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COMPONENTS

G. O. CALABRESE

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PREFACE

electric energy with minimum losses and inconvenience. How, then, are

vides the engineer with a means of answering this most important question

become the standard method for computing currents and voltages in poly-

This is true regardless of whether power system studies are made in long-

supply a lucid and up-to-date discussion of the fields in which the theory is

applied. It is intended primarily for use at the graduate level, but the

introductory material included in the first five chapters makes the book

suitable for advanced senior courses where the curriculum permits such a

to pursue the subject furthera valuable part of his training. The inclu-

sion of problems for assignment also serves the same purpose, for many

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vi PREFACE

students, and this book is the outgrowth of the notes he developed for

XXXVII, 1918, pt. II, pp. 1027-1140) and more extensively in the paper

are, of course, given at the points where the materials have been used.

G. O. Calabrese

Lemont, Illinois

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January, 1959

CONTENTS

chapter page

1 Introduction .......... 3

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VII

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

and to use the terms "phasor" and "phasor quantity" for a plane vector or

1-2. The Operator eje. This operator will be used extensively in the

is, then, an operator which, when applied to a phasor, rotates the latter

Let us recall now the series expansions of the cosine and sine:

62 6* 66

63 65 67

Kin6 = 6 1 !- (1-2-2)

3o/

f A letter in italic boldface indicates a phasor. The same letter not in boldface indi-

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4 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

2t "-, 4 o

x2 x3

from which we see that the exponential ei9 is identical with the operator

products or quotients, or both, of operators of the form ei9. Can we, in such

cases, treat ei> as an ordinary exponential and apply to it the ordinary laws

e}9 obeys the laws of exponentials. Although this proof can be found in

reader.

Let us start from the product. By the law of exponentials, the product

-,}0l V fl** ia

'S\ C'

X=

We see, then, that in this case e>0 obeys the law of exponentials. Similarly,

cos 0i + j sin 0i

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cos 02 + j sin 02

INTRODUCTION

Therefore the operator e'1, with 8 positive or negative, obeys the laws of

Again,

d ..

dd

from which we see that eje also obeys the laws of derivation and integration

of ordinary exponentials.

J* + e-je

cos8 = -^ (1-3-1)

eie - e-je

sin 8 = (1-3-2)

positive direction with the Ox axis. On the other hand, e~je is a unit phasor

making an angle 8 in the negative direction with Ox. These two phasors,

e" and e~,e, are said to be conjugate phasors. e~,e is the conjugate of e,e,

of the form

v = V cos 8

form

VV

v 2 2 FlG- l-3-l.

The two phasors, (V/2)eje and (V/2)e~,e, are also conjugate phasors

because they are equal in magnitude and symmetrical with respect to the

v a v v -ie v*

- e'* = - and - e ,e =

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2222

t An asterisk on the right upper side of an italic boldface letter indicates the conjugate

of a phasor.

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

we have

V V*

"= 2+

(1-3-3)

the scalar quantity v is thus equal to the sum of the two conjugate phasors

OA and OA'. If 6 = 2t/< + <p\, where/ is the frequency and t the time, the

second, ipi is the value of the angle 6 at the instant zero. As the two

phasors V/2 and V*/2 are conjugate, only one of them may be used to

Fig. 1-3-3.

thermore, as V/2 and V*/2 are equal in magnitude and symmetrical with

respect to the reference axis, their sum is equal to the projection, on the

one half the sum of the eh jsen phasor plus its conjugate. Throughout this

book the phasor V will be used to represent the scalar quantity v as shown in

to the phasor

The operator e'w1 indicates that the phasor revolves with constant speed

in the positive direction. e'ut is usually omitted for simplicity; this amounts

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V = VeM

INTRODUCTION 7

t the phasor in Fig. 1-3-3 has moved from position OB to position OB',

<iit + <pi with respect to V. The direction thus obtained is the one from

which angles are measured; it may be called the axis of instantaneous values.

the equation

v = - [u(+i + e-

+ Lp + E. i

V r g>(i+w) e >(a,<+,!) i

1 = ~2 LR + LP + p~l/c + R + LP + rl/c\

V r gHut+fl) gHat+fl) j

- y( _ i _ ^ + r ( _ i _

which shows the well-known fact that, in a linear circuit to which a sinus-

Then

/1\

Z(f

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-*(.*-57)-*-

8 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

The operator Z is the so-called impedance phasor or, simply, the impedance

either of the two phasors, K/27or V*/2Z*, or by either V/Zot V*/Z* in the

represent i, it will lag the phasor representing the voltage v by the angle <p.

Throughout this book we shall use the phasor / = V/Z to represent the

current flowing in a circuit of impedance Zto which the voltage Fis applied.

/ or, briefly,

VV

resultant phasor V/Z by the angle <p in the negative direction if <p is positive,

and vice versa. The axis from which angles are measured is obtained as

also the axis of instantaneous values, the instantaneous values v and i are

(1-3-6)

v = Fsin (U + n) (1-3-7)

Then, using Eq. 1-3-2, we can show that v can still be represented by the

phasor V given by Eq. 1-3-4 and that the instantaneous value v will be

If the phasor V is given at any instant t, the axis from which angles are

measured is obtained by drawing the line at an angle <nt + <p\, in the negative

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Ie'e, and the knowledge that e'e obeys the laws of ordinary exponentials,

INTRODUCTION

E = Be}9 and El = E^

Their product is

EEl = EElei(t+>1}

**! = EEie~j(9+9tl

1, e"20* = a, e>240 = a2

1 . V3

= e - -Z--a

5 _ 2 _ -1 -4 FlG- J-5"1-

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10

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

power due to a voltage, v = V cos (wt), and a current, i = I cos (wt ip),

lagging the voltage by the angle ip is equal to the work done in carrying the

VI , VI

VI VI, ,

Putting

/ = leHt-*)

/* _ jej<.wt'p)

we obtain

D=

2=

V+V*

Dl =

2 2 2X2

1-6-1,

OA

AB

VI*

2X2

VI

2X2

A,B, =

V*I

2X2

V*I*

2X2

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0A, =

(VI/2) cos ip. The sum of AB and A xB\ gives the component of the power.

(VIII) cos (2wt ip), which varies with double frequency. The instan-

INTRODUCTION 11

taneous power is thus the sum of two conjugate phasors OB and OBi ; that

is,

n = Pi + P\

where

VI* VI VI V

= o5l = CM,

K*/ F*/* F/ F/

= + ^ = T r* + T

/ = V5/,ff F = V2Veft

we have

~ . Feff/eff . Feff/eff .

A2

n . cg . Feff/eff .

22

from which

the required amount of true power. The volt-ampere rating of the machine

both Feff/eff cos ip and Feff/eff sin ip and not only on the true component,

In this book we shall use 1Pi ; therefore the value of the instantaneous power

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VI* VI VI VI

P = _+_ = _ ^V J. 11

222 2

12 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

P = Ve,,I*et, + Vef,Icl,

and

vi = real component of P

VI VI

- A

instantaneous power. The real component Veff Jeff cos <p of VettI*et t gives

the average true power. The imaginary term j Veff/eff sin <p does not con-

above, it affects the rating of the generating and utilizing equipment. Since

resistance. Here

v = 90

v = V cos o,<

i = sin ut = / sin ut

UL

dt 2

The average power is zero; the instantaneous power varies with double

frequency. As the current increases from zero to the maximum, the gen-

erator supplies energy to the magnetic field, which returns that power when

the current is decreasing. The average power supplied is zero; that is, on

the average the generator output is zero, yet the generator must be capable

rent /. Across a section of the connecting leads, real power will flow from

or to the generator, but on the average the power flow will be zero. This

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t, and vi. Figure 1-6-3 shows the power phasor P at the instant t. Start-

ing at 0, during one cycle point B, or PI, sweeps twice over the circle of

made equal to the reactance a,L, connected across generator No. 1, the

INTRODUCTION

13

generator terminal voltage, RItt t = Vctt, will be the same as for generator

same maximum terminal voltage V and of carrying the same effective cur-

FIG. 1-6-2.

Fio. 1-6-3.

rent Ic(t. The volt-ampere rating of the two generators will be the same,

No. 2,

v = V cos u>t

VI

vi = VI cos2 ut = (1 + cos

The average power is VeftIett, and the instantaneous power fluctuates with

double frequency about this value. This is illustrated in Fig. 1-6-^1, which

shows the voltage v , the current t, and the power vi. Figure 1-6-5 gives

FIG. 1-6-4.

Fio. 1-6-5.

assumed that we still want to force the same current /eft through the heater

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resistance in order to obtain the same amount of heat energy. The voltage

14 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

generator are

v = Ri + L and vi = Ri2 + Li

at at

The first term, Ri2, represents the power absorbed by the resistance. It is

the magnetic field. At every instant the sign of this power depends on the

where

Z = VR2 + XV*

v = tan- |

The amount of work done is the same in both cases; however, in the first

In the more general case, when the circuit has resistance, reactance.

t- = Ri + L + - /! dt

Again assuming sinusoidal quantities and now measuring time from the

where

= tan

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V = IZ

INTRODUCTION 15

dt

at

^i fi

CJ

RI 2

Qt i

iCI2I2

sin 2ut

Thus

RI

I*? ( 1 \

2 \ a,(7/

The first term of the second member is the instantaneous power dissipated

as heat in the resistance. The second term is the power flowing back and

forth between the generator and the magnetic and electric fields. Both

represented by Ve(tI*eft = Feff/eff cos <p + jVeftIe(t sin <p. Now, if the

current lags the voltage, that is, if the voltage is applied to an inductive

load, <p will be positive and so will sin <p. If, instead, the current leads the

voltage, that is, if the voltage is applied to a capacitive load, <p will be nega-

tive and so will sin <p. It is thus seen that, with the convention of using

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reactive power component. Let us note now that, if the current is taken as

where the plus sign applies if the voltage is leading, and the minus sign

if it lags the current. It can be seen readily that the vector representing

the average power can be obtained from the effective voltage phasor

representing instantaneous power by 2P*i had been used, the average power

16 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

gives lagging reactive power and leading current gives leading reactive

average power may be obtained directly from the effective current phasor

calling leading the reactive power due to a lagging current. The convention

of using'2P*i has not this inconvenience and therefore seems a more con-

use of the second convention to represent power. Later on, the Committee

reversed itself, and proposed the first convention, which has now been

Before closing this brief discussion on power, a few more words must be

"AN

(effective value) is assumed positive when flowing away from the generator

and into the load. With these conventions the instantaneous power of the

generator is given by the real component of EI* + EI. Then, when power

sorbed by, and a negative sign power generated by, the load L.

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PROBLEMS

1-2. Find the complex expressions for: (a) e'60; (b) e'120; (c) e'".

1-3. The nominal line to line voltage of a 3-phase system is 115 volts.

INTRODUCTION 17

1-7. Reactive power is power which flows alternately to and from the source.

Why is it important?

1-8. How many methods are available for representing phasorially the average

the same frequency? In what do they differ? Which is the method adopted by

the AIEE?

(a) Give the phasors representing (1) the instantaneous power; (2) the average

power.

are using.

With the convention assumed in (a), what will be the sign of the reactive

1-10. Show that the total power in a 3-phase ungrounded system is equal to

the sum of the power corresponding to the interaction of two line voltages, re-

If a, 6, c are the three phases, /, /&, Ic the three currents, E, Eb, Ec the three

line to neutral voltages, and if Ia and h are the currents used, which voltages

applied to and flowing through it. Both voltage and current are perfectly sinus-

taneous power vi are available. (It is often very difficult to determine the phase

angle displacement between voltage and current directly from the records.)

a-b

a+b

where a = peak value of the vi curve above the zero line; 6 = peak value of the

Show also that the effective volt-amperes and the average power are given,

respectively, by

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0+6 , 06 and

CHAPTER 2

original network with a simpler one, equivalent to the former only in respect

f*t 4*2 i from n emf's El, E2, E3, -,Ea respectively. I |_ Some of these emf's may be zero. Let Ii, /2,

when flowing from the common neutral into the network. Then

/i + /2 ++/n = 0 (2-1-1)

and capacitance of the different circuits are independent of the value of the

current flowing through them. With this assumption, the current dis-

pendently. The current in any circuit due to any one of the applied emfs

is proportional to that emf. The current in the same circuit due to all

applied emf's is thus equal to the sum of n currents due to n applied emf's.

EI, E2, , En

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18

w VPLVP V P V P

F _ V P V F I V P V P (21o)

The Y's of the first members of Eqs. 2-1-2 are the so-called driving admit-

of the second members are the so-called transfer admittances. Thus Ynn

Eni = 0. Under the same conditions the current flowing in the first

terminal is Yni, that is, minus the transfer admittance between the nth

I/I'11, l/Y22, , the inverses of the driving admittances, are called the

the inverse- of the transfer admittance between the sth and the kth ter-

However, on account of Eqs. 2-1-2, not all driving and transfer admittances

need be given in- order to define the terminal conditions of the network.

On account of Eq. 2-1-1, Eqs. 2-1-3 are not all independent, but each of

them is equal to the sum of the remaining n 1 with the sign changed.

Equations 2-1-3 are the fundamental equations for the analysis of the

given network. The Y's appearing in them, other than by Eqs. 2-1-2, are

If two or more networks are given, each having n terminals, one set of

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special cases, however, they may be identical. Then the networks are equiva-

20 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

lent as far as the n terminals are concerned; that is, it will be impossible to

distinguish them from their terminals because, when viewed from the

latter, the networks behave in exactly the same manner. It follows that

are concerned, if all the corresponding Y's of the networks are equal.

to see the conditions under which one n-terminal network of a certain type

lows, for instance, that a network of one type may be replaced by a network

of another type only when Eqs. 2-1-2 are sufficient to determine all the

construct a network of the desired type having the same driving admit-

tances as the given network. In general, however, Eqs. 2-1-2 are not suffi-

work, all the transfer admittances are determined and the n(n 3)/2 addi-

tional equations existing among them are also determined. Besides satis-

fying Eqs. 2-1-2, the transfer admittances of any equivalent network must

type can be replaced only by networks of those types for which it is possible

to satisfy the n(n 3)/2 additional equations existing among the transfer

Equations 2-1-2 are common to all networks. The n(n 3)/2 addi-

tional equations vary from network to network; therefore they may be con-

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Fio. 2-1-2. star of the type shown in Fig. 2-1-2 only if its

r_ v

11 Z12

VV

* 22 * 21

That is, as far as the terminal conditions are concerned, any two-terminal

of another type having the same admittance as the original between the

by an equivalent impedance

ZiZ2

fif

*1 T ~2

by writing the expressions Ii , I2, the two currents through Zi and Z2,

as follows:

, / EI E2

from which

Comparison with Eqs. 2-1-3 which, for this network, because of Eq. 2-2-1,

become

/ i = Y(El - E2)

I2 = Y(E2 - ,)

shows that

Y=

iZ2 Zm

1 _ ZiZ2 Zm

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Y Z, + Z2 - 2Zm

22

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

",-*i

000

Fio. 2-2-1.

FIG. 2-2-2.

The expressions for // and /2 also show that the given network may be

replaced by the network of Fig. 2-2-2, which has two lines with no mutual

coupling. The currents in the lines of Fig. 2-2-2 are the same as the cur-

the characteristic equations is zero; that is, Eqs. 2-1-2 are sufficient to

i2

FIG. 2-3-1.

Fio. 2-3-2.

(Fig. 2-3-2). The three impedances Zit Z2, Z3 of the latter may be ob-

2-3-2) into an equivalent delta (Fig. 2-4-1), and vice versa. From the

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FIG. 2-4-1.

KH = 712 + 7,3

V - V 1_ V

we obtain

Y23 =

YH 722 -f - 733

(2-4-1)

Calculation of Y1i, Y22, Y33 from Fig. 2-3-2 and substitution in Eqs. 2-4-1

give

ZIZ2 + ZiZ3

22 ~

33 ^

and

*12

77 J-

I ^>1^3 +

1^3 ~r

'

, , (2-4-3)

23 ==

On the other hand, Y12, Yi3, Y23, as calculated from Fig. 2-4-1, are

'-

l2

'

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(2-4-4)

-M

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

we obtain

12

Z*

Z,Z3 +

(2-4-5)

'"23

which give the impedances of the delta in terms of those of the star. For

Z,=

Z" =

(2-4-6)

at One End. The two lines 1-2. and 1-3 are shown in Fig. 2-5-1. /6

Fio. 2-5-1.

iwx-mm^o2

l o-AAAr^rnnr^

L^w^nnr 03

^c-^m

FIG. 2-5-2.

ance with the method outlined in Art. 2-3, the impedances Zit Z2, Z3 of

Fig. 2-3-2, in terms of Zb, Zc and Zm, may be found by equating the imped-

Zb = Zi -(- Z2

Zc = Zi + Za

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Zb + Zc 2Zm = Z2 + Zs

Z, = Zm

Z2 = Zb Zm

Z3 = Zc - Zm

Fig. 2-5-1.

Ends and a Fault on One of Them. This network is shown in Fig. 2-6-1.

FIG. 2-6-1.

A and B are the two busses, C is the point of fault, and C' is the point on

The two stars, ACC' and BCC', with mutual coupling between AC' and

AC and between BC' and BC, can be replaced by two equivalent stars and

FIG. 2-6-2.

by replacing the delta network A'B'C with the equivalent star, as explained

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in Art. 2-4.

26

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

The original network is shown in Fig. 2-7-1, and the equivalent network

10 VW

Fio. 2-7-1.

in Fig. 2-3-2. The impedances Zi, Z2, Z3 of the equivalent network are

2Z13 = Zi + Z3

j; =

from which

= Zi 4- Zi2

= Z2 + Zy3

= Z3 + Zi3

FIG. 2-8-1.

series reactance inserted in the line when the regulator is in the neutral

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position.

27

grees with respect to each other, so that MIO = 0. The series winding is

on the rotor, which can be rotated with respect to the stator so that

FIG. 2-8-2.

20

20 mox

sin 6

where 6 is the angle between the axis of the shunt winding and the axis of

the series winding. 6 = 0 when these two axes coincide and the rotor is in

the maximum bucking position. The bucking position is for 6 in the range

-90, 0, 90. The boosting position is for 6 in the range 90, 180, 270.

