUITS

191

Rating,

kva

Reactances, p.u. on rated kva

Generator G,, 13.8 kv, 3 phases,

XJ Xi Xt

X,

60 cycles

50,000

0.23 0.14

0.08

Generator Gt, 13.8 kv, 3 phases,

60 cycles

100,000

0.23 0.14

0.08

Transformer TI

20,000

0.07 0.07

0.07

Transformer Ti

20,000

0.07 0.07

0.07

Neutral resistors

Ri

10 ohms

ft

10 ohms

line 1: 20 miles, Xi = Xt = 0.8 ohm/mile; X, = 2 ohms/mile

Line 2: 20 miles, Xi = Xt = = 0.8 ohr.i/rr.i!e; X, = 2 ohms/mile

Line ' 1

Line* 2

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13.8/33 kv

33/13.8 kv

PROB. 7-18.

Assume a fault at F on line 2. Set up the sequence networks for this fault.

Show the variations of the sequence impedances as F moves from one end of the

line to the other. Disregard all resistances except the neutral resistances Ri

and R2.

7-19. A 13,800-volt, 60-cycle, 3-phase generator is connected to a feeder

through a 10% single-phase induction regulator as shown in Fig. A.

(a) Find the numerical values of the sequence components of the line to neutral

voltages EA, EB, EC from A, B, C, respectively, to ground with the regulator in

the boosting position.

(b) Repeat (a) with the regulator in the bucking position.

(c) For (a) and (b) find the sequence components of the line voltages VAB,

VBC, VCA.

(d) Assume now that the regulator is in the maximum boost position, as in (a).

Assume also that a load composed of three impedances 1.5 p.u. (at 0.85 pf lagging)

on the generator rating is connected in Y ungrounded across A, B, C. Assume

that the generator has the following per unit reactances on rating:

X0 = 0.03

Xd = 1.20

X2 = 0.09

192

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

Ground

Disregard the impedance of the regulator. Find the sequence components of the

currents I a, Ir, Ic and of the generator, /, /, Ic, as shown in Fig. B.

(e) Repeat, assuming that the Y of the load is grounded.

7-20. A 3-phase line is protected by means of three directional overcurrent

relays, each of which is composed of a directional element and one overcurrent

element. Each directional element has a voltage coil and a current coil inter-

acting to produce a torque. In the so-called 30 connection the voltages and

currents interacting in the three directional elements are as follows.

Phase

Relay Voltage

Relay Current

Torque Porport ionaJ to

Real Component of

Eac m Ea Ec

Etc = Eb Km

E,b = Ec Eh

I,

Eicfte-'"'

The connection to the relay terminals for phase 1 are as shown in the figure. The

relay torque is proportional to the real component of

Kr/*re_''. Here VT is the voltage applied to the relay volt-

age circuit, or Eac for phase 1, 6c for phase 2, etc.; /, is the

current in the relay current coil, or / for phase a, etc.; a' is

an angle which can be varied by means external or interna1

to the relay; a' remains constant once its value has been set.

Express the relay torques in terms of symmetrical com-

ponents.

7-21. Repeat the calculation of Prob. 7-20 for the so-

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called 60 connections in which the current and voltages in-

teracting in the three directional elements and the corresponding torques are a-5

follows.

onpp^o

Pbob. 7-20.

APPLICATION TO THREE-PHASE CIRCUITS 193

Torque Proportional to

Real Component of

Phase

Relay Voltage

Relay Current

Et

S.

Ki

Ek

7-22. Repeat the calculations of Prob. 7-20 for another so-called 60 connection

in which the currents and voltages interacting in the three elements and the cor-

responding torques are as follows.

Phase

Relay Voltage

Relay

Torque Proportional to

Current Real Component of

,.

E*

= E'.

-E.

/.

- A E,.(I. - /6)t-'a

= ,,

- Ec

7-23. Repeat the calculations of Prob. 7-20 for the so-called 90 connections

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in which the voltages and currents interacting in the three directional elements

and the corresponding torques are as follows.

Torque Proportional to

Phase Relay Voltage Relay Current Real Component of

1 ,k = Ec - 6 /. */*,e-'a,

2 = .-, A /*-""

3 n. = Eb-E, L

7-24. Assume for Prob. 7-21 that the three directional elements are on the

same shaft.

Find the expression for the total torque in terms of symmetrical components.

7-25. Considerf the sequence current filter shown in the figure, where the

current transformers are assumed to be ideal transformers having a ratio equal

to a. Zr, in general, can be an impedance, although usually it is a pure resistance.

'/i, / are the sequence components of the three currents /, Ib. /,-.

(a) Show that the impedance Z, measured across terminals d, e, with the meter

disconnected and the primary currents /a, h, Ic made equal to zero, is given by

Z = V3Z^'ta = 1.5Zr + J0.866Zr

(b) Show that the sequence filter is equivalent to the circuit shown in the

inset, where Z' is the impedance of the meter, to which circuit is applied the

voltage

(c) Show that the current /m through the meter is proportional to the positive

sequence current /i and that it is given by

3Zr/l

o(Z + Z')

f Electrical Tran*mission and Distribution Reference Book, op. cit., p. 374.

194

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

Meter

Prob. 7-25.

(d) Show that, if the two legs A and B are interchanged, the voltage Ei across

the equivalent circuit and the current Im through the meter are proportional to

the negative sequence current 12 and are given by

_ 37,<r'"78

Hi =

/m =

3Zre-'m0 h

(Z + Z') a

(e) Why is it necessary to cross-connect the current transformers before con-

necting to the sequence filter?

+ <WV

^jd

\..

(P)

Prob. 7-26.

7-26. t Consider the sequence network of the figure, where the current trans-

formers are assumed to be ideal transformers having a ratio equal to a. This is a

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t Ibid., p. 375.

APPLICATION TO THREE-PHASE CIRCUITS

195

combined positive sequence current and weighed zero sequence current filter

used in connection with the Westinghouse type HCB pilot wire relay. Za is the

self-impedance of leg Ae of a 3-winding reactor as measured with the other two

windings open-circuited.

(a) Show that the impedance Z, measured across terminals d, e, with the meter

disconnected and the currents /a, Ib, /c made equal to zero, is given by

Z = Rl + Ro +- Za

(b) Show that the sequence network is equivalent to the circuit shown in the

inset, where Z' is the impedance of the meter, to which circuit is applied the

voltage

pop

&i tS\,I

(/i + ff/o)

where

(c) Show that the current /m through the meter is proportional to the positive

sequence and to the zero sequence currents and is given by

/2fli/i

(Z+Z')a

Z+Z1

7-27. Considerf the zero sequence filter shown in the figure, where the current

transformers are assumed to be ideal transformers having a ratio a. Zr, in gen-

eral, can be an impedance, although usually it is a pure resistance.

1;

ji

]!

in

'''

/.

Meter

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PROB. 7-27.

(a) Show that the impedance Z, measured across terminals d, e, with the meter

disconnected and the primary currents /., /b, Ic made equal to zero, is given by

Z = Zr

f Based on Electrical Transmission and Distribution Reference Book, p. 374. Refer

also to Prob. 5-7.

196

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

(b) Show that the sequence filter is equivalent to the circuit shown in the

insert, where /' is the impedance of the meter, to which is applied the voltage

(c) Show that the current / through the meter is proportional to the zero

sequence current / and is given by

/ 3Z, /

"(/, + Z') a

(d) Show that maximum power output from the filter obtains when Z is a

pure resistance.

7-28. Considerf the sequence filter of the figure, where Z, in general can be an

impedance, although usually it is a resistance. The potential transformers are

assumed to be ideal transformers of ratio a

"'"""" ^K^r "

Ground nnrn finnn n,

Zd

Meterx

PROB. 7-28.

(a) Show that the impedance Z, measured across terminals d, e, with the meter

disconnected and the applied voltages E_. ,., E. set equal to zero, is given by

Z = 0.5Zr + j0.289Zr

(b) Show that the sequence filter is equivalent to the circuit shown in the

inset, where Z is the impedance of the meter, to which is applied the voltage

v/3/.J'O8

(c) Show that the current /m through the meter is proportional to the negative

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f Based on Electrical Transmission and Distribution Reference Book, p. 374.

APPLICATION TO THREE-PHASE CIRCUITS 197

sequence voltage E and is given by

V3e'30 2

In, =

(Z+Z') a

(d) Show that, if the two legs A and B are interchanged, the voltage Ei across

the equivalent circuit and the current Im through the meter are proportional to

the positive sequence voltage E\ and are given by

V3e-',0

Ei = ,

V3e-'30 Ei

"~ (Z+Z') a

7-29. t Three impedances are connected in A and supplied from a 3-phase

generator as shown in Fig. A. Each branch of the A is composed of two imped-

ances Z\, Zi in series. The sequence impedances of the generator are Zo, Zp, Z,

and the generator is assumed to generate voltages of all three sequences, or

SEta = SaEga + SlEl + S'g2

(a) Find the sequence components of the generator and A currents. E,

Ei, Ec are the line to neutral voltages applied to terminals a, 6, c of the A, and

Eao, Eai, Eai are their sequence components.

(b) Find the sequence components of the voltages E,\, EH. Ec from the junc-

tion points .1, B, C to the neutral N of the generator in terms of Eo, Ea\, Ea2.

(c) What relation must Z\ and Zi satisfy in order for the voltages Ea, Eb, Ec

not to have a negative sequence component?

(d) What relation must Z\ and 7j satisfy in order for the voltages EA, Eb, Ec

not to have a positive sequence component?

(e) Assume now that from A, B, C three similar meters of impedance Z' are

connected in Y ungrounded. Show that, if Z\ and Z2 satisfy the relations in (c),

the currents through the meters will be proportional to the positive sequence

voltage Ea\, or that the network will act as a polyphase positive sequence filter.

(f) Show that in (e) the polyphase sequence filter is equivalent to an open

circuit for the zero and negative sequence voltages Ea, 2 and to the circuits

of Fig. B for the positive sequence voltages. Determine the value of Z in terms

of Z\ and Zj.

(g) Show that, if Z\ and Zi satisfy the relation in (d), the currents through the

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meters will be proportional to the negative sequence voltage Ea2 or that the net-

work will act as a polyphase negative sequence filter.

(h) Show that in (g) the polyphase sequence filter is equivalent to an open

circuit for the zero sequence and positive sequence voltages Eao, Ea\ and to the

circuit of Fig. C for the negative sequence voltages. Determine the value of /

in terms of Z\ and Zi.

t Consult Electrical Transmission and Distribution Reference Book, p. 374.

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108

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

6 ^i

*2

(A)

(B)

APPLICATION TO THREE-PHASE CIRCUITS

199

7-30. Consider t the zero sequence filter shown in the figure, where the po-

tential transformers are assumed to be ideal transformers having a ratio a.

z=o

Ground

Prob. 7-30.

(a) Show that the impedance Z measured across terminals d, e with the meter

disconnected and the applied voltages Ea, &, Er set equal to zero is given by

Z=0

(b) Show that the sequence filter is equivalent to the circuit shown in the inset

to which is applied the voltage

(c) Show that the current Im through the meter is proportional to the zero

sequence voltage E<> and is given by

30

/m =

Z'

7-31. Consider the sequence filter of the figure, where the current transformer

ratio is a. Zr in general can be any impedance, although usually it is a pure

resistance. The ratio of the transformer T is 1 : 1.

(a) Show that the impedance Z measured across terminals d, e with the meter

disconnected and the primary currents /, h, I c made equal to zero is given by

Z = ZT + j

Zr

V3

(b) Show that the sequence filter is equivalent to the circuit shown in the

insert, where /' is the impedance of the meter, to which circuit is applied the

voltage Ei given by

Ei = 27, -

t Based on Electrical Transmission and Distribution Reference Book, p. 374. See also

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Prob. 2-23.

200

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

PROB. 7-31.

(c) Show that the current /m through the meter is proportional to the poeitive

sequence current Ii and is given by

/ 2Zr fl

= (Z+Z1) a

(d) Show that, if the two secondary leads on the two phases 6 and c are inter-

changed, the voltage ,- across the equivalent circuit and the current / through

the meter are proportional to the negative sequence current /:, and are given by

(Z + Z')a

7-32. f Assume that the three currents /a, h, Ie forced through a 3-phase line

are of negative sequence, or

Show that the three line to neutral voltages ., Eb, Ec required to force the

currents, in general, have components of all three sequences, or

S(Ea, Eb, Ec) = SEa0 + SlEal + S2a2

and that the impedance coefficients Z0t, ZM, Zu are given, respectively, by

f For possible applications consult R. F. Lawrence and D. J. Povejsil, "Determination

of Inductive and Capacitative Unbalance for Untransposed Transmission Lanee,"

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Transactions, AIEE, LXXI, pt. Ill (April 1952), 547-56.

APPLICATION TO THREE-PHASE CIRCUITS 201

7-33. f Assume that the three currents /a, Ib, Ic forced through the line are of

positive sequence, or

8(1., h, h) = S1/.!

Show that the three line to neutral voltages Ea, Eb, Ec required to force the

currents in general have components of all three sequences, or

S(Ea, Eb, Ec) = SEaa + SlEal + S'2

and that the impedance coefficients Z<n, Zn, Zu are given by

- EaO

7 Eal

tn =

/ol

7-34. f Assume that the three currents /., h, Ie forced through the line are of

zero sequence, or

S(Ia, I, Ic) = S'/aO

Show that the line to neutral voltages ., 6, Ec necessary to do this, in general,

have components of all three sequences, or

S(Ea, Ek, Ec) = SEao -\~ S1Eai + S2Eat

and that the impedance coefficients Zio, Z00, /2o are given by

"' ~ /aO

Zoo

oO

735. Express in terms of symmetrical components the power read by the

2-wattmeter method on a 3-phase circuit.

7-364 A 30-hp, 440-volt, 3-phase, 60-cycle, 8-pole, A-connected induction

motor is operated under unbalanced voltage conditions. The line to line voltages

applied to the motor terminals are

Vrt = 430 volts

Vbc = 446 volts

Vc. = 380 volts

f/wa.

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t Refer to Prob. 6-13.

202 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

The efficiency and power factor of the motor at full load are both equal to 0.85.

The characteristics of the motor in per unit quantities are

Stator resistance Ri 0.04 p.u.

Stator leakage reactance Xi 0.16 p.u.

Rotor resistance Ri 0.04 p.u.

Rotor leakage reactance 0.16 p.u.

Magnetizing reactance Xm 2.5 p.u.

Core loss 0.02 p.u.

(a) Find the gross mechanical power output of the motor when the latter is

operating with a slip of 0.03. What is the effect of the unbalance on this output?

(b) Find the line to neutral voltages ,,. E,.. E applied to, and the line cur-

rents Ia, h, I- supplied to, the motor with operating conditions as in (a).

(c) Compute the power factor of the motor under the operating conditions

specified in (a).

7-37. Two systems A and B are interconnected as shown in the figure, f The

system and lines characteristics are as follows.

System A, 60 mva 0.33 p.u. on rating 0.25 p.u. on rating

System B, 120 mva 0.20 p.u. on rating 0.15 p.u. on rating

Transformers 1 and 3, 30 mva each 13.8/115 kv, +5% high voltage tap

Z = 0.005 + J0.1 p.u. on rating

Transformers 2 and 4, 30 mva each 110/13.8 kv, -5% high voltage tap

Z = 0.005 + j.0.1 p.u. on rating

Lines: Two 115-kv, 150 miles, 397,500-CM steel-reinforced aluminum

cable, 12-ft flat spacing. Assume no ground wire.

13.8 kv <> f\:<,> 13.8 kv

115 kv

115 kv

<D

PROB. 7-37.

(a) Assume a line to ground fault at F on the high voltage terminal of trans-

former 2.

(b) What is the zero sequence current induced in line 3-4?

(c) What would be the effect on the ground directional relays 1, 3, 4, assuming

that these relays are polarized from the current in the neutral of the respective

power transformer?

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f Consult J. L. Blackburn, "Ground Relay Polarization," Transactions, AIEE,

LXXI, pt. Ill (Dec. 1952), 1088-93.

APPLICATION TO THREE-PHASE CIRCUITS 303

7-38. The line to line voltages applied to a 10-hp, 4-pole, 60-cycle, 220-volt,

3-phase double-squirrel-cage motor Y-connected with the neutral ungrounded are

Vrt = 222 volts

Vbc = 198 volts

Vca = 240 volts

The sequence is a, b, c. The motor is operating at a slip of 0.0334 and its char-

acteristics are

Ri = 0.153 ohm/phase

Xi = 0.5 ohm/phase

Xm =14.3 ohms/phase

R2 = 0.183 ohm/phase (for/2 = 2 cps)

Ri = 0.507 ohm/phase (for/2 = 118 cps)

X2 = 0.760 ohm/phase (for/2 = 2 cps)

Xt' = 0.482 ohm/phase (for/2 = 118 cps)

(a) Find the sequence components of the voltages applied to the motor and

the sequence components of the phase currents.f

(b) Under the same conditions calculate the stator and rotor losses and com-

pare them with those obtaining with the motor operating at rated balanced

voltage and at the same slip.

f Data taken from J. E. Williams, "Operation of Three Phase Induction Motors on

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Unbalanced Voltages," Transactions, AIEE, LXXIII, pt. IIIA (April 1954), 125-33.

CHAPTER 8

ANALYSIS OF THREE-PHASE SYMMETRICAL SYSTEMS

WITH ONE FAULT OR UNBALANCEt

8-1. General Relations. The conclusions of the preceding chapter will

now be extended to the analysis of one fault or unbalanced load on an other-

wise symmetrical system. The major faults and unbalanced loads con-

sidered will be: line to ground, line to line, and double line to ground. All

cases considered are actually special applications of two basic unbalances

which will be considered later, namely: (1) three impedances connected

in Y grounded with two legs of equal impedance, as discussed in Art. 8-14;

(2) three impedances, as in (1), expressed in terms of admittances, as

discussed in Art. 8-18.

The networks of Figs. 7-12-1, 7-12-2, and 7-12-3 will now reduce to those

of Figs. 8-1-1, 8-1-3, and 8-1-2. In the latter networks only the generator

Fig. 8-1-1.

emf's and the circuit constants are known. The components of the cur-

rents and voltages at the fault are not known. In fact, their determination

is the main objective of this chapter. In the attainment of this objective,

in this article we shall establish first some general relations which are

satisfied regardless of the type of fault or unbalanced load and which are

characteristic of one unbalanced load or fault on an otherwise symmetrical

network. In following articles additional relations will be derived which

depend on and characterize the type of fault.

f Giuseppe Calabrese, "L'applicazione delle coordinate simmetriche all'analisi dei

circuiti elettrici," L'Elettrotecnica, Milan, Italy (April 1926), p. 327.

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204

THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS WITH ONE UNBALANCE

Generators encountered in ordinary practice generate, or are assumed to

generate, only emf's of a sequence taken as positive. They do not, or are

assumed not to, generate emf's of negative and zero sequence. However,

for greater generality, we shall assume that the generator emf's admit

components of the three sequences.

10

'30

OX

Iia 2

1h

Fig. 8-1-2.

Fig. 8-1-3.

Let it be assumed now that the emf's generated by the three generators

in each phase are the same for all three generators, although they differ

from one phase to another, or that

En E2\ = E31 = Ei

Ei0 = E20 1 E30 = EO

Ei2 = E22 = E32 E2

If, in addition, the balanced loads, such as L\, are disregarded, we obtain

from Figs. 8-1-1 to 8-1-3

Ei - EQ1 = ZJQl (8-1-1)

EO Eq0 = Z0Iq0 (8-1-2)

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E2 Eq2 = Z2IQ2 (8-1-3)

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

where

Z0 is the impedance of the zero sequence network as viewed from Q0.

Z\ is the impedance of the positive sequence network as viewed from

Q\.

Z2 is the impedance of the negative sequence network as viewed from

02.

If, as is usual, E0 = E2 = 0, these equations become

Ei - EQl = ZJQl (8-1-1)

Eqo = -ZOIqo (8-1-4)

Eq2 = Z2Iq2 (8-1-5)

These are the general relations characterizing one fault or unbalanced

load. They were derived by disregarding the effect of all loads and as-

suming that the emf's generated by the generators on each phase are

equal in phase and magnitude. These assumptions, however, are not

absolutely necessary, and more accurate relations can be obtained as fol-

lows.

Let E/\, E/0, E/2 be the sequence components of the line to neutral

voltages existing at Q prior to and without the fault. Consider the positive

sequence network. Prior to the fault this network is as shown in Fig.

8-1-4, which is drawn in a more general form than Fig. 8-1-1. With the

fault on, the voltage at Qi will be Eq\, as shown in Fig. 8-1-1 or, in a more

general form, in Fig. 8-1-5. To the network of Fig. 8-1-4 an imaginary

I /e21

V-

~(q 1

Jo

Fig. 8-1-4.

/E,

21

E sA

Enly |

~fe 1

*3N i

Fig. 8-1-5.

generator can now be added which generates the voltage E/\. Similarly,

in the network of Fig. 8-1-5 the imaginary generator can be assumed to

generate the voltage E!i + En + Eq\. The results are shown in Figs.

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8-1-6 and 8-1-7 respectively. Comparison of the last two figures shows

that the current Iqi is equal to the current forced into the network by the

emf, E,i - EQ\, or

E/i - qi

/qi = = (8-1-6)

THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS WITH ONE UNBALANCE

207

where Zi is the impedance of the positive sequence network, including

balanced loads as viewed from Q\.

Similar considerations can be applied to the negative and zero sequence

networks, so that

E/o - EQ0

Iqo = ^ (8-1-7)

Iq2 =

E/2 Eq2

(8-1-8)

Here Z0 is the impedance of the zero sequence network, including balanced

loads, as viewed from Q0. Z2 is the corresponding impedance of the

negative sequence network as viewed from Q2.