From Figs. 2-8-1 and 2-8-2, for the boosting position, we obtain

Za + Zc = r, + ji

Za + Zb = T2

g)2M202

ro + juLo

Zc =

r2

)2M202

TO

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from which

Z6 = r2

<o2M,-2

120

TO

Mi

FIG. 2-8^3.

FIG. 2-8-4.

28 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

Mi2 is positive for the boosting position and negative for the bucking

r2 + j'uL2 = Z2

rl + juLi = Zi

= Z2o

Z0

72

77 20

= *2 T *12 - _

Zc = ^1 + ^12

Za = 0

The same results can be obtained by applying the formulas derived in Art.

2-5, because, with no coupling between the shunt winding and the

/2 = Yi2El

/3 = ^13^1

/I + /I + /3 - 0

If one of the three voltages, say E3, is zero, the network will assume the

form shown in Fig. 2-9-1. This will be recognized as the case of a network

1 + ^22^2 (2-9-2)

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Il = -/2 - /S

29

FIG. 2-9-1.

Fio. 2-9-2.

12

12

By putting

12

12

/I =

/2 =

2 -

'I2

'12

TT~

'12

1*22

K,2

(2-9-3)

we obtain

=C

012

- D/2

/2 =

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(2-9-1)

30 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

A El

(2-9-5)

which give the receiving and sending end currents in terms of the applied

AD - BC = 1

If the current I2 is taken positive when flowing away from the network,

/i = CE2 + Z>/2

/2 = -CEl + AI,

2-10. Networks with More Than Three Terminals and Their Equiva-

equal the driving admittances, from the corresponding points, of the given

network. This is not true if the original network has more than three

happens that only the terminal currents and voltages are desired. In such

network. For this purpose the conditions that must be satisfied in order

be analyzed.

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any one terminal k (Fig. 2-11-1) while the voltages applied at the other

terminals are zero, the drop from the common point to the zero voltage

Similarly,

satisfy the characteristic Eq. 2-11-1. For a five-terminal star there are

(2-11-2)

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similar manner.

32

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

built.

Fio. 2-12-1.

FIG. 2-12-2.

number, are bound to the transfer admittances of the former by the relations

11

Y13

(2-12-1)

component.

J_fc_ JfcL

Fio. 2-13-1.

FIG. 2-13-2.

coupled. These may be two transmission lines (Fig. 2-13-1) or the two

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we obtain

Zi = RI + juLi

Z2 = RZ -\- juL2

Zm = juM

EI E2 = ZiIi + Zm/3

from which

(El - E2)Z2 - (3 -

1 ~ ^1Z2 - Zm2

(2-13-1 )

3 ~ 77 7 2

*1*2 An

The general equations, 2-1-1, 2-1-2, 2-1-3, for this case will become

TfF

1~7772l~77722

&I , 4m ^1^2 ~ ^m

iZ2 Zm

*4

I *- , Zn

ZZZ2~ZZZ2

(2-13-2)

*l j-k _^__

77

, m ., *m

~ == Z Z Z 2 ~ Z Z Z 2

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Zi Z,

34

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

Therefore

iZ2 Zm

iZ2 Zm

-Zn

iZ2 Zm

Zm

,Z2 - Zm2

- Zm*

iZ2 Zm

(2-13-3)

7y y 2"

1^2 *m

v -*-

7,7,, -- Z 2

tif2 f/m

Thus the impedances of the equivalent mesh of Fig. 2-12-2 in this case

become

Z -L Z - ^

12 l

'12 ^2

__ * ^

*13 ., 7 *n,

'13 *m

14

2_

*m ~ ~ ~ "i

23

7 l2

'24 *m

1Z

(2-13-4)

Z,.

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FIG. 2-13-3.

FIG. 2-13-4.

become

ZJ2 = 00 Z23 = Zm

Zi3 = Zm ZM = Zm

Zi 4 = Zm Z34 = oo

Now, in the networks of Fig. 2-13-1 and Fig. 2-13-2, the self-impedances

FIG. 2-13-5.

For the transformer, it can be assumed for all practical purposes that

terminals 2 and 4 are connected to each other. In this manner the four-

It should be noted that the meshes of Figs. 2-13-3 and 2-13-6 are the

Fig. 2-13-8 is not. For instance, the conditions with 2 and 4 open cannot be

reproduced in the network of Fig. 2-13-8 but can be reproduced in the net-

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287-98.

36 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

type.

nJi

Fio. 2-13-9.

1-

-tf-

.'i

1-

2-

/'

2A

3-

3^5

'3

Fio. 2-14-1.

Fio. 2-14-2.

where HI, /i are the turns and current of winding 1; HZ, /2' are the turns and

we have

or

Let

naIa

HI

=u

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2 13/3 = 0

(2-14-1)

=h

=h

f Edith Clarke, Circuit Analysis of A-C Power Systems, Vol. 1 (New York: John Wiley

& Sons, Inc., 1943), p. 42; O. G. C. Dahl, Electric Circuits, Theory and Applications, Vol. 1

Obviously /2, /3 are, respectively, the currents /2', I3, expressed in terms

of circuit 1.

h ~ h ~ h - 0 (2-14-2)

2-14-2 can be replaced by that of Fig. 2-14-3, in which the leakage im-

pedance between any pair of windings is equal to the actual leakage im-

Fig. 2-14-3.

'.

Fig. 2-14-4.

Under these assumptions the impedances Z\, Z2, Z3 of the equivalent net-

(1) 1 and l' with 2 and 2' shorted and 3 and 3' open

(2) 1 and l' with 3 and 3' shorted and 2 and 2' open

(3) 2 and 2' with 3 and 3' shorted and 1 and l' open

(b) Converting the impedances measured under (a) to the same voltage

Z12 = Z\ + Z2

Z\3 = Z\ + Z3

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Z23 = Z2 + Z3

38 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

Zi2, Zi3, Z23 being known, the values of Zi, Z2, Z3 can be obtained from the

relations

ZI =

Fio. 2-14-5.

+77

"23 ~ *12

(2-14-3)

the method outlined in Art. 2-9, or they may be obtained from published

v_ _Ti+_l*_

FIG. 2-16-1.

general type of T network. For this type, from Eqs. 2-4-2, 2-4-3, and

2-9-3,

Z.

Zr

Z.Zr

(2-16-1)

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39

These relations can be obtained from the expression for the currents Ii and

/2 in terms of the voltages EI, E2 and the impedances Z,, Zr, Z% written

FIG. 2-17-1.

general type of pi network. For this type, from Art. 2-4, the expressions

~ ^'

B- Z

12

(2-17-1)

J \ ] I 9

D==1H-

noting that

/2

'23 - -=-

*23

E, = E2 + Z12 (^ - /2) = (l + |

\^23 / \ *23

/ El

M3 ~^~

E2 - Z12I

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122

40 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

13 i ,_ , 23

Z13

Eqs. 2-17-1.

Z12Z13

"= 7 7 4.7

^12Z23

77

- *13*23

capacitance. For greater generality, let us assume that the line is com-

as shown in Fig. 2-18-1. Let x be the distance from some point chosen as

FIG. 2-18-1.

origin, in some units of length, say meters; then Zi and Z2 are expressed

in ohms per meter. Let Ex be the voltage at the distance x, and Ix the line

dEI = - Z,/x dx

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or 77 = ~Zl1,

(2-18-1)

d/, = .

dx" Zt

from which ^ = Zi -

dr dx

(2-18-2)

a*/- _ 2.^1

dz* = ~ Z2 dx

dx* Z,

dx* Z2"

Let

Y = ai + jg

nepers per meter. The imaginary component 3 is called the phase constant.

in ohms (2-18-4)

Here / is the length of the line, in meters. With these relations as a starting

point, J the following expressions are obtained between the voltages E,, E,

and the currents /., Ir at the origin and the receiving end, respectively, of

sinh 6, c (2-18-5)

f See, for instance, W. C. Johnson, Transmission Lines and Networks (New York:

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42 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

sinh 6, f (2-18-6)

/, = - Er + cosh 6i/r

where coshGi, sinh 6i are the hyperbolic cosine and sine, respectively, of

1-

FIG. 2-18-2.

cosh 6, = ^ -! + - + -+...

smhe^ -^--.6, + + _ +

tanhe, = 7r-K = e, - - + - + -

(2-18-7)

coth B! =

csch 81 = .

tanh 9 1

sinh 6,

, 81 cosh 6t 1

tanh = - . , .

2 smh 6!

Zi = RI + jaL = RI + jXl

= r2 - jX

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f/wa.

43

FIG. 2-18-3.

g is the shunt conductance of the line per unit length (mhos per

meter)

C is the shunt capacitance of the line per unit length (farads per

meter).

RI

= Z0e~yaohms

of one phase per se, that is, when considered isolated, and M aW is the aver-

age of the three mutual inductances between any two phases. The case

The total series (Z) and shunt (Z'") impedances and the total complex

Z=

(2-18-8)

where Y = (g + juC).

m\c

(2-18-9)

i=

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(jrMR/

44 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

skin effect

a, = 2a/

In Eq. 10-9-6 it will be shown that the capacitance of the same circuit

where r is the radius of the conductor and k is the relative dielectric con-

juC li)K

Thus, disregarding the series resistance and the shunt conductance for

, . GMD GMD ,

IjrJVln. r

(2-18-12)

GMD, GMD ,

? = 60^logGMRlog-r-ohmS

g - ohms

(2-18-13)

c, = 60 log - ohms

GMD

where d is given in meters and kv is the line to line rated voltage, in kilo-

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and

ZO

(2-18-16)

I //?

-v/1 + ( ~

* v*i

where

c*o = tan~ -

(2-18-18)

- ) ohms

"" VLC

mately,

L m L,

GMR with r, or

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46

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

ductor; usually Mr = 1.

L with L,.

where

Y -J

1 3 X 108

VL.C

Mr = 1

(2-18-19)

=1

or

v = 3 X 108 meters

= 3.334 X

(2-18-19a)

y depends on the ratio Ri/Xi and the frequency/. In practice, the fre-

= 1.257 X

(2-18-20)

The values of -y for Rl/Xl = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 are given in Table 2-18-1.

TABLE 2-18-1

R,

If

eta

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X,

Complex radians/meter

Complex radians/mile

0.1

0.2

0.4

0.6

jl.257 X 10-t

2 51

5 40

10 50

15 29'

From Eq. 2-18-17 we see that under the same conditions Z0 is given

^W-

Values of 1.27 X 10-6 and 1.28 X 10-6 radian per meter for wVLC

(2.04 X 10-3 and 2.06 X 10-3 radian per mile) have been used by different

writersf for 60-cycle power transmission lines. The following values have

been used extensively for average 60-cycle long distance power transmission

lines:

wC = 5.2 X 10-8 mho per mile or 3.13 X 10-9 mho per meter or

Ri

X\

9=0

Z0 = 393e-y2 8e*

The length of the line, I, corresponding to a quarter wave length is, from

Eqs. 2-18-9,

1.257 X 10-6

Existing transmission lines are much shorter than this. The longest line

in the United States is of the order of 300 miles, the majority being much

shorter.

three terminals are the sending end, the receiving end, and the ground or

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48 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

A = cosh 6, = D

B = Z0 sinh 81

(2-18-21)

sinh 61

Combining these equations with Eqs. 2-16-1, we obtain for the equivalent

T network

or, since

C sinh 81

Z, = Z3(A - 1) = T~ (ooshe, - 1)

sinh 81

81 cosh 81 1

tanh =

2 sinh 81

we obtain

81

Z, = Zn tanh

Since D = A,

Zr = Z, = Zn tanh ^ (2-18-22)

Fig. 2-18-4.

Zi2 = Z0 sinh 81

Z12 , Z0 sinh 81

A 1 cosh 81 1

or

f Kft /ON

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(2-18-23)

49

FIG. 2-18-4.

wv

tanhy

FIG. 2-18-5.

that in this case, owing to the symmetry of the line in Fig. 2-17-1,

The constants of the line can be determined from test as follows. With

E,

E, = cosh QiEr or Er =

cosh 81

*,

sinh 6t

Thus

F7

Z,o = = , , A = ZO COth 81

/, tanh 81

E, = Z0 sinh 6Jr

Thus

cosh 81

Z,, = = ZO tanh 81

(2-18-24)

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(2-18-25)

50

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

Dividing,

or

81 = tanh~1

Zo = VZ,,Z,0

*o ,

we obtain

tanh (6,/2)

BZa,'

B + Zar'

ZVT'(B +

2Z",' + B

B=

' - Z.,

V2

2Z' - Z,.

(2-18-26)

(2-18-27)

(2-18-28)

(2-18-29)

(2-18-30)

Z.o = (2-18-31)

(2-18-32)

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For a three-phase line, Z,0, Z,, are obtained by applying at the home end

of the line three voltages equal in magnitude and 120 degrees apart. f

curacy are:

foliage, etc.

For this reason calculations which are approximate within 0.5 per cent are

satisfactory.

transmission lines are usually short and for most applications approximate

T and pi may be used. These are obtained as follows: For the approximate

T, Z, and Zr in Fig. 2-16-1 are each taken equal to one half the total series

impedance Zoi the line, and Z3 is taken equal to the total shunt impedance

Z B!

Z, = Zr = - instead of Z0 tanh

(2-19-1)

smh 81

2 Z0 (2-19-2)

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270 MUe 154 kv Transmission Line," Transactions, AIEE, LXIII (July 1944), 538-42.

t Electrical Transmission and Distribution Reference Book, 4th ed., 1950, Ch. 9.

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

z'

Fio. 2-19-1.

= = 2^

4= 2Z'

Fio. 2-19-2.

Zia =

Z0

sinh 8

13 *23

sinh 81 and tanh (8i/2) are calculated with the series expressions in Eqs.

2-18-7, and all terms except the first two are neglected; that is,

sinh e, = 6, + -^

cosh 6, = 1 + -

(2-19-3)

If we do this, since

6, =

KRi +

~>/^7(x

1200XJ

(2-19^)

(2-19-5)

f Ibid.

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juL

53

X2 and Xc being the capacitive reactance of the line in ohms and in meg-

S=

Briefly,

where

1609 X 100

"'13

= -j

.2Xc

(2-19-6)

(2-19-7)

XlS2

1200A%

1200Xr

lent spacing.

terms of the total series impedance Z and of the total shunt admittance Y

e, = \/zr

l.UU

*.

-,

-^

0.99

-^

t^.

^^

0.97

g 0.95

X,

"x

*,

S.

K.

^^

gO.93

o 0.91

0.89

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,.

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SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

.94

Hyperbolic Sine of 6

.95

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55

SINK e

.98 .99

1.00

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SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

1,00

Fio. 2-19-5.

SIZE

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57

1.04

TANK 0/2

~~

<r

-r

L04

58 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

from which

Zn = ei = e^/2

and

e; = e? = r==z/

It follows that

! Z tanh (8i/2) Z

e2

(2-19-9)

Zp

where

(2-19-11)

by the correction factor Ki and the shunt impedance Z' is divided by the

fli

into the exact equivalent pi of Fig. 2-18-5, the series impedance Z is multi-

plied by the correction factor K-, and the shunt impedance 2Z' is divided

of the line. They can be determined from Figs. 2-19-4! and 2-19-5.f

l+j (2-19-14)

A!

Thus the correction factors K i and K2 are functions of "X/LC, fl, and

It has already been pointed out that, for existing overhead trans-

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mission lines VLC is very nearly constant and equal to the inverse of the

0.25

178!6

315 X 64

=1++

3! 5!

= ft +

//

Fio. 2-19-6.

expressed in cycles and I in miles) are shown in Fig. 2-19-6. f From these

cosh 8i = AI + j

resistance, reactance as shown below. The correction factors for the two

Line 1

Line 2

Frequency (cycles)

Length (meters)

Ri

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Xi = uL'

b'

AY

*,

AT, -uL

X,

flVLC

-j = fi'

(2-19-15)

60 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

so that, to be equivalent, the two lines must have the same Ri/Xi ratio

and in addition

ft = fl VFE, (2-19~16)

operating at frequency/, having the same Ri/Xi ratio and having a length

/ given by

Xi = 0.8 ohm per mile or 0.498 X 10~3 ohm per meter and 6 = 5.2 X

(2-19-17a)

Stated differently, the line l', operating at frequency /' and having a

angle, and therefore has the same correction factors, Klt K2, as a 60-cycle

ohm per meter (0.8 ohm per mile), a shunt capacitive susceptance of

3.23 X 10~9 mho per meter (5.2 X 10~6 mho per mile), and the same re-

- = cosh 81 + sinh 6t

Er Zr

(2-20-1)

/. sinh 81

- = - Zr + cosh 61

'r *0

where

Er

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Ir

Letf

-1 = tanh 8r

*o

er =

Er 'tanh 8r sinh 8r

(2-20-3)

sinh 8r

or

, sinh 8<

Er sinh 8r

where 6( = 81 + 8r.

Similarly,

Ir COSh 8r

_ cosh (8, + 8Q

cosh 8r

or

/, cosh Qt

Ir cosh 6r

E, _ tanh 8,

/." rtanh8r

(2-20-4)

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carry a surge impedance or natural load (SIL) when the apparent load

the line

62 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

ance. This value is usually indicated by the symbol Xn. Similarly, admit-

ZO

= Blu + jB

2u

V * xv

values of Biu, B2u, Ciu, C2u and Ai, A2, the two components of cosh 61

are functions of I and Ri/X1. It has been shown also that on the above

mately equal to 1.257 X 10~8 radian per meter (2.04 X 10~3 radian per

mile). Curves giving BI,, B2u, Ciu, C2u, Ai, A2 have been published by

Johnson and Povejsilf for a 60-cycle power transmission line using for

uVLC a value of 1.28 X 10~6 radian per meter (2.06 X 10~3 radian per

mile) or a value of \/LC = 3.39 X 10~9 and Ri/Xl = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4.

ratio and the same approximate value VLC = 3.39 X 10~9 if an equivalent

,-2

60

The curves can also be applied to lines other than overhead ones if a 60-cycle

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PROBLEMS

63

10 mi

ABC

2-2. Under what conditions can a network of one type having more than three

different type?