*3iV ^

Fig. 8-1-6.

31

Fig. 8-1-7.

These three equations are identical with Eqs. 8-1-1, 8-1-2, and 8-1-3

except that

Ei is replaced by E/\.

E0 is replaced by E/0.

E2 is replaced by E/2.

In practical cases, E/0 = E/2 = 0, and Eqs. 8-1-7 and 8-1-8 become

identical with Eqs. 8-1-4 and 8-1-5.

Now, assuming that Iq\, Iq0, Iq2 and Eq\, Eq0 Eq2 are known (their

calculation will be analyzed in the following articles), how are the sym-

metrical components of the voltages in any section M obtained? Consider

the positive sequence network. If the generator emf's En, 21, 1Eni

are known, together with the positive sequence currents flowing between

any of these emf's, say En and M, the positive sequence component Em\

of the voltages at M will be

EMl = En - ZZi'Iqi (8-1-9)

where Y.Z\Iq\ is the drop between En and M in the positive sequence

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network. Similarly, if E10 and 12 and the corresponding sequence currents

208

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

between Ei0, 12, and M, respectively, are known, Emo and Em2 will be

given by

EM0 = 10 - ZZo'Iqo (8-1-10)

Em2 = 12 Y.Z2Iq2 (8-1-11)

Now let us assume that En, E2\, Ei are not known but E/i is

known. Then the positive sequence component of the voltages at the fault,

as calculated from Eq. 8-1-6, is given by

Eqi = E/i Z\Iq\

The expression for Em 1 is

Emi = Eqi +

where Y.^\"^q\" is the positive sequence voltage drop between M and

the fault. This voltage drop is due to the fault current Iq\, the load cur-

rents and the circulating currents arising from the differences between

the positive sequence components of the generator emf's. A knowledge of

E/i, of course, tells us nothing about the load and circulating currents.

The same conclusion applies to the zero and negative sequence voltages

Em0, Em2, except of course that the components of the generator emf's

of these sequences are zero.

Strictly speaking, then, in this case EM\, EM0, Em2 cannot be calculated

from a knowledge of E/i and Iqi; however, in practical cases, the effect of

the load and circulating currents can be disregarded and Em\, Em0, Em2

calculated from

Emi

= En

- ZZihi

(8-1-12)

Emo

= E/o

T.Z0'Iqo'

(8-1-13)

Em 2

= E/2

Y.^2'IQ2

(8-1-14)

where ^.Zi'Iqi is now the positive sequence component of the voltage

drop between the common neutral of all generators and M due to the

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positive sequence component of the fault current with similar interpreta-

tions for Z0'/q0' and ^Z^IqJ

Another point of interest relates to the effect of a fault on power. The

average power at the fault is zero. This average power is given by Eq.

7-8-5, which now takes the form

EqJ*qi + EQ0I*Q0 + EQ2I*Q2 = 0 (8-1-15)

Consider the case when E0 = E2 = 0. From Eqs. 8-1-1, 8-1^1, and 8-1-5,

EJ*Q1 - ZiIQ12 = EQJ*Q1 (8-1-16)

Z0Iqo2 = -EQ0I*Q0 (8-1-17)

*2/Q22 = -EQ2I*Q2 (8-1-18)

THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS WITH ONE UNBALANCE

209

Thus

(8-1-19)

Now E\I*qi is the average power generated by the generators, qi/*qi

is the average positive sequence power absorbed at the fault, ZJqi2 is the

power absorbed in the positive sequence network. Thus, from Eq. 8-1-16,

the average positive sequence power absorbed at the fault is equal to the

average positive sequence power generated by the generators less the power

absorbed in the positive sequence network. Eq0I*q0 is the average zero

sequence power absorbed by the fault; Eq0I*q0 is the average zero se-

quence power generated by the fault. Similarly, Eq2I*q2 is the average

negative sequence power generated by the fault. From Eq. 8-1-15 we

obtain

That is, the average positive sequence power absorbed by the fault is equal

to the sum of the average zero and negative sequence powers generated at

the fault. From Eq. 8-1-17 we see that the average zero sequence power

generated at the fault is equal to the average zero sequence power absorbed

by the zero sequence network. Similarly, from Eq. 8-1-18 the average

negative sequence power generated at the fault is equal to the average

negative sequence power absorbed by the negative sequence network.

It follows that the average positive sequence power generated by the

generators is equal to the sum of the average powers absorbed in the three

sequence networks (Eq. 8-1-19). The positive sequence power

at the fault is converted into powers of zero and negative sequences which

are forced back into the network from the fault. The fault acts as a se-

quence converter: it converts power of positive sequence into power of the

other two sequences.

8-2. Line to Ground Fault. Let us refer again to the network of Fig.

7-11-2 and assume that only a short circuit from phase a to ground is

applied at Q, as shown in Fig. 8-1-1. The other unbalanced loads in T,

R, etc., are not connected to the network. The three networks of Figs.

7- 12-1, 7-12-2, and 7-12-3 will become the three networks of Figs. 8-1-1,

8- 1-3, and 8-1-2 respectively.

Since the fault is on phase a, the line to ground voltage at the fault on

this phase is zero, or

Eq\I*qi (EqoI*q0 + Eq2I*q2)

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(8-1-20)

Eqa = Eq0 + Eqi + Eq2 0

from which

Eqi = (Eq0 + Eq2)

(8-2-1)

The fault currents on phases b and c are zero, or

?Qb = Iqc = 0

210

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

Thus

(8-2-2)

These are the equations that characterize a line to ground fault. Because

the same current Iq\ is flowing out at Q\, Q0, Q2 in Figs. 8-1-1, 8-1-2,

8-1-3, the three networks can be connected in series with one another and

with the sum of the three voltages Eq\, Eq2, Eq0. The result is shown in

Fig. 8-2-1, where the sum of the three voltages Eq\, Eq2, Eq0 is not shown

Positive

E.

21

14

r11

E12

Negative

'32 f ia\

122

v22

'10

*10

'20

20

Zero

30

Fig. 8-2-1.

because it is equal to zero. Thus we arrive at the very important con-

clusion that, with a line to ground fault, the current and voltage distribu-

tions in the three single-phase sequence networks is obtained by connecting

the three sequence networks in series at the point of fault. The currents

and voltages in the actual network are obtained from the corresponding

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quantities of the three sequence networks in the manner already explained

THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS WITH ONE UNBALANCE 211

in Arts. 7-1 and 7-7; that is, the current and voltage distributions in the

three-phase sequence networks are readily obtained from current and volt-

age distributions in the single-phase networks. From the current and

voltage distributions in the three-phase sequence networks the current and

voltage distributions in the actual network are obtained merely by adding

the currents and voltages, respectively, in the corresponding circuits and

sections of the three-phase sequence networks. For stability studies it is

important to take into consideration loads as well as the differences in

phase angle and magnitude of the various generator voltages. In short-

circuit studies on transmission and distribution networks, it is assumed

that the emf's generated in each phase by the generators G\, G2, ,(?

are all equal in phase and magnitude and of positive sequence; that is,

short-circuit calculations are usually carried out assuming

10

= E2o =

- En0

=0

= 22 =

= En2

=0

En

= E2\ =

=Enl

= E,

where Ei is the common emf of all generators. Furthermore, symmetrical

loads such as L\ are neglected. In such a case Eqs. 8-1-1, 8-1-4, and 8-1-5

will apply. We obtain, directly from Fig. 8-2-1,

where

/Qo = IQi = IQ2 = Zo + Ez[ + Z2 (8-2~3)

Z0 is the impedance of the zero sequence network as viewed from Q0.

Z\ is the impedance of the positive sequence network as viewed

from Q\.

Z2 is the impedance of the negative sequence network as viewed

from Q2.

The same result can be obtained by combining Eqs. 8-1-1, 8-1-4, and

8-1-5 with Eqs. 8-2-1 and 8-2-2:

*<*=-*'z, + % + z,

z2

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^-"z. + z. + z, (8-2-5)

Eq2 E j 1

ZO + Z\ + Z2

(8-2-6)

212

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

The fault current, from Eq. 8-2-3, is

/qa = Iqo + Iqi + I<32 =

31

^0 + Z\ + ^2

(8-2-7)

The currents in the other two conductors, iQb, Iqc, are both zero. This,

however, does not mean that the currents in phases 6 and c in any other

circuit of the network are zero. They will be zero if the currents in the

corresponding circuits of the three sequence networks are equal, that is,

if any one of the three sequence networks may be obtained from any of

the other two by multiplying the impedances by a constant factor.

The three voltages EQa, EQb, EQc at the fault are given by

Eq = Eqo + Eqi + Eq2 = 0

r r , 2p , r 2F r. \Z0 + <^Zi + aZ?\

C'Qb = &Q0 , a &Q1 T aC,Q2 = a C.\ C,\

ZO + Z\ + Z2

Z0 + aZi + a2Z2

(8-2-8)

(8-2-9)

(8-2-10)

(8-2-11)

Eqc. = Eq0 + OtEqi + o^Eqi = aEi E\ \

{ Z0 + \ T *2

From these we have

The line voltages are

Vab = EQb

.- (Zo + 2Z2)

Vbe = EQb - EQc = -jy/W"

*0 + *1 + ^2

Vca E(}c

In general, except when the fault is on a generator terminal, Z\ and Z2

may be assumed to be approximately equal. Z0 may vary within rather

wide limits. Putting Zi ^ Z2 = Z, we have

z0 + 2zy

Z0 ~ Z\

Z0 + 2Z)

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The physical meaning of these expressions may be better understood by

considering a simple case. In Fig. 8-2-2 we have a generator connected

to a transmission line. The impedances of the generator to currents of

positive, negative, and zero sequence are assumed to be negligible compared

with the corresponding impedances of the line. This is equivalent to

THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS WITH ONE UNBALANCE

213

assuming that the generator is an infinite system. If there is no mutual

between the three conductors a, b, c and to ground and, in addition, if

then

ZO Z\ Z2

Eqb = a2 Ei

Eqc = aE\

That is, the voltages from b and c to ground in section Q are equal to the

voltages from the same phases to ground at the terminals of the generator.

This conclusion may be obtained directly from the figure, as no current is

flowing in conductors b and c and

there is no mutual coupling between

them and conductor a. If there is

mutual coupling between the three

conductors, the voltages from b and c

to ground in section Q are no longer

equal to the generator internal volt-

ages on the same phases. They are

equal to the generator internal volt-

ages plus the voltages induced by the

current flowing in the faulty phase. In the expressions already given for

Equ Eqc and for the special case under consideration, the effect of this

mutual is represented by the term

Fig. 8-2-2.

Z0 - Z

[Z0 + 2Z\

where Z\ = Z2 Z.

In the more general case, when Zi ^ Z2, the effect of the mutual coupling

between the three phases is represented by the term

\Z0 + a2Zi+aZ2}

for the voltage EQb and by

-Ei

ZO + Zi + Z2

Z0 + aZi + a2Z2]

Z0 + Zi + Z2 J

for the voltage Eqc.

The preceding expressions have been derived disregarding all the loads

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and assuming the emf's generated by the generators in each phase equal in

phase and magnitude. As already noted in Art. 8-1, these assumptions

are not absolutely necessary, and at least the fault currents and voltages,

including the effect of balanced loads and of the differences in the generated

emf's, can be calculated more accurately. For this purpose Eqs. 8-2-1

214

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

and 8-2-2 are combined with Eqs. 8-1-6, 8-1-7, and 8-1-8, assuming in

the latter two that

E/o = E/2 = 0

Then we obtain

Iqo = hi = hi ~ - T ~ T - (8-2-12)

*0 T ~1 T *2

which is identical with Eq. 8-2-3 except that Ei is replaced by E//i.

The discussion in Art. 8-1 relative to the calculation of the voltages in

section M other than at the fault applies in this case.

8-3. Power with a Line to Ground Fault. In Art. 8-2, which deals with

the analysis of a line to ground fault, it was assumed that generators gen-

erate no negative and zero sequence voltages. With this assumption, the

only emf's applied in the three-phase zero and negative sequence networks

are those existing at the point of fault, Q. These applied emf's force cur-

rents and power in their respective networks in exactly the same manner

as would generators connected at the same point. Thus the system of zero

sequence voltages SEq0 will force currents and power of zero sequence

from Q into the three-phase zero sequence network. The system of negative

sequence voltages SEq2 will force currents and power of negative sequence

from Q into the three-phase negative sequence network.

We are thus led to the conclusion that zero and negative sequence powers

are forced into the given network from Q. Where is this power coming

from? The discussion in Art. 8-1 and inspection of the positive sequence

network of Fig. 8-1-1 and of Fig. 8-2-1 will answer this question. Figure

8-1-1 shows that power of positive sequence is absorbed in Q. Figure

8-2-1 shows that the positive sequence power absorbed in Q is consumed in

the zero and negative sequence networks. From the discussion in Art. 8-1,

it follows that a line to ground fault at Q causes power of positive sequence

to be converted into power of zero and negative sequences which is forced

into the network again. To clarify this point further, let us rederive this

conclusion for the specific case of a line to ground fault.

The assumed directions for currents and voltages are such that, in the

generators, generated power is positive and absorbed power is negative;

conversely, in the receiving devices, absorbed power is positive and gen-

erated power is negative.

Let us calculate now the components of the average power supplied to

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the fault as expressed by Eq. 7-8-5. From Eqs. 8-2-1 and 8-2-2, we see

that the zero sequence component of the currents flowing into the fault and

the zero sequence component of the voltages in section Q are of opposite

signs. Thus the component 3Eq0I*q0 of the power supplied to the fault is

negative; that is, zero sequence is generated in Q. Similarly, from the same

equations, we see that EQ2 and Iq2 are also of opposite sign, so that the

THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS WITH ONE UNBALANCE 215

component 3Eq2I*q2 of the average power supplied to the fault is negative;

that is, negative sequence power is generated in Q. Eqi and Iq\, the positive

sequence component of the voltages in Q and the component of the same

sequence of the currents supplied to the fault, are both positive. Thus the

component 3qi/*qi of the average power supplied to the fault is positive;

that is, positive sequence power is absorbed in Q. Moreover, also from

Eqs. 8-2-1 and 8-2-2,

3EqiI*qi = 3(EqqI*qq + Eq2I*q2)

That is, of the three components of the average power supplied to the fault

the positive sequence component is equal and of opposite sign to the sum

of the zero and negative components.

Now what happens to the zero and negative sequence powers generated

in Q? From Eq. 8-1-4 we obtain

3EqoI*qo = +3/qo Z0

The first member represents the average power of zero sequence generated

in Q. The second member represents the power consumed in the zero

sequence network. Thus we find again that the zero sequence power

generated in Q is absorbed in the zero sequence network. Similarly, from

Eq. 8-1-5 we have

3fiQ2* 02 = 3/Q2 ^2

The first member is the negative sequence average power generated in Q,

and the second member is the negative sequence power absorbed in the

negative sequence network. Thus, from the above equation, we see that

the negative sequence power generated in Q is redistributed into the nega-

tive sequence network.

We shall return to this point later. For the present it should suffice to

remember that the average power absorbed by any device connected to the

network is the sum of the three powers, the positive, the zero, and the

negative sequence powers.

A meter connected to record the power absorbed by the line to ground

fault, causing the unbalance, will record the positive minus the zero and

negative sequence powers, that is, zero, whereas a meter connected to

record the power absorbed by any other balanced load will record the

sum of the positive, negative, and zero sequence powers flowing through

it, or the balanced load will be penalized for some wrongdoing for which

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it is not responsible: the unbalancing of the system.

If the generator also generates emf of zero and negative sequence, the

currents and power distribution in each sequence network will depend on

both the emf applied at Q and the emf generated by the generator. The

power may still flow from the positive into the other two sequences or may

216

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

even flow the other way, depending on the magnitude and phase position of

all applied emf's.

8-4. Line to.Ground Fault. Effect of Capacitance. The general dis-

cussion of the effect of capacitance in Art. 7-14 is, of course, applicable here.

With reference to Fig. 7-14-1, if the unbalance at Q is a line to ground fault

and it is assumed, for greater generality, that the generator is grounded

through an impedance Z, the three sequence networks of Figs. 7-14-2,

7-14-3, and 7-14-5 will be connected as shown in Fig. 8-4-1. If the

^2

* z" l

- -J 1

^2

_.fc_ll_

*~

^20

L- j i

L __i_

_j

FIG. 8-4-1.

generators generate harmonic voltages, each harmonic will be treated sep-

arately by determining the corresponding sequence components of the gen-

erated voltages in the three phases, using, of course, appropriate values of

resistances and reactances for the various parts of the sequence networks.

The effect of the various capacitances and any eventual resonating condi-

tion can be easily evaluated. For instance, the capacitance Co may be

of such value as to cause resonance. If Co is due only to the capacitance

of cables and overhead lines, resonance is unlikely to happen at 60 cycles

though it may happen at some higher harmonic, especially if C0 is increased,

as when shunt capacitors connected in wye grounded are used for power

factor correction or if the system is grounded through a reactance.

8-5. Line to Ground Load. A line to ground load Z connected in Q

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as shown in Fig. 8-5-1 may be reduced to the line to ground fault studied

in the preceding paragraph by considering Z the phase impedance of a

balanced load, as shown in Fig. 8-5-2, and imagining a dead line to grounc

THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS WITH ONE UNBALANCE

217

QQ

Fio. 8-5-1.

Fio. 8-5-2.

fault in Q'. It follows that all that is necessary to do, to study this case, is

to connect Z in series in the three sequence networks. Figure 8-2-1 will

be modified as shown in Fig. 8-5-3. From now on, the calculations for the

current, voltage, and power distributions in the three sequence networks

&

I' 1*

_ W _P

1 Positive

[ G2

^[ >U^

'* I 2

|1

Negative

^ X ^ 2 -i ;

/J2 r Iu \

^32

"l^ol

1 t r/o |/2t

[^lo

yi U

Zero

'30 'iol

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Fio. 8-5-3.

218 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

will proceed as for a line to ground fault, assuming Q' as the point of fault.

For simplicity, the same symbols are used in Fig. 8-5-3 for currents and

voltages as in Fig. 8-2-1. It should be noted also that, in both these figures,

broken lines are used to indicate impedanceless connections, whereas solid

lines are used to indicate impedances of values other than zero.

If the emf's generated by the generators Gi, G2, are taken all equal

in phase and magnitude and symmetrical loads are neglected as noted in

Art. 8-2,

EI

T T w * 'o e i I

IQO = MQI = IQ2 = ~ ^S-~O 1)

where, it will be recalled,

Z0 is the impedance of the zero sequence networks as viewed from Q0-

Z1 is the impedance of the positive sequence networks as viewed

from Qi.

Z2 is the impedance of the negative sequence networks as viewed

from Q2.

The fault current is

The symmetrical components of the voltages at Q' are

EQO' = - (Z + Z0)IQO = -El

(8-5-4)

EQ2 = (Z + ZZ)IQZ = El

The three voltages Qo, EQb', EQc' at Q' are given by

EQa' = 0

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(8-5-6)

THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS WITH ONE UNBALANCE 219

The Jjne voltages at Q are

Vc = Vabr = -EQt! (8-5-8)

VA' = Vbe' = EQb' - EQc' = -j

VB = Vca EQc

The line to neutral voltages at Q are

MZ0

2Z2 + 3Z

3Z.

(8-5-9)

(8-5-10)

The line voltages at Q also are

VA = EQb EQc = EQb EQc = VA

B ^ **Qc ^Qa == **Qc d^QO"

, + Ztf-w + 3Z

Zi

3Z.

(8-5-11)

(8-5-12)

For the calculation of currents and voltages at any other point of the

network, the procedure to be followed is the same as that given for a line to

ground fault.

If, as noted in Art. 8-2, the generator emf's are not equal in phase and

magnitude and the loads are not neglected, more accurate values for the

fault currents and voltages can be obtained by replacing El with Efi, the

voltage existing at the point of fault before the fault occurs.

8-6. Line to Line Fault. Refer again to Fig. 7-11-2, and assume that a

dead short circuit between phases b and c is applied in Q and no unbalanced

loads are connected in T, R, etc., as shown in Fig. 8-6-1, in which the same

symbols have been used for currents and voltages as in Figs. 7-11-2 to

7-11-6 and 7-12-1 to 7-12-3 inclusive. The currents flowing from the

network into the fault over the three phases are

Phase a: /Qo = 0

Phase b: IQb ^ 0

Phaser: IQc = IQb

The sequence components of these three currents are

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Zero sequence:

220

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

Fio. 8-6-1.

Positive sequence:

(8-6-1)

Negative sequence:

/Q2 =

At the fault the voltage from phase 6 to phase c is zero; that is,

E(jb EQc = 0

from which, substituting for EQb and EQc their expressions in terms of their

sequence components,

(862)

Equations 8-6-1 and 8-6-2 are the characteristic equations for a line to

line fault.

A, Q,

'oi I'

^i Ifa

'31

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Fio. 8--2.

THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS WITH ONE UNBALANCE

221

The three networks of Figs. 7-12-1, 7-12-2, and 7-12-3 will become those

of Figs. 8-6-2, 8-6-3, and 8-6-4. The zero sequence network is open-

circuited at Qo because no zero sequence current flows from the network into

the fault. The zero sequence component of the voltages at Q will depend

on the zero sequence components of the generators' emf's. As EQI EQ2,

A2 Q,

32

Fio. 8-6-3.

the same imaginary generator used in Qi to generate EQI may be used to

generate E(j2 in Q2. On the other hand, /QZ = IQI, and no current will

flow in this imaginary generator which, therefore, may be entirely elim-

inated, as shown in Fig. 8-6-5. Thus we arrive at the important conclusion

that: with a b.ne to line fault, the current and voltage distributions in the

Fio. 8-6-4.

positive and negative sequence networks are obtained by connecting the

two sequence networks in parallel as shown in Fig. 8-6-5.

Assuming that the generators' emf's have components of zero sequence,

the zero sequence network must be considered separately, as shown in Fig.

8-6-^. As for a line to ground fault, the currents and voltages in the

actual network are obtained from the corresponding quantities in the three

sequence networks, in the manner already explained in Arts. 7-1 and 7-7.

Thus the zero sequence component of the voltages at any point A of the

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given network is obtained from the zero sequence component of any gen-

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

A,

Ql

I'd

'21

*u

.L

21

r.

L.

?!'"

Jt_. i

G3

_3^ 1.

r12

L. lj?.

9,

J^.

Fio. 8-6-5.

erator by subtracting the drop in the zero sequence network between the

generator and the point A0, which, in the zero sequence network, corre-

sponds to the point A of the given network. The positive and negative

sequence components of the voltages at the same point A are obtained in a

similar manner, from the positive and negative sequence networks. From

the current and voltage distributions in the single-phase sequence networks,

the corresponding quantities in the three-phase sequence networks and,

from these, in the actual network are readily obtained. As already noted

for a line to ground fault, in the practical application to short-circuit

studies of transmission and distribution networks, the emf's generated by

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the generators GI, G2, , Gn are assumed all equal in phase and magnitude

and of positive sequence; that is, it is usually assumed that

_ r

10 &20

Eln E22 =

= En0 = 0

= En2 = 0

and symmetrical loads such as Li are neglected. With this assumption,

no emf will be applied to the zero sequence network, which, therefore, is

neglected altogether. Again representing by

^1 the impedance of the positive sequence network as viewed from Qi

Z2 the impedance of the negative sequence network as viewed from Qa

THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS WITH ONE UNBALANCE 223

we obtain

/i --/2= '- (8-6-3)

^1 T ^2

The same result may be derived from Eq. 8-6-2 in conjunction with Eqs.

8-1-1, 8-1-4, and 8-1-5, noting that in this case EQO = 0.

The three sequence components of the voltages at the fault are

EQO = 0 (8-6-4)

EQl = , Z2 (8-6-5)

A T *2

(8-6-6)

^1 + ^2

The fault currents in phases b and c, from Eqs. 8-6-1, are

/. = -/6= J 7- (8-6-8)

*1 T *2

The current in phase a is zero. Of course, this does not mean that the

current in phase a in any other part of the given network is zero. It will

be zero if the given network is constituted of one single circuit, or, in a

network with more than one circuit, if the impedances of the negative se-

quence network bear to the impedances of the corresponding circuits of

the positive sequence network a constant ratio; this condition is usually

satisfied by all static parts of the given network, such as transformers and

lines, but not by rotating apparatus such as generators and motors. On this

account, in practice there is almost always a small current flowing in the

unfaulted phase. The three voltages at the fault are

EQa = EQ1 +

EQb = a2EQl

EQc =

The line voltages are

V2 ^1 _ . _

(,o-!)-y;

fQ R_m\

2\ + Z2

jTjF 2

i (,8-o-iu,)

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jr. . jf ^c_R_11^

= EQo EQb =

I-

*1 T ^2

Vbc = EQb - EQe = 0 (8-6-12)

Vca = EQc EQa = EI -

224

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

If, as previously noted in Arts. 8-1 and 8-2, the generators' emf 's are not

equal in phase and magnitude and the loads are not neglected, more

ac.curate values for the fault currents and voltages can be obtained by

replacing El with Eji, the voltage existing at the point of fault before the

fault occurs.

8-7. Power with a Line to Line Fault. The effect of faults on the flow

of power was discussed in general terms in Art. 8-1. The matter was

discussed again in Art. 8-3 for a line to ground fault. Let us now apply

the previous conclusions to a line to line fault.

The total power at the fault is zero, and thus from Eq. 7-8-5, noting

that, in this case, at the fault, EQI = EQZ, IQO 0, and IQI = IQZ, we

obtain

3i/*i + 32/*2 = 0

*Qi is the average positive sequence, and 3(j2/*Q2 the average nega-

tive sequence power absorbed by the fault. As their sum is zero and the

average positive sequence power 3EQiI*QI is positive (absorbed power),

the average negative sequence power 3Q2/*Q2 must be negative (generated

power); that is, the fault acts like a phase converter, converting positive

sequence power into negative sequence power, the latter being forced

again, from the fault as a source, into the network. The discussion regard-

ing the power metered by meters, given in connection with line to ground

faults, applies to the present case as well; that is, a meter connected to

record the power absorbed by the line to line fault, causing the unbalance,

will record the positive minus the negative sequence power, that is, zero

power, whereas a meter connected to record the power absorbed by any

other balanced load will record the sum of the positive and the negative

sequence power flowing through it and will be penalized for some wrong-

doing, the unbalancing of the system, for which it is not responsible.

8-8. Line to Line Load. A single-phase line to line load Z, connected in

Q as shown in Fig. 8-8-1, may be reduced to the line to line short circuit

considered in Art. 8-6 simply by imagining connected to each phase in Q the

FIG. 8-8-1.

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FIG. 8-8-2.

THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS WITH ONE UNBALANCE

225

impedance Z/2 equal to one half the impedance of the single-phase load,

and assuming a dead short circuit at the end of the two impedances on

phases b and c as shown in Q' of Fig. 8-8-2. It will be noted that Fig. 8-8-2

is essentially identical with Fig. 8-8-1. Considering Q' as the point of

fault, the three sequence networks of Figs. 8-6-2, 8-6-3, and 8-6-4 must

be modified only for the addition of the impedance Z/2 in Qi, Q2, QO.

This, of course, will not affect the zero sequence network; it will, however,

affect the positive and negative sequence networks, so that Fig. 8-6-5

will be modified as shown in Fig. 8-8-3. From now on, currents, voltages,

and power calculations will proceed in exactly the same manner as for a

line to line dead short circuit.

32

L,

Fio. 8-8-3.

For simplicity, the same symbols are used in Fig. 8-8-3 as in Fig. 8-6-5.

Of course, this does not mean that the currents and voltages obtained in the

two cases are the same. In Fig. 8-8-3, as in previous figures, broken lines

are used to indicate impedanceless connections, whereas solid lines are

used to indicate circuits of impedance different from zero.

If the emf's generated by generators GI, G2, are all equal in phase

and magnitude, and symmetrical loads are neglected as assumed in Art.

8-6, the sequence components of the fault current will be

Zi

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(8-8-1)

226 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

where, as before,

Zi is the impedance of the positive sequence networks as viewed

from Qi.

Z2 is the impedance of the negative sequence networks as viewed

from Q2-

The fault current is

I f J 1 /Q Q OI

IQl MQc ~ j ~ \>3 O &)

The three sequence components of the voltages at the fault are

EQO' = 0

Z2 + Z/2 ] (8-8-3)

From these the following expressions may be derived for the three line to

ground voltages at Q:

w, I r / i p / r. I 2Z2 + Z ]

EQa = EQ1 + EQ2 = El (8-8-4)

1^1 -(- ^2 + *J

p' 2P / _i p / p 2

06 = a iji + aEQ2 = -i j [ (8-8-5)

i^! + Z2 + ]

EQc' = aEgi + a2EQ2' = -El I * \ (8-8-6)

\Zi + LZ -+ }

The three sequence components of the three voltages at Q are

EQO = 0

p r 7 i r J * ' /o o i I

EQI = El- ZJQl = El \ + + J

(8-8-8)

from which the corresponding line to ground and line to line voltages are

readily obtained:

a*Z "'' (8-8-10)

,I

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+ Z2 + Z.

THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS WITH ONE UNBALANCE 227

EQc = aEQl + *EQ2 = El 7 (8-8-11)

\i -f- 2 T

v F F F I3*2 + ^^30

Vab = EQo. EQb = EI

( i -r /2 ~r *

Vbc = EQb - EQc = -E, I j 3Z 1 (8-8-13)

(/i + Z2 + Z

V,. = ** - ft* - -ft

For the calculation of currents and voltages at any other point of the

network, the procedure to be followed is the same as that outlined for a

line to line short circuit.

The remark made at the end of Art. 8-6 re- Q

garding the replacement of EI by /i applies in

this case also.

ft

8-9. Double Line to Ground Fault. Going 'gc

back to Fig. 7-11-2, let us assume a double line

to line to ground short circuit in Q and no un-

balanced loads in T, R, etc. The conditions are Fio. 8-9-1.

as shown in Fig. 8-6-1, except that the fault in Q

is as shown in Fig. 8-9-1. The same symbols will be used to indicate cur-

rents and voltages as in Figs. 7-11-2 to 7-11-6 and 7-12-1 to 7-12-3

inclusive.

The currents flowing from the network into the fault over the three

phases and their sequence components are

Phase a: /Qa = 0

Phase 6: Aj6 ^ 0

Phase c: IQc * 0

IQO

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'02 =

228

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

from which

(8-9-1)

At the fault the voltages ij6, EQc from phases 6 and c to ground are both

equal to zero. Expressing them in terms of their sequence components,

and equating to zero their difference and either one of them, we obtain

the relation

EQO = EQi = EQ2 (8-9-2)

Equations 8-9-1 and 8-9-2 are the equations that characterize a double

line to ground fault. The three networks of Figs. 8-1-1, 8-1-2, and 8-1-3

still apply. In this case the currents /Q0, IQl, IQ2 and the voltages ij0,

EQI, EQZ are bound, respectively,

by Eqs. 8-9-1 and 8-9-2.

Now, from Eq. 8-9-2, it follows

that the points Qi, Q0, Q2 of Figs.

8-1-1, 8-1-2, and 8-1-3 are at the

same potential. Thus they may

be connected together; that is, the

same impedanceless imaginary gen-

erator may be imagined connected

simultaneously to these three

points to generate the voltages EQO,

EQI, E(j2. When this is done, the

same current and voltage distribu-

tion will be obtained in the three

sequence networks as in Figs.

8-1-1, 8-1-2, and 8-1-3. Further-

more, the current flowing out from

Qi is IQI, the currents flowing into

the network in Q0 and Q2 are (on

account of Eq. 8-9-1) IQO and

/Q2. There is, therefore, no cur-

rent flowing in the imaginary gen-

erator connected between the

ground and Q0, Qi, Q2. This im-

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aginary generator can, therefore,

be eliminated altogether, the result

being shown in Fig. 8-9-2. Thus,

with a line to line to ground short circuit, the current and voltage distribu-

tions in the three sequence networks are found by connecting the latter

in parallel at the point of fault. The currents and voltages in the actual

network are found as already explained in Arts. 7-1 and 7-7 and in some

FIG. 8-9-2.

THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS WITH ONE UNBALANCE 229

of the preceding articles in connection with the treatment of line to ground

and line to line faults.

With the usual assumption that the generators generate emf's of positive

sequence only, and neglecting symmetrical loads such as L\, we obtain

hi - ~ (h2 + ho) = E\ . (8-9-3)

Zq42

Zq + Z2

where Ei is the common value of the generators' emf's and Z1\ , Z0, Z2 are,

respectively, the impedances of the three sequence networks as viewed from

the points of fault (Q\ , Q0, Q2).

The negative and zero sequence components of the fault currents are

Z\(Zq + Z2) + Z0Z2

Z\(Zq + Z2) + Z0Z2

The fault currents, from the above equations, are then

ha = 0

jZ0 + e*Z2

hb ho + a2h\ + <*Iq2 = v31

he ho + <*hi + a2h2 - v 31

Z\Zq -j- Z\Z2 + ZqZ2

jZ0 - e-Z2

Z\Zq + Z\Z2 + ZoZ2

(8-9-6)

(8-9-7)

The current in phase a at the fault is zero. At any other point, it may or

may not be zero, depending on the relative distribution of the sequence

currents in the three sequence networks and therefore on their impedances.

If these impedances are such that the current in any circuit of the positive

sequence network is equal and opposite to the sum of the currents in the

corresponding circuits of the negative and zero sequence networks, the

current in phase a of that particular circuit will be zero; otherwise it will

be different from zero.

The three components of the voltages at the fault are, from Figs. 8-1-1,

8-1-2, and 8-1-3 and Eqs. 8-9-1, 8-9-2, and 8-9-3,

Z0Z2

Eqx = Eq2 = Eqq = Ex lq\Z\ = Ei - (8-9-8)

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Zq + z2

230 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

from which

EQa = 3El Zo + Z* = 3, ^^ (8-9-9)

77 77 I 7 7 i f y

1'7}7

*0 T ~2

QJ, = Qc = 0

As in the previous cases, if the generators' emf's are not equal in phase and

magnitude and the loads are not neglected, more accurate values for the

fault currents and voltages can be obtained by replacing EI with Ejlt the

voltage existing at the point of fault before the fault occurs.

8-10. Double Line to Ground Fault. Power. Effect of Capacitance.

The discussions of power in connection with line to ground and line to line

faults apply to this case also. The effect of capacitance on the three

sequence networks must also be taken into consideration, as explained for

the other two types of fault.

8-11. Double Line to Ground Fault Through an Impedance Z. This

case is shown in Fig. 8-11-1, where for brevity the network is represented

FIG. 8-11-1.

by a rectangle with the generator emf's EI, E2, E3, -,Ea feeding it. Only

section Q, where the fault occurs, is shown in some detail.

The impedance Z is assumed to be connected from Q' to N, the ground

at the point of fault. The analysis of this fault is then reduced to the

analysis of the fault discussed in Art. 8-9. The three voltages from phases

a, 6, c to Q are, respectively, Ea', Eb', Ec'. Their sequence components are

EQO', EQI', EQZ'. The three phase voltages from phases a, 6, c to ground Ar

are

Ea = E' -

(8-11-1)

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Ec = E.' -

THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS WITH ONE UNBALANCE

231

Their sequence components are

QO, EQI, EQZ- Obviously,

EQO =

= EOI

(8-11-2)

On the other hand, under the as-

sumed conditions,

EQO =

= ^i22

The three sequence networks

will be connected in parallel, as

shown in Fig. 8-11-2.

That this is the case can be

shown as follows. In Fig. 8-11-1

we can eliminate the unbalance

by connecting in Q three imagi-

nary generators generating the

three emf's Ea, Eb, Ec, respec-

tively, as shown in Fig. 8-11-3. The system of this figure can be studied

by considering separately the three sequence networks as shown, respec-

tively, in Figs. 8-11-4, 8-11-5, and 8-11-6, where it has been assumed

that the system generators generate only emf's of positive sequence.

FIG. 8-11-2.

Nt-

m '*! h

S*2 J

*A

\ '1N)

rr

f^, fP

*. I i J;

1*1

4---J

1 W

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FIG. 8-11-3.

From Fig. 8-11-6 we obtain

EQO

(8-11-3)

Now to the zero sequence network of Fig. 8-11-6 let us add in series in

Qo the impedance ?>Z, correspondingly increasing the imaginary generator

emf from EQO to a value EQO" such that the current remains at the value

232

S Y M M KTRICAL COM PON ENTS

i \*11 *

1\

Positive sequence

k (1)

1)

I s ,.

ff,

Fio. 8-11-4.

tf,

Negative sequence

ff,

Fio. 8-11-5.

1N

y*

N,

Evidently

Zero sequence

Fio. 8-11-6.

o" satisfies the relation

0 EQO = ZO/QO 4

jo 3Z/QQ

from the first of Eqs. 8-11-2.

With this addition the network of Fig. 8-11-6 becomes the one of

Fig. 8-11-7.

Since

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EQO = EQI = EQZ

THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS WITH ONE UNBALANCE

233

we can use only one imaginary generator in Figs. 8-11-4, 8-11-5 and

8-ll-7. The current through this generator will be

IQO + IQI + IQZ = 0

or the imaginary generator can be omitted altogether, and thus we arrive at

Fig. 8-11-2.

Zero sequence

32

Fio. 8-11-7.

Except for the insertion of the impedance 3Z in the zero sequence net-

work, the analysis of this fault is conducted like the analysis outlined in

Art. 8-9. Thus, if loads are neglected and it is assumed that generators

generate no emf's of zero and negative sequences and that all emf's of

positive sequence are equal to El, Eq. 8-9-3 becomes

IQI = ~ (/oo + /02) = ,/'. (8-11-4)

, , (*o -

As previously noted, more accurate values for the fault currents and

voltages, including the effect of loads, are obtained by making EI equal to

Efi, the voltage existing at the point of fault prior to the fault occurrence.

8-12. Two Equal Single-Phase Loads on Two Different Phases at the

Same Location. This case is illustrated in Fig. 8-12-1, where Z is the

Fio. 8-12-1.

impedance of the load. By imagining an impedance Z connected to phase a

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as shown by the broken line, this network is analyzed as a double line to

234

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

/ 21 11 -.

ground fault. Assuming that the

generators generate emf's of positive

sequence only, the connections of

the three sequence networks will be

as shown in Fig. 8-12-2.

A double line to ground fault, as

shown in Fig. 8-12-3, is analyzed by

FIG. 8-12-2.

Fio. 8-12-3.

combining the above with the results of Art. 8-11. The connections of the

three networks will be as shown in Fig. 8-12-2, except that the impedance

3Zn will be added in series between N0 and JV2 in the zero sequence network,

as will be evident also from the following article.

8-13. A Short Circuit between Two Phases and an Impedance Z be-

tween the Short Circuit and the Third Phase. This case is shown in Fig.

8-13-1. The impedance Z can be eliminated if an emf E, = ZIa is inserted

in its place as shown in Fig. 8-13-2.

_~, ,

FIG. 8-13-1.

Fio. 8-13-2.

Let E,0, E,i, E,2 be the sequence components of the three voltages E,.

0, 0, applied at the fault as shown in Fig. 8-13-2. Obviously,

.0 t1 t2 _ -

Since it is assumed that the fault does not involve the ground,

/.o = 0

Ia ~ Ial + /a2

(8-13-1)

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(8-13-2)

THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS WITH ONE UNBALANCE 235

The positive and negative sequence networks will be as shown in Fig.

8-13-3. In the lower part of this figure an impedance Z/3 to which a volt-

age E,i is applied, is also considered. Because of Eq. 8-13-1, the current

flowing through Z/3 is /a. Since E,2 = Etl in Fig. 8-13-3, only one gener-

ator need be used. The current flowing in this generator is

1,1 + /a2 - /a = 0

so that the generator can be omitted altogether. The connections will be

as shown in Fig. 8-134.

/.I

| Pos.

*1

Neg.

-VW-

Fio. 8-13-4.

In Figs. 8-13-3 and 8-13-4 it has been assumed that the generators

generate only emf's of positive sequence. If they also generate emf's of

negative sequence, these will appear in the negative sequence network.

If in addition they generate emf's of zero sequence, the zero sequence net-

work must be taken into consideration. This, however, will show an open

circuit at the location of the fault.

As previously noted, in making short-circuit calculations it is usually

assumed that the emf's generated by the generators are equal in phase and

magnitude.

More accurate values of the fault currents and voltages are obtained by

replacing the sequence components of the emf's generated by the generators

with the sequence components /i, Ef0, /2 of the voltages existing at the

location of the fault prior to the fault as discussed in Art. 8-1.

8-14. General Case. Three Impedances 7 , 7 , 7 Connected from

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Line to Ground in a Balanced Network. The general case is shown in

236 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

Fig. 8-14-1. From Eqs. 7-6-8, 7-6-9, and 7-6-10, the sequence

components of the voltages across the load are given by

Ea0 = Zoo/ao + Zoi/ai + Z02/a2 (8-14-1)

Eai = Z10/ao + Zn/al + Zi2Ia2 (8-14 2)

(8-14-3)

, ^^^

FIG. 8-14-1.

Since the network is balanced except for the three impedances, Eqs.

8-1-1, 8-1-2, and 8-1-3 are also satisfied and they take the form

El - Eal = ZJai (8-14-4)

JF 71 ffL'i 1 ^"\

0 ''aO ^O'aO V"*-^ "f

E2 - Ea2 = Z2/a2 (8-14-6)

In the six preceding equations, Elt E0, E2 and all the impedances are

known, a0, ai, EaZ, Iao, Ial, Ia2 are unknown and can be determined as

follows. From Eqs. 8-14-4, 8-14-5, and 8-14-6,

E2 = Ea2 4

or, from Eqs. 8-14-1 to 8-14-3 inclusive,

l"/.l + *12/a2 (8-14-7)

1.1

2 *a

Zoo = ZOO + Zo

where

6 oo

," = Zn + Zi (8-14-8)

" 7 ''7

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2 ^22 ~T ^2

THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS WITH ONE UNBALANCE 237

Solving Eqs. 8-14-7 for /a0, /ai, /a2, we obtain

Zi2Zp2) ,-.

~'

(^1Q^22 ~ ZyoZi2) _ (Zoo Z22

- -- - *0 + - -5- - ,

(8-14-9)

(ZOO Zi2 Z

(Z10Z2i Z2oZn ) (Zpo Z2i Z2oZ01)

o Zii

H -- ^

where

rt 7 "7 "7 " i 777 '777 77^7

7 7 7 " 7 7 7" (R 1 -10^

^02^20^11 *'12^21 ^00 I" * * *"/

If Z0i, ZIQ, Z2o, Z02, Zi2, Z2i are negligible in comparison with Zn",

Z22", Zoo", we obtain, approximately,

W\ V 't nt // fw 't /O t A 1 t \

D = Zii Z22 Zoo (8-14-11)

01 p 02

- a y n -1 _ // _

(8-14-12)

/ = Z20 _ Z21 ^ ^2

That is, for this approximation each sequence voltage generates a current

of the same sequence limited only by the impedance to currents of the same

sequence. This current induces voltages in the other sequences which

produce currents of these sequences obtained simply by dividing the re-

spective induced voltage by the impedance to currents of that particular

sequence. Thus the applied positive sequence voltage EI generates a

current of positive sequence El/Zii"; this current induces a voltage

(Z0iEl/Zll") in the zero sequence network, which in its turn forces a

current (Z0ii/Zn") (I/Zoo"). The same current induces a voltage

(2zi/Zn")El in the negative sequence network, which in its turn

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forces a current -(Z2i/Zn")El(l/Z22").