A into a Y.

If the load currents supplied by the two lines are balanced, find the equivalent

star of the two lines, assuming: (a) complete transposition of the two circuits;

2-7. Derive the expressions for the A, B, C, D constants for the T network of

Zi,Z*.

(a) Assuming that the currents I, and /-j are positive when flowing as shown,

(A)

PROB. 2-7.

(b) Rewrite Ei, Ey and Ii, It as in (a), but assume that the positive direction

of /, is as shown in Fig. B.

2-8. Assume that the 2-winding transformer of Fig. A is converted into the

11

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(A)

PROB. 2-8.

(B)

64

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

and the common portion of the winding. Subscript h is used for the former, and

subscript c for the latter portion. Thus Rk and Xk are, respectively, the resistance

and the leakage reactance, in ohms, of the high-tension portion; It, and A" are

the resistance and the leakage reactance of the common portion of the winding;

(B)

PROB. 2-9.

A = T.-

a = i^L^= I+A

(b) Give the equivalent 3-terminal network in terms of low voltage, as shown

in Fig. B.

equivalent Y network?

2-11. The 287-kv, 3-phase, 60-cycle transmission line from Boulder Dam to

Los Angeles, which is 270 miles long, has hollow interlocking copper conductors

of outside diameter 1.4 in. and an area of 512,000 CM. For most of the length, the

line runs on single-circuit towers, with 32.5-ft horizontal spacing and 50-ft average

Assuming that the line has the above spacings and arrangement for the whole

length, find

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4- t t Power

kl4.5i-kl4.5H conductors

7^77777X77777777777777777 Gr0und

(a) The series impedance Z and the shunt admittance Y of the line.

(b) The approximate and exact equivalent pi and T networks and the A, B,

C, D constants.

unloaded.

short-circuited.

wires are supported by a steel cross member and are 10 ft above the power con-

ductors at the structure and 18 ft at midspan. The following tests were made by

applying three voltages of positive sequence at the sending end:f apparent im-

and apparent impedance Z at the sending end with receiving end short-circuited:

Z = 85.0 + j243

Calculate

2-13. The Fort Peck-Rainbow 161-kv interconnection is 288 miles long; one

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half is ACSR, 477,000 CM, and the other is copper conductor, 300,000 CM.

214. A transmission line 288 miles longt has the following characteristics:

66

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

2-16. Find the per unit A, Bu, Ca, D constants of the transmission line of Prob.

2-15.

2-17. For the line of Prob. 2-12 obtain the values of the correction factors from

Figs. 2-19-4 and 2-19-5 and compare with values calculated for Prob. 2-12.

2-18. Following a method similar to that of Art. 2-13 for a 2-winding trans-

former, find the equivalent star network for a polyphase induction motor operat-

ing at a slip s. Assume that voltage is applied to both the stator and the rotor.

2-19. Consider two 3-terminal networks in series with voltages Ei, EZ applied

K'\

E2\

PROB. 2-19.

obtain the values of E~ and It, the line to neutral voltages at, and the current

through, the junction of the two networks, in terms of the terminal voltages E

where

E.

It

H,

HiEI -\-

1+

= Zr

1+

Gl =

B.

-c,

Xic,

BtCt

1-

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Dt

67

PROB. 2-22.

the figure. From the junction points A, B, C, three equal impedances Z' are

connected in Y ungrounded.

2-23. Two schemes are available for measuring zero sequence voltage, as

(A)

Meter

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PROB. 2-23.

68

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

As will be shown in the text later with respect to zero sequence quantities,

2-24. Three capacitances Cu, Cu, Cti are connected in A. Find the capaci-

2-26. Two 3-phase stations A and B, 150 miles apart, are interconnected by

equivalent spacing. A load of 2000 + j'7500 kva is tapped off the midpoint M of

leakage.

(a) including the effect of capacitance; (b) excluding the effect of capacitance.

2-26. A 3-phase 60-cycle transmission line 270 miles long has the following

characteristics:

Find

(a) The series impedance Z and the shunt admittance Y of the line.

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(b) The approximate and exact T and pi networks and the A, B, C, D constants.

CHAPTER 3

rated for a voltage En, called the normal voltage, and for a current /n, called

the normal current. The per unit value Zu of the impedance Z is obtained

by expressing the drop InZ (caused by the normal current when' flowing

or, writing

7s = Xn (3-1-2)

we see that the per unit value of Z is its value as a fraction of Xn. Xn is

_ (R+jX)In

*u rp itu T JAU

From Eq. 3-1-1 it appears that both En and /n must be given in order to

instead of /n and En, the base kilovolt-amperes (kva) and the normal line

Vn = V3E. (3-1-3)

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69

70

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

Since

T "vSFT <3~1~4,

1000 kva Z

Zu = (3-1-5)

In

From Eq. 3-1-5 we see that per unit impedances vary proportionally with

the kva and in inverse proportion to the square of the voltage. Thus, if,

although the voltage En is maintained constant, the kva base will increase

n times and the per unit impedance will also increase n times. If, on the

other hand, the kva base is kept constant but the normal voltage is varied,

the normal current /n will vary in inverse proportion to the voltage, the

voltage, and the per unit impedance will vary in inverse proportion to the

square of the voltage. These conclusions are evident from Eqs. 3-1^i,

Let

(kva)2

Z2u Ziu

(kva)

ties arises from the fact that the impedance of generators, motors, and trans-

formers of the same design, when expressed in per unit on rated kva and

rated voltage, vary within a narrow range regardless of the rating, although

the ohmic values vary within wide limits with the rating.

between 0.95 and 1.45 per unit with an average value of 1.2 per unit re-

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machines.

TABLE 3-1-11

(Reactances are per unit values, time constants are in seconds. Values below the lines give a range of values;

0.04-0.15

0.15-0.35

0.03-0.25

0.1-0.5

0.1-0.3

T.

0.09

0.2

0.15

0.30

0.17

0.02-0.05

0.02-0.05

0.01-0.05

0.02-0.05

T/'tt

0.035

0.035

0.035

0.035

0.35-0.90

0.8-1.8

0.5-3.3

1.0-3.3

1.2-2.8

0.6

1.3

1.8

2.0

2.0

2.8-6.2

4.0-9.2

1.5-9.5

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3.0-10.5

6.0-11.5

4.4

6.2

5.6

6.6

9.0

x.tt

0.01-0.08

0.015-0.14

0 02 0 20

0 04 0 25

0.02-0.15

( = AV')

(/

0.13-0.35

0.30-0.70

0.17-0.37

0.24

0.55

0.24

0.07-0.14

0.12-0.17

0.13-0.35

('*/)

0.18-0.38

0.09

0.14

0.24

0.25

0.12-0.21

72

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

TABLE 3-1-2

Power TRANSFORMERsf

HV

LV

Ap-

plied

Test

kv

OA and OA Rating of

KV

clan

BIL

kv

Ungrounded

neutral

Grounded

neutral

Ungrounded

neutral

Grounded

neutral

Min

Max

Min

Max

Min

Max

Min

Max

15 and

110 and

34 and

5.0

8.25

10.5

below

below

below

25

150

34

5.0

7.25

8.25

12.0

34.5

200

34

5.5

7.25

9.0

12.0

50

5.75

8.0

9.75

13.5

46

250

50

5.75

8.0

9.75

13.5

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6.25

73

the windings and the design of the transformer, ranging from a few per cent

of the order of 0.5 per cent for 5000-kva single-phase and 10,000-kva three-

phase transformers, and of the order of 0.3 per cent for 50,000-kva single-

Tables 3-1-2, 3-1-3, and 3-1-4 give, respectively, the average per cent

TABLE 3-1-3

Range of Impedance, %

580-600

2,400-4,800

7,200-13,200

1.8-5.0

1.8-5.0

2.0-5.5

5.0-5.8

5.0-6.3

4.4-6.8

6.0-7.3

22,900

34,400

43,800

67,000

60-cycle values.

TABLE 3-1-4

Oil or Askarel

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Air

Sealed Air

1121

150

225

4.5

4.5

300, 500

5.0

5.5

5.5

5.5

2000

5.5

generally give the transformer impedance in per cent based on the kva

for Electrical Engineers, figs. 6-7a and 6-7b, pp. 561, 562; L. F. Blume et al, Trans-

former Engineering, 2d ed. (New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1951), p. 91.

74

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

Another advantage of the use of per unit impedances derives from the

different voltages, per unit impedances are added directly with complete

Fig. 3-1-1.

as shown in Fig. 3-1-1, where Z\ and Z2 are the impedances on the two

Fig. 3-1-2.

perfect one. The network of Fig. 3-1-1 can be replaced by the network of

tion), giving the impedances as viewed from bus 1 and bus 2, respectively.

Let Eln, Iln, Xln, kva be the normal line to neutral voltage, current, react-

1000 kva

A in ~Z

Mn

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Now let E2n, I2n, X2n be the normal voltage, current, and reactance on bus

2. Assume the same normal kva on both bus 1 and bus 2, and in addition

assume that

Em = aE2n (3-1-8)

We obtain

or

and

hn = aIin (3-1-9)

x2n = fa = ^ (3-1-10)

-*ln -A2n

where Ziu is the impedance Zi in per unit of Xin, and Z2u is the impedance

Z2 in per unit of X2n. Otherwise, from Fig. 3-1-3, in terms of the bus 2

Zi/a2 + Zi Z\ Zo

That is, the per unit impedance is the same regardless of which side of the

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76

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

the per unit impedances change? Start again from the conditions shown in

Fig. 31-1. Under the conditions specified in the preceding article the

per unit equivalent network is shown in Fig. 3-1-2b and the per unit equa-

tion is given in Eq. 3-1-12. Now, assuming the same voltages E\, E2 on

the two busses, change the ratio from a to 01. The equivalent circuit in

ohms referred to the bus 1 voltage will be as shown in Fig. 3-1-2a except

that a will be replaced by al and the current will change as shown in Fig.

, 3in/m Y

Assuming the same normal kva on both busses, the normal values on bus 2

(a) (6)

Fig. 3-2-1.

Eqs. 3-1-8, 3-1-9, and 3-1-10. Thus, according to those equations, the

E2n' = ^ (3-2-1)

a\

hn = ajln (3-2-2)

X2n' = % (3-2-3)

and

3A'2n I In _ 3EinIia

1000 ~ 1000

Evidently, E2n', I2n', X2n' can be expressed in terms of the normal quan-

tities E2nj I2n, X2n on bus 2, which obtain when the transformer ratio is a;

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77

E2n' =

hn' =

aE.

In

13*

<*1

Ol

Ei = + ai2Z2) + 0!2

Obviously,

1l

Em

a\Z2h a\E2

liu - ~S I r

In

Eu

a\E2

~ETn

Eln

E.

2n

lu'lu

a\Z2h a\Z2I^ _ / ,

/ ^2u *2ti

where

In

ai#:

2n

^2u'

X2n

hi

(3-2-4)

(3-2-5)

(3-2-6)

(3-2-7)

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'2 _ "1*1 . /

Thus, if the normal voltage, current, and reactance on the bus 2 side are

changed from E2n, hn, X2n to E2n', I2n', X2n' as the ratio of transformation

changes from a to a\, the per unit network will be as shown in Fig. 3-2-1 b,

where Z2J and E2J are, respectively, impedance and voltage in per unit of

X2n' and E2n'. Otherwise, making use of Eqs. 3-2-4, 3-2-5, 3-2-6, we

obtain

Z2u

E2J =

Z2a\

X2r,a2

01 E2

a E2n

01'

'-2u

a2u

The per unit equivalent network will be as shown in Fig. 3-2-2b, where

Z2u and E2u are, respectively, per unit impedance and voltage in terms of

78 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

the normal impedance X2n and normal voltage E2n obtaining with the

(a) (6)

Fig. 3-2-2.

given, respectively, by

Transformer Ratio

/. =

/. =

llul In

fi*alln

Comparison of Figs. 3-1-2a and 3-1-2b with 3-2-2a and 3-2-2b, re-

spectively, shows that, starting with a ratio a and voltages Ei and E2,

by the ratio ai/a and the impedances on the same bus 2 side by the ratio

To answer this question refer to Figs. 3-2-3a and 3-2-3b. Here an auto-

<bl

Fig. 3-2-3.

circuit is

Ei

= 7/Zi + noc

n0'e

= a2Z2I2 + aE2

n0'l2

= no//

n0e

\n0 / \no /

= ZJl' + (^)\*Z2I1' + ^

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Vo / n0

79

the networks of Figs. 3-2-3a and 3-2-3b become identical with those of

culating board, if a setup is made on the basis of a voltage ratio a, when the

in series relation as shown in Fig. 3-3-1, the impedance as viewed from the

voltage Ei is

where

Til n2 n3

di2 = 23 = fl34 =

Tl2 TI3 U\

Zl a

-3 *3 a3l

^" y

Fia. 3-3-1.

Let the normal kva be the same for all circuits. Assume the normal voltages

TABLE 3-3-1

Normal Voltages

Normal Currents

Normal Reactances

Etn E\n

/ =n'r

V -^1"

ni

tin = iln

n,

Ab, = -

Oil'

v Xin

/in = >ln

nt

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A|

B - ^E*

n,'

7ta = ^/,a

n*

Y Xin

I-U

Ei. = a\jfflvftuE*.

I in

will be as shown in the second column and the normal reactances as shown

in the last column. The circuit is equivalent to the one shown in Fig. 3-3-2a

80

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

*1

'l

(a)

ai2a23a344

(M

Fig. 3-3-2.

(3-3-1)

or

. *i

llu

E.

4u 012O23034

^4n

/in

/4n

effect can be handled in a manner similar to that given in Art. 3-2 for the

If, for instance, in Fig. 3-3-1, the ratio of transformer 1 is changed from

012 to 012', the networks of Fig. 3-3-2 become those of Fig. 3-4-1a and

3-4-1b, where:

n0

n0

Oi2

Oi2

given transformer ratio and this is changed, the setup can be used for

priate ratio is introduced at the point where the transformer is. The only

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correction that needs to be made is that due to the impedance of the auto-

transformer.

81

Fig. J-4-1.

12 23 34 E*

Z2u

z3

n' (6)

'4u

network of Fig. 3-5-2 can be constructed as viewed from bus 1. From this,

where

z'

\ a65 /

Z'/6 + d65Es

Z6 + <HS2ZS

(3-5-1)

(3-5-2)

(3-5-3)

(3-5-4)

Let Eln, 7ln, kva, Xin be, respectively, the normal voltage, normal current,

normal kva, and normal reactance on bus 1. Equations 3-5-1 and 3-5-2

lu

Z'h . Es

(3-5-6)

ever, they require first the conversion of all quantities to the bus 1 base.

What can be done to avoid this conversion? Using the same normal kva on

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bus 5, let ESn, 75n, X5n be the normal voltage, normal current, and normal

82

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

*5-6

Fio. 3-5-1.

5(65-al2 a2334>

Ct>,

-A/v mnp-

aesEs

Fio. 3-5-2.

Em = aes^sn (3-5-7)

the normal current /5n and the normal reactance Xsn will be given by

hn = 065/, n (3-5-8)

V_

065

(3-5-9)

Substituting in Eq. 3-5-6, using Eq. 3-5-4, and noting that /5 = aes/e.

we obtain

or

lu = F *~ P h F~

.sn Hsn

(3-5-10)

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(3-5-11)

where

- _ ^6 . h

^6u v '6u r

Aln *ln

Zu = 4*~ hu = y~ (3-5-12)

-<*5n 15n

-A

Substituting Eq. 3-5-3 in the first term of the second member of Eq. 3-5-5,

we obtain

(3-5-13)

Using the same kva on circuits 2, 3, and 4, let E2a, E3n, Ein be the corre-

j? _ Eln

&2n

O12

a23<ii2

&in =

a34Cl23ai2

The corresponding normal currents 72a, I3a, /n and the normal react-

012

012 a23

An = 012023034-Zln Xtn = 5

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Z.

84

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

zu

Eln

ai2<l23a34\ _

(3 -5-17)

This and Eq. 3-5-11 constitute the per unit equations of the two parallel

circuits. In setting up the per unit equations of either circuit, the normal

quantities at any point are obtained by starting from the normal quantities

the circuit under consideration. Thus, in setting up the per unit equivalent

of circuit 5-6, starting from bus 1 the normal quantities on the bus 1 side

5-6 but disregarding the transformers on the other circuit. The per unit

quantities on the other circuit are also obtained by starting from bus 1 and

on this circuit but disregarding the transformers on circuit 5-6. The differ-

ence in the over-all ratios in going from bus 1 to bus 5 is accounted for by

V a65 /

Fig. 3-5-3.

065

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N0'e = ESu

Fig. 3-5-4.

where e is the voltage per turn of the autotransformer. From these equa-

tions,

Wo

A _ Ol2023a34\ _ A^O

\ a65 / AV

the network of Fig. 3-5-4 will be identical with that of Fig. 3-5-3, since

Eqs. 3-5-18 and 3-5-19 become identical with Eqs. 3-5-17 and 3-5-11,

respectively.

former 1-2 from aw to 012'), instead of changing the per unit impedances

no _ 012'

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n0' Oj2

86

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

Fig. 3-6-1.

bb

K = 7-77T = (3-7-1)

In/En

where

= = Bn = normal susceptance

En Xn

(3-7-2)

If /n, En, Xn are given in amperes, volts, and ohms, respectively, Bn will

and

Bn =

K=

1000 kva

V2

rn

in mhos

b(in mhos)Fn

1000 kva

(3-7-3)

(3-7-4)

This shows that the per unit susceptance varies proportionally to the square

mho is usually too large a unit. It is more convenient to use the micromho.

10" kva. .

Bn = , in micromhos

bu =

V2

b(micromhos)Fa2

(3-7-5)

(3-7-6)

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109 kva

87

PROBLEMS

3-1. Why have per unit quantities become of general use? What are their

lines. How is the effect of these changes accounted for on board studies?