238

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

Let us return now to the genera] equations, 8-14-1, 8-14-2, and 8-14-3.

Assume that

Zc = Zb (8-14-13)

Under this assumption,

*oo = *n = Z22 = Za 0 = Z t 2Z" (8-14-14)

Za Z6

ZQI = Z02 = Z10 = Z12 = Z20 = Z21 = - - (8-1415)

so that Eqs. 8-14-1, 8-14-2, 8-14-3 reduce, respectively, to

(Z - Z*)

aO + (/aO + /.I + /a2) (8-14-16)

(/ao + /.I

(/

aO

(8-14-17)

(8-14-18)

From these equations and the discussion in Art. 8-2 which led us to the

connections of Fig. 8-2-1, we can easily see that this case can be studied by

considering the four networks shown in Figs. 8-14-2, 8-14-3, 8144, and

Pv

Positive

sequence

IT ZL I

Native *f w^ro^

sequence ''

FZ

v '.A. THP "'

;2l

\ *i V

~\ ^J

r\

Fio. 8-14-2.

Ia

Zero

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Fio. 8-14-3.

sequence

H yfVfr.

"^ *j

Fio. 8-14-4. Fio. 8-14-5.

8-14-5 where Eal, Ea2, and Ea0' are the voltages generated by four

imaginary generators:

E '= E ZtJ = ~ /

THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS WITH ONE UNBALANCE

239

Since all four generators generate the same voltage, Eal', we can use only

one imaginary generator, and, since the current through this common

generator would be zero, we can omit it altogether and thus arrive at the

connections of Fig. 8-14-6.f

-/vw-rnnr* t

Fio. 8-14-7.

Obviously, if the neutral of the three impedances Za, Zb, Zc is ungrounded,

/oo is zero and the emf EqO' connected to the zero sequence network in

Fig. 8-14-4 will be omitted or disconnected, so that the network in Fig.

8-14-6 will reduce to that in Fig. 8-14-7.

The cases discussed in Arts. 8-6, 8-8,8-9, and 8-12 are all special applica-

tions of the case of Fig. 8-14-1.

Let us assume now that there is an impedance /,, between the common

point of the three impedances Za, Zb, Zc and the ground, as shown in Fig.

8-14-8. Let EA, EB, EC be the voltages from a, 6, c to 0', the common

point of the three impedances. Let 0o be the voltage between 0' and 0

directed from 0 to 0; obviously, E0,0 = 3ZnIa0 and

EC Ec EO-O

i Electrical Transmision and Distribution Reference Book, 4th ed., Westinghouse

Electric Corp., ch. 2; H. 8. Kirechbaum, "Basic Sequence Networks," Transactions,

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AIEE, LXXIV, pt. III (Aug. 1955), 771-74.

240

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

Positive

sequence

6 ^6

iS. c *. I

ri

'c

Fio. 8-14-8.

*o

That is,

SEa = SEA

SlE

Al

O + 3Zn/a0)

Reference to Eqs. 7-6-8 will show-

that Eq. 8-14-1 will become

EaO = (Z00 "I" 3/n)/aO

+ ZoJal + Z I

Equations 8-14-2 and 8-14-3 will

remain unchanged. The expression

for ZQO" in Eqs. 8-14-8 will become

ZQO = Zoo f 3Zn + Zo

Equation 8-14-16 will become

a0 = (.Zb + 3Zn)/ao

Fio. 8-14-9.

(8-14-19)

Equations 8-14-17 and 8-14-18

will remain unchanged. Thus Fig.

8-14-6 will become Fig. 8-14-9.

The cases discussed in Arts. 8-6.

8-8, 8-9, 8-11, 8-12, and 8-13 are

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all special applications of the case of

THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS WITH ONE UNBALANCE

241

ft

z.

Zn

CO

CO

00

Figs. 8-14-8 and 8-14-9. More specifically, the results of these articles

can be obtained from Figs. 8-14-8 and 8-14-9 by giving to Za, Zb, Zc, Zn

the values

Article Z,

8-6

8-8

8-9 *

8-11

8-12

8-13 Z

8-16. Three Impedances in Wye

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Ungrounded with No Mutual be-

tween Them or to Ground (Fig.

8-15-1). This is a special applica-

tion of the more general case dis-

cussed in Art. 8-14. Ea, Eb, Ec are the voltages from a, b, c to the ground 0.

Ea0, Ea\, Ea2 are their symmetrical components; that is,

SEa = 'Srao + S Eai + S Ea2

Let Ea, Eb, Ec be the voltages from a, b, c to 0', the common point of

the three impedances.

Let E&0 be the voltage between 0' and 0 directed from 0' to 0:

Ea Ea E0>0

Eb = Eb Eo'o

Ec = Ec Eo'o

0 fflnmjjtfffwim

Fig. 8-15-1.

That is,

SEa ~uEo'o + SEa SEao + S Eai + S Ea2

= S(Eao Eq'o) -f- S Ea\ + S Ea2

From Eqs. 8-14-1, 8-14-2, 8-14-3, and 7-6-11 to 7-6-19 inclusive, for

this case, noting that /ao = 0, we obtain

Eao Eao ~ ^0<o = Za2Ia\ + Zaila2

Eai = Eai ZaoIai + Za2Ia2

Ea2 ~ &a2 ~ Za\Ia\ + ZaoIa2

(8-15-1)

(8-15-2)

(8-15-3)

These three equations are useful because they permit us to calculate the

voltage E0>o from 0' to the neutral of the system, which usually is the

ground, when three impedances are connected to a supply system and

0' is ungrounded. They permit us to explain also the performance of the

phase sequence indicator, which will be discussed in Art. 8-17.

242 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

Solving Eqs. 8-15-1 to 8-15-3 inclusive for EAO, Ial, Ia2, we obtain

_ _ a aa , a a

A0 ~ 77 7 * l 77 7 *

*ol*o2 ~ "aO *al"a2 ~ *aO

7~

*ol*o2

EA2Za0

*.2 = 77 7

*ol^o2 ~ *

Putting

Ze K2Za

i and K2 are two coefficients which may be real or complex), we obtain

Z*o = v C1 + 'i + ^2)

Zal = (1 + ^1 + A)

Substituting in the expression for E ,, we obtain

/a^ + a*K2 + K,K2\ fa2^ + g2

11 \ jfi + r2 + JTA /" X2\ jf, + 1T +

and, from Eq. 8-15-1,

which gives the voltage between the common connection 0' of the three

impedances and the ground, in terms of the symmetrical components Ea0,

ai, Ea2 of the voltages applied at the terminals of the three impedances,

and the coefficients KI, K2.

8-16. Neutral of a System in a Given Section of a Three-Phase Circuit

In Art. 6-19 we defined "neutral" of a system in a particular section of a

three-phase circuit as the point represented in the vector diagram by the

baricenter of the triangle formed by the line voltages. We are now in a

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position to see how such a neutral may be found in practice. If in the pre-

THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS WITH ONE UNBALANCE 243

ceding article we assume

then

and

Za = Zb = zc

Ki = K2 = 1

That is, 0' will coincide with the neutral of the system in the section under

consideration because in the phasor diagram 0' is represented by the bari-

center of the triangle of the three line voltages:

Ea ~ Eb Eb ~ Ec Ec - Ea

The voltage from 0' to ground is 2?o'o = Ea0. If Ea0 = 0, both 0' and the

ground coincide with the neutral of the system. If three other equal

impedances are connected in wye ungrounded in another section and 0" is

their common connection, 0" is the neutral of the system in that section.

Let Ea0' be the zero sequence component of the three voltages Ea', Eb', Ec'

from the conductors in the new section to ground. The voltage from 0" to

ground is 0"o = Ea0'. In general, E0>a will be different from 0"0, and

therefore the neutrals of the system

in different sections are at different

potentials. They coincide, that is,

they are at the same potential, only if

Ea0' = Ea0. In the special case when

Ea0' = Ea0 = 0, the two neutrals are

both coincident with the ground.

8-17. Phase Sequence Indicator.

One type of phase sequence indicator Fio. 8-17-1.

is composed of two lamps and a re-

actance connected as shown in Fig. 8-17-1. Lo and Lc are two lamps of

resistance R ohms; L is a reactance of R ohms also. In this case the co-

efficients Kl and K2 of Art. 8-15 are

K,=j

K2 = 1

Substitution in Eq. 8-15-4 gives

0'o = Ea0 + Eal (-0.413 +./0.469) + Ea2 (0.613 + jO. 131)

Now suppose that the three voltages Ea, Eb, Ec are balanced and sym-

metrical, but their sequence is unknown and is to be found. From their

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being symmetrical, it follows that Ea0 = 0. Furthermore, if their sequence

244 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

is Ea, Eb, Ec, it follows that a2 = 0 and

Ea = Eai

Eb = a2ai

Ec = aEai

The expression for E0-0 will then become

E0o = ai(-0.413 + J0.469) = -0.625<r'4835a,

The voltages EA, EB, Ec are determined immediately from

EA = Ea EO,O

EC = Ec E

0,0

This is done graphically in Fig. 8-17-2, which shows that here the magni-

tude of EA is larger than the magnitude of Ec and therefore the current /

flowing through lamp La will be larger than the current flowing in lamp Lc;

j 0.4691

FIG. 8-17-2.

FIG. 8-17-3.

therefore the former will burn brighter than the latter. If the sequence of

Ea, Eb, Ec is Ea, Ec, Eb, that is, negative, Eal = 0 and

Ea = Ea2

Eb = aEa2

If - ~2F

EC ** **a2

The expression for 0o becomes

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E0o = Ea2 (0.613 + j0. 131) = 0.625a2eii25'

THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS WITH ONE UNBALANCE 245

The voltages EA, EB, Ec are determined as before. This is done graphically

in Fig. 8-17-3, which shows that in this case the voltage EC across Lc is

larger than the voltage EA across lamp La. Lc will then burn brighter than

La- In conclusion, the sequence of the three voltages as indicated by the

phase sequence indicator is

1. Phase connected to brighter lamp.

2. Phase connected to reactance.

3. Phase connected to dimmer lamp.

In another type of phase sequence indicator the inductance L of Fig.

8-17-1 is replaced by a capacitance.

8-18. Three Impedances in Wye in Terms of Admittances. The results

of Arts. 8-15, 8-16, and 8-17 may be obtained much more quickly by using

admittances instead of impedances. Refer again to Art. 8-15 and Fig.

8-15-1. For greater generality, assume that 0' is connected to O through

an impedance Zn as in Fig. 8-14-8 and that IoQ is differernt from zero.

Let us write

ZZz

We obtain

a = EA Ya /6 = Eg Yb Ic EC Yc

or SIa = SEASYa

But

SEA = SEa - &* - J

Therefore

O/o = O { (a-,

+ EA2Ya2 + EAoYai)

+ EAOYa2 4 EAiYal)

from which

*ao = (Eao Eoo)Yao + EAiYa2 + EA2Yai (8-181)

/.i = EAOYal + EAIYM + EA2YaZ (8-18-2;

i P v tr v if v /ft_ift-7i

*a2 &AO*a2 ^Al^al ~r ^A2*aO O~o;

where

F F F.

*oO *^0'0 &AQ

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Ea2 = EA2

246 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

If /a0 = 0, as when 0' is ungrounded,

Ka,

0-0 = a0 + a1

YaO

a2 Ka0

P IP i

A fio I *oO T J

ai^ +

^M

YaO/

I^oO

B.,&^

2^

'aO

E y2 +

raA

^oO

YaO/

The three currents /x, /B, /c will be

given by

/p ^^ F v i r

X ~~ **A X a **o * a ~ \ ^aO

+ *.i ^ -

h a2 ^) r.

'oO

faO/

t- .-(*.

+ Eal ^ -

^S)',

Yao

+ *.,f^

My

'aO

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/C z ^C^c = -Ec^c ( ^oO

I- A2^-j *r

'aO/

If the three voltages Ea, 6, Ec have no zero and no negative sequence

components,

EalY

ala

(l - ^

\ *oO

V ^ M

= aiKc(a - I

\ *oO/

/C

If the three voltages Ea, Eb, Ec have no zero and no positive sequence com-

ponents,

I A Ea2Ya

(-r)

\ * oO/

THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS WITH ONE UNBALANCE 247

IB = Ea2Yb [a I

\ -TaO/

EaftYc

For the sequence indicator of Art. 8-17 and Fig. 8-17-1,

yIy1y1

~ft "jR r ft

a0 ~ 3 ~ 3ft V j

rn + g2rt + aI'c = o^

"2 ~ 3 ~ 3ft

and

^T = "fVo^ = 0.625e"1034 = 0.62 + J0. 127

* oO I T O

- = , , _. = -0.625(rJ4826' = -0.42 + j0.475

'oO I T *?

The expression for QO becomes

^o-o = ^oo + ai(-0.42 +j0.475) + o2(0.62 + j0.127)

which, except for the small errors due to the use of the slide rule in making

the necessary calculations, is identical with the expression given in Art.

8-17. Moreover,

_ 0.38 -j0.127 04 yi9.n,

ft ft

1.49 ,.2

'

RR

1.42 - j0.475 1.5 _,18.44,

ft R

-0.08+J0.993 0.995 >94-,5,

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ft ft e

248

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

Therefore the currents IA and /c, when the three voltages Ea, Eb, Ec have

neither zero nor negative sequence components, are

ft

That is, IA > Ic, and lamp La will be brighter than lamp Le.

When ., Eb, Ec have no zero and no positive sequence components,

Ea

04

_ * , I p V.^

e-jW

That is, /c > I A, and lamp Lc will be brighter than lamp LA-

Let us consider now the special case when

Yc = Yb

Under this condition,

= Ya2 =

(8-18-5)

In Eq. 8-18-1, 0'o is the voltage from 0 to 0 (Fig. 8-14-8). Since 0' is

connected to 0 by the impedance Zn through which flows the current

Since

E0,0 = 3/a0Zn

(8-18-6)

by substituting in Eqs. 8-18-1, 8-18-2, and 8-18-3 we obtain

/.o = EAOYb + EA (a ~ Yb (8-18-7)

I Yb + EA

EA

(8-18-8)

(8-18-9)

Evidently these equations are the equivalents of Eqs. 8-14-19, 8-14-17.

and 8-14-18.

In Fig. 8-14-8 the unbalanced impedances can be replaced by an im-

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aginary generator generating the voltages Ea, Eb, Ec. In so doing, the

THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS WITH ONE UNBALANCE

249

whole system becomes balanced and can be studied by considering the

three sequence networks shown in Figs. 8-18-1, 8-18-2, and 8-18-3,

k~5j. _.x _T LL^L~__^^

FIG. 8-18-1. FIG. 8-18-2.

where ai = EAI, Ea2 = EAZ, and Ea0 are the sequence components of

the line to ground voltages at F, as shown in Fig. 8-14-8.

Now

Positive

/al F,

Negative

'a2 F2

sequence

"_L

fi\

sequence

\. A2 ( T

Jl

..

v xl ^ T J

St

where EAO i8 the zero sequence component of the three voltages from

o, 6, c, respectively, to 0'. We can then modify the zero sequence network

of Fig. 8-18-3 as shown in Fig. 8-18^1.

10

Zero

sequence

/o Fo

r. / I \

/E E

E'\ * y

/'*20 *n

FIG. 8-18-3.

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FIG. 8-18-4.

Now, in the three sequence networks of Figs. 8-18-1, 8-18-2, and

8-18-^1, let us connect an admittance Yb between the neutrals Oi and F1.

02 and F2, and between F0 and 0', as shown in Figs, 8-18-5, 8-18-3, and

8-18-7. The currents flowing through the three admittances will be,

respectively,

- 3Zn/ao)

250

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

'al Fil (ii-r4)

Positive

sequence

t5* 3

Nx ll'*-u

2i *n

FIG. 8-18-5.

FIG. 8-18-7.

Because of Eqs. 8-18-7, 8-18-8, and 8-18-9, the currents through the

imaginary generators of Figs. 8-18-5, 8-18-6, and 8-18-7 will be

. (Y. - Yb)

Then the three networks can be connected as shown in Fig. 8-18-8, assum-

ing that the generators generate only voltages of positive sequence.

Let us now connect across the generator EA of Fig. 8-18-8 an admittance

(Ya y6)/3. Obviously, the current through this admittance will be

EA(Yo Yb)/3, so that no current will flow through the generator, which

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thus can be disconnected. The final result will be as shown in Fig. 818-9.

THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS WITH ONE UNBALANCE

251

*3ir

Positive

sequence

fc.H

. K*"

wvnnnr' -

*Mrb

E3i'

l\

'*A 3 I

Positive

sequence

Jai

K_2J-

fM

Negative

sequence

<r.-n>

*3

i-AAAr jTnnr>

7!

Zero

sequence

r'

KIZZ7

~i

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EAZY

Negative

sequence

i-AA^yW5^-4H-t

L' I

N- -7! I

Zero

sequence

'aO I

-VVA.rnnp-i

Oo 3Z O'

I wvt> 1

A3

Fiq. 8-18-8.

Fig. 8-18-9.

For a line to ground fault on phase a through an impedance Z, assuming

Z n = 0, ,

Y=

Ya Z

Yb= Yc = 0

Ya- Yb _ 1

3 3Z

and Fig. 8-18-9 will assume the form of Fig. 8-5-3.

252

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

8-19. An Open Phase on an Otherwise Balanced System, t On three-

phase circuits one phase becomes open occasionally. This may happen, for

instance, when a circuit breaker opens, owing to the fact that the three

phases will not open simultaneously. Another illustration is offered by

the blowing of a fuse on one phase only. Symmetrical components lend

themselves very well to the analysis of this type of unbalance.

Let Ni and N2 in Fig. 8-19-1 be two three-phase networks intercon-

nected by means of a line. For greater generality, let an impedance Za be

N,

m m'

A1 M 'A'

Ic C

4-

N,

Fig. 8-19-1.

connected in series on phase a of the interconnection in section M. Except

for this unbalance the system of Fig. 8-19-1 is balanced everywhere.

The currents flowing in the circuit where the unbalance occurs are

h * 0 h * 0 Ic ?* 0

The current / flowing through Za causes a voltage EA = ZaIa to appear

from A to A', so that the insertion of Za in phase o can be simulated by

omitting Za and inserting between m and m' an imaginary, impedanceless

generator, generating the three voltages EA, 0, 0 as shown in Fig. 8-19-2.

I E. I

-tf

1oi

Fio. 8-19-2.

T.,

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N,

The system of Fig. 8-19-2 is completely balanced and can be analyzed by

considering separately the zero, positive, and negative sequence networks

of Figs. 8-19-3, 8-19-4, and 8-19-5 respectively.

t C. L. Fortescue, "Method of Symmetrical Coordinates Applied to the Solution of

Polyphase Networks," Transactions, AIEE, XXXVII, pt. II (1918), 1070; E. Clarke,

Circuit Analysis o/A-C Power Systems, Vol. I (New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1948),

p. 42; C. F. Wagner and R. D. Evans, Symmetrical Components (New York: McGraw-

Hill Book Co., Inc., 1933), p. 378.

THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS WITH ONE UNBALANCE

253

The sequence components EAO, EAl, EA2 of the voltages EA, 0, 0 ap-

pearing in Figs. 8-19-3, 8-19i, and 8-19-5 are given by

EA ^ ZJa

33

(8-19-1)

/.O

ft

"20

m0 m's

FIG. 8-19-3.

Jal

NU

TO. m i

FIG. 8-19-4.

m2

"142

FIG. 8-19-5.

In addition to the three sequence networks of Figs. 8-19-3, 8-19-4, and

8-19-5, let us apply in Fig. 8-19-6 a voltage EAl across the impedance

/o/3. The current /. will flow through this impedance.

Since the three voltages EAo, EAi, EAZ are equal,

only one imaginary generator can be used, with

one terminal connected to mo, mi, m2, m3 and the

other to TOO', m/, m2', m3'. The current flowing

through the generator, under these conditions, will be

zero, and the generator can be disconnected; the

connections of Fig. 8-19-7 will result. El and El are

the positive sequence voltages applied to the positive sequence network.

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For simplicity, only two generators are shown, one for each network.

In the actual case more than two generators are usually in operation. If

Z0, Z2 are the impedances of the system to currents of zero and negative

sequence, respectively, as viewed from between the two sections m and m ,

the effect of an impedance Za in phase a can be simulated by connecting

FIG. 8-19-6.

254

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

*aO TOo

TOO 'oo

\I

-9*

N*

"10

1 Zero sec

. neutral

'ai ntil

1m; /ai

- "n

"^

T"""

na

[ Pos. seq.

neutral

r Ni2

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'a2 nt2j[

|n>2 'o2

JVa

Neg. seq.

neutral

Fio. 8-19-7.

t'

flf

in the positive sequence network between mi and m/ two impedances in

parallel, namely, Za/3 and Z0Z2/(Z0 + Z2).

A special case is constituted by a three-phase load, such as a three-phase

motor, supplied from a network when a fuse on one phase blows out or when

one phase becomes open for any other reason, as shown in Fig. 8-19-8.

Here the connections of Fig. 8-19-7,

noting that Za = <*i, become as

shown in Fig. 8-19-9, where Zi,

Z2 , ZO are the impedances of the

load to currents of positive, nega-

tive, and zero sequence currents

respectively. Obviously, if Zi =

THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS WITH ONK TNBALANCE 25

zi

JJ,t Pos.seq. ||

Fio. 8-19-9.

FIG. 8-19-10.

networks will be exactly as shown in Fig. 8-19-7, the only difference being

that Za/3 is replaced by (Za Z) 3 and the impedance Z is inserted in

series with the three sequence networks as shown in Fig. 8-19-13.

- *1

B Z B'

*2

C 2 C'

*1

Fio. 8-19-11.

, z A^^A

.,

I Z B B,

N2

+ /VW <J o

i*i

FIG. 8-19-12.

Obviously, if Z = 0, the network of Fig. 8-19-13 reduces to that of

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Fig. 8-19-7.

256

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

Fig. 8-19-13.

If Ei = 0 and the impedances of N2 reduce to zero, Fig. 8-19-11 de-

generates into a stub wye grounded load with the three impedances Za, 2,

N,

f*

^vw

i- N

1*1

(*t

z)\

Fig. 8-19-14.

Z, respectively, on phases a, b, c.

Under these conditions Fig. 8-19-11

reduces to Fig. 8-19-14 and Fig.

8-19-13 reduces to Fig. 8-19-15,

which is the same as Fig. 8-14-6.

r-

N,

10

-wv-

'oO

N,.

-VNAr-

Fig. 8-19-15.

8-20. Two Open Phases in an

Otherwise Balanced System. Let us

consider again the networks of Fig. 8-19-1. Assume now that the two

phases b and c are open. This may happen, for instance, when a breaker

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opens the circuit and the three phases do not open simultaneously. Con-

ditions are as shown in Fig. 8-20-1. The unbalance is in section M. The

THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS WITH ONE UNBALANCE

257

voltages across the phases from B to B' and from C to C' are EB and Ec.

The voltage EA across A A' is zero. The system of Fig. 8-20-1 can be re-

r- N,

E,

m m'

'a 'V

-* &

ii

L^h

Fig. 8-20-1.

placed with the system of Fig. 8-20-2, where phases b and c have been

assumed to remain closed but an imaginary generator has been added in

section M which generates the voltages 0, EB, Ec. The network of Fig.

820-2 can now be replaced by the three networks of Figs. 8-19-3, 8-19-4,

N,

E,

m m'

OI

*^r+

A'

-2,"ftLf

Fig. 8-20-2.

liJi

N,,

m'

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'oi m.

Positive sequence >^

.?. /-i

m.

"* / -2"

Negative sequence H

Zero sequence

Fig. 8-20-3.

"M

.J

JV22 I-,

AU -,

258 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

and 8-19-5, but we must note, however, that in this case

EAO + 41 + EAZ = 0 (8-20-1)

/ao = /., = /a2 = | (8-20-2)

Because of Eq. 8-20-2 the three networks can be connected in series and

because of Eq. 8-20-1 the result will be as shown in Fig. 8-20-3.

A special case is provided by a

three-phase load with two phases

open, as shown in Fig. 8-20-4. This

may occur when two fuses blow out E pne ^ \<, j

on two phases or when, upon open-

ing of the breaker supplying the

/a!

?t l /al . f I

^\ j^ v y

\;

\ i Pos. seq.

ft

_ik..

/K

Fio. 8-2(M.

load, two phases open ahead of the third, or if, upon closing of the breaker,

one phase closes ahead of the other two. The network of Fig. 8-20-3 re-

duces to the network of Fig. 8-20-5, where the various symbols have the

same meaning as in Art. 8-19. Obviously, if

Zi = Z2 = ZO = Z

this case reduces to that discussed in Art. 8-5.

8-21. f One Phase Open and a Line to Ground Load on the Same Phase

at the Same Location. This is a special case illustrated in Fig. 8-21-1.

The voltages and currents at M and M' are as follows:

Sequence Components

At M

AA

BB'

CC"

E^

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Voltages

Et,11,

^,

Currents

IA

IB

/c

/ 1' . / ! ', ^

'^>

At 3f

Voltages from line to ground

X.

ao, -Cal,

.,

Currents

/.

/oa, /!, A

"

f E. W. Kimbark, "Experimental Analysis of Double Unbalances," Transactions,

AIEE, LIV (1935), 159-65.

THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS WITH ONE UNBALANCE

259

Wm

*>xi LAZ ^

Thus the sequence components of these currents and voltages satisfy the

relations

EA "'

(8-21-2)

(8-21-3)

(8-21-4)

Fio. 8-21-1.

The network of Fig. 8-21-1 can be replaced by the network of Fig.

8-21-2. This network can be replaced by the three sequence networks

X^\

Fio. &-21-2.

Zero sequence

"

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Fio. 8-21-3.

260

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

shown in Figs. 8-21-3, 8-21-4, and 8-21-5. In addition, consider the

network of Fig. 8-21-6. Because of Eq. 8-21-1, mo, mi, m2, m3 can be

Wli Al "*i

1 Nll

1* 'M

21

,f

\EI

\Eal

.:

Fio. 8-21-4.

Fio. 8-21-5.

connected together, and also m0', mi', m2', m3', and only one imaginary

generator vised, which will generate the voltage EAi. If this is done, the

current through the generator will be zero and thus the generator can be

omitted. The network of Fig. 8-21-7 is the result. Since the three currents

/aoi /ail /a2 are equal, three 1 :1 current trans-

formers can be used connected in series, and the

voltage Eai + Ea2 + Ea0 = 0 applied in the series

circuit of the secondaries of the current trans-

formers. The result is the network of Fig. 8-21-8.

One current transformer, say the one on the posi-

tive sequence network, can be omitted and the

connections made as shown by the broken line in Fig. 8-21-8. Obviously,

the impedance of each current transformer must be subtracted from the

impedance Za in each sequence network.

In the preceding discussion it has been assumed that the line to ground

load is at the same location as the unbalanced phase. It is apparent from

the derivation that this limitation is not necessary, and another network

can be interposed between the location of the unbalanced phase and the

location of the line to ground load. The only limitation that exists is that

both the load and the unbalance must be on the same phase. In this more

general case, there must be added in series with Za another network AT3

The result is shown in Fig. 8-21-9, where N3i, Ns2, N30 are the sequence

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"Al

Fro. 8-21-6.

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THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS WITH ONE UNBALANCE

261

Fig. 8-21-7.

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282

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

FIG. 8-21-8.

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THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS WITH ONE UNBALANCE

263

Fig. 8-21-9.

264

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

networks of the network NZ and El" is the positive sequence voltage gen-

erated in the same network.

If there are other line to ground loads, at other locations (but on the same

phase) through other networks, they can be taken into consideration, each

with two current transformers of ratio 1 : 1 in exactly the same manner as

shown for N3 in Fig. 8-21-9.

PROBLEMS

8-1. A 10,000-kva, 3-phase, 440-volt, 60-cycle, Y grounded generator supplies

a 220-volt distribution line by means of a 5000-kva, 3-phase autotransformer,

as shown in the figure. Generator reactances on rating:

XJ = 11%

Xd" = 8%

Xt = 100%

Transformer reactance (on rating): X =

8%

4%

2%.

(a) Calculate the subtransient, transient, and steady state fault current with a

line to ground fault at the 220-volt terminal of the autotransformer.

440 volts

_J

Generator

PROB. 8-1.

Autotransformer

(b) Show the distribution of sequence currents and total currents in the three

phases of the generator and in the autotransformer under transient conditions.

(c) Find the components of the average power at the terminals of the generator.

8-2. A hydroelectric generator is connected to a metropolitan steam system

by means of transformers and two lines as shown in the figure. Mb and M,

PROB. 8-2.

represent synchronous and induction motor loads, respectively, at the hydro

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plant and on the metropolitan system.

THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS WITH ONE UNBALANCE

265

The reactances of the various pieces of equipment in per unit on system kva are

as follows.

Reactances

Equipment

Subtransient Transient

Synch.

-V:

Generator H

0.3

0.3

0.45

0.15

Neutral of Gen. H - X.

0.4

0.4

0.4

Step-up transformer Ti

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

Line Lt

0.4

0.4

0.4

0.4

0.0

Line LZ

0.4

0.4

0.4

i) 1

0.0

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

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Step-down transformer Tt

Metropolitan system S

0.14

0.23

0.14

0.12

Load A/n

1.1

1.1

Load3/.

1.1

1.1

Resistances are neglected.

(a) Draw the three sequence networks under transient conditions with faults

at A, B, C respectively.

(b) Assume a line to ground fault successively at A, B, C and determine the

currents supplied by H, S, Mb, M,.

(c) Find also the voltages at A, B, C.

(d) What is the effect of the fault at C on the average power supplied to the

load J/k?

8-3. Consider the network shown in the figure. Assume that the voltages of

generators GI. Gt and loads MI, M^ are 13,800 volts line to line, and that the

Two lines

Each:

PROB. 8-3.

voltage of the two lines is 138,000 volts line to line, and that all reactance* are

per unit at 100,000 kva. Resistances are neglected. Assume that a line to ground

266

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

Draw four diagrams similar to the original network and show

(a) In the first the flow of positive sequence currents.

(b) In the second the flow of negative sequence currents.

(c) In the third the flow of zero sequence currents.

(d) In the fourth the flow of the total currents.

Calculate the three voltages from line to ground at D and at B. Calculate the

average power sequence components at B.

8-4. A salient pole generator without damper windings has positive, negative,

and zero sequence reactances of 30, 48, and 19% respectively. The generator is

connected in Y and the neutral is brought out. The station construction is of the

isolated phase type, so that only line to ground faults can be expected.

(a) What value of reactance must be placed in the generator neutral so that

the fault current with a line to ground fault of zero fault impedance will not

exceed the generator rated current?

(b) What value of resistance must be placed in the generator neutral to serve

the same purpose?

Give both values in per unit and in ohms.

8-5. A 1000-kva, 60-cycle, 3-phase, 13.8-kv Y-connected generator has its

neutral grounded through a 100% resistor and is connected to a bus through

5% reactors as shown in the figure. Generator data: Xi = 20%; Xt = 12%;

X0 = 2%.

(a) Assuming a line to ground fault at F on the bus, compute the sequence

components of the average power at the fault F and at the generator terminals T

under transient conditions.

(b) Discuss briefly what happens to the sequence components of the power

at the fault.

(c) Assume now that the neutral of the generator is grounded through a

reactance instead of through a resistance. What is the ohmic value of this

reactance that will cause the magnitude of the fault current obtaining with a line

to ground fault at F to be equal to that of the fault current obtaining with a

three-phase fault at the same location?

PROB. 8-5.

PROB. 8-6.

8-6. Three 3-phase generators, as shown in the figure, are connected to a

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common bus. All the generators have the same reactances in per unit on rating

as follows:

THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS WITH ONE UNBALANCE 287

Xt' 0.25 p.u.

Xt 0.15 p.u.

Xt 0.08 p.u.

Only generator 3 has its neutral grounded.

(a) Compute the fault current with a line to ground fault at F.

(b) Under the same conditions compute the phase currents in the three gen-

erators.

(c) Compare the currents in (a) and (b) with the currents obtaining with a

3-phase fault at the same location F.

8-7. A 100,000-kva, 25-cycle, 3-phase, 11-kv generator is grounded by means

of three resistors R and a zigzag grounding transformer as shown in the figure.

The generator reactances in per unit on rating are: X* = 0.15; Xt = 0.10.

100 mva

- Ground

(a) Neglecting the impedance of the transformer itself, find the ohmic value R

of each resistor, which, with a line to ground fault on the bus F, will limit the

fault current to 2000 amp.

(b) With the line to ground fault as in (a), show the phase current distribution

in the generator and in the grounding transformer.

(c) With the line to ground fault as in (a), what is the voltage from the neutral

.V of the generator to ground?

(d) Under the same fault conditions, compute the three sequence components

of the power at the fault.

(e) Discuss briefly what happens to the sequence components of the power at

the fault as in (d).

8-8. A generator of negligible resistance having 1.0 per unit voltage back of

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transient reactance is subject to different types of faults. The per unit values of

268

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

the magnitudes of the fault current are

3-phase fault 3.33 p.u.

line to line 2.23 p.u.

line to ground 3.01 p.u.

Find the per unit values of the positive sequence transient reactance and of the

negative and zero sequence reactances.

8-9. An unbalanced load composed of three resistances of 5, 10, 20 ohms con-

nected in A as shown in the figure is supplied from a bus at constant voltages of

positive sequence:

K. = 100 volts

Vb = a'100 volts

Vc = al00 volts

By connecting a line to line load Z as shown by the broken line between phases

a and 6, it is desired to nullify the negative sequence currents flowing in the

generator supplying the bus.

(a) What is the impedance of the line to line load?

(b) Between what phases should it be connected?

(c) Discuss your results from the practical standpoint.

2012

ion

abc

i \z

-_-j

_j

PROB. 8-9.

Load

4000 kva

PROB. 8-10.

8-10. A 10,000-kva, 0.85-pf, 3-phase, 13,800-volt, 60-cycle delta-connected

generator supplies a single-phase load of 4000 kva at 85% lagging power

factor and at 13,800 volts. The reactances of the generator are X* = 1.0 p.u.;

Xi = 0.12 p.u.

(a) Compute the internal voltage of the generator.

(b) Compute the bus voltages Eat, Ebc, Eca.

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(c) Compute the sequence components of the average power supplied to the

load. What happens to the various components of the average power?

8-11. A 3-phase, Y-grounded, 60-cycle, 13.8-kv, 50,000-kva generator supplies

a 138-kv bus by means of a 60,000-kva A-Y grounded transformer as shown in

THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS WITH ONE UNBALANCE

269

the figure. The reactances of the generator and transformer in per unit at rated

kva are

Generator Transformer

Xd" = 0.2 X2 = 0.2 Xi = Xi = X0 = 0.1

XB = 0.18

Xd = 1.0

13.8 kv

138 kv

(a) Calculate the fault currents under transient, subtransient, and steady

state conditions, respectively, for a

L/G, L/L, L/L/G fault at F, assuming

normal voltage and no load prior to

the fault. Express currents in per

unit at 100,000 kva and in amperes.

(b) For the line to line to ground

fault calculate the line to ground volt-

ages at the fault and on the 13.8-kv bus.

8-12. Two 3-phase, 60-cycle systems A and B are interconnected by means

of a single-circuit transmission line 40 miles long as shown in the figure.

<**

Prob. 8-11.

Generator Impedances, % on rating

Mw

pf Xi' Xt

Gen. A (hydro)

Gen. B (steam)

40

100

0.8

0.8

20

15

13

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Transformer Data

kva 60,000 60,000

Reactances, % on rating, Xi = X = Xt 10 10

Transmission Line (no ground wires)

Conductors, each

Equivalent spacing

795,000-CM ACSR

20 ft

Assume that the zero sequence impedance is three times the positive sequence

impedance. Assume a fault on the 138-kv bus at Hb.

13.8 kv

T 138 kv 138 kv T 13.8 kv

'i*i

H,

Z\> a b >gZ\

Prob. 8-12.

(a) Draw the three sequence networks, expressing impedances in per unit at

100,000 kva and in ohms at 138 kv.

270

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

(b) Repeat (a), assuming that each of the two transformers is grounded

through a 10% resistor on the transformer rating.

8-13. A 3-phase, 20,000-kva, 13.8-kv, 60-cycle generator is connected to a bus

to which are connected three 5000-kva 2-winding transformers and a 10,000-kva

2.3 kv

33 kv

69 kv

Autotransformer

PROB. 8-13.

3-winding autotransformer as shown in the figure. The reactances of the equip-

ment on rated kva are

Generator G

Transformers

Xd" 0.2 p.u.

Xt 0.2 p.u.

Xd 0.3 p.u.

X0 0.18 p.u.

Xd 1.25 p.u.

kva

Rating

20,000

5000

5000

5000

Reactance, p.u.

on rating

0.06

0.07

0.07

0.06

T,

Tt

Tt

Autotransformer (p.u. at 10,000 kva)

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69/33 kv 0.05

69/13.8 kv 0.06

33/13.8 kv 0.08

Calculate the sequence reactances for a fault at Fi, Ft, Ft respectively.

Assume now that a 100-hp induction motor M of standard design is connected

as shown by the broken line.

What is the effect of this motor on the fault currents? What is the effect of

the fault on the power delivered by the motor?

8-14. Two generators d, G2, each of 50,000 kva, 3 phases, 13.8 kv, 60 cycles,

are connected through a tie line 5 miles long, having 0.8 ohm/mile reactance.

THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS WITH ONE UNBALANCE 271

Resistance is neglected. The characteristics of each generator are

Xd" = 0.09 p.u. Xd = 1.20 p.u.

Xd' = 0.15 p.u. X2 = 0.09 p.u.

In synchronizing the two generators breaker B2 is closed when the two voltages

in phase a are in phase. However, because of a mistake the two phases 6 and c

are crossed over as shown in the figure.

abc

L 1 r-i

&L

iI

H 1-

Ia | 1 Line

ab

*1K

G,

Bus'l

B,

li

B,

Bus* 2

Pbob. 8-14.

(a) What are the loci of currents /, /6, Ic1

(b) What are the loci of the line to neutral voltages at bus 1?

8-16. A phase sequence indicator of the type shown in Fig. 8-17-1 with a

resistance R of 121 ohms is connected across a line to line voltage of 110 volts of

sequence a, b, c.

Find the magnitude of the voltage o-o. What will this magnitude be if the

sequence is a, c, 6?

8-16. Can the phase sequence indi- I I a

cator shown in Fig. 8-17-1 be built by b k

replacing the inductance L with a ca-

pacitanceC? Give a complete analysis. I I D g^

8-17. Derive the conclusion of Art. Pbob. 8-17.

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8-13 analytically in terms of the se-

quence components E/i, Et2, Ef0 of the voltage existing in section F prior to the

closing of the switch S as shown in the figure.

8-18. High-voltage t capacitor banks for power factor correction are sometimes

connected in double Y banks as shown in the figure.

/ = impedance of normal phase section

Zl = impedance of phase section in which one or more units in series have

been lost

Each bank is composed of a multiple series section per phase and a sufficient

number of parallel capacitor units per series section. In the United States, most

t After you have solved this problem, consult O. R. Compton, "Balancing Double-Wye

High Voltage Capacitor Banks," Transactions, AIEE, XIX (Aug. 1955), 573-80.

272

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

power capacitors in high-voltage banks are manufactured with a 0 to

voltage tolerance. At least one capacitor unit may be removed from any series

section without encountering voltages

in excess of 110% of rated voltage on

the remaining capacitors. However,

the loss of two or more units in any

one series section can produce dan-

gerous overvoltages within the sec-

tion in which the unit is lost. Pro-

tective relaying is often used to give

indications and/or trip the bank when

a sufficient number of units is lost.

Neutral current relaying is the most

widely used system (current obtain-

PROB. 8-18. ing with S closed). Unbalance may

result from operating the units in the

upper tier at a higher temperature caused by the air rising from the lower tiers.

Let

M = number of parallel units per series section

N = number of series sections per phase

K = number of units lost in one series section

(a) Assume S open. Assume that one phase of bank 1 becomes unbalanced

because of the loss of K units as above. Calculate the voltage between the two

neutrals as a function of the unbalance. The applied voltage is assumed to be of

positive sequence.

(b) Assume now that S is closed. Calculate the current /a flowing between the

2 neutrals from the voltages calculated in (a), making use of Thevenin's theorem.

8-19. A 1000-hp, 3-phase, 60-cycle, 6-pole, 2200-volt induction motor has the

following characteristics in mks units:

ft

0.14

Xi = Xt = 0.56

G = 0.0037

B = 0.058

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One phase of the motor becomes open.

Calculate the torque developed by the motor under the above conditions, as-

suming that the motor is operating at a slip of 0.07.

8-20. f In servomechanisms, small single-phase squirrel-cage induction motors

are used which have two windings, the so-called main and auxiliary windings.

located on the stator at 90 electrical degrees from one another. These two wind-

f Consult A. E. Fitzgerald and C. Kingsley, Electric Machinery (New York: McGraw-

Hill Book Co., Inc., 1952), p. 478; R. H. Frazier, "Analysis of the Drag-Chip a.c.

Tachometer by Means of 2 Phase Symmetrical Components," Transaction*, AIEE.

LXX (1951), 1894-1906. Refer also to Probs. 5-8 and 6-36.

THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS WITH ONE UNBALANCE 273

ings may be, but need not be, identical. Thus they need not have the same

number of turns; in fact, they rarely do. The voltage Vm applied to the main or

reference winding is constant. The voltage Va applied to the auxiliary or control

winding is variable in magnitude at 90 in time position with respect to Vm:

Va = jVa

where Va is variable and either positive or negative. In a positional servo system,

Va is proportional to error, f The rotor may be a squirrel-cage or a drag-cup type,

or for that matter a symmetrical polyphase rotor. The air gap is uniform. The

schematic diagram of a motor with a drag-cup rotor is shown in Fig. A, where

Zim = rim + jxim is the leakage impedance of the main winding, with

respect to the air gap flux, plus any series impedance connected

externally to the main winding.

Zia = ra + jxa is the leakage impedance of the auxiliary winding, with

respect to the air gap flux, plus any series impedance connected

externally to the auxiliary winding.

Vm is the voltage impressed across the main winding.

Va is the voltage impressed across the auxiliary winding.

/ and /. are the corresponding currents flowing in the main and auxiliary

windings respectively.

Let ., and be the voltages induced by the resultant air gap flux in the main

winding and in the auxiliary winding respectively.

.Vm is the effective number of turns of the main winding, that is, the actual

number of turns multiplied by the pitch factor and by the breath factor for the

fundamental component of the air gap mmf. Na is the effective number of turns

of the auxiliary winding.

(a) Show that the symmetrical components or the so-called forward and back-

ivard components of currents and voltage in terms of the main winding are

K, - jaVa

Vm+jaV,,

where

N,

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t See, for instance, A. E. Fitzgerald and C. Kingsley, lac. tit., fig. 10-24, p. 478.