3-3. With the data of Prob. 2-9 show that, if a 2-winding transformer is used

given by

(Z)au = a - 1 = A

(Iu)tm a 1 + A

3-4. Consider the system shown in the figure, and assume the following char-

acteristics:

Rating, kva

Transformer Ti

Transformer Tt

50,000

100,000

20,000

20,000

Line

15 miles long

(a) Express all resistances and reactances in per unit at 100,000 kva.

13.8/^3 kv 33/13.8 kv

Prob. 3-4.

Calculate the current distribution in per unit at 100,000 kva, and in amperes.

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(d) Suppose now that the ratio of transformer T\ is changed so that the line

to line voltage ratio is 13.6/33 kv. Draw the impedance diagram as for (a) and

(b). If you were making a calculating board setup, what would you do to take

Assume that G is the generator at Fort Peck and M is the system at Rainbow and

that two transformers T\, Tj are used at the ends of the line as shown in the figure.

Generator O

One 38,888 kva at 0.85 lagging pf, 13.8 kv, 3 phases, 60 cycles, 128.5 rpm

88

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

Generators of system M

Reactors Ri

Transformers Ti

Transformers Ti

Equivalent reactance of transformer between the 161- and the 105-kv windings, 0.07

Rainbow

Prob. 3-5.

breaker Ci open, calculate the following quantities with and without the reactors

Bi:

100,000 kva.

69 9 kv

Prob. 3-6.

K4J

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The 110-kv and the 33-kv windings are both connected in Y grounded. The

an

Find the reactances of the equivalent Y in per unit at 100,000 kva and in ohms

atllOkv.

(a) Find the per unit approximate equivalent T and equivalent pi at 100,000

kva.

Consider a number of motors from the table. Convert the various resistances

and reactances given in the table in per unit on rating and compare. What con-

clusions do you draw? The normal current is the motor input current at full load.

t H. Pender and W. Del Mar, Electrical Engineers' Handbook (Electric Power Volume),

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4th ed. (New York: John Wiley 4 Sons, Inc., 1949), table 3, p. 9-62.

CHAPTER 4

CALCULATING BOARDS

reduced scale. Calculating boards are available which are energized from

phase angle differences being taken into consideration. D-c boards are

commonly used for short-circuit calculations. A-c boards are used for

factors called conversion factors. The circuits of the board have certain

resistors, and connections would require that the board voltages and

ances are simulated by means of reactors. These reactors are usually made

effective resistance.

For average 60-cycle power lines the ratio of the resistance to the react-

ance of the line ranges between 0.1 and 0.4. In extreme cases, however,

depending on the size and spacing of the conductors, the resistance may

be anywhere from 5 to 540 per cent of the reactance at 60 cycles and from

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90

CHAPTER 5

in Art. 2-1 this theorem is apparent from inspection of Eqs. 2-1-3. For

though ordinarily they are taken as positive when flowing in the same direc-

loop of the n-mesh network, we find that the n-mesh currents satisfy n

Here Zn, Z22, , Znn are, respectively, the self-impedances or the total im-

pedances of the n meshes. All other Z's represent the mutual impedances

among the various meshes. The mutual impedances between two meshes

are equal, or

Eir E2, "' , En are, respectively, the voltages impressed in the n meshes.

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103

104

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

Thus, here the self-impedances Zn, Z22 and the mutual impedance Z\2

are given by

Z\\ = Z\ + Z3

Z22 = Z2 + Z3

Z12 = Z2i = Z3

Let us now solve Eqs. 5-1-1 for the various mesh currents. Let

D=

Zal Za2

Znk

Znn

(5-1-3)

h=hD

(5-1^)

where M,i is the minor of D obtained from D by omitting the kth vertical

and the sth horizontal. Because of Eq. 5-1-2 the corresponding hori-

of the kth mesh; its inverse, D/Mkk, is the corresponding driving impedance.

M,k/D represents the transfer admittance between the sth and the kth

Eqs. 2-1-3 except for the difference in the assumed positive signs of the

currents.

It is evident from Eq. 5-1-4 that the current h in the fcth loop is the sum

and adding the results. This is the superposition theorem. This theorem is

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If voltages are applied to a network, the voltages and currents in any part of

the network are obtained by superposing the voltages and currents due to the

action of each applied voltage taken separately. Implicitly this assumes that the

105

parameters of each part of the network, that is, resistance, inductance and

capacitance, are independent from the currents flowing through, or the voltage

applied across, it. Iron saturation and hysteresis are neglected. In addition, in

short circuit studies involving rotating machines it is further assumed that the

position and speed of the rotors do not change during the short circuit, f

6-2. The Reciprocity Theorem. From Eq. 5-1-4 we see that the

current flowing in the kth loop with a unit voltage applied in the sth loop is

M,k (-!)<+*>

Because of Eq. 5-1-5 this is the same as the current flowing in the sth loop

with a unit voltage applied in the fcth loop. This is the reciprocity theorem.

For the terminal currents of Fig. 2-1-1, we know, from Eqs. 2-1-3, that

the current flowing into the fcth terminal with a unit voltage applied to the

sth terminal is

-Ykt

This is the same as the current flowing into the kth terminal with a unit

Fig. 5-3-2. The current / is now found as the difference of the two currents

/=/1_/2 = -^_^? =

Z\ Zi Z\ Z\

or

/=-*-

zl + Z2

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106

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

The current /' obtaining with a short circuit across Z2 is obtained by making

E2 = 0:

/' = / + I2 = h

That is, the current with a short circuit across Z2 is equal to the sum of the

current flowing prior to the short circuit plus the current /2 due to the

Of course, in the simple case just analyzed the currents obtaining under

Consider the network of Fig. 5-3-5. What is the effect of a short circuit

circuit. The voltage from A to B is Eab = ZI. Figure 5-3-5 can be re-

the emf Eaa. The current / can now be considered to be the sum of two

currents:

1. The current ! due to the generator's emf's Ei, Et, ,a applied to the

terminals.

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/ = /,~/!

107

Similarly, the current /' in any other circuit, such as the one between

C and D, is

r = // - h'

/g = / + h

U - r + h'

of the network are equal to the currents flowing prior to the short circuit

plus the currents due to the voltage Eab existing between the two points A

Z+ Zn + AZ

I=h+h

If G is short-circuited, /g = 7 7i

/.' = 7' - 7/

That is, the currents obtained after Z has been increased by AZ are equal

to those existing prior to the change, decreased by the currents due to the

emf 7 AZ (needless to note, Ig, Ig', I\ , 7/ here are different from 7g, 7/ of

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108

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

i\z

Fio. 5-3-9.

Fio. 5-3-10.

I(Z + Zn) as shown in Fig. 5-3-10. Under these conditions the currents

flowing in the impedance Z and in the general circuit have two components:

1. /, /', due to the applied voltages Ei, Et, Ej, , as shown in Fig. 5-3-5.

l = 7(7 + Za) =

1 (Z + Zn)

in Fig. 5-4-2. The network of Fig. 5-4-2 is equivalent to that of Fig. 5-4-1.

Fio. 5-4-1.

Fig. 5-4-2.

Since the current through Z in Fig. 5-4-2 is zero, by applying the super-

position theorem we see that this current has two equal and opposite

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components due, respectively, to (a) the applied emf's Ei and E2, and (b)

109

/ _ ^ab

~ Z+Zn

with the two emf's E\ and E2 reduced to zero. It follows that the current /

voltage Eab existing prior to the short circuit. It will be used extensively

Fio. 5-4-3.

PROBLEMS

6-1. In the network of Prob. 3-5 determine the driving admittance from G

figure:

the network.

5-3. With reference to Fig. 5-4-1, what value of Z must be connected from

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A to B in order that maximum true power will be transferred from the system to

the impedance Z1

5-4. The network shown in Fig. A is the phase equivalent of a 3-phase induc-

tion motor.

110

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

(A)

a I.

Eab

s a-t)

(B)

Prob. 5-4.

(a) Show that the rotor current It* and thus the motor torque and mechanical

gross output can be calculated from the network of Fig. B, where, assuming the

R i + jXi

Z0(Rp+jXp)

Rp + jXp + Zo

(b) How is Fig. B modified if the impedance of the source is not negligible?

Q.5Rr j0.5Xr

Backward

l'VVs,TfoTP-J *-/VW'TrffTT'I

0.5 Zn

0.5 Zn

(B)

Pbob. 5-5.

6-6. Show that the equivalent network of a single-phase induction motor with

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111

or at standstill.

By applying the revolving field theory and the superposition principle, show

that the equivalent network of Fig. A can be replaced by the network of Fig. B.

Rp* jXp 2

Forward

0.5 Zn

1 lRbr .v \

Backward

0.5 zn

Prob. 5-6.

6-6. By applying the revolving field theory and the superposition principle,

show that the equivalent network for the single-phase induction motor of Prob.

Rjr = per phase rotor resistance to current of frequency s/, in stator terms t

terms t

V = impressed voltage

j , _ Eab

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"~Z + Z'

tion motor can be analyzed by considering the two networks shown in the figure,

112

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

where

Pbob. 5-8.

phase, and Va is the voltage applied to the other stator winding. The rotor may

Eif is the rotor resistance, in stator terms, which obtains at rotor slip

frequency sf.

Rib is the rotor resistance, in stator terms, which obtains at rotor slip

frequency (2 s)f.

(a) What is the value APk, of the average power input into the kth terminal

what is the A/*,* of the average power input into the sth terminal caused by the

(c) What condition must be satisfied for APk. and AP.k to be conjugate

phasors?

3-phase generator. a, b, c are the three terminals of the A, and Ea, , Ec the

three generator voltages applied to them. ZA, Zb, Zc are three impedances

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connected in Y grounded.

113

Prob. 5-10.

Show that, if the switches SA, Sb, Sc are closed, the steady state currents

, EA

ZA +

Ib =

Z1Z2

Zi + Zt

EB

Ic

ZB +

Zc +

Z\Zi

Zi + Zt

Ec

Z1Z2

Zi + 7S

where EA, EB, Ec are the three voltages, respectively, from A, B, C to N with

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CHAPTER 6

mental importance.

from the other and revolving in the field of a two-pole machine, as in Fig.

either pole; conductor b will follow; and conductor c will be the last. As-

suming that the three conductors are identical and revolving at constant

three emf's, equal in magnitude and displaced 120 degrees one from the

120/

\120

Fig. 6-1-1.

120

Fig. 6-1-2.

Fig. 6-1-3.

rotation in Fig. 6-1-2 is retained, the three emf's will be represented by the

phasor diagram of Fig. 6-1-3. In Figs. 6-1-2 and 6-1-3 the sense in which

Bottani, La moderna matematica dei circuili trifasi (Milano: Stab. Tip-Lit. Stucehi-

simmetriche alia risoluzione delle equazioni algebriche," Atti del Congresso International/

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114

the phasors rotate is the same; the order or "sequence" in which they fol-

low, that is, in which they attain a certain value, say the zero value, is not

the same; for instance, in Fig. 6-1-2 the zero value is attained by o first,

by 6 next, and by c last, while in Fig. 6-1-3 the zero value is attained by

Uu

\b'

f'\

if M

lc'

Fig. 6-1-4.

Fig.

6-1

-5.

Let us again refer to Fig. 6-1-1, which is repeated in Fig. 6-1-5 with the

leads brought out. Suppose that the three conductors are revolving in the

clockwise direction. The induced emf will follow in the order a, b, c; that is,

their sequence will be positive. Let us now interchange two of the three

analyze the order, the sequence in which the emf's or the currents relative

to a!, V', c' follow each other, that is, the order in which they attain the

same value, we shall find that a' is first, c' is next, and b' last. The sequence

of the three conductors a , b', c', considered in the order a, b', c', is negative.

It is then clear that the "sequence" depends on the sense of rotation of the

generator and the order in which the three conductors are taken.

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phasors Va, Vb, Vc. We shall say that these three phasors considered to-

gether constitute a system of three phasors. Va, Vb, Vc are the components

of the system. If the order in which the phasors follow is Va, Vb, Vc, we

V'

K'- <cT~

"^^v;

.a3^

We shall c&\\ the sum of the two systems of Figs. 6-2-1 and 6-3-1 the

system (Fig. 6-2-1) obtained by adding the phasors occupying the same

If the two systems, S(Va) and S(Va'), are the sum of other systems,

ij^ra / iJ^**n ) I i^ \* a )

their product is

S(Va)S(Va')-iS(ltJ+8(P.)}iS(R.')+S(P.')}

S(Va') = (V.', Vb', V,') ~ WJ' \Va' ' Vb' ' Vc')

Systems. The three phasors in Fig. 6-4-1, Vi, aVi, o?Vi, are equal ir

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MATHEMATICAL THEORY

117

wise, as shown by the arrow. Taken in the order V\, a2V\, aV\, they con-

the three phasors are equal in magnitude, symmetrical because they are

displaced 120 degrees from each other. Symbolically, the system is indi-

cated by (V\, a2V\, aVi). In Fig. 6-4-2 are three phasors similar to those

a2K

Fig. 6-4-1.

a2K

Fig. 6^-2

Fig. 6-4-3.

y0

sequence system:

Consider now, in Fig. 6-4-3, three phasors equal in phase and magnitude.

Systems such as those of Figs. 6-4-1, 6-4-2, and 0-4-3 are important in

its components x and y are given, or when its magnitude and the angle 6

it makes with the x axis is given. This is usually expressed by saying that

t he phasor OA has two degrees of freedom and therefore two conditions are

saying that a system of two phasors has four degrees of freedom. Again, a

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system of three phasors has six degrees of freedom, as six conditions arc

118

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

FIG. 6-5-1.

FIG. 6-5-2.

Let us consider the phasor OA of Fig. 6-5-2. This phasor may be con-

sidered the sum of the phasors 01, 12, 2A whenever there is convenience in

doing so.

Three Phasors: One of Positive, One of Negative, and One of Zero Se-

in opposite directions so that, with the three conductors taken in the order

.Ld

br

1. 1,

Section.

FIG. 6-6-1.

tor B is revolving in the same direction as A, and label the three conductoi

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equal in phase and magnitude, that is, emf's of what we have defined .

The generated emf's are shown in Fig. 6-6-1 under each generator.

M, we shall find that they are unbalanced, as shown in Fig. 6-6-1. That is,

balanced emf's. In Fig. 6-G-1, it has been assumed for simplicity that no

can we imagine them as being equal to the sum of three balanced systems

sequence?

The voltage system existing in section M is (Va, Vb, Vc). If it can be re-

solved into the sum of three balanced systems of the type shown in Figs.

ft-4-1, 6-4-2, and 6-4-3, that is, into the sum of the three systems,

(Va, Vb, Vc) = (K0, Ko, Ko) + (K,, a2K,, a",) + ;"-,. aK2, a2K2)

or

Va = Ko + Vl + K2

( Vc = Ko + aVi + a2K2

from which, given Va, Vb, Kc, the values K0, Vi, V2 can be obtained. We

conclude, then, that, given three phasors Ka, K6, Kc, it is always possible

(K., Vb, Kc) = (K0, Ko, Ko) + (K,, c?Vlt aK,) + (K2, aK2, a2K2)

That this is possible may be seen also from the fact that six conditions are

necessary to determine three phasors KO, Vi, K2, and that each of Eqs.

6-6-4 gives two relations binding K0, Klt K2 to Ka, Vb, Vc, a total of six

phasors Ka, Vb, Kc, the three phasors KO, KI, K2 are uniquely determined.

The determination of K0, Vi, K2 from Va, Vb, Vc follows immediately from

Eqe. 66-4. In fact, by adding the three equations, and noting that

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1 + a + a2 = 0

we obtain

K + Vb + K,

- ;;

By multiplying the second of Eqs. 6-6-4 by a and the third by a2, and

Ka + a2Kt + aKr

K2 = - - - (6-6-0

The unbalanced unsymmetrical phasor systems (Va, Ki,, Vc) can then be

(K0, KO,

respectively called the zero, the positive, and the negative sequence systems.

phasor system to its component phasor systems are Eqs. 6-6-5, 6-6-6, and

6-6-7.

The phasor K0, given by Eq. 6-6-5, is called the zero sequence com-

ponent.

The phasor Vi, given by Eq. 6-6-6, is called the positive sequence

component.

The phasor K2, given by Eq. 6-6-7, is called the negative sequence

component.

have in Fig. 6-7-1 the system (K, K6, Vc). A' is the midpoint of AB, and

CM' = ^

and therefore

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MATHEMATICAL THEORY

121

CD = - CA

from which

OD = OC + CD = Vc +

va + Vb + V,

'-!(***-'.)-

K. + Vb 2

33e

Va+Vb 2

3 3Kc

terminals of the phasors Va, Vb, Vc, and therefore we can conclude that the

zero sequence component of the three phasors Va, Vb, Vc is the phasor from

vanishes.

Va = V0 + Va'

Vb = V0 + Vb'

Vc = V0+ Ve'

Va' = V, + V2

Ve' = K, + a2V2

If three other phasors Va", Vb", Vc" are drawn from another point 0'

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to A, B, C, their zero sequence component V0" will be 0'D, and their posi-

tive and negative sequence components will be the same as for the system

(Va, Vb, Vc). Therefore we may say that all phasors ending in the same

of any one system ending in the same points as the given system. In

particular, the system (Va, Vb, Vc) has the same positive and negative

(BA, 0, BC)

(CA, CB, 0)

Ko = 00' + V0"

That is, the zero sequence component of the system (Va, Vb, Vc) is equal

to the zero sequence component K0" of any other system (Va", Vt", Ve")

terminating in the same points A, B, C, plus the phasor 00' from the origin

Ea, Eb, Ec are the three voltages from line to return conductor in section M.