874

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

(b) Show that the equivalent circuit of the motor as viewed from the main

winding is as shown in Fig. B, where the subscripts m, a,/, and 6 are used, respec-

gOOOOOOOO

Stator

Core

(stationary)

'la

(A)

tively, for the main winding, the auxiliary winding, the forward component, and

the backward component. In addition,

"~ 2

Zo is the magnetizing impedance in terms of the main winding.

R2/ is the rotor resistance at frequency / referred to the main winding.

Rtt is the rotor resistance at frequency (2 )/ referred to the main

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winding.

THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS WITH ONE UNBALANCE 275

A'j/ is the rotor leakage reactance at frequency sf with respect to the air gap

flux, referred to the main winding.

Xy, is the rotor leakage reactance at frequency (2 s)f with respect to the

air gap flux, referred to the main winding.

8 is the slip of the rotor speed in per unit of the synchronous speed.

(c)t When used as an a-c tachometer, the main winding is energized from a

constant amplitude, constant frequency voltage source Vm. The auxiliary wind-

ing is connected to the high-impedance grid circuit of a vacuum tube and there-

fore may be considered open-circuited. The cup is driven by a shaft of which it is

desired to measure the speed.

(1) Show the equivalent circuit under these conditions.

(2) Show that the magnitude of the voltage Ea induced in the auxiliary wind-

ing is proportional to the speed of the shaft. Determine the condition

that must be satisfied so that Ea is linearly proportional to the speed of

the shaft, and give the phase of Ea with respect to Vm.

(d) Derive the network of Prob. 5-6 from this one.

(e) Show that the torque of the motor at slip 8, in newton-meters, is given by

where

tt. \ 8 2 8 /

2irni

~60~

ni being the synchronous speed in revolutions per minute.

8214 Circuit breakers on interconnections between two interconnected

systems are called upon to separate the two systems in case of loss of synchronism.

In these applications the circuit breaker may be called upon to separate the two

systems at a time when they are anywhere from zero to 180 apart.

Since the extinction of the a-c arc will take place at a zero of the current and

the currents on the three phases reach zero at different times, interruption of the

three phases will not occur simultaneously,. Each of the recovery voltages across

the breaker poles is composed of two components, namely, a fundamental fre-

quency component and a transient component.

Determine the normal frequency components of the recovery voltages existing

across the breaker poles under the following conditions:

(a) Across one open-circuited breaker pole with the other two poles con-

ducting.

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(b) Across each of the two open-circuited breaker poles with the third pole

still conducting.

(c) Across each of the three open-circuited breaker poles when none is

conducting.

t R. H. Frazier, loc. tit.; A. E. Fitzgerald and C. Kingsley, op. tit., pp. 468-69.

t Consult W. M. Leeds and D. J. Povejsil, "Out-of-Phase Switching Voltages and

Their Effect on High-Voltage Circuit Breaker Performance," Transactions, AIEE,

LXXI, pt. Ill (Jan. 1952), 88-96.

276 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

The fundamental frequency components of the recovery voltages are those

existing under subtransient conditions, and thus subtransient reactances will be

used. In making these calculations assume that the interconnection is as shown

in Fig. A and that it is equipped with no ground wires. Assume also that the

opening sequence is a, c, b.

!*<

k*

Prob. 8-21.

o 1 )j

(B)

Show that the maximum values of the fundamental frequency component of

the recovery voltages obtains when the interconnection is completely ungrounded.

In making these calculations assume that the positive (7i) and the negative (Zi)

sequence impedances of the network as viewed from the circuit breaker terminals

are equal, or

Z\ = Z2 = Ri +jXi = ft2 + jXi

If Zo = Ro + jXo is the zero sequence impedance of the network as viewed

from the circuit breaker terminals, show that the fundamental frequency com-

ponent of the recovery voltage depends on the ratios

Xo Ro Ri

Xj Xi Xi

Give the exact meaning of Z\, Z2, Zo.

Show the variation of the maximum value of the fundamental frequency com-

ponent of the recovery voltage with the location of the breaker.

Discuss what would happen if the interconnection were equipped with ground

wires.

What would be the effect on the value of the fundamental frequency component

of the recovery voltage if a grounding transformer were added at the breaker

location as shown in Fig. B?

Discuss the effect of the last two items (ground wires and grounding trans-

former) from the general standpoint of their influence on the zero sequence

impedance Zn.

What is the effect on the fundamental frequency component of the recovery

voltage of the following factors?

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(a) A variation of line resistance.

(b) A fault during the switching of the interconnection.

8-22. t In a study on recovery voltage on the Bonneville power system, one

100-mile, 230-kv line between Grand Coulee and Midway was used as a test

t Based on W. M. Leeds and D. J. Povejsil, loc. cit., fig. 5.

THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS WITH ONE UNBALANCE

277

circuit with three 108,000-kva, 3-phase generators connected as shown in the

figure.

13.8/230 kv

100 miles

795,000 ACSR

No ground wire

-D*

PROB. 8-22.

The subtransient reactance of each generator and transformer was 0.4 per

unit at 108,000 kva. A fault was applied at F and cleared by the circuit breaker.

With the circuit and fault location

used in the test, calculate the maxi-

mum value of the fundamental fre-

quency component of the recovery

voltage across the breaker poles for

the following faults:

(a) Line to ground.

(b) Line to line.

(c) Line to line to ground.

(d) Three-phase ungrounded. PROB. 8-23.

(e) Three-phase grounded.

8 23. f A 3-phase source is connected to an autotransformer with neutral

grounded and tertiary winding as shown in the figure. The impedances of the

source and autotransformer at 100,000 kva are

Source Si

Xt = Xt = 7%

Xf = 3%

Source St

X, - X, = 20%

X, - 10%

Autotransformer

XH = 12.5%

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XL = -4.2%

XT = 61.5%

(a) Find the sequence currents in the sources, the autotransformer and at the

fault for a fault at /,: for a fault at Ft.

(b) Find the current in the neutral of the autotransformer in both cases and

discuss the results.

fSee J. L. Blackburn, "Ground Relay Polarization," Transactions, AIEE, LXXI,

pt. IIl (Dec. 1952), 1088-93.

278

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

8-24.f Two 3-phase systems Si and St are interconnected by means of an

autotransformer with the neutral grounded and a tertiary winding T as shown in

the figure. The line voltages on the low and high sides are, respectively, VL

and V H- The autotransformer is replaced by an equivalent Y having per unit

Directional

ground

relay

PROB. 8-24.

impedances of // Z ,,. Zr. For directional ground relay protection it is planned

to use the current in the neutral to polarize the relay. This can be done only if

the current in the neutral flows in the same direction, regardless of whether the

fault occurs on the high side or low side of the autotransformer.

What conditions must be satisfied in order to be able to use the current in the

neutral for the above purpose?

8-25. A distance relay on a transmission line measures a quantity dependent

on the ratio of the voltage applied to the relay to the current flowing in the relay,

or the so-called primary impedance as viewed by the relay. A typical distance

relay is connected as shown in the figure.

Find the expression for the primary impedances of the relay elements in terms

of sequence components for faults at F and at /".;

8-26. Another typical connection for distance relays is shown in the figure.

Find the expression for the primary impedances of the relay elements in terms

of sequence components for faults at F and at P.J

8-27. The short-circuit-interrupting ability of a high-voltage circuit breaker

is usually verified by single-phase fault tests at normal line to ground voltage,

either in a high-power laboratory or in the field. This is often supplemented by a

\Ibid.

\ G. Calabrese, "Performance of Distance Relays," Transactions, AIEE, LV (1936),

660-72.

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Based on W. M. Leeds and D. J. Povejsil, loc. cit., p. 93.

THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS WITH ONE UNBALANCE

281

C.T. ,F

-* [Wr

LuudlaaflJ

Pot

trans, nnjirprinr

ZTTi

'ledances

figure

Ihnnrj

Ihnnn

Tnnp i

Tripping direction

Ohm element relay 1

Ohm element relay 2

Ohm element relay 3

Voltage coils Current coils

Pbob. 8-26.

C.T.

Tripping direction

Ohm element relay 1

Ohm element relay 2

Ohm element relay 3

tt

Voltage coils Current coils

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Pbob. 8-26.

278

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

8-24.

autot-

the

(a)

(1.)

98 a single pole at 1.5 line to ground or at full line to line

inded fault on a system with grounded neutral, show that

tticy component of the recovery voltage across the first

than the voltage used under the single-phase test, thus

gle-pole test referred to above.

brmance of a phase sequence indicator by the method

- cmd Fig. 8-14-7. Discuss the two following cases:

Zb = Z, = R

Z = jR

Zb = Zr = R

Za = -jR

8-29. t A generator supplies a capacitive load (composed of capacitances to

ground Co and between conductors Ci) through an inductive reactance X l as

Cl

0* 1 2

TT

~[C0TC0JC

Pbob. 8-29.

shown in the figure. The generator reactances to currents of zero, positive, and

negative sequences are

Xo, At, Xi

The generator generates the voltage E. Assume now that the capacitive load is

disconnected by opening the 3-pole circuit breaker (C.B.).

(a) Show the sequence network connections for the first phase open, and for

the first two phases open.

(b) Give an expression of the fundamental frequency voltages across the

breaker poles in terms of Co, C\, Xo, X\, X2, and Xl-

t Compare results with those obtained in K. G. Darrow, V. E. Phillips, A. J. Schult3,

and R. B. Shores, "Teat Circuits for Capacitance Switching Devices," Transactions,

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AIEE, LXXIV, pt. Ill (Aug. 1955), 624-35; and I. B. Johnson, A. J. SchulU, N. R.

Schultz, and R. B. Shores, "Some Fundamentals on Capacitance Switching," Transac-

tions, AIEE, LXXIV, pt. Ill (Aug. 1955), 727-36.

THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS WITH ONE UNBALANCE

281

8-30. j Show the connections of the sequence networks when three impedances

connected in A are connected to a symmetrical system as shown in the figure

and Zb = Zc Z.

Prove your results.

Prob. 8-30.

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t Electrical Transmission and Distribution Reference Book, fig. 21m, p. 24.

CHAPTER 9

IMPEDANCES OF THREE-PHASE TRANSMISSION LINES TO

CURRENTS OF POSITIVE, NEGATIVE, AND ZERO SEQUENCE.

ZERO AND NEGATIVE SEQUENCE UNBALANCE FACTORS OF

UNTRANSPOSED TRANSMISSION LINES

In the preceding articles it was shown that the solution of symmetrical

balanced networks is very much simplified by the application of sym-

metrical components. Practical networks are constituted of circuits which

are slightly unsymmetrical. As previously noted, this dissymmetry is

disregarded. The calculation of line impedance involves self- and mutual

inductances and resistances. Let us review briefly the calculations of these

quantities and discuss the factors that usually affect them.

9-1. Coefficients of Mutual and Self-induction. Consider two elec-

trical circuits 1, 2, mutually coupled. From the expression for the mag-

netic field energy, it can be shown that the coefficient of mutual induction

M between the two is given byt

This is known as Neumann's formula. The dot indicates a scalar product;

d,2 are two elements of the two circuits taken in the directions of the

currents through them; /3 is the angle between them, that is, between the

directions of the currents; and r is their distance. The double integral is

extended to all elements of the two circuits; that is, each element of one cir-

cuit must be associated with each and every element of the other circuit.

H is the permeability of the medium, assumed to be uniform. All quantities

must be expressed in the same system of units. By applying this formula

to two straight-line conductors in air of great length I compared to their

distance d, and of negligible cross section compared to their distance, we

obtain for the coefficient of mutual M between them

t J. G. Coffin, Vector Analysis, 2nd ed. (New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1923),

(9-1-1)

(9-1-2)

p. 175.

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282

IMPEDANCES OF THREE-PHASE TRANSMISSION LINES 283

where, it will be recalled, log indicates natural logarithm. By applying

Neumann's formula to a thin, round, straight-line conductor of length I,

in air, large compared to its radius r, we obtain for its coefficient of self-

inductance L

L = 2 X IQT71 (log f - 1 + henry (9-1-3)

In Eqs. 9-1-2, 9-1-3, I, d, and r are expressed in meters, and nT is the

relative permeability of the conductor material. L and M are given in

henrys. The term (10r7/2)i/ir in Eq. 9-1-3 corresponds to the flux inside

the conductor, the term 2 X l(T"7i[log (2Z/r) 1] corresponds to the flux

outside of the conductor. For copper and aluminum /ir = 1; thus, ordi-

narily, since

l0g 0779 = 4

L = 2 X 10-H (log - l) henry (9-1-4)

If the cross section of the conductor or conductors is of any shape, but the

current density is, or can be assumed to be, uniform, the expressions for the

two coefficients M and L take the forms

M = 2 X 1(T7Z (log - l) henry (9-1-5)

L = 2 X 1(T72 (log - l) henry (9-1-6)

where GMD is the geometrical mean distance between the cross sections

of the two conductors, in meters, and GMR is the geometrical mean radius

or self geometrical mean distance of the conductor cross section, in meters.

As shown by Eq. 9-1-4, for a round conductor, GMR = 0.779r. Values

of GMD and GMR for conductors of various shapes are available in the

literature. t

For stranded conductors, uniform current density still being assumed,

the GMD is equal to the distance of the axes of the two conductors. Under

the same assumption, the GMR for stranded conductors can be expressed

in terms of the area A in circular mils. J The results are as follows.

t L. F. Woodruff, Electric Power Transmission, 2nd ed. )New York: John Wiley &

Sons, Inc., 1948), p. 22; U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Standards Scientific

Papers, No. 169 (Washington, D.C.: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1948), p. 166.

j L. F. Woodruff, Electric Power Transmission, p. 24; M. P. Weinbach, Electric Power

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Transmission (New York: The Macmillan Co., 1948), p. 23.

284

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

Number of Strands

GMR

0.421 VA = 0.6780r

0.4114 Vl = 0.7253r

19

0.4345VA = 0.7570r

37

0.4418VI = 0.7680r

61

0.4448VA - 0.7720r

91

0.4464VI = 0.7744r

127

0.4473VA = 0.7750r

0.3894VA = 0.7788r

The values for M and L obtained on this basis, assuming uniform current

density, disregard the effect of spiraling of the strands. However, this

effect is usually small, t

If the strands of a conductor are of different materials, values of GMR

have been derived on the assumption of a current density among the various

strands proportional to the conductivity of the material. J ACSR con-

ductors are manufactured with a core of steel strands surrounded by alu-

minum strands. In general, however, satisfactory results for ACSR

conductors are obtained by disregarding the current in the steel core except

for conductors with only one layer of aluminum strands.

For tubular conductors such as the sheath of a cable or as may be en-

countered in high-tension transmission lines, Eqs. 9-1-5 and 9-1-6 can be

used for calculating M and L with appropriate values of GMD and GMR.

The GMR of an annular area of outside and inside radii r! and r2,

respectively, is given byj

rf -r.V + r^ (| + log r-i)

log (GMR) = log p, 2 \-2 (9-1-7)

(rl r2 )

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The GMD between two annular areas in the same plane is equal to the

distance between their centers. The GMD between an annular area of

outer and inner radii n, r2 and an area within it is given byt

log (GMD) = ^ogri-^logr2 _ 1 (Q_1_8)

rl r2 i

Working charts of Eqs. 9-1-7 and 9-1-8 are available in the literature.J

t E. D. Kimbark, Electrical Transmission of Power and Signals (New York: John

Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1949); L. F. Woodruff, "Inductance of Steel-Reinforced Aluminum

Cable," Electrical Engineering, LIV (March 1935), 296-99.

t L. F. Woodruff, Electric Power Transmission, ch. II.

C. F. Wagner and R. D. Evans, Symmetrical Components (New York: McGraw-Hill

Book Co., Inc., 1933), p. 138.

IMPEDANCES OF THREE-PHASE TRANSMISSION LINES 285

9-2. Change in Coefficient of Self-Inductance Caused by Skin Effect.

Proximity Effect. When alternating current is flowing through a conductor,

the current density in the conductor is no longer uniform; it is greater at

the periphery. This is the so-called skin effect. The flux outside the con-

ductor is not affected by the current density distribution. The flux inside

the conductor changes. This means that the coefficient of mutual induction

M is not affected by the skin effect. The coefficient of self-induction L,

however, is affected by skin effect. More exactly, the component Lc, of L.

corresponding to the flux external to the conductor is not affected, and the

component L corresponding to the flux inside the conductor, is affected by

skin effect. It can be shown that the ratio Liac/Lidc between the com-

ponents of self-inductance corresponding to the flux inside the conductor

with a-c current (L,oc) and with d-c current (L,</c) is a function of

m = V (9-2-D

where

/ = frequency, in cycles

ti = MoMr = permeability of material

M0 = 4irlCT7 = permeability of vacuum

Mr = relative permeability of material with respect to that of vacuum

p = resistivity of material, in ohm-meters

For a round, hollow conductor of external and internal radii rx, r2 it can

be shown that the ratio Liac/Lidc is

Liac jVjmp

= imaginary component of

Lidc (2ir) rifLidc

x Yi(j\rjmr2)J0(jVjmri) - Ji(jVjTnr2)Y0(jVjmn) (g 2 2^

yi(jy^rjmr2)Ji(j\^jmr1) - Ji((jVjmr^Yi((jVjmri)

where

J0 is the Bessel function of the first kind and zero order

Ji is the Bessel function of the first kind and first order

Y0 is the Bessel function of the second kind and zero order

Y\ is the Bessel function of the second kind and first order.

For round solid conductors of radius r it can be shown that

Liac . . . e jV jmp J0(jVjmr)

- = imaginary component of 2 -p (9-2-3)

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Lidc (2ir) rfLidc Ji(jVjmr)

286 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

Since, for a round solid conductor,

Lidc =

after a few transformations we obtain

where

where

and

Lidc

Y=

Z=

ber mr =

bei mr =

ber' mr =

bei' mr =

mr Y

(ber' mr)2 + (bei' mr)2

(ber mr) X (ber' mr) + (bei mr) X (bei' mr)

(mr)* (mr)s

2242 + 224262g2

(mr)2

22 22426:

d(ber mr)

d(mr)

d(bei mr)

d(mr)

(mr)6 (mr)10

2 + 2242g282102

(9-2-4)

(9-2-5)

(9-2-6)

(9-2-7)

(9-2-8)

(9-2-9)

(9-2-10)

(9-2-11)

Values of Z/ Y are available in the literature for values of mr from 0 to . t

The expression of the self-inductance for a round solid conductor becomes

L = 2 X 10-H (log - - 1 + ? D (9-2-12)

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In the general case the calculation of the self-inductance with a-c current

involves the following steps:

1. The self-inductance L is calculated disregarding skin effect.

2. The component Lac of L, due to the flux inside the conductor, is sub-

tracted from L; thus L the component due to the flux external to the

conductor, is obtained.

3. The ratio Liac/Lidc is calculated, and from it and L,-^, Liac is determined.

4. Liac is added to L,.

Obviously, Eq. 9-2-12 can be expressed in the form of Eq. 9-1-6 by

putting

1Z1

Mr Tr = logT

mr Y

t U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Standards Scientific Papers, No. 169,

pp. 173, 226 (table XII).

IMPEDANCES OF THREE-PHASE TRANSMISSION LINES 287

and

GMR = kr (9-2-13)

In this form GMR includes the skin effect.

The preceding skin effect formulas are based on the assumption that the

current in each conductor is symmetrically distributed about the axis of

the conductor. This applies when isolated conductors or conductors which

are far apart from one another are being considered. It does not hold for

conductors which are closely spaced so that the current in one conductor

induces eddy currents inside the others with the result that the current

distribution in each conductor is no longer symmetrical about its axis.

For power transmission lines having spacings in excess of five times the

diameter of the conductors the proximity effect is usually small and can be

neglected. Information is available in the literature which permits us to

take this effect into consideration when it is not negligible, as, for instance,

in cable installations. t

9-3. Resistance. The resistance Rdc, in ohms, of a conductor of uniform

cross section A, in square meters, length I, in meters, and resistivity p, in

ohm-meters, is

Rdc = p-. (9-3-1)

The resistivity p varies with temperature. If the resistivity p of a given

material is plotted against temperature t, it is found that, within the range

Resistivity I

Fia. 9-3-1.

of temperatures encountered in practice, p varies linearly with t, as shown

in Fig. 9-3-1 where t is expressed in degrees Centigrade. In this figure let us

t Electrical Transmission and Distribution Reference Handbook, 4th ed., Westinghouse

Electric Corp., pp. 68-71; A. E. Knowlton, Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineers,

8th ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc.); H. B. Dwight, "Proximity Effect in

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Wires and Thin Tubes," Transactions, AIEE, XLII (1923), 850.

288

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

extend the locus of p versus t until it intersects the temperature axis at

To. If we measure temperatures from T0 as the origin, from Fig. 9-3-1

we have

Pi = Ti = Tp + h

p2 T2 T0 + l2

where p\ and p2 are the resistivity at the temperatures T\ and T2, measured

from - T0-

Values of resistivity for the most common materials are available in

the literature. f Typical values of it and of T0 follow.

Resistivity at 20 C,

ohm-meters

To,

degrees C

Material

Copper, standard annealed

1.724 X 10-*

234.5

Silver

1.63 X 10-

Aluminum, average commercial

hard-drawn

2.83 X 10""

228.2

Lead

22.50 X 10-

The resistance calculated with formula 9-3-1 assumes a uniform current

density across the area of the conductor. With a-c current the current

density is larger at the surface of the conductor. This current concentra-

tion produces an apparent increase of resistance. It can be shown that the

resistance R with a-c current is also a function of m defined by Eq. 9-2-1.

In fact, it can be shown that for a tubular conductor the ratio R/Rdc,

where Rdc is the resistance calculated with formula 9-3-1, is given by

R , , c jVji(ri2 - r22)

= real component of

Rdc 2ri

Yi(jVjmr2)J0(jVjmri) - Ji(jVjmr2)Y0(jV~jmr1)

(9-3-2)

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Yi (jVj^r2)Ji (jVjmrl) - Jl (jVjmr2) Yt (jVjmn)

where the various symbols have the same meaning as in Art. 9-2.

For round solid conductors of radius r,

R . jV jmr J0(jVjmr)

- real component of -= (9-3-d)

Rdc 2 Ji(jV jmr)

(9-3-4)

After a few transformations this can be written

R _ mrW

Rdc ~ ~2Y

t See, for instance, H. H. Skilling, Electric Transmission Lines (New York: McGraw-

Hill Book Co., Inc., 1951), table 7-2, p. 138; O. W. Eshbach, Handbook of Engineering

Fundamentals (14th printing; New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1950), p. 8-13 and

Section 11.

IMPEDANCES OF THREE-PHASE TRANSMISSION LINES 289

where the symbol Y has the same meaning as in Art. 9-2 and

W = (ber mr) X (bei' mr) (ber' mr) X (bei mr)

Values of W/Y for mr between 0 and oo are available in the literature.t

9-4. Impedance of a Loop Formed by an Overhead Conductor with

Ground Return. Mutual Impedance between Two Loops Formed by Two

Conductors with Ground Return. These two quantities are needed to

calculate the impedance of a line to zero sequence current. Formulas for

calculating the impedance of the loop have been given by Carson, Ruden-

berg, Mayr, and Haberland. Carson's formulas will be given here in some

detail; for the complete development the reader is referred to Carson's

original paper, t The other formulas will be given for reference.

Fig. 9-4-1.

In Fig. 9-4-la, a is a conductor I meters long, parallel to ground,

grounded at the far end and free at the home end. If a voltage1 Ea is applied

at the home end a, current /a will be forced through the circuit,

Ea = Ia(Za + Z - 2juMar)

where, as noted in Art. 7-6, Za is the self-impedance of the conductor from

A to B, that is, when considered isolated. Zg is the self-impedance of the

ground, also when considered isolated. MaT is the coefficient of mutual

induction between conductor a and the ground return.

t U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Standards Scientific Papers, No. 169.

t J. R. Carson, "Wave Propagation in Overhead Wire with Ground Return," Bell

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System Technical Journal, V )Oct. 1926), 539-54.

300 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

or

+ Ia2(Zaai - a2Zabi) (9-6-11)

/ j / - 2 ,

"I" Ial(ZaaO ~ Zo60)

0 (9-6-12)

(9-6-13)

Obviously, these expressions are identical with Eqs. 7-6-4, 7-6-5, and

7-6-6, the only difference being that they are expressed in terms of the self-

and mutual impedances of, and between, the loops formed by the conduc-

tors and ground and can be evaluated with the formulas in Art. 9-4.

Let

Zl l = Z22 = Zaa0 - Zabo (9-6-14)

Z00 = Zaa0 + 2Zabo (9-6-15)

Zoi = Zaa2 aZab2 = Z20 (9-6-16)

Zo2 = Zaai <X2Zabi (9-6-17)

ZIO Zaai a Zabi = Z02 (9-6-18)

Zi2 = Zaa2 + 2aZab2 (9-6-19)

Z2o Zaa2 aZab2 = Z0i (9-6-20)

Z2i = Zaal + 2a2Zabi

These are identical with the corresponding expressions 7-6-11 to 7-6-19.

inclusive. We can establish the identity easily by noting that, from Eqs.

9-6-1 to 9-6-6, we obtain

ZaaO = Za0 + Zg

a0 g

Zaa2 = Za2

o Mar0 ~ Mar0)

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Zab2 = ju(Mab2 + aMart

CHAPTER 10

CAPACITANCE OF TRANSMISSION LINES IN POSITIVE,

NEGATIVE, AND ZERO SEQUENCE NETWORKS

10-1. Assumptions. In studies involving transmission lines, proper

consideration must be given to the capacitance existing from conductor to

conductor, from conductor to ground, and from conductor to ground wires

when ground wires are present. Three important questions must be

answered:

1. How important is the effect of capacitance, when can it be neglected?

2. How is capacitance calculated?

3. What capacitance must be used in setting up the three sequence networks?

In this chapter answers to these questions will be formulated. Regarding

the first question, it will be noted that the so-called constants of a trans-

mission line, that is, resistance, reactance, and capacitance, cannot be

known accurately, because it is impossible to take into consideration all

factors affecting their values, such as temperature, and the sag of the

conductors. Capacitance is affected by the sag of conductors, the nature

and contour of the ground, the conditions of the vegetation surrounding

the line, the supporting poles and towers, the angles and bends of the line,

the terminal apparatus, that is, by the location of the ground plane.

Because of these variable factors measurements made on several systems

have given capacitances to ground larger than the calculated values t

as much as 50 per cent larger on 33-kv systems, and 10 per cent larger on

high-voltage circuits if the effect of corona is included.

Owing to the uncertainties surrounding the above factors, resistance,

inductance, and capacitance can rarely be obtained within an accuracy of

3 or 4 per cent.f It follows that values obtained on assumed length,

temperature, etc., by using methods of calculation which are accurate

within 0.5 to 1 per cent should prove entirely satisfactory. In short-

circuit calculations involving transmission lines of the order of 50 miles

or less, the effect of capacitance can be neglected.

t E. M. Hunter, "Some Engineering Features of Petersen Coils and Their Applica-

tion," Electrical Engineering, LVII (Jan. 1938), 11-18.

t Electrical Transmission and Distribution Reference Book, Westinghouse Electrir

Corp., 4th ed., 1950, p. 268.

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371

372

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

Calculations of transmission line capacitances are usually made by

assuming the transmission line to be constituted by straight-line conductors

parallel to, and at a constant distance from, the ground, which is assumed

to be an infinite plane. The charges on each conductor are assumed to be

uniformly distributed, and each conductor is assumed to be at the same

potential throughout its length. The impedance of the line is neglected in

calculating capacitance. In other words, in calculating the effect of

capacitance the transmission line is considered as a system of capacitors

connected to the source of voltages by means of impedanceless connections.

The effect of poles, towers, trees, and buildings is neglected.

The rationalized mks system of units will be used throughout this

chapter.

10-2. Potential Due to a Charged Conductor. Let us consider in Fig.

10-2-1 one meter of a very long straight-line cylindrical conductor having

a charge of q coulombs per meter length.

The electric flux density D at distance x from the axis of the conductor

is obtained from

2rxD = q

where

D = &E = &0kE

Here E is the electric field intensity or the electric

gradient.

fe" = &0k

is the dielectric constant of the medium surrounding the conductor.

KT9

fen =

36t

is the dielectric constant of vacuum, and k is the relative dielectric constant,

with respect to vacuum, of the medium surrounding the conductor.

From the above we obtain

E = ^ * - volts per meter

A; x

Since E depends only on x, the equipotential surfaces are cylinders about

the axis of the conductor. Now E is given also by

dx

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where V is the potential at x. Then

- dV = E dx =

SEQUENCE CAPACITANCE 373

Integrating, the potential difference E12, in volts, between points 1 and 2,

directed from 1 to 2 as shown in Fig. 10-2-1, is given by

18 X 109 >02

Eu = ^ q log (10-2-1)

10-3. Potential Due to a Number of Charged Conductors (Fig. 10-3-1).

Charges,

Conductors

coulombs /meter length

?.

Id

The potential difference E12, in volts, between points 1 and 2 directed from

1 to 2 is given by

18 X 109 [ Da2 Db2 Dc2 W

En = r 9a log + 96log + qc log + qd log (10-3-1)

K [ Dal L>bl L>c\ L>dV

99 1

1 *2

fro

OO

,f O l.

CO

7r/77/m7mm?/mmGround

-9 _

a'

Fig. 10-3-1. Fio. 10-4-1.

10-4. Effect of Ground. One Conductor (Fig. 10-4-1). The ground is

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assumed to be a plane surface of zero potential. On this basis the field,

and potential distribution above ground, will be the same as those between

the charge q on the conductor and the charge q located on an imaginary

conductor, the image of the actual one with respect to ground.

The potential difference Ei2, in volts, between points 1 and 2 directed

from 1 to 2 is

18 X 109 r Da2 , Da.2l 18 X 109 , Z>a2ZVi

18 X 109 r Da2 , Da.2~\ 18 X 109 ,

Ei2 = q log log = q log

DalDa.2

(10-4-1)

CHAPTER 11

IMPEDANCE OF CABLES TO CURRENTS OF ZERO,

POSITIVE, AND NEGATIVE SEQUENCE

11-1. Cables. Insulation, Types, etc. Cables are used extensively

in metropolitan areas for underground transmission and distribution of

electric power. There is a large variety of cables which vary in type of

insulation, conductors, and sheathing material for the different operating

voltages and applications. The insulating materials used for underground

cables are:f rubber or rubber-like compounds, varnished cambric, and

impregnated paper.

Other conditions being equal, impregnated paper affords the largest

current capacity, and rubber-insulated cables the lowest.

Rubber-insulated cables are used on ungrounded systems up to 15

kilovolts line to line voltages and on grounded systems up to 26 kilovolts

line to line voltages. Woven fabric, or impregnated jute, or lead, or metallic

armor, or combinations thereof, are used as external coverings for rubber

cables.

Varnished cambric is used for voltages up to 28 kilovolts line to line

voltages. The insulation consists of a varnish-treated, closely woven

cotton cloth, applied helically in the form of a tape. A viscous compound,

having substantially the same dielectric constant as the varnished cambric,

is applied between layers. This type of insulation has a higher dielectric

loss and power factor than impregnated paper. This characteristic, coupled

with the inevitable entrapped air, limits the maximum operating voltage.

Varnished cambric cables are usually provided with a lead sheath.

Impregnated paper shows the lowest dielectric loss and power factor.

Manila or wood pulp paper is applied helically in the form of a tape. J

For a given voltage impregnated paper requires the least thickness and

rubber the largest.

t A. E. Knowlton, Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineers, 8th ed. (New York:

McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 1949), p. 1295.

t Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineers, p. 1296.

See, for instance, D. M. Simmons, "Calculation of the Electrical Problems of Under-

ground Cables," Reprint from articles published in Electric Journal, May to Nov. 1932,

table 1.

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421

CHAPTER 12

ZERO, ALPHA, AND BETA COMPONENTS

12-1. Definitions. Let us consider a line to line fault on the wye side

of a delta-wye transformer, as shown in Fig. 12-1-1. Let r be the ratio of

transformation. The currents on the wye side and on the delta side are,

respectively,

Wye Side Delta Side

Ia = 0 Ia = r(fc - Ic) = 2r/

=/

= r/c = -

rl

Ic

=-

Ih

= -rh =

-rl

la

k>

Ac

Fig.

12-1-1.

These currents can be expressed and obtained in terms of symmetrical

components. However, there arises the question whether the resultant

currents can be obtained directly as simple components of some new system

of phasors instead of as combinations of symmetrical components.

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The answer to this question is in the affirmative. The new components

are called the 0, a, and 0 components and are denned as follows. Consider

the system of three phasors (Ei, E2, E3). This system of phasors is equal

to the sum of the following systems of phasors:

(i) (i, -i ~h)Eia

(2)

(3)

(1, 1, l)*10

<10

433

434 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

That is,

EI = ^10 + Eia

Ela V/3 _

*, Elo- + Elff

The components Elo, la, Elp are obtained from Eqs. 12-1-1:

El + E2 + 3

(11-1-2)

Thus the zero sequence component is identical with the zero sequence

component of symmetrical components.

From Eqs. 12-1-1, by adding the second and third equations, we obtain

~r = i - T

Subtracting this from the first equation,

(E2 + 3) 3

Thus ! = -,- '2 J (12-1-3)

Subtracting the third of Eqs. 12-1-1 from the second, we obtain

E2 - 3) (12-1-4)

Letting S0 = (1, 1, 1)

Sa = (1, -i -t) (12-1-5)

..-^,,-

we obtain

In the case of current phasors:

1. Zero currents are equal in all three phases.

2. a current flows in one phase and returns in the other two phases.

3. / 3 current flows in one phase and returns in another with no current in

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the third phase.

440 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

Substituting in Eq. 12-3-3 and from Eqs. 12-2-3,

. .V3/Aa J,*

or

U = - V3^

which coincides with Eqs. 12-3-1.

12-4. Change of the First Phasor. The 0, o, and 0, components of

the system of phasors SEi = (E\, E2, E3) are given by Eqs. 12-1-2,12-1-3,

and 12-1-4. What are the 0, a, and j3 components of the systems SE2 =

(E2,E3,Ei)? By definition,

_ E2 + 3 + Ei

*20 ^ 10

E2p = (E3 Ei)

V3

Substituting for Ei, E2, E3 the values given by Eqs. 12-1-1,

E2a = %[*/3Eip Eia]

= -i[V31 +

More directly, the equations similar to Eqs. 12-2-1 and 12-2-2 will be

E2a = E2\ + E22

E2p = j(E2i E22)

where 21, 22 are the positive and negative sequence components of SE2

or, noting that

E2i a2 En

E22 = aEi2

we obtain, from Eqs. 12-2-3,

a2

E2a = - (Eia +jEip) + - (Eia - jEif,)

= h(V3Eit - Eia)

which coincides with the first of Eqs. 12-4-1.

Similarly, the 0, a, and /3 components E30, E3a, E3p of the system of

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(12-4-1)

ZERO, ALPHA, AND BETA COMPONENTS

441

we obtain

phasors SE3 = (3, Ei, E2) are given by

30 = Ei0 = 20

3 = 31 + 32

30 = J (31 E32)

where 31, 32 are the positive and negative sequence components of SE3.

Noting that

31 = aEn

32 = a212

E3a = -\[V3Eif> + Eia]

30 = %[\/3Eia 1(j]

12-5. Kirchhoff's First Law Applied to 0, a, and fi Current Components.

In Art. 7-1 it was shown that Kirchhoff's first law applies to the current

sequence components; that is, as far as the distribution of currents is con-

cerned each sequence can be considered independently. The same con-

clusion can be applied to the 0, a, and /3 components of the currents.

Consider again the node N of the general network of Fig. 7-1-1. Again

let Na, Nb, Nc be the corresponding nodes of the three phases a, b, c, and

let the various currents be as shown in Fig. 7-1-2.

Obviously, the currents in each node are given by Eqs. 7-1-1, 7-1-2, and

7-1-3. The 0 component YLho of /a, /c is given by Eq. 7-1-4.

The a and 0 components and /a0 are given by

a._,.|[a_flftH]

= /.' + /,"+ =0 (12-5-1)

V3

= ^-[h,-ie'] + -L[ib"-ie"}+.

-V +V.+ -0 (12-5-2)

That is, each component obeys Kirchhoff's first law and may, for this

reason, be considered separately. Thus, as far as the flow of currents is

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concerned, the currents in each phase of Fig. 12-5-1 are obtained by adding

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

the currents of the corresponding phases of Figs. 12-5-2(0), 12-5-2(a),

and 12-5-2(|S).

3'aO 3/o O O

Fig. 12-^5-1. Fig. 12-5-2(0). Fig. 12-5-2(a). Fig. 12-5-2(0).

12-6. KirchhofPs Second Law. General Case. In Chapter 7 it was

shown that, as far as Kirchhoff's second law is concerned, each sequence

network can be considered separately if the original network is completely

symmetrical. The same conclusion holds for the 0, a, /3 networks. Refer

again to Fig. 7-6-1 and use the same symbols as in Art. 7-6.

The general expressions for the sequence components of the voltages in

Fig. 7-6-1 are given in Eqs. 7-6-8, 7-6-9, and 7-6-10. In order to obtain

the corresponding expressions in terms of 0, a, and /3 components let us

substitute in those equations their equivalents from Eqs. 12-2-3. We

obtain

Z0i

EaO Ea0 = Z0oIaO + [ha + jhp] + ~ [ha ~ jhp]

\[Eaa + jEap] ~ h[Eaa' + jEap']

Z\\ ^12

= Z\oIa0 + [ha + jhp] + ~ [La ~ jhp]

\[Eaa jEap] \[Eaa' jEap']

1 ^22

= Z2oIa0 + -y [ha + jhp] + [ha ~ jhp]

Rearranging the first equation and adding and subtracting the last two, we

obtain

r r , 7 t _i_ (Zoi + ^02) . , (^01 ~ Z02) .

**o0 ^aO *00*a0 "I ^ 'sa T J ^ *ap

I (Z\\ ~i~ ^21 ~T ^12 ~T ^22)

Eaa ~ Eaa = (Z10 + ^2o)^o0 H 2 7aa

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+ 3 ~ h (12-6-1)

ZERO, ALPHA, AND BETA COMPONENTS

443

p p i (^10 ~ ^2o) . . (Zi\ + Z12 Z2i Z22)

&ap C.ap ~ : iaO H ~ Iaa

3%

. ~ Z\2 Z21 + Z22)

H n *<#

(12-6-1)

The values of Zoo, Z0\, Z02, Zi0, Zu, Zi2, Z20, Z2\, Z22 are defined by

Eqs. 7-6-11 to 7-6-19.

From those equations, putting

Z0a

ZOi + Z02

\[Zal + Za2 - jw(aMab2 + a2Mabi + 3{Mar l + Mar2))]

Z20 + Z\o

Z0p = j

ZOi Z02

(12-6-2)

= g ~ Zi ~M<*Mab2 - a2Mabi + 3{Mar2 - Marl))] (12-6-3)

ZaO = Z\o + Z20

= Zal + Za2 - M<*2Mabl + aMab2 + 3(Mari + Mar2)]

2Z0a

Z\\ + Z2\ + Z\2 + ^22

Zna

= Za0 + "' 1 jw(Mab0 a2Mabl - aMab2)

(12-6-4)

(12-6-5)

Zap = j

(Zu + Z2i Zi2 Z22)

. (Za\ Za2) 2

3 7. o)(a Mabl - OtMab2)

Zpo =

Z10 ~ Z20

(12-6-6)

Zal Z,

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a2

+ wjalak2 - a2Mabi + 3(Mar2 - Mari)}

= 2Z0p

Z\\ + Z\.i Zn\ Zoo

(12-6-7)

444

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

(Za\ Za2)

2j

w(a2Mabi aMab2)

He

Z\\ Z\2 Z2\ + Z22

we obtain

(Zal + Za2)

j<ji(Mab0 + a2Mabi + aMab2)

(12-6-8)

(12-6-9)

E<iO Eao' ~ Z0oIao + Z0aIaa + Z0pIap

Eaa Eaa' = ZaoIaO + ZaaIaa + ZapIap (12-6-10)

EaB Eap = ZpoIaO + Zfaha + ZppIap

These equations show that, from the standpoint of Kirchhoff's second law,

the 0, a, and 0 networks are not independent of one another. They can

be considered separately provided that they are mutually coupled. The

aa0

OS

TT~

Eap

Fig. 12-6-1.

mutual impedances, however, would not be the same in the two directions.

This is shown schematically in Fig. 12-6-1. The a and /3 impedances and

self-impedances defined by Eqs. 12-6-2 to 12-6-9 inclusive are given in

terms of the sequence components. They can be expressed directly in

terms of the line impedances and coefficient of mutuals.

For this purpose it suffices to note that the a and 0 components of the

three line impedances Za, Zb, Zc are, from Eqs. 12-1-3, 12-2-1 and 12-1-4,

12-2-3,

Zaa ~ \ Za - - -1 = Zal + Za2

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zap = (Zb Zc) = j(Zal Za2)

ZERO, ALPHA, AND BETA COMPONENTS 445

Similarly, the a and f3 components of the mutuals Mab, Mbc, Mca and

Mar, Mbr, Mcr are

2/ \Mbc + Mca)\

Maba = - [Mab ~ I = Mabl + Mab2

-- p (Mbc ~ Mca) = ~j(Mabl - Mab2)

2/ {Mbr + M)\ ,

Mara = - I Mar ~ J = Marl + Mar2

1 (12-6-11)

Marp = (Mbr ~ Mcr) = -j(Mar\ ~ Mar2)

V3

2/ {Mob + Mbc}\

Maca = -[Mac ")

- Mac\ + Mac2 = aMabl + a2Mab2

Macp - ~p (Mab - Mbc)

V3

= -j(Mac\ - Mac2) = ~j(aMabl - a*Mabl)

Substituting in Eqs. 12-6-2 to 12-6-9 inclusive will accomplish our

objective.

A more direct derivation will be given for the case of complete symmetry

of the circuits.

12-7. Kirchhoff's Second Law. Complete Symmetry. If the circuit

is symmetrical,

Zn + Z22 (12-7-1)

Zaa = ZaO jwMabO = Zpp ~

and Eqs. 12-6-10 will become

EaO Eao' = ZooIao = [Za0 + 3Zg + jio(2M ab0 SMaroWoO

Eaa - Ej = ZaaIaa = [Za0 ~ jwMab0]Iaa (12-7-2)

Eap Eafl = ZppIap = [Za0 ~ jo)Mab0]Iap

It is thus seen that, if the circuits of the network of Fig. 7-1-1 are sym-

metrical, the 0, a, and 0 networks are independent of each other. The

impedances to a currents and to /3 currents of a circuit are the same and are

equal to the average of the impedances of the same circuit to currents of

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positive and negative sequence. For static equipment the latter two are

446 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

equal, and thus the impedances of the a and 3 networks are the same as

those of the positive sequence network For rotating equipment the im-

pedance to negative sequence currents differs from that to positive sequence

currents, and thus the average of these impedances must be used in the

a and 8 networks.