AM

O" O

Let us assume that current is flowing in the return conductor and there-

fore there is a drop between 0 and 0'. JE0o' is the voltage from 0 to 0' that

compensates for this drop. The voltage from 0' to 0 is EO-O. Evidently

E0,o = -EM,.. The voltages Ea', Eb', Ec' from A, B, C to 0' will be

Ea = Ea + QO

Eb = Eb + EOO,

Ec = Ec + EOO-

In Fig. 6-7-3 the three voltages Ea, Eb, Ec are drawn from 0 to A, B, C,

is chosen, such that 0'O = 00- or 00' = E00- = E0-0, the three phasors

O'A, 0'B, 0'C will be equal, respectively, to a', Eb', Ec'; that is, taking

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0' as origin, the triangle ABC of the three voltages Ea', Eb", Ee' is the same

as for the three voltages Ea, Eb, Ec. The zero sequence component of

Ea', Eb , Ec' is 0'D = Eoo' + OD. Their positive and negative sequence

components are the same as for the three voltages Ea, Eb, Ec. If, instead

of 0, we take as reference point another point 0", so that the voltage com-

pensating for the drop from 0 to 0" is 0o", then the three voltages Ea"',

in Fig. 6-7-3 by the phasors from 0" to A, B, C, where 0" is such that

O"0 = 0o" = -E0:0. Again, the system (a", Eb", Ec") differs from

the two other systems, (Ea, Eb, Ec) and ('/, Eb, Ec'), only in the zero

sequence component.

change in the point of reference changes only the zero sequence component.

those for the zero sequence component. It is, however, given here for the

We have, in Fig. 6-8-1, a phasor system (Va, Vb, Vc) from the baricenter

DE =

Va + Vb + Vc = 0

Vb + Vc.+ DG -Va + DG

and

CB = Vb - Vc

DE

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DF = - \Va + aVb + ^M

124

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

FIG. 6-8-1.

FIG. 6-8-2.

general, therefore, given the phasor system (Va, K6, Vc) of Fig. 6-8-2,

Ki = FD

K2 = ED

system

0,1*1)*

system of three unity phasors, zero degrees apart. Multiplying the system

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unity phasors, zero degrees apartwhat we may call the zero sequence

unity system.

(Ka*K\,aF,)

may be written

(iy,)K,

This expression means that the phasors 1, or2, a, composing the system

(1, a2, a), must be multiplied by Vi in order to obtain the system (V\,

a2V\, aVi). The system (1, a2, a), composed of three unity phasors 120

degrees apart in the clockwise direction, may be called the positive sequence

unity system. For brevity's sake, the symbol S' will be used to indicate the

system (1, a2, a). Sl is therefore used to represent the positive sequence

unity system that is a system of three unity phasors 120 degrees apart,

the second lagging the first by 120 degrees or leading it by 240 degrees,

the third lagging the first by 240 degrees or leading it by 120 degrees.

and writing it in the form (1, a, a2)V2, we can similarly conclude that the

system (I, a, a2) is the negative sequence unity system. We may indicate it

apart with the second and third phasors lagging the first by 240 and 120

With the new symbols the expression of the general system S(Va)

becomes

special phasor systems. They therefore obey the laws obeyed by phasor

systems. Let us apply to them the concepts of product and quotient estab-

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cance has been attached to the exponents 0, 1, 2. Let us find the laws, if

any, obeyed by these exponents. Let us consider, for instance, the product

= (1, 1,

The same result could have been obtained directly by adding the ex-

ponents:

IPS1 = S0+1 = Sl

Again

SlSl -

S2S2 = S2+2 = S4 = S1

S^ = Sl+3 = S4 = Sl

systems

We have already defined the quotient of the system S(Va) by the system

8(1.)

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eO

Sl

cO

- v

mine the conjugate of a sequence operator which we shall use later on. We

The conjugate of a2 is

We readily see, then, that the conjugate of the operator S2 = (I, a. a2) is

phasor systems because these are the most important for the study of

sequence operators denned, and the laws of product, quotient, etc., easily

extended to them.

learned how to calculate the sequence components Ia0, Ial, Iot of a given

phasor system S(Ia) = (/a, /<,, /,.). Let us consider now the phasor system

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obtained from the given one by considering Ib the first, Ic the second, and

I a the third phasor. The sequence components /<*>, h\, hi of the phasor

system S(h) can be obtained in the usual manner and their relations to

h+h+h.

J6O = = 'oO

h + aIc + <*2I a 21

h\ = ~ = 'ol

/6 + a2h + ah

hi = , = <"a2

and

Similarly, from

S(h) = (h, h, h)

we obtain

+ /. + / .

3 ~'a0

Ico

+ ah + a2h

In

ahi =

- a2hi

+ a2Ia + ah

hi

a2h2'

= ahi

and

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S/ = o /aO + S hi + 8 Iai

where

SI. = (/., h, h)

. Ia+h+h

*ao

la

+1

a2Ib + aIc

Za

+ zb + zc

Za

aZb + a2Zc

Za

a2Z0 + aZc

/a + aIb + a2Ic

'ol -

Za0 =

z, =

Za2= 3

But

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where

"oO

Kai =

K2 =

we obtain

'oO

I*1.! =

7*a

a7*

+<

*27*c

7*a

a2I*t

,+

al*c

^- = 3

. _ 7a + Ib + Ic

*a0

7a, =

/a2 =

+ aIb

+ aIc

+ a%

, + aIc

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we see that

7*1 _ F*

* oO * oO

7*1., = 7*a2

7*'a2 = 7*al

Therefore

to the sum of the conjugate of the latter, and that the conjugate of the

S Ia\, S Ia2-

The conjugate of

S*aO IS S I*a0

S'/., is S-'f*.,

S2Ia2 is S~2I*al

Therefore

Let us consider now the system obtained by multiplying SIa, S/6, and

The three phasors of this product phasor system are all equal, and therefore

its positive and negative sequence components are both zero, and each

phasor is equal to the zero sequence component of the system. This zero

by multiplying them and considering only l ose terms of the product con-

taining S. Since

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132

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

and therefore

Suppose, now, that the system jS/q is given and that the sequence compo-

/a S/'

-\uJc'uJc'7JjJ-JJJc m'IJa'Ub)

SIbSIc

SIbSIc =

.s(/a03

Z + Zb + Zr

.awnsinp-

w nnnr>-

-w*-^Tnnr1-

Fig. 6-17-1.

Za0

Za, =

Za2

Za + aZ6 + a2Zc

Za + a2Z6 + aZc

(6-17-1)

a = ~z

'=A

Yr =

zr

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MATHEMATICAL THEORY

133

.1

ZaO 7

Yal

((M7_2)

ai ZaoZ

a'2

where

D=

Zn23 - 3Z,Zo2Za0

(6-17-3)

Zo =

ZA + ZB +

ZCZ

Let us put

We obtain

ZA + ZB + Zc

ZAZB

ZA -(~ ZB T Zc

+ SlZAl + S

+ ZB + Zc = 3ZX0

,SZB = SZAO

SZC = SZAO

2*" Z.

X!

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It follows that

aSlZ

A1

That is,

- _ ZA

LAI

6o2 = -

T2

&A\

Conversely, if the three star impedances are known and the three delta

Z Z -(- Z Z -\- Z. Z

Zc

Therefore

Now,

and therefore

. , x SZbSZc

3 ,7 3 ,

'aft r ^al r

7 3 I 7 3 I 7 3 07 7 7

from which the values of ZAO, ZAi, ZAZ can be calculated in terms of /ao-

Zai, Za2- The formulas are rather long. They are given here only to show

the process for obtaining them, as they can be calculated more readily by

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phase line are shown in Fig. 6-19-1. En, Eb, Er are the voltages from a, b, c,

from a, 6, e to 0', c -- // v^

Ec = / + E

Fio. 6-1fr-l.

We have already seen that the two systems Sa and Sa' have the same

positive and negative sequence components and differ only in the zero

sequence component, which is Ea0 for the former and Ea0' for the latter:

Va = Eb - Ec

Vb = Ec- Ea

Vc = Ea - Eb

from which

Sa = O Q "i" S al

= Sa0 + a2^1

That is,

Kai = (a2 -

Ka2 = (a -

and

,--

J ,-

\/3

From these expressions it is seen that the line voltages have no zero sequence

Therefore, given the phase voltages, the line voltages are completely known.

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The converse, however, is not true. Given the line voltages, the phase

136

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

voltages are not known. Their positive and negative sequence components

are known, but their zero sequence component is not. We have already

seen that this zero sequence component depends on, or rather, in general,

fact that the line voltages may be given without choosing a reference point,

that is, a "neutral." The phase voltages are not completely determined

there is only one for which the zero sequence component of the phase

voltages is zero. This is the baricenter of the triangle formed by the line

voltages Va, Vb, Vc. This point is usually referred to as the neutral of the

system in the location under consideration. We shall see how this neutral

For the present it suffices to say that in a generator which generates only

voltages, the common connection of the three windings coincides with the

aEa2 Va2

Fig. 6-19-2.

where, for simplicity, Eai and a2 have been drawn in phase. Usually the

Vbc = voltage

from b to

From Fig.

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va = Vbe

Vb = Vea

Fig.

6-19-3.

vc = vab

and therefore

SVab = SVe

from which

V<ibi = aVai

Vab2 = a Va2

and

PROBLEMS

, 20e-'20, 10e'")

Find the sum, difference, product, and quotient of the two systems.

6-2. Find the three sequence components of each of the two phasor systems

ofProb. 6-1.

/. = 365e-'"

/6 = 373e'"

Ie = 386e-'19t>0

6-4. A 60-watt lamp is connected between one phase and the neutral of a

(a) Find the sequence components of the currents supplied by the source.

(b) Generalize by finding the relations existing among the sequence compo-

Assume successively that the load is connected across phases 0-6, b-c, c-a.

(a) Find the sequence components of the line to ground voltages and of the

(b) Generalize by finding the general relations existing among the three line

to ground voltages when one of the three voltages becomes zero as the result of a

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(c) Do the line to line voltages have a zero sequence component? Why?

6-7. The line to ground voltages on two phases at a point of a 3-phase system

collapse to zero. The voltage on the third phase is different from zero.

What are the sequence components of the three line to ground voltages and

what relations pass among them? Assume that the two affected phases are

6-8. Two lamps, respectively 60 watts and 100 watts, are each connected across

Find the sequence components of the currents in the lamps and in the supply

lines.

Show that, if the ground is removed and phase a is grounded, the voltage

admittances.

Find the sequence components of the line to neutral and of the line to line

voltages. Are the line to neutral readings consistent with the line to line readings'"

6-12. The three line to line voltages on a 3-phase system are given by

Vc = KCVA VA VB = KBVA

where Kb and Kc in general are complex factors. If the three voltages are

KB = a2

Kc = a

KB = a2 + Ko+jKi

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we obtain

Kc = a Ko jKi

Find the sequence components of the three voltages Va, Vb. Vc in terms of

supplying the motor are arbitrarily labeled a, b, c, and readings of the line voltages

Voltages Currents

(c) Assuming that at full load the motor efficiency and power factors are both

0.9, calculate the sequence components as under (a) and (b) in per unit of rated

values.

6-14. Following the method of Arts. 6-9, 6-10, 6-11, and 6-12, define the

operators S, 81, S2, S3 for a 4-phase system and determine their properties.

(b) The voltage Eo from the common point 0 of the three impedances to

ground.

6-19. How are systems of phasors added, subtracted, multiplied, and divided?

6-21. Can you change a positive sequence system of currents into a system of

negative sequence, and vice versa? If the answer is in the affirmative, what

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6-23. How can a system of three phasors be resolved into the sum of 3 systems

tively?

6-24. How is the zero sequence component of three voltages obtained graph-

ically?

6-26. What is the effect of changing the point of reference of the three sequence

6-26. How are the positive and negative sequence components obtained

graphically?

phasors?

6-36. The total average power phasor in a 3-phase system is EJ*a + &/** +

EJ*c where Ea, Eb, Ec are the three line to neutral voltages and /<,, h, Ic the line

currents.

6-36. Two-phase motors are used extensively. The ideal 2-phase motor is

one in which the stator has two similar windings sinusoidally distributed, dis-

type. The air gap flux in such a motor is revolving at synchronous speed in

what may be called the forward direction. It is a well-known fact that, if the

leads of one of the stator phases are interchanged, the direction of the air gap

revolving field will be reversed and the air gap flux will revolve in what may be

(b) Find the forward and backward components, Vf and Vb, in terms of

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Vi and V2.

CHAPTER 7

TO THREE-PHASE CIRCUITS

shown in Fig. 7-1-1. G\, G2, G3, are used to represent generators, and

/' Na

w nil

n nc

A*

yr

Y'

ni

Fio. 7-1-2.

Ac

6+

Zh = ti + h" + ti" + h

=0

=0

=0

(7-1-1)

(7-1-3)

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(7-1-2)

Let us call E/a0, E/a\, E/a2 the zero, positive, and negative sequence

2^'aq 2^ Z = Z T

=0

141

Z7.i = E

/a + a/fr + a ic = -

Elrt-S 3 - |

or

From these equations it is seen that each of the three sequence com-

ponents of the currents satisfies KirchhofT's first law. What has been said

for the node N holds true for any other node of the network.

For phase a there will be three distributions: the distribution of the zero

sequence current (Fig. 7-1-3 ao and Eq. 7-1-4); the distribution of the

positive sequence current (Fig. 7-1-3 a\ and Eq. 7-1-5); and the dis-

tribution of the negative sequence current (Fig. 7-1-3 a2 and Eq. 7-1-6).

For each of the phases 6 and c there will be three distributions as shown

the second law in Arts. 7-6 and 7-7. We shall find that the nine currents of

Fig. 7-1-3 in general are not independent as far as the second law is con-

cerned. In the most general case, that is, when the three phases a, b, c are

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affected by the mutual induction from the other eight. When the three

induction only between currents of the same sequence, but no mutual in-

duction between currents of different sequence; that is, in Fig. 7-1-3 there is

mutual induction only among the networks situated on the same vertical.

Phase a

Phase 6

Phase c

'oO

'ol

'.2

'o2

'.0

Ot%2

/>

Fig.

7-

1-3.

where

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S(/ao' + W + ) =0

Sl(Ial' + la" + ) =0

SW + Ia2" + ) =0

of the generator is grounded and so is the neutral of the load. The return

ground paths are shown by broken lines. Ia, h, Ic and /', Ib', Ie' are the

they are

Transformer

Fio. 7-2-1.

first law applied to the neutrals, they can flow only if a return path is

provided. The return current will be three times the zero sequence current

flowing in each wire. No return path is necessary for the positive and nega-

zero sequence current could flow in the primary circuit. Zero sequence

current could flow in the secondary circuit. However, with respect to it,

the transformer would behave as if its primary were open. Its magnitude

secondary winding.

If the generator and transformer are grounded but the load is un-

secondary. /a</ will be zero. Io does not need to be zero. However, with

respect to it, the transformer will behave as if its secondary were open and.

therefore, the impedance offered to its flow is very large, so large that in

flow.

that fashion. Ia, Ib, Ic are the three currents flowing in the supply line, and

^ao> 'o1, Ia2 their symmetrical components. Ia, Ib, Ic are the three current*

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flowing in the three legs of the delta and Ia0, Ia\, Iai are their component*

145

Then we have

S/. =

SI A -

/. = /C - IB

and

Ic = IB ~ I A

(7-3-1)

or

Ia + Ik + Ic = 0

/.o = 0

S/a =

SIA =

SlIAl + S2IA2

(7-3-2)

Fig. 7-3-1 is equal to the sum of the three current distributions of Fig.

Fio. 7-3-1.

7-3-2. The three currents IAO in the three legs of the delta (Fig. 7-3-2a)

'., h, Ic can be calculated once IAi and IAZ are known, but, in order to

In Fig. 7-3-3 is shown the network of Fig. 7-2-1 with the transformer

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and inside the delta. As far as Kirchhoffs first law is concerned, the current

distribution of Fig. 7-3-3 is equal to the sum of the three current distribu-

tions of Fig. 7-3-4. Needless to say, the ground returns in Fig. 7-3-4b and

7-3-4c are not necessary. Any change in the load affecting only the zero

~ iy\

- T^ \

*aO

\ , ft 7

,/^--o:A

.72

a2!',

sequence component, that is, /ao', will not affect /a, /6, /r at all, but will

affect I A, IB, Ic- The relations between Ial, /a2 and IA i, /^2 can be obtained

directly from Fig. 7-3-4 or from Eq. 7-3-1. Substituting Eq. 7-3-2 in

from which

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147

or, conversely,

Iai = ~j

./.i

V3

(7-3-3)

Iai =;'

V3

If the three sides of the triangle of Fig. 7-3-5 represent the three currents

7,1, a2/ai\, a/ai in phase and magnitude, the three currents Ia\, c?Ia\, <*Iai

are represented in phase and magnitude by the phasors from the centroid

to the vertices of the triangle. Similarly, if the three sides of the triangle

of Fig. 7-3-6 represent the three currents Ia2, ala22, <*2Ia2 in phase and

magnitude, the three currents Ia2, <*Ia2, <^Ia2 are represented in phase and

magnitude by the phasors from the centroid to the vertices of the tri-

ZZx

Fig. 7-3-7.

the currents I a, Ib, Ic, as shown in Fig. 7-3-3, we take the opposite (clock-

. r (7~3-4)

This is done phasorially in Fig. 7-3-8. We would obtain the same result if,

Ic- It is therefore clear that the sign of the relations between Ia\, 72, and

7/i\, T42 depends on the relative directions chosen as positive for the current

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148

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

Fio. 7-3-8.

/a0 =

T'

/ol =

V3

(7-3-5)

f / f .o2

/o2 = iMx2 = J ^

V3

where a = ni/n2, ni and "2 being, respectively, the number of turns of the

the circuit a"b"c" in Fig. 7-4-1, supplied from another circuit abc by means

FIG. 7-4-1.

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and in abc:

from which

J-V 2

= +j ^

Iai' = IAi = j p

fii ni Vo

7 "7 j- n /a2

'02 = 1x2 = +j

V3

Ial

V3

M2 = 'o2 = -Tj -- 7^

"3 "l"3 V3

Now

and therefore

7"

/<,I =

'o2

In the above formulas, reference has been made only to the currents

from abc that reach a"b"c", that is, to positive and negative sequence

two transformers.

if it is wye-wye (as shown, for instance, in Fig. 7-2-1), the per unit values

transformer is delta-wye (as shown in Fig. 7-3-3), the per unit values of

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angle of 90.

Consider again Fig. 7-3-4b. Let En, En' be the normal line to neutral

voltages on the generator side and on the wye side of the transformer,

Let kva be the base kilovolt-amperes, /a, /An, and /a' the normal currents

on the generator side, inside the delta, and on the wye side of the trans-

3En 3En'

Thus, because of Eq. 7-5-1, the three normal currents satisfy the^elations

In = /a = V3/A.

7-3-5. Expressing these currents in per unit, from the above relations

Positive

Sequence

Negative

Sequence

Zero

Sequence

Generator side

/.i

/.

-I.,.

'f = /.

former

/alu

= 77

, ,_/..'

/ot, = YT

/.. , ,

= -J/.i.

= y/.j.

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-j"i *,n,

. _ IAI _ /.i'

/Xl /.t

/xo /.o

winding

= /A. /.'

/An /n

7Z ~ 77

= /,lu' = jItlt.

= ;7.i.

= /.o.

That is, the sequence components of the currents in per unit of the normal

currents, respectively, on the generator side (/a), on the wye side (/n').

and inside the delta winding (/An) of the transformer are equal in mag-

nitude, except, of course, that the zero sequence currents on the wye

side have no counterparts on the generator side. Thus, in per unit form.

Figs. 7-3-4a, 7-3-4b, and 7-3^c will become Figs. 7-5-1a, 7-5-lb, and

151

'aOu

b mh

/c

Eb

E* Return r

5- 3/aT

Fio. 7-6-1.

from a, b, c in A' to 0', the point of reference for the voltages in section A',

usually the ground in section A'. E is the voltage drop from 0' to 0.

having passed through the utilizing devices will return to the points of

generation via the return circuit. The return circuit, generally constituted

of return wires, piping systems, and the ground itself, is not similar to the

cally.

Since the main and the return networks are topographically similar,

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the three currents /a, Ib, Ic, flowing, respectively, in the three conductors

la + h + h = 3/a0

Let us call

network

network

network

when considered isolated from any other conductor; Zb, Zc the impedances

of b and c, respectively, in similar circumstances. Let the M's and the Z's,

that is, the constants of the circuit, be independent of the current flowing

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(SZa0

- 3/ao(SMor0 +

= o Zo/aO + S Zao

+ O Zai/a2 "I" S

S Za

ao +

SMabiIa2

- S3/aoMar0 -

+ ja)

+ a2

and finally

+ SlIa, + S2/a2)

S2Mab2)(SIa0 + a2Sl

aS2Ia2)

S Z,,\l ,\

+ S2MMIa0

a2S2MaboIo2

~ 3/a0Mar0)

<XMab2Ia2 3

.,/.,. + Za2IaO

+ a*Mabi1ai + Mab2Ia0

a2MablIal + a2Mab2Ia0 -

o - 3Mar0])

M) + E\

(7-6-4)

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(7-6-5)

+ 3Mar2])

) } (7-6-6)

where / is the self-impedance of the return circuit between the two points

Thus IaMar + IbMbr + IcMcr is equal to three times the zero sequence

Therefore

E=

,)] (7-6-7)

Equations 7-6-4, 7-6-5, and 7-6-6 apply in the general case. Equations

7-6-5, 7-6-6, and 7-6-7 apply when 0 and 0' are chosen on the return

where

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155

sequence network

(7-6-14)

sequence network

Zai + j2ua2Mabi

sequence network

(7-6-15)

(7-6-16)

(7-6-17)

(7-6-18)

(7-6-19)

7-6-8, 7-6-9, 7-6-10, may be written for every branch of the given network.

They all would show that, as far as Kirchhoff 's second law is concerned, the

general, therefore, the three networks of Figs. 7-3-4a, 7-3-4b, 7-3-4c are

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on the direction in which they are taken, as shown in Fig. 7-6-2 and given

Fio. 7-6-2.

sequence into another is not equal to the coefficient of mutual of the latter

into the former and so we are led to the conclusion that the theory of

symmetrical components, in the general case, does not introduce any sim-

and with respect to the return path. A three-conductor cable, when the

return path is constituted only by the sheath and the three conductors are

exactly alike and symmetrically located with respect to each other and

Za = Zb = Zc = ZaO

from which

Z.i = Z*2 = 0

Mabi = Mab2 = 0

Marl = Mar2 = 0

Thus Eqs. 7-6-7, 7-6-5, 7-6-6, and their equivalent Eqs. 7-6-8, 7-6-9,

- 3Mor0)]

= S/aoZoo (7-7-1)

These equations were written for the circuit between the two sections ..4

and A' of the network shown in Fig. 7-1-1 . Let the conditions of symmetry

assumed for this circuit be satisfied by all circuits of the network. A set of

equations similar to Eqs. 7-7-1, 7-7-2, 7-7-3 can be written for each circuit.

At the same time, a set of equations similar to Eqs. 7-1-4, 7-1-5, 7-1-6,

7-1-7, 7-1-8, 7-1-9, and 7-1-10 can be written for each node of the net-

work. All these equations, those similar to Eqs. 7-1-4, 7-1-5, 7-1-6,

7-1-7, 7-1-8, 7-1-9, and 7-1-10, and those similar to Eqs. 7-7-1, 7-7-2,

tance, in other words, the constants, of the circuits under consideration are

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voltages applied to, them. All equations similar to Eqs. 7-1-4 and 7-7-1

are the equations that would be written if only the zero sequence com-

ponents of the voltages were applied to the network and the other com-

three phases. Similarly, all equations similar to Eqs. 7-1-5, 7-1-7, 7-1-9,

and 7-7-2 are the equations of the same network when only the positive

sequence components of the voltages are applied and the zero and negative

7-1-6, 7-1-8, 7-1-10, and 7-7-3 are the equations of the network that

only were considered and the other components disregarded. This means

constants from currents and voltages are satisfied, the network of Fig.

negative sequence components of the generator emf 'a and adding the results.

This completes the statement of Art. 7-1 that, as far as Kirchhoff 'a first

there is mutual coupling only among the currents on the same vertical.

the results.

symmetrical components.

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Art. 7-1 we established that, as far as Kirchhoff's first law is concerned, the

current distribution in this network is equal to the sum of the current dis-

tributions of Figs. 7-7-1, 7-7-2, and 7-7-3; that is, the currents in phases

158

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

/no

'oO

Fio. 7-7-1.

said at that time regarding the calculation of the currents in the networks

of these figures.

'a,

a2/'

al

at.

al

a/'

al

Fio. 7-7-2.

with respect to each other and to the return path, the network of Fig

Fio. 7-7-3.

of the applied voltages as shown in Figs. 7-7-4, 7-7-5, and 7-7-6 and

adding the results. The networks of these figures are identical with the

network of Fig. 7-2-1 in all respects except for the generator emf's. We

/.

.o

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FIG. 7-7-4.

159

know now how to calculate the currents of Figs. 7-7-1, 7-7-2, and 7-7-3.

that the voltage between any two points of the network of Fig. 7-2-1 is

I"2/.!

b[

1 ti

f;

a/.,

C1 tt/al

FIG. 7-7-5.

equal to the sum of the voltages between the three corresponding sets of

points of the networks of Figs. 7-7-4, 7-7-5, and 7-7-6. In these figures

SE

that is, that it generates emf's of all three sequences. This is not generally

aEgaZ L 1

FIG. 7-7-6.

sequences other than positive. Figures 7-7-4, 7-7-5, and 7-7-6 were

derived by starting from Eqs. 7-7-1, 7-7-2, and 7-7-3. Conversely, these

equations may be written from Figs. 7-7-4, 7-7-5, and 7-7-6 respectively.

practical cases when the condition Zai = ZaZ = 0 is satisfied but conditions

cases, Mabi, Mat2, Marl, Mar2, though different from zero, are small. They

can thus be neglected with no great loss of accuracy but tremendous gain

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symmetrical circuit so that Eqs. 7-7-1, 7-7-2, and 7-7-3 can be applied.

currents and voltages. We have found that the distribution of the sym-

of the three sequence components of the generator emf's. Thus the dis-

7-7-4, 7-7-5, and 7-7-6. The question now arises, can the power in a

section of the network of Fig. 7-2-1 be obtained from the power in the

corresponding circuits of Figs. 7-7-4, 7-7-5, and 7-7-6 and, if so, how?

In order to answer this question, let us first write the expression for the

components of its voltages and currents. Let us refer again to Fig. 7-6-1

and assume that this figure represents the portion of the circuit of Fig.

7-2-1 between the two sections A and A'. In accordance with the con-

Pa = EJ\ + EJa

Pb = >/*6 + EbIb

Pc = EcI\ + EJc

in which the symbols used for currents and voltages indicate effective

where Pa0, Pal, Pa2 are the symmetrical components of the three power

Then

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The actual power of the circuit is obtained by taking the real component

This is the general expression for the phasors representing the instantaneous

Pa. From the three networks obtained by applying separately the three

7-7-5, and 7-7-6, the sum of the phasors representing the instantaneous

wrhich is different from the expression for Pa obtained from Eqs. 7-8-1,

7-8-2, and 7-8-3. The same conclusion is arrived at for phases b and c.

Thus the instantaneous power of any phase in any section A of the network

Figs. 7-7-4, 7-7-5, and 7-7-6. The reason is that, in each phase of the

and 7-7-6 this interaction is lost. What about the total instantaneous

power, that is, the sum of the instantaneous powers in the three phases in

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section A? By adding Eqs. 7-8-1, 7-8-2, and 7-8-3, we see that this power

Pt = Pa + Pk + Pc = 3Pa0

which is also different from the vector representing the sum of the instan-

the reason is that in Figs. 7-7-4, 7-7-5, and 7-7-6 there is no interaction

in sections A0, Ai, and A2 of Figs. 7-7-4, 7-7-5, and 7-7-6, is represented

by

Q I JC" 7 * i JP 7 * 'V T * I - - P

and coincides with Eq. 7-8-5 obtained for section A of Fig. 7-2-1. We can

therefore conclude that the average power Pat in any section A of the net-

work of Fig. 7-2-1 is equal to the sum of the average powers in the corre-

sponding sections A0, Ai, and A2 of Figs. 7-7-4, 7-7-5, and 7-7-6. The

Let <po, <pi, <f2 be the phase angle differences, respectively, between Jo0,

Eal, Ea2 and /oo, /ai, /a2- In terms of <pO, <fi, <f2, we have

Pan = 3(EaoIao COS <po + ^ol^ol COS ipi + Ea2Ia2 COS ^2)

+ j3(ao/a0 sin <f0 + EalIal sin <pi + Ea2Ia2 sin <&) (7-S-6)

and

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Then p

The power factor for a polyphase circuit is also defined by this expression.

Thus, dropping the subscript a for simplicity, that is, letting /,, - /,,,

pf =

Doting that

cos <PO cos <pi + sin <p$ sin <pi = cos (^o ~ <P\)

cos ipo cos <p2 + sin ^0 sin <p2 cos (*io ^2)

we obtain

P ,_ -

COS (^0 ~

T 0 jf if

Ei Ii

E* /2 ^

A2 ~ A2i

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VP2 + Q2

1 + K0* + K22

+2{Ko cos (<po <pl) + K2 cos (<p2 <fl) + KoK2 cos (<PO

The ratios 0/^1 = ^o and E2/El = K2v are called, respectively, the

zero and negative sequence voltage unbalance factors. Similarly the ratios

/o/A = ^ot and /2// i = K2i are called, respectively, the zero and negative

phase circuit through which the three currents /., /6, Ic are flowing. The

where

+ /ai/*aO + /a2/*al )

+ /.,/* + /a2/*oo)

We see that, in general, the expression for the losses in terms of sym-

This value can be obtained directly by noting that, under the assumed

the sum of the losses in the three sequence networks. The same conclusion

through which the three currents /., /6, /c are flowing. If the three react-

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Xa = Xb = Xc = X

165

7-7-4, 7-7-5, and 7-7-6 may be extended to cover these networks by re-

lent voltages must be considered generator emf's, although they are not

known a priori.

This procedure will lead to the formulation of the relations between the

generator emf's, and the constants of the network. In general, these rela-

great practical importance they are very easy to solve and permit in a

simple manner the solution of problems that otherwise, and at best, would

E^b, E2c , i Ena, Enb, Ec are the emf's generated by the generators. For

simplicity only three generators are shown in Fig. 7-11-1. Let us now con-

E3b^ E3c

Fig. 7-11-1.

nect to the network the unbalanced loads L2, L3, L4, , in different sec-

tions T, Q, R, , as shown in Fig. 7-11-2. Let ETa, ETb, Etc, Eqa, Eq,,,

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Eqc, Etta, Enb, Erc, be the voltages existing from the three conductors to

166

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

neutral in sections T, Q, R, . ITa, hb, ITc, /Qa, /6, IQc, IRa, IRb, IRc,

loads in the same sections. Some of these currents may be zero. Let

/io, /i6, Iic, /2o, /2b, hc, ", /no, /n6, /TIc be the currents supplied by the

generators. Let I La, ILb, ILc indicate the currents supplied to the balanced

FIG. 7-11-2.

choose those indicated in Fig. 7-1 1-2, that is, as positive direction for the

generators we assume the one from neutral to conductor terminal and, for

the loads, from the conductor terminal to the neutral. We can now elim-

inate the unbalanced loads, and in their stead apply, respectively, the emf's

ETa, ETb, ETc, EQa, EQb, EQc, ERa, ERb, ERc, from the neutral to the

greater generality, let us assume that they are not symmetrical. Let

6, /,r) = S/

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io

167

L2

FIG. 7-11-3.

preceding articles can therefore be applied to it; that is, it can be studied by

To be sure, the voltages ET0, ETi, ET2, EQO, EQI, EQ2, ER0, ERi, ER2,

of these figures are not known; however, we shall soon show how, starting

from these figures, we can express them and the sequence components

ho, ITI, Ir2, IQO, IQI, IQZ, of the currents supplied to the unbalanced

the constants of the network. Once ETO, ETi, ET2, EQo, EQI, ij2, are

known, the three sequence networks remain solved and the distribution of

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169

I12 T

drop between the generator and the point under consideration. The nega-

of the voltages at any two points differ by the drop between the two points,

average power flowing past any section is calculated from the sequence

from Fig. 7-11-5, the impedance is equal to the ratio of the voltage applied

to any phase to the current flowing in the same phase. We shall refer to

i /21

f, Jfa

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where

metrical emf's of negative sequence applied at Gi, G2, 63, T, Q, R. This net-

work may also be studied by considering one phase only, as shown in Fig.

7-12-2. The impedance of any circuit of Fig. 7-12-2 is equal to the im-

given by

For rotating circuits due to the presence of the rotor windings, Zn and

Z22 will differ from one another. The network of Fig. 7-12-2 will be re-

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of currents of zero sequence; that is, in Fig. 7-11-4, the impedance is equal

to the ratio of the voltage applied to any phase to the current flowing in the

same or any other phase. The network of Fig. 7-12-3 will be referred to as

Mar0 = ~

the positive, the negative, and the zero sequence networks. If all generator

emf's are symmetrical and there are no unbalanced loads, there will be no

applied emf's, and therefore no currents, in the zero and negative sequence

networks. The positive sequence network is then the only one to consider.

applied immediately to both the zero and the negative sequence networks

Later on we shall see how the impedance of the circuits of the zero,

positive, and negative sequence networks are calculated. For the present

portance. Once these voltages are known, it is easy to analyze the networks

tially different from the positive and the negative sequence networks in that

the emf's applied to the three conductors in any section are equal in magni-

tude and phase. The currents flowing in the three conductors in any section

will also be equal in phase and magnitude. It follows that the zero sequence

Each applied emf in the zero sequence network will tend to force a cur-

rent in the network. Whether it can do this or not depends on whether this

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current can return, or not, to the point of generation. If there are different

return path. Thus, in the network of Fig. 7-3-3, zero sequence currents

can be forced from any section of the three conductors a, b', c into the

can be forced into the delta of the transformer from any section of the

three conductors a, b, c, but they can be forced into the generator the

line between this generator and A, as shown in Fig. 7-13-2. The rest of

With the unbalanced load at B, only generator 2 and the line between it

AB

-* --

With the unbalanced load at C, the line between the transformer and C

and the two windings of the latter only need be considered, as shown in

Fig. 7-13-4.

The best way to find out which circuits must be included and which must

applied in the section where the unbalanced load is connected, all the cir-

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which currents of zero sequence cannot flow. With this in mind, it should

175

be easy to draw the zero sequence network. In case of doubt, the same

networks. A few more instances will further clarify the procedure to follow

in actual practice.

Fig. 7-13-5.

Fig. 7-13-6.

transformer has taps brought out from the middle of the winding to obtain

Transformer

110 volts

Grounding

transformer

Fig. 7-13-7.

connected as shown in the figure. One half of the winding of each phase

is on the magnetic core of the next phase. The instantaneous mmf of each

core is the difference between the instantaneous mmf's of the two half-

110-volt side. The only circuit to consider in setting up the zero sequence

network is the grounding transformer and the line between it and A, be-

cause, from A in Fig. 7-13-7, currents of zero sequence can be forced only

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172

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

Fig. 7-13-8.

Series capacitors have been suggested and used for regulation and

tions the voltage across the capacitor may attain large values. For this

reason the capacitors are provided with means to short-circuit them when-

Shunt capacitors are used for power factor correction and regulation.

lines.

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the maximum permissible conductor current at the sending end. For this

overloading the sending end of the cable. This critical length is of the

order of 46 miles for 132-kv cable, 29 mileB for 220-kv cable of the same type

t "Transmission Cable Talks, Focus and Design," Electrical World, XLIII, No. 8

175

of construction. Cable lines whose lengths are greater than the critical

illustration let us consider the network shown in Fig. 7-14-1 with an un-

7-14-2, 7-14-3, and 7-14-4; Z,\, Z,2, Z,0 are the impedances of the genera-

tor and line up to the capacitors C\ to positive, negative, and zero se-

Fig. 7-14-1.

Fig. 7-14-2.

(DSV Z,0

Fig. 7-14-3.