More directly, for this case consider now the portion of the original

network between the two sections .4 and .4' of Fig. 7-1-1. In terms of

0, a, 0 components, assuming complete symmetry of the circuits. we obtain

SE. = (E Ec) = 5ao + SaEM + SeE^

SEa' = (.', Eb', Ee') = SEao' + S^J + SsEj

SIa = (/, Ib, h) = S/aO + SJaa + SeIap

SZa = (Za, Zb, Zc) = SZao

SMab = (Ma*, Mbc, Men) = <S-Va40

SMac = (M^ M*, Mc) = SMabii

SMar = (Mar, M^, M) = SMarO

Sib = (Ib, Ie, I) = SIaO + SaIba + SpIbp

= S/a0 + ^(VlIae ~ Iaa) ~ ^(V3Iaa + U)

Sic = (/, Ia, h) = S/0 + SJca + SpIcp

= SIaO ~ hSa(V3Iae + L) + SS^V3Ia* ~ 1+)

The voltage drops between the two sections are given by

SEa - SEa' = SZaSIa + MSMabSIb + SMacSIc - 3IaoSMar) + SE

as in Chapter 7, or

S(EaO Eao) + Sa(Eaa Eaa') + Sp(Eap Eap)

SZo0[S/aO T SaIaa + SjjIap]

+ MSMabolSIaO + %Sa(V3Iap ~ Iaa) ~ ^(^31^ + Irf)}

+ SOMab0iSIaO ~ \Sa(s/3Irf + /) + tS,(V3l - 7^)}

- 3SMor0/aro] + SE

from which

S(Ea0 - Eao') = IaoS[Za0 + jw\2Mab0 - 3Mflr0}] + SE

Sa(Eaa Eaa') = Sa[Za0 jwMab0Vaa

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Sp(Eap Eop) = Sp[Zao jwMab0]Iap

ZERO, ALPHA, AND BETA COMPONENTS

447

or

Ea0 - Eao' = [Zoo +jw(2Mab0 - 3Mar0)]/ao + E

= [Za0 +jw(2Mab0 - 3Moro)]/ao + 3[Zg - jwMaroVaO

= [Za0 + 3Zg + M2Mab0 - 6M1.o)]/ao

It is thus seen that, if the network is symmetrical, each sequence may be

considered independently; that is, the actual network may be replaced with

three networks, which are exact duplicates of the original network, to which

are applied the 0, a, and 0 voltage components respectively. The imped-

ances of the zero sequence network are the same as the impedances used in

setting up the symmetrical components for the zero sequence network.

For networks composed of circuits with equal positive and negative se-

quence impedances, the a and j8 networks have impedances equal to the

positive sequence impedance.

In passing from Eqs. 12-6-1 to Eqs. 12-6-2 to 12-6-9 inclusive, we can

use for Z0O, Z01, Z02, Zn, Zi2, Z2\, Z22 expressions 9-6-14 to 9-6-21 in-

clusive, thus expressing Z0a, Z0p, Zaa, Zap, Za0, Zp0, Zpp, Zpa in terms of the

sequence components of the self-impedances and mutual impedances of

the loops formed by the conductors and ground returns. In practical cases

complete symmetry is not obtained. Calculations are made assuming that

the relations expressed in Eqs. 12-7-1 are satisfied or that in Eqs. 12-6-10

all Z's are zero excepting Zoo, Zaa, and Zpp. The latter two are both taken

equal to the value given by the last of Eqs. 12-7-1. They could be calcu-

culated a little more accurately with Eqs. 12-6-5 and 12-6-9.

12-8. 0, a, and B Networks with Voltages of Positive Sequence Applied

to a Symmetrical Network. Three-Phase Fault. Because the network is

symmetrical, the 0, a, 0 networks can be considered independently of one

another by applying the 0, a, components, respectively, of the generator

voltages.

Since generators are assumed to generate voltages of positive sequence

only, the 0, a, /3 components (we shall call En the voltage of the general

generator) will be

(Za0 jwMabo)Iap

Eap = jE ii

The phase currents in the general circuit will be

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/ = /

448

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

and the corresponding 0, a, and 0 components will be

ho = 0

ha = I

hp = ~fl

Thus the 0, a, networks will be as shown in Fig. 12-8-1a, b, c for the

simple case of a generator supplying a balanced load.

aEvJLa2E

n a2I

aI

Gen. Load

(a) Actual network

3 '^h^^

(6) Zero network

n -f

(c) a network

'2*11 '2'

Fig. 12-8-1.

We see that, with generators generating voltages of positive sequence

only and supplying a symmetrical network, only the a and /3 networks need

be considered.

The same conclusions apply to a three-phase fault on a symmetrical

system. Let the generator voltages be En, E2\, ", Eni and let Eli be

the voltage existing at the point of fault prior to the fault, as discussed in

Chapter 8. The three-phase fault can be analyzed in terms of either the

generator voltage En, E2\, , Eni or the voltage E//i. The a and /3

networks in the two cases will be as shown in Figs. 12-8-2a and 12-8-2b

respectively. Since the impedance of any circuit in the a and 0 networks

is given by the average of the impedance to positive sequence currents and

the impedance to negative sequence currents, the two networks are iden-

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tical. The applied voltages are the same in magnitude, but at 90 degrees

ZERO, ALPHA, AND BETA COMPONENTS

449

with respect to one another; the currents will thus be equal in magnitude

and at 90 degrees from one another so that only one network need be con-

sidered. It will be recalled that in terms of symmetrical components only

the positive sequence network need be considered.

21

Em/7

*3l\

(a)

21

-JBnl/

II

Ll

i_

0>)

Fio. 12-8-2.

Let us consider a balanced load supplied from a source of positive se-

quence voltage through a delta-wye transformer bank as shown in Fig.

12-8-3.

n.

Ratio of transformation = r = .yq

Fio. 12-8-3.

The components of the load current, as viewed from the wye side of the

transformers, are

ho = 0

ha = /

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hp = -H

450

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

Thus the flow of IAo and IAp will be as shown in Figs. 12-8-4 and 12-8-5

respectively.

~z Load

Z3k

3/

2r

0 currents

/3 voltages

"2

a currents

a voltages

Fig. 12-8-4.

The 0, a, (3 components on the generator side due to the load a com-

ponents, from Fig. 12-8-4, are (from Eqs. 12-1-3 and 12-1-4)

ho = 0

ha = 0

a currents

a voltages

J/3*

/3 currents

/3 voltages

Fig. 12-S-5.

It is thus seen that the load a currents become the generator 0 currents.

The generator 0, a, /8 current components of the load /3 current compo-

nents, from Fig. 12-8-5, are

ho = 0

ha = -jV3~

hp = o

Thus the 0 load current components appear as a current components on

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the generator side.

ZERO, ALPHA, AND BETA COMPONENTS

451

E~

otE

|c b Ec ] Vc *

Fio. 12-8-6.

Let us now consider the generator voltages. These are of positive se-

quence; they are En, a2En, aEn. The voltages on the two sides of the

transformer and their 0, a, /3 components are shown in Fig. 12-8-6. They

are

Ecb

= (a

- a2)u = jVSEn

Eac

= (1

- a)Eu = 0PjVsEn

- l)En = ajVaEn

EA

Eb

_ ^oe

= aV3^ = a2^

Ec

= *6a

= ajV3-^ = a^i

from which the 0, a, /3 voltage components are

Generator Side Wye Side of Transformer

Ea0 = 0 EA0 = 0

^oo = g j^n ~~~- Eii^ = En EAa = = j V5

ag = -7= [a2 - a]u = -jEn EAf> = -jEAl = V3

V3 r

In passing through the transformer, the a currents on one side become the

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0 currents on the other. The a and 0 voltages on either side must be asso-

ciated with the a and /3 currents on the same side; this is shown also in Figs.

12-8^1 and 12-8-5.

The above voltage and current components can be expressed in per unit.

From Art. 12-3,

462 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

kva is the normal or base kilovoltamperes.

En is the normal voltage, L/N, on the generator side.

En' is the normal voltage, L/N, on the wye side of the transformer.

/n, /' are the corresponding normal currents:

1000 kva

In

Now

3En

1000 kva

Thus

Thus the per unit 0, a, f3 components are

Generator Side Wye Side of Transformer

Ea0 = 0 EA0 = 0

Eaau - ^ - En* EAau = j ^ , = j = j E

T - - ^IA 1 - - -L - J

*apu j *Aau / / *

'** n 'n * n

V3/^

/^Q

- Iu

'aau ~ T *ABu T i ~ J T / J*u

Tin *n in

12-9. Unbalanced Load on an Otherwise Symmetrical Network Ana-

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lyzed in Terms of 0, a, and f) Components. For greater generality it will

ZERO, ALPHA, AND BETA COMPONENTS 453

be assumed that the n generators supplying the network generate voltages

admitting 0, a, /3 components:

10i ^20, ^30, , EnO

Eiaj Ela, E3a," ^no

Eifr E2p, E3p, ' EnB

20

Zero

'00 Fn

Fio. 12-9-1.

Under this assumption, the 0, a, /3 components of the voltages to ground

existing at the point F (where the unbalanced load is connected) prior to

connecting the unbalanced load are E/0, E/a, E/p.

The 0, a, /3 components of the voltages to ground existing at the point F

of unbalance after the unbalanced load has been connected are Ea0, Eaa,

Eap.

The 0, a, 0 components of the currents supplied to the unbalanced load

are Ia0, ha, hp.

The analysis of the original network can be made by considering the

0, a, /3 networks as shown in Fig. 12-9-1, in terms of the generator voltage

components, or as shown in Fig. 12-9-2, in terms of the voltages E/0,

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E/a, E/p.

454

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

From Fig. 12-9-2 it is seen that

U = (12-9-1)

L = **-*" (12-9-2)

U = ^-=^ H2-9-3)

which are similar, respectively, to Eqs. 8-1-7, 8-1-6, and 8-1-8.

Fig. 12-9-2.

Z0 is the impedance of the network to currents of zero sequence as viewed

from point F. Za and Zp are the impedances of the network to a and 0

currents, respectively, as viewed also from point F.

The relations among the components /a0, Iaa, hp and among Ea0, Eaa,

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Eap vary with and are characteristic of the type of unbalance.

ZERO, ALPHA, AND BETA COMPONENTS

455

-J

7.

Zero

oo F0

! /E.

21

iNrI

Fig. 12-&-3.

If the generators generate voltages En, E2\, , Eni of positive sequence

only, and the unbalance at F is the only unbalance in the network,

10

20 =

= E,o

Eia

ll

Eip =

-jEn

E2a

E2i

E2p =

-jE2i

Ena

Enl

EnB =

-jEi

E/o

E/a

E/i

E/p =

-jEn

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Fig. 12-9-1 will reduce to Fig. 12-9-3 and Fig. 12-9-2 will reduce to

Fig. 12-9-4.

456

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

\ Zero

J L'l

Fio. 12-9-4.

12-10. Line to Ground Fault in Terms of 0, a, and f) Components.

As shown in Art. 8-2, in this case the fault currents and voltages at the

fault are

Ea = 0

Thus

fa0,

Ioft

1*0

Ic = o

I 2/ao

E * 0

Ec * 0

EaO + Eaa

Eaa =

Eaff =

EaO =

(Eb + Ee)

V3

Eb + E,

(Eb - Ec)

In the 0 network shown in Fig. 12-9-4 the current Iap is zero; thus

E/p = EaS = jEn

Since the current flowing in the zero sequence network is one half the

current in the a network, two parallel zero sequence networks can be con-

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nected in series with the a network and the sum of the voltages Ea0 and Eaa

ZERO, ALPHA, AND BETA COMPONENTS

467

can be applied to the series connection. Since Ea0 + Ea

will be as shown in Fig. 12-10-1, from which

0, the result

2/a0 =

E,

+ Z

o , Z\ ~f~ ^2

22

Analysis of the line to ground fault requires the setting up of the a

network in series with a zero sequence network of one half the impedance

values. Analysis of the same line to ground fault in terms of sequence

components requires three sequence networks. 1

L.

Fig. 12-10-1.

In Fig. 12-10-1, the generator voltages could be applied instead of the

voltage E/i with the same results.

12-11. Line to Line Fault on a Symmetrical System in Terms of 0,

a, and p Components. Assuming, as in Chapter 8, a fault between phases

b and c, the fault currents and the voltages at the fault in this case are

Thus

/ = 0

h - - / = /

ho = o/

L = o/

i - 21

tap 7=

V3

Ea j*0, Eb9*0, Ec*0

Eb - Ec = 0

Eaa = ~ (Ea ~ Eb)

Eap = 0

With reference to Fig. 12-9-4, with no zero sequence voltage generated,

E/o 0, the zero sequence network need not be considered. Since Iaa = 0,

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the a network will be open-circuited at Fa. Only the 0 network need be

taken into consideration as far as the fault currents are concerned and in it

the voltage Eap at Fp is zero. Conditions will be as shown in Fig. 12-11-1.

It will be recalled that the /3 network is obtained by using for each part

of it the average of the impedances to positive and negative sequence

currents.

458

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

Analysis of a line to line fault by means of the 0, a, /3 components re-

quires the setting up of one network only instead of two, as when the fault

is analyzed in terms of symmetrical components.

Fa

Fig. 12-11-1.

.i

12-12. Line to Line to Ground Fault in Terms of 0, a, and 0 Com-

ponents. Assuming, as in Chapter 8, a fault from phases _6and c to ground,

the fault currents and the voltages at the fault are

Eaa , V^ag

22

Ia = 0

*0

h*o

= 0 = a0 -

Ic *0

= 0 = Ea0 -

Eb

-Ec = 0

Ea

V3Ea

t)

(a)

Fia. 12-12-1.

(6)

Thus

Iap

/-/.

V3

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h+h

a<i = 0

Eaa 2aQ

ZERO, ALPHA, AND BETA COMPONENTS

459

The voltage Ea0 is applied to the zero sequence network. If the imped-

ances of the zero sequence network are doubled and the voltage is raised

to 2Ea0, the currents will remain unchanged.

Since Iao = Iaa, this zero sequence network, with the impedances

multiplied by 2, can be connected in series with the a network provided

that the resultant voltage, E/i + 2Ea0 Eaa = E/\, is applied to the

combination. The result is shown in Fig. 12-12-1a. Since Eap = 0, the

0 network will be as shown in Fig. 12-12-1b.

Other cases are treated in the literature. f

PROBLEMS

12-1. A 3-phase Y-connected generator supplies a transmission line by means

of three single-phase transformers connected in A on the generator side and in Y

grounded on the line side. The ratio of each transformer is a.

(a) Assume that a load is connected to the line drawing only a currents.

Calculate the phase currents in the generator, in the transformer, and in the line,

their 0, a, and /3 components, and their zero, positive, and negative sequence

components. Express in amperes and in per unit.

(b) Same as (a), but assume that the load draws only /3 currents from the line.

12-2. Consider again the interconnection of Prob. 9-11 and assume that the

transformers T\ and Tt have 4% reactance on rating. A line to ground fault

occurs at the far end of the line.

Find the generator and fault transient currents, using the 0, a, /3 components

method.

Disregarding the effect of the ground wire find the 0, a, and f3 capacitive sus-

ceptances of the transmission line.

12-3. A transmission line consists of three 4/0 copper power conductors and

one ground wire arranged as shown in the figure. The ground wire consists of

one TS-in. Copperweld conductor of 30 per cent conductivity having a GMR of

0.00255 ft and a resistance of 2.66 ohms/mile. Each power conductor has a

GMR equal to 0.00814 ft and a resistance of 0.592 ohm/mile.

(a) Calculate the impedances, in ohms per mile, of the line to 60-cycle currents

of zero, positive, and negative sequences, assuming a ground resistivity of 200

ohm-meters.

(b) Under the same conditions as in (a), calculate the impedances to a and

0 currents.

t E. Clarke, Circuit Analysis of A-C Power Systems, Vol. 1 (New York: John Wiley &

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Sons, Inc., 1943), p. 308; R. D. Camburn and E. T. B. Gross, "Analysis of Synchronous

Machine Short Circuits," Transactions, AIEE, LX, pt. II (1950), 671-79; E. W. Kim-

bark, "Two-Phase Co-ordinates of a Three-Phase Circuit," Transactions, AIEE, LVIII

(1939), 894-910.

460

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

-i LI T

39'

777777m77?/777777777777777 Ground

Phob. 12-3.

(c) Assume now that the line is 70 miles long and is supplied from a 40,000-kva,

13,800-volt, 60-cycle generator, by means of a 25,000-kva, 13,800-138,000-volt

transformer connected in A on the generator side and in Y grounded on the line

side. The characteristics of the generator and of the transformer are

Reactance, p.u. on rating

mva

Xd" Xi' X1

Generator

40

0.20 0.30 0.20

0.18

Transformer

25

0.04

A line to ground fault occurs at the far end of the line. Find the generator and

fault transient currents, using the 0, a, /8 components method.

(d) With a line to ground fault as in (c), calculate the current in the ground

wire and in the ground.

(e) Disregarding the effect of the ground wire, find the 0, a, and 0 capacitive

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susceptances of the transmission line.

INDEX

Admittance

capacitive mutual, 380

capacitive self, 380

driving, 19, 104

normal, 62

transfer, 19, 104

Alpha, beta components

definition, 433

line to ground faults, 456

line to line faults, 457

line to line to ground faults, 458

per units, 439

three-phase fault, 447

Analyzers, network (see Calculating

boards)

Armature m.m.f., components of, 176

Attenuation constant, 41

Auto transformers, equivalent network,

36

Axis of instantaneous values, 7

Base volt-amperes, 69

Beta components (see Alpha, beta com-

ponents)

Cables, types, 421

Calculating boards

conversion factors, 91

general discussion, 90

General Electric, 97

Westinghouse, 99

Capacitance

coefficients, 374, 381, 384

factors affecting transmission line,

371

sequence, 384, 389, 390, 403

from test, 385, 398, 403, 408

with double line to ground fault (ef-

fect of), 230

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with line to ground fault (effect of), 216

Capacitive

self and mutual admittances, 380

self and mutual impedances, 381

Carson formulas, 289, 291

Characteristic equations, 20

for a star network, 31

Characteristic impedance, 41, 43, 44

Coefficients of electrostatic induction, 377

Conjugate

of a phasor system, 130

phasors, 5

of sequence operators, 127

Counterpoise, effect of, 354

Current

normal, 69

phasor, 8

Double line to ground fault, 227, 230, 458

Electrostatic induction

coefficients of, 377

e'O operator, 3

Equivalence of electrical networks, 18

Equivalent networks

autotransformers, 36

mesh type, 32

of one-circuit transmission line with

one ground wire, 324

star type, 30

three-terminal star with legs mutually

coupled, 26

three-winding transformer, 36

two loops with ground return, 298

462

INDEX

Graphical determination, continued

of the positive sequence component, 123

of the zero sequence component, 120

Ground displacement

with no ground wires, 394

with one ground wire, 399

with two ground wires, 403

Ground resistivity, 296

Ground wires, in actual lines, 354

Impedance

characteristic, 41, 44

of a conductor and ground return, 289

to currents of positive and negative

sequence currents of cables, 430

driving, 19, 104

of a loop, 289

mutual two conductors and ground re-

turn, 289

normal, 62, 69

phasor, 7

to positive and negative sequence cur-

rents of transmission lines, 304, 313

surge, 41, 44

synchronous machines, 176

transfer, 19, 104

to zero sequence currents, 308, 313, 320,

325, 344, 347, 349, 351, 357, 358, 359

Impedances

capacitive self and mutual, 380

delta-wye transformation, 133

symmetrical components, 132

Induction regulator, equivalent three-

terminal network, 27

Instantaneous power, representation of,

10

Kirchhoff's first law, 141, 441

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Kirchhoff's second law, symmetrical

phases, 156, 445; unsymmetrical

phases, 151, 442

Line to ground fault, 209

double, 227

effect of capacitance, 216

load, 216

power with a, 214

Line to line fault, 219

load, 224

power with a, 224

Load

line to ground, 216

line to line, 224

three impedances connected in wye

ungrounded, 241

three impedances from line to ground,

235

Load, continued

on two phases at the same location,

233

Loop formed by an overhead conductor

and ground return, impedance of,

289

Losses, 164

Mutual impedance

between two loops formed by two con-

ductors and ground return, 289

of parallel lines with currents of posi-

tive and negative sequences, 341

of parallel lines with currents of zero

sequence, 344, 347, 349

INDEX

463

Phase

constants of transmission lines, 41

sequence indicator, 243

Phasor systems, 115

conjugate of, 130

negative sequence, 116

positive sequence, 116

product of, 128

sum, difference, product, and quotient

of, 115

zero sequence, 116

Phasors, 3

conjugate, 5

operations with, 8

Pi network, A, B, C, D constants, 39

Positive sequence

impedance to currents of, 304, 313

mutual impedance of parallel lines with

currents of, 341, 358

unity system, 124

Potential

coefficients, 375

due to a charged conductor, 372

due to a number of charged conductors,

373

effect of ground, 373

Power

factor, 162

representation of instantaneous, 10

in three-phase circuits, 160

with a double line to ground fault,

230

with a line to ground fault, 214

with a line to line fault, 224

Propagation constant, 41

Reactance

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armature leakage, 180

normal, 62, 69

subtransients x*", x,", 71, 182

synchronous xt, x 71. 180

transformer, 72,

transient x*, x,', 71, 182

Reactances, of armature reaction x,t, x,

180

Reciprocity theorem, 105

Resistance, 287

Rudenberg's assumptions, 297

Scalar quantities, phasor representation

of, 5

Self-inductance, 282

affect of skin effect, 285

Sequence

concept of, 114

impedances of cables, 423, 430

negative, 114, 118

Sequence, continued

positive, 114, 118

zero, 114, 118

Sequence capacitances, three-phase cir-

cuits, no ground wires, 384, 389

Sequence operators

conjugates of, 127

negative sequence unity system, 124

positive sequence unity system, 124

product of, 125

quotient of, 126

zero sequence unity system, 124

Shielding angle, 323, 328

464 INDEX

Zero sequence Zero sequence, continued

current unbalance factor, 303, 327 mutual impedance of parallel lines

impedance to currents of, 308, 313, 320, with currents of, 341, 344, 347, 349

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325, 347, 349, 351, 358, 359 unity system, 124