Fig. 7-14-1.

positive and negative sequence currents. Zi0, Z20 are the impedances of

the lines to zero sequence current, usually different from Z\, Z2. C\ is the

ductors. With reference to Fig. 7-14-4 we note that C\, the line to neu-

tral equivalent of the line to line capacitors, C\, is omitted, because no zero

sequence currents can flow through C\. From this we see that for trans-

mission lines and cables the capacitances to be used in the three sequence

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they are the same; both the line to line (Ci) and line to ground (Co) ca-

pacitances must be used. In the zero sequence network, only the capaci-

Sometimes the shunt capacitance from line to ground is the only return

path provided for the zero sequence current. This would be the case in

Fig. 7-14-1 if the generator were ungrounded. The positive and negative

sequence networks of Figs. 7-14-2 and 7-14-3 remain unchanged, but the

wye grounded are identical for the same degree of saturation. The same is

tially different from the positive and negative sequence magnetic paths;

currents.

In an ideal machine, as assumed here, the mmf due to the current in a phase

on either side of the axis of the phase, by one half the polar pitch. The am-

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series per phase per pair of poles. Thus in the ideal machine considered

complete space half-sinusoids, all of the same amplitude, as there are poles

addition to the sinusoid of full polar pitch generate harmonics which anr

177

These three waves are displaced 2t/3 electrical radians from one another or,

more specifically, Nxib, Niic' are, respectively, 22t/3 and 2(2t/3) electrical

magnitude Niia' along the axes of phase a. Similarly the mmf waves of

Niic' respectively.

a) = 2*/

of the angle 8, in electrical radians, made by the axes of the rotor poles, or

8 = wt + 0O (7-15-1)

Direct

axis

Quadrature

axis

Rotor

mmf

Direct

axis

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axes midway between adjacent poles or along the so-called quadrature axes.

Because of the assumed sinusoidal space distribution of the mmf due to each

phase, the mmf's along the two axes due to the armature currents will be

(7-15-2)

(7-15-3)

(7-15-5)

Assume now that the three currents ia', i0', ie' are balanced steady

state values and lag by the angle <p the voltage generated by the excitation

current. This voltage is maximum in phase a when the direct axes pass

through the center point of phase a belt. On this basis, counting the time /

80 = ^ + ip (7-15-4)

iW = f JV, V2/'Bin #

Thus under balanced load conditions the mmf of armature reaction can

be decomposed into two components, Niid' and Niiq' given above with

respect to the rotor, that are revolving synchronously with it with respect

will be

iNis/2In (7-15-6)

We can express Eqs. 7-15-2 in per unit of this normal mmf of armature

reaction:

where ia, ib, ic are the phase currents in per unit of V27n or

2 ia'

V2/n

ib'

tb = ^~ (7-15-8.

V2/n

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(7-15-71

179

Let us now force through the machine three currents of positive sequence.

These currents will generate fluxes which, for convenience, may be thought

of as being composed of two parts, namely, the leakage fluxes linking only

the armature windings without linking the rotor windings, and the flux

linking all three-phase armature windings and in addition the rotor wind-

machine the flux of armature reaction is that due to the mmf of armature

the two components id and iq along the two axes. The two space com-

ponents id and iq are distributed sinusoidally in the air gap with their

maxima in line, respectively, with the axes of the poles, or direct axes,

and with the axes midway between poles or quadrature axes, id and iq

*H

j(xn+2xm)

'000' I

Armature

| *ad

t> Direct

2 axis

'Field leakage

'^

'HRflP'

fmnr>-

nsvis^-

Additional rotor

windings leakages

] J Direct axis

y additional

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rotor

windings

Fig. 7-15-2.

j(xn+2xm)

<Tnnn

Quadrature

axis

i Leakages

Fio. 7-15-3.

fr-i

Quadrature

'axis additional

rotor windings

direct axis magnetic circuit and the permeance of the quadrature axis

each point of the air gap the flux due to each mmf component. To each

corresponding to the two flux components along the direct axis and along

Under steady state conditions the rotor windings, except for saturation,

which is neglected here, have no effect on the fluxes produced by the com-

)f/jd = direct axis excitation air gap flux produced by field current in'

and 7-15-2 are the windings that may be found on the rotor such as damp-

ers, short-circuiting pole collars, and metal wedges. It follows that under

Fig. 7-15-5.

along the two axes are as shown in Figs. 7-15-4 and 7-15-5, where

linking the three armature windings but not the rotor windings

thus given by

Xd = Xn + 2xm + Xad

given by

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Xn = Xn + 2xm + Xad

181

xi = xn + 2xm

The values of n, xad, and xaq are affected by the degree of saturation of the

the reactances are larger than under normal operating conditions, when the

Potier's triangle by means of the no-load and the zero power factor rated

current characteristics. t

It can be shown that the per unit values of the reactances of armature

Xadu v Pd \t t Xaqu pq

where

synchronous speed

and the fluxes associated with them. The flux due to id links the armature

windings as well as the direct axis rotor windings. The flux due to iq links

follows that during variable conditions transient currents are induced in the

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t Consult, for instance, Electrical Transmission and Distribution Reference Book, op.

182

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

rence of the change the currents induced in the rotor windings have their

at the very first instant of a transient when the transient currents induced

in all the rotor windings have their maximum effect in reducing the react-

Xd" Xu + Xad"

II _ I II

Xq X\q | Xaq

where xu and xiq are the leakage reactances along the direct and quadrature

xn + 2xm obtaining under steady state conditions except for the effect of

saturation.

the transient when the currents induced in the direct axis rotor windings

equal to the leakage reactance of all direct axis rotor windings with respect

to the direct axis mutual flux. This reactance is thus smaller than the

the inception of the transient when the currents induced in the quadrature

there are no rotor windings in the quadrature axis, xaq" will not differ

from xag.

at the instant when the effect of the currents induced in the additional rotor

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very large, or

%d Xu + Xad'

Xq Xid T Xaq

where xtd and xiq still have the same values as above if the effect of satura-

183

direct axis rotor windings, but not the effect of the transient current in the

direct axis excitation winding. xaq' is the corresponding reactance for the

current as shown in Fig. 7-15-6. Xd" is equal to E/i". If both the current

FIG. 7-15-6.

and the voltage are expressed in per unit, their ratio will give the per unit

the air gap line, the reactance obtained is the unsaturated reactance. If the

saturated value.

Values of Xd, xq, Xd", xq", Xd, xq' for various types of machines are

Let us assume now that with the rotor revolving at synchronous speed

to the rotor. This revolving mmf will cause voltages, and thus currents,

to be induced in the rotor windings. From the above, it appears that the

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equal to the average of the subtransient reactances x/' along the direct

axis and xq" along the quadrature axis. This conclusion, however, dis-

regards the effect of the dynamic voltages and currents induced by the

sis would show that the negative sequence reactance x2 depends on the type

Let us assume now that with the rotor revolving at synchronous speed

reactances are involved, the choice is not critical. Transient reactances are

the reactances along the two axes is usually neglected and x<j", x/, or a is

to take into consideration the d-c components of the currents. The com-

plete analysis of the problem is outside the scope of this book.f Suffice it to

say that, when a three-phase balanced fault occurs starting from no load,

1. Prior to the fault, the flux linking the rotor and armature windings

is that due to the rotor excitation. When the fault currents reach

their steady state values, the flux of armature reaction will be super-

imposed on the flux Unking the rotor excitation winding due to the

speed, the air gap flux and thus the envelope of the symmetrical

a-c armature currents will follow the shape of the resultant mmf

produced by both the steady state and the induced rotor current*

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2. The flux produced by the rotor excitation prior to the fault occupies

application of the fault will tend to change this flux, with the result

t See, for instance, Electrical Transmission and Distribution Reference Book, 4th ed,

185

d-c transient flux will have two effects: it will induce a unidirec-

given by

_J 1\

A" + xe Xd' + xj

_1 \_\

i + xe Xd + Xj

0-tlTd"

,-HTd'

+ X,,

COS (ut + 00 )

cos 00

+-

(7-15-9)

where xj", xq", Xd', Xd are the reactances of the machine discussed in the

the fault, by the direct axis and the axis of the phase under consideration.

Ti" and Tj' are, respectively, the direct axis short-circuit subtransient

Xc

(7-15-10)

Id=

Xd

where

.,

- 1 dO

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T,

(7-15-11)

P~

Rfd

is the direct axis open-circuit time constant or the time constant of the

direct axis excitation circuit with the armature and all other rotor ad-

self-inductance /.,., and the resistance i!,,t of the direct axis excitation

circuit. TJO" is the direct axis subtransient time constant. This is the

the armature windings and all other additional rotor windings are short-

the resistances of the armature winding and of the additional rotor circuits

are zero.

the assumptions that the rotor is revolving at synchronous speed and that

The currents in the other two phases are obtained by replacing 00 with

ro + r.-f

With faults other than three-phase, Eq. 7-15-9 will give the positive

Ze will depend on the type of fault and will be determined with the methods

different types the expressions for the armature currents will not be so

simple as Eq. 7-15-9; however, for general studies the values obtained

PROBLEMS

7-1. What are the relations between the sequence components of the line to

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t W. M. Hanna, loc. cit.; C. Concordia, op. cit.; C. F. Dabsiel, "Decrement Curvee for

187

7-3. Can the voltage distribution in a 3-phase network be obtained from the

7-4. Can the instantaneous power and the average power at any point in a

3-phase network be obtained from the current and voltages in the three sequence

networks?

7-6. How do you determine which parts of a system must be included in the

positive, in the negative, and in the zero sequence networks for fault studies?

Ia = 100

/6 = 50 - j50

/c = 50 + jlQO

find their sequence components. Can these three currents be the line currents

load?

load. The three currents are, respectively, 100, 200, and 86.7 amp. i * '-:

Generator

Autotransformer

bank

PROB. 7-11.

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amp to flow to ground. For each type of grounding transformer draw four

188

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

PBOB. 7-12.

per unit at 100,000 kva and in amperes) flowing in the transformer and gener-

ator windings and in the line between the generator and transformer.

7-14. Consider the network of the figure. Under certain fault conditions at F,

assuming j 1.0 per unit positive sequence voltage prior to the fault, the following

Positive sequence

Negative sequence

13.8 kv

138 kv

13.8 kv

Transformer ~

PROB. 7-14.

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Transformer

189

11 kv

i tii

,|_i? 0,433 n

1000 amp

22 kv

foooobV.:

l*0.866n"l

22 kv

_L_

Prob. 7-15.

Show the flow of the sequence components of the currents in the autotrans-

ToTP-

N (ground)

Induction regulator

Induction regulator

Generator

6h

-rnnr1-

r-^TVoT^

Ind. reg.

iTflnP

(B)

Ind. reg.

Load

, nsins^-

(C)

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tlffli

Prob. 7-16.

(a) Find the numerical values of the sequence components of the line to neutral

(b) Repeat with the regulators in the bucking position, also under no-load

conditions.

(c) For (a) and (b) find the sequence components of the line voltages VAB,

VBC, VCA-

(d) Assume that the regulators are in the maximum boost position as in (a).

Assume also that a load composed of three resistors, 1000 ohms each, connected

the impedances of the generator and of the regulators, calculate the numerical

values of the sequence components of the currents I A, IB, Ic and those of the

(f) Refer to Fig. A. Give the answers to (a), (b), (c), (d), (e), assuming that

'by mistake" the connections of the excitation winding phase c are reversed as

shown in Fig. C.

7-17. Same as Prob. 7-16 except that regulators are connected as shown in the

figure.

(a) Find the numerical values of the sequence components of the line to neutral

(c) For (a) and (b) find the sequence components of the line voltages VAB,

VBC, VCA.

(d) Assume now that the regulator is in the maximum boost position as in (a).

Assume also that a load composed of three impedances 1.5 p.u. (at 0.85 pf lagging)

Induction regulator

PROB. 7-17.

Z0 = 0.03

Xd = 1.20

X2 = 0.09

Disregard the impedance of the regulator. Find the sequence components of the

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7-18. Consider the system of the figure. The characteristics of the equipment

are as follows.

191

Rating,

kva

XJ Xi Xt

X,

60 cycles

50,000

0.23 0.14

0.08

60 cycles

100,000

0.23 0.14

0.08

Transformer TI

20,000

0.07 0.07

0.07

Transformer Ti

20,000

0.07 0.07

0.07

Neutral resistors

Ri

10 ohms

ft

10 ohms

Line ' 1

Line* 2

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13.8/33 kv

33/13.8 kv

PROB. 7-18.

Assume a fault at F on line 2. Set up the sequence networks for this fault.

Show the variations of the sequence impedances as F moves from one end of the

line to the other. Disregard all resistances except the neutral resistances Ri

and R2.

(a) Find the numerical values of the sequence components of the line to neutral

(c) For (a) and (b) find the sequence components of the line voltages VAB,

VBC, VCA.

(d) Assume now that the regulator is in the maximum boost position, as in (a).

Assume also that a load composed of three impedances 1.5 p.u. (at 0.85 pf lagging)

that the generator has the following per unit reactances on rating:

X0 = 0.03

Xd = 1.20

X2 = 0.09

192

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

Ground

Disregard the impedance of the regulator. Find the sequence components of the

element. Each directional element has a voltage coil and a current coil inter-

Phase

Relay Voltage

Relay Current

Real Component of

Eac m Ea Ec

Etc = Eb Km

E,b = Ec Eh

I,

Eicfte-'"'

The connection to the relay terminals for phase 1 are as shown in the figure. The

to the relay; a' remains constant once its value has been set.

ponents.

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teracting in the three directional elements and the corresponding torques are a-5

follows.

onpp^o

Pbob. 7-20.

Torque Proportional to

Real Component of

Phase

Relay Voltage

Relay Current

Et

S.

Ki

Ek

7-22. Repeat the calculations of Prob. 7-20 for another so-called 60 connection

in which the currents and voltages interacting in the three elements and the cor-

Phase

Relay Voltage

Relay

Torque Proportional to

,.

E*

= E'.

-E.

/.

- A E,.(I. - /6)t-'a

= ,,

- Ec

7-23. Repeat the calculations of Prob. 7-20 for the so-called 90 connections

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in which the voltages and currents interacting in the three directional elements

Torque Proportional to

1 ,k = Ec - 6 /. */*,e-'a,

2 = .-, A /*-""

3 n. = Eb-E, L

7-24. Assume for Prob. 7-21 that the three directional elements are on the

same shaft.

Find the expression for the total torque in terms of symmetrical components.

7-25. Considerf the sequence current filter shown in the figure, where the

'/i, / are the sequence components of the three currents /, Ib. /,-.

(a) Show that the impedance Z, measured across terminals d, e, with the meter

disconnected and the primary currents /a, h, Ic made equal to zero, is given by

(b) Show that the sequence filter is equivalent to the circuit shown in the

inset, where Z' is the impedance of the meter, to which circuit is applied the

voltage

(c) Show that the current /m through the meter is proportional to the positive

3Zr/l

o(Z + Z')

194

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

Meter

Prob. 7-25.

(d) Show that, if the two legs A and B are interchanged, the voltage Ei across

the equivalent circuit and the current Im through the meter are proportional to

_ 37,<r'"78

Hi =

/m =

3Zre-'m0 h

(Z + Z') a

+ <WV

^jd

\..

(P)

Prob. 7-26.

7-26. t Consider the sequence network of the figure, where the current trans-

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t Ibid., p. 375.

195

combined positive sequence current and weighed zero sequence current filter

used in connection with the Westinghouse type HCB pilot wire relay. Za is the

windings open-circuited.

(a) Show that the impedance Z, measured across terminals d, e, with the meter

disconnected and the currents /a, Ib, /c made equal to zero, is given by

Z = Rl + Ro +- Za

(b) Show that the sequence network is equivalent to the circuit shown in the

inset, where Z' is the impedance of the meter, to which circuit is applied the

voltage

pop

&i tS\,I

(/i + ff/o)

where

(c) Show that the current /m through the meter is proportional to the positive

/2fli/i

(Z+Z')a

Z+Z1

7-27. Considerf the zero sequence filter shown in the figure, where the current

1;

ji

]!

in

'''

/.

Meter

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PROB. 7-27.

(a) Show that the impedance Z, measured across terminals d, e, with the meter

disconnected and the primary currents /., /b, Ic made equal to zero, is given by

Z = Zr

196

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

(b) Show that the sequence filter is equivalent to the circuit shown in the

insert, where /' is the impedance of the meter, to which is applied the voltage

(c) Show that the current / through the meter is proportional to the zero

/ 3Z, /

"(/, + Z') a

(d) Show that maximum power output from the filter obtains when Z is a

pure resistance.

7-28. Considerf the sequence filter of the figure, where Z, in general can be an

Zd

Meterx

PROB. 7-28.

(a) Show that the impedance Z, measured across terminals d, e, with the meter

disconnected and the applied voltages E_. ,., E. set equal to zero, is given by

Z = 0.5Zr + j0.289Zr

(b) Show that the sequence filter is equivalent to the circuit shown in the

inset, where Z is the impedance of the meter, to which is applied the voltage

v/3/.J'O8

(c) Show that the current /m through the meter is proportional to the negative

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V3e'30 2

In, =

(Z+Z') a

(d) Show that, if the two legs A and B are interchanged, the voltage Ei across

the equivalent circuit and the current Im through the meter are proportional to

V3e-',0

Ei = ,

V3e-'30 Ei

"~ (Z+Z') a

ances Z\, Zi in series. The sequence impedances of the generator are Zo, Zp, Z,

Ei, Ec are the line to neutral voltages applied to terminals a, 6, c of the A, and

(b) Find the sequence components of the voltages E,\, EH. Ec from the junc-

tion points .1, B, C to the neutral N of the generator in terms of Eo, Ea\, Ea2.

(c) What relation must Z\ and Zi satisfy in order for the voltages Ea, Eb, Ec

(d) What relation must Z\ and 7j satisfy in order for the voltages EA, Eb, Ec

(e) Assume now that from A, B, C three similar meters of impedance Z' are

the currents through the meters will be proportional to the positive sequence

voltage Ea\, or that the network will act as a polyphase positive sequence filter.

(f) Show that in (e) the polyphase sequence filter is equivalent to an open

circuit for the zero and negative sequence voltages Ea, 2 and to the circuits

of Fig. B for the positive sequence voltages. Determine the value of Z in terms

of Z\ and Zj.

(g) Show that, if Z\ and Zi satisfy the relation in (d), the currents through the

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meters will be proportional to the negative sequence voltage Ea2 or that the net-

(h) Show that in (g) the polyphase sequence filter is equivalent to an open

circuit for the zero sequence and positive sequence voltages Eao, Ea\ and to the

circuit of Fig. C for the negative sequence voltages. Determine the value of /

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108

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

6 ^i

*2

(A)

(B)

199

7-30. Consider t the zero sequence filter shown in the figure, where the po-

z=o

Ground

Prob. 7-30.

(a) Show that the impedance Z measured across terminals d, e with the meter

disconnected and the applied voltages Ea, &, Er set equal to zero is given by

Z=0

(b) Show that the sequence filter is equivalent to the circuit shown in the inset

(c) Show that the current Im through the meter is proportional to the zero

30

/m =

Z'

7-31. Consider the sequence filter of the figure, where the current transformer

(a) Show that the impedance Z measured across terminals d, e with the meter

Z = ZT + j

Zr

V3

(b) Show that the sequence filter is equivalent to the circuit shown in the

insert, where /' is the impedance of the meter, to which circuit is applied the

voltage Ei given by

Ei = 27, -

t Based on Electrical Transmission and Distribution Reference Book, p. 374. See also

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Prob. 2-23.

200

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

PROB. 7-31.

(c) Show that the current /m through the meter is proportional to the poeitive

/ 2Zr fl

= (Z+Z1) a

(d) Show that, if the two secondary leads on the two phases 6 and c are inter-

changed, the voltage ,- across the equivalent circuit and the current / through

the meter are proportional to the negative sequence current /:, and are given by

(Z + Z')a

7-32. f Assume that the three currents /a, h, Ie forced through a 3-phase line

Show that the three line to neutral voltages ., Eb, Ec required to force the

and that the impedance coefficients Z0t, ZM, Zu are given, respectively, by

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7-33. f Assume that the three currents /a, Ib, Ic forced through the line are of

positive sequence, or

8(1., h, h) = S1/.!

Show that the three line to neutral voltages Ea, Eb, Ec required to force the

- EaO

7 Eal

tn =

/ol

7-34. f Assume that the three currents /., h, Ie forced through the line are of

zero sequence, or

and that the impedance coefficients Zio, Z00, /2o are given by

"' ~ /aO

Zoo

oO

motor is operated under unbalanced voltage conditions. The line to line voltages

f/wa.

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The efficiency and power factor of the motor at full load are both equal to 0.85.

(a) Find the gross mechanical power output of the motor when the latter is

operating with a slip of 0.03. What is the effect of the unbalance on this output?

(b) Find the line to neutral voltages ,,. E,.. E applied to, and the line cur-

rents Ia, h, I- supplied to, the motor with operating conditions as in (a).

(c) Compute the power factor of the motor under the operating conditions

specified in (a).

7-37. Two systems A and B are interconnected as shown in the figure, f The

Transformers 1 and 3, 30 mva each 13.8/115 kv, +5% high voltage tap

Transformers 2 and 4, 30 mva each 110/13.8 kv, -5% high voltage tap

115 kv

115 kv

<D

PROB. 7-37.

(a) Assume a line to ground fault at F on the high voltage terminal of trans-

former 2.

(c) What would be the effect on the ground directional relays 1, 3, 4, assuming

that these relays are polarized from the current in the neutral of the respective

power transformer?

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7-38. The line to line voltages applied to a 10-hp, 4-pole, 60-cycle, 220-volt,

The sequence is a, b, c. The motor is operating at a slip of 0.0334 and its char-

acteristics are

Ri = 0.153 ohm/phase

Xi = 0.5 ohm/phase

Xm =14.3 ohms/phase

(a) Find the sequence components of the voltages applied to the motor and

(b) Under the same conditions calculate the stator and rotor losses and com-

pare them with those obtaining with the motor operating at rated balanced

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Unbalanced Voltages," Transactions, AIEE, LXXIII, pt. IIIA (April 1954), 125-33.

CHAPTER 8

wise symmetrical system. The major faults and unbalanced loads con-

sidered will be: line to ground, line to line, and double line to ground. All

The networks of Figs. 7-12-1, 7-12-2, and 7-12-3 will now reduce to those

of Figs. 8-1-1, 8-1-3, and 8-1-2. In the latter networks only the generator

Fig. 8-1-1.

emf's and the circuit constants are known. The components of the cur-

rents and voltages at the fault are not known. In fact, their determination

in this article we shall establish first some general relations which are

satisfied regardless of the type of fault or unbalanced load and which are

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204

assumed not to, generate emf's of negative and zero sequence. However,

for greater generality, we shall assume that the generator emf's admit

10

'30

OX

Iia 2

1h

Fig. 8-1-2.

Fig. 8-1-3.

Let it be assumed now that the emf's generated by the three generators

in each phase are the same for all three generators, although they differ

En E2\ = E31 = Ei

If, in addition, the balanced loads, such as L\, are disregarded, we obtain

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SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

where

Q\.

02.

load. They were derived by disregarding the effect of all loads and as-

suming that the emf's generated by the generators on each phase are

lows.

Let E/\, E/0, E/2 be the sequence components of the line to neutral

voltages existing at Q prior to and without the fault. Consider the positive

8-1-4, which is drawn in a more general form than Fig. 8-1-1. With the

fault on, the voltage at Qi will be Eq\, as shown in Fig. 8-1-1 or, in a more

I /e21

V-

~(q 1

Jo

Fig. 8-1-4.

/E,

21

E sA

Enly |

~fe 1

*3N i

Fig. 8-1-5.

generator can now be added which generates the voltage E/\. Similarly,

generate the voltage E!i + En + Eq\. The results are shown in Figs.

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8-1-6 and 8-1-7 respectively. Comparison of the last two figures shows

that the current Iqi is equal to the current forced into the network by the

E/i - qi

/qi = = (8-1-6)

207

networks, so that

E/o - EQ0

Iqo = ^ (8-1-7)

Iq2 =

E/2 Eq2

(8-1-8)

*3iV ^

Fig. 8-1-6.

31

Fig. 8-1-7.

These three equations are identical with Eqs. 8-1-1, 8-1-2, and 8-1-3

except that

Ei is replaced by E/\.

E0 is replaced by E/0.

E2 is replaced by E/2.

In practical cases, E/0 = E/2 = 0, and Eqs. 8-1-7 and 8-1-8 become

Now, assuming that Iq\, Iq0, Iq2 and Eq\, Eq0 Eq2 are known (their

calculation will be analyzed in the following articles), how are the sym-

the positive sequence network. If the generator emf's En, 21, 1Eni

are known, together with the positive sequence currents flowing between

any of these emf's, say En and M, the positive sequence component Em\

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208

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

between Ei0, 12, and M, respectively, are known, Emo and Em2 will be

given by

Now let us assume that En, E2\, Ei are not known but E/i is

known. Then the positive sequence component of the voltages at the fault,

Emi = Eqi +

the fault. This voltage drop is due to the fault current Iq\, the load cur-

rents and the circulating currents arising from the differences between

E/i, of course, tells us nothing about the load and circulating currents.

The same conclusion applies to the zero and negative sequence voltages

Em0, Em2, except of course that the components of the generator emf's

Strictly speaking, then, in this case EM\, EM0, Em2 cannot be calculated

from a knowledge of E/i and Iqi; however, in practical cases, the effect of

the load and circulating currents can be disregarded and Em\, Em0, Em2

calculated from

Emi

= En

- ZZihi

(8-1-12)

Emo

= E/o

T.Z0'Iqo'

(8-1-13)

Em 2

= E/2

Y.^2'IQ2

(8-1-14)

drop between the common neutral of all generators and M due to the

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average power at the fault is zero. This average power is given by Eq.

Consider the case when E0 = E2 = 0. From Eqs. 8-1-1, 8-1^1, and 8-1-5,

209

Thus

(8-1-19)

is the average positive sequence power absorbed at the fault, ZJqi2 is the

power absorbed in the positive sequence network. Thus, from Eq. 8-1-16,

the average positive sequence power absorbed at the fault is equal to the

average positive sequence power generated by the generators less the power

sequence power absorbed by the fault; Eq0I*q0 is the average zero se-

obtain

That is, the average positive sequence power absorbed by the fault is equal

to the sum of the average zero and negative sequence powers generated at

the fault. From Eq. 8-1-17 we see that the average zero sequence power

generated at the fault is equal to the average zero sequence power absorbed

by the zero sequence network. Similarly, from Eq. 8-1-18 the average

generators is equal to the sum of the average powers absorbed in the three

at the fault is converted into powers of zero and negative sequences which

are forced back into the network from the fault. The fault acts as a se-

8-2. Line to Ground Fault. Let us refer again to the network of Fig.

7-11-2 and assume that only a short circuit from phase a to ground is

R, etc., are not connected to the network. The three networks of Figs.

7- 12-1, 7-12-2, and 7-12-3 will become the three networks of Figs. 8-1-1,

Since the fault is on phase a, the line to ground voltage at the fault on

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(8-1-20)

from which

(8-2-1)

?Qb = Iqc = 0

210

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

Thus

(8-2-2)

These are the equations that characterize a line to ground fault. Because

the same current Iq\ is flowing out at Q\, Q0, Q2 in Figs. 8-1-1, 8-1-2,

8-1-3, the three networks can be connected in series with one another and

with the sum of the three voltages Eq\, Eq2, Eq0. The result is shown in

Fig. 8-2-1, where the sum of the three voltages Eq\, Eq2, Eq0 is not shown

Positive

E.

21

14

r11

E12

Negative

'32 f ia\

122

v22

'10

*10

'20

20

Zero

30

Fig. 8-2-1.

clusion that, with a line to ground fault, the current and voltage distribu-

the three sequence networks in series at the point of fault. The currents

and voltages in the actual network are obtained from the corresponding

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in Arts. 7-1 and 7-7; that is, the current and voltage distributions in the

three-phase sequence networks are readily obtained from current and volt-

that the emf's generated in each phase by the generators G\, G2, ,(?

are all equal in phase and magnitude and of positive sequence; that is,

10

= E2o =

- En0

=0

= 22 =

= En2

=0

En

= E2\ =

=Enl

= E,

loads such as L\ are neglected. In such a case Eqs. 8-1-1, 8-1-4, and 8-1-5

where

from Q\.

from Q2.

The same result can be obtained by combining Eqs. 8-1-1, 8-1-4, and

*<*=-*'z, + % + z,

z2

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^-"z. + z. + z, (8-2-5)

Eq2 E j 1

ZO + Z\ + Z2

(8-2-6)

212

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

31

^0 + Z\ + ^2

(8-2-7)

The currents in the other two conductors, iQb, Iqc, are both zero. This,

however, does not mean that the currents in phases 6 and c in any other

circuit of the network are zero. They will be zero if the currents in the

corresponding circuits of the three sequence networks are equal, that is,

if any one of the three sequence networks may be obtained from any of

The three voltages EQa, EQb, EQc at the fault are given by

ZO + Z\ + Z2

Z0 + aZi + a2Z2

(8-2-8)

(8-2-9)

(8-2-10)

(8-2-11)

{ Z0 + \ T *2

Vab = EQb

.- (Zo + 2Z2)

*0 + *1 + ^2

Vca E(}c

z0 + 2zy

Z0 ~ Z\

Z0 + 2Z)

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213

then

ZO Z\ Z2

Eqb = a2 Ei

Eqc = aE\

That is, the voltages from b and c to ground in section Q are equal to the

voltages from the same phases to ground at the terminals of the generator.

current flowing in the faulty phase. In the expressions already given for

Equ Eqc and for the special case under consideration, the effect of this

Fig. 8-2-2.

Z0 - Z

[Z0 + 2Z\

where Z\ = Z2 Z.

In the more general case, when Zi ^ Z2, the effect of the mutual coupling

\Z0 + a2Zi+aZ2}

-Ei

ZO + Zi + Z2

Z0 + aZi + a2Z2]

Z0 + Zi + Z2 J

The preceding expressions have been derived disregarding all the loads

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and assuming the emf's generated by the generators in each phase equal in

are not absolutely necessary, and at least the fault currents and voltages,

including the effect of balanced loads and of the differences in the generated

emf's, can be calculated more accurately. For this purpose Eqs. 8-2-1

214

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

and 8-2-2 are combined with Eqs. 8-1-6, 8-1-7, and 8-1-8, assuming in

E/o = E/2 = 0

Then we obtain

Iqo = hi = hi ~ - T ~ T - (8-2-12)

*0 T ~1 T *2

8-3. Power with a Line to Ground Fault. In Art. 8-2, which deals with

the analysis of a line to ground fault, it was assumed that generators gen-

erate no negative and zero sequence voltages. With this assumption, the

only emf's applied in the three-phase zero and negative sequence networks

are those existing at the point of fault, Q. These applied emf's force cur-

rents and power in their respective networks in exactly the same manner

as would generators connected at the same point. Thus the system of zero

sequence voltages SEq0 will force currents and power of zero sequence

from Q into the three-phase zero sequence network. The system of negative

sequence voltages SEq2 will force currents and power of negative sequence

We are thus led to the conclusion that zero and negative sequence powers

are forced into the given network from Q. Where is this power coming

from? The discussion in Art. 8-1 and inspection of the positive sequence

network of Fig. 8-1-1 and of Fig. 8-2-1 will answer this question. Figure

the zero and negative sequence networks. From the discussion in Art. 8-1,

into the network again. To clarify this point further, let us rederive this

The assumed directions for currents and voltages are such that, in the

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the fault as expressed by Eq. 7-8-5. From Eqs. 8-2-1 and 8-2-2, we see

that the zero sequence component of the currents flowing into the fault and

signs. Thus the component 3Eq0I*q0 of the power supplied to the fault is

negative; that is, zero sequence is generated in Q. Similarly, from the same

equations, we see that EQ2 and Iq2 are also of opposite sign, so that the

that is, negative sequence power is generated in Q. Eqi and Iq\, the positive

sequence of the currents supplied to the fault, are both positive. Thus the

That is, of the three components of the average power supplied to the fault

the positive sequence component is equal and of opposite sign to the sum

Now what happens to the zero and negative sequence powers generated

3EqoI*qo = +3/qo Z0

The first member represents the average power of zero sequence generated

sequence network. Thus we find again that the zero sequence power

3fiQ2* 02 = 3/Q2 ^2

and the second member is the negative sequence power absorbed in the

negative sequence network. Thus, from the above equation, we see that

We shall return to this point later. For the present it should suffice to

remember that the average power absorbed by any device connected to the

network is the sum of the three powers, the positive, the zero, and the

fault, causing the unbalance, will record the positive minus the zero and

record the power absorbed by any other balanced load will record the

sum of the positive, negative, and zero sequence powers flowing through

it, or the balanced load will be penalized for some wrongdoing for which

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If the generator also generates emf of zero and negative sequence, the

both the emf applied at Q and the emf generated by the generator. The

power may still flow from the positive into the other two sequences or may

216

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

even flow the other way, depending on the magnitude and phase position of

cussion of the effect of capacitance in Art. 7-14 is, of course, applicable here.

^2

* z" l

- -J 1

^2

_.fc_ll_

*~

^20

L- j i

L __i_

_j

FIG. 8-4-1.

resistances and reactances for the various parts of the sequence networks.

The effect of the various capacitances and any eventual resonating condi-

as when shunt capacitors connected in wye grounded are used for power

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as shown in Fig. 8-5-1 may be reduced to the line to ground fault studied

balanced load, as shown in Fig. 8-5-2, and imagining a dead line to grounc

217

Fio. 8-5-1.

Fio. 8-5-2.

fault in Q'. It follows that all that is necessary to do, to study this case, is

be modified as shown in Fig. 8-5-3. From now on, the calculations for the

&

I' 1*

_ W _P

1 Positive

[ G2

^[ >U^

'* I 2

|1

Negative

^ X ^ 2 -i ;

/J2 r Iu \

^32

"l^ol

1 t r/o |/2t

[^lo

yi U

Zero

'30 'iol

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Fio. 8-5-3.

will proceed as for a line to ground fault, assuming Q' as the point of fault.

For simplicity, the same symbols are used in Fig. 8-5-3 for currents and

voltages as in Fig. 8-2-1. It should be noted also that, in both these figures,

If the emf's generated by the generators Gi, G2, are taken all equal

Art. 8-2,

EI

T T w * 'o e i I

from Qi.

from Q2.

(8-5-4)

EQ2 = (Z + ZZ)IQZ = El

EQa' = 0

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(8-5-6)

VB = Vca EQc

MZ0

2Z2 + 3Z

3Z.

(8-5-9)

(8-5-10)

, + Ztf-w + 3Z

Zi

3Z.

(8-5-11)

(8-5-12)

For the calculation of currents and voltages at any other point of the

network, the procedure to be followed is the same as that given for a line to

ground fault.

If, as noted in Art. 8-2, the generator emf's are not equal in phase and

magnitude and the loads are not neglected, more accurate values for the

fault currents and voltages can be obtained by replacing El with Efi, the

8-6. Line to Line Fault. Refer again to Fig. 7-11-2, and assume that a

loads are connected in T, R, etc., as shown in Fig. 8-6-1, in which the same

symbols have been used for currents and voltages as in Figs. 7-11-2 to

7-11-6 and 7-12-1 to 7-12-3 inclusive. The currents flowing from the

Phase a: /Qo = 0

Phase b: IQb ^ 0

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Zero sequence:

220

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

Fio. 8-6-1.

Positive sequence:

(8-6-1)

Negative sequence:

/Q2 =

At the fault the voltage from phase 6 to phase c is zero; that is,

E(jb EQc = 0

from which, substituting for EQb and EQc their expressions in terms of their

sequence components,

(862)

Equations 8-6-1 and 8-6-2 are the characteristic equations for a line to

line fault.

A, Q,

'oi I'

^i Ifa

'31

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Fio. 8--2.

221

The three networks of Figs. 7-12-1, 7-12-2, and 7-12-3 will become those

of Figs. 8-6-2, 8-6-3, and 8-6-4. The zero sequence network is open-

circuited at Qo because no zero sequence current flows from the network into

the fault. The zero sequence component of the voltages at Q will depend

A2 Q,

32

Fio. 8-6-3.

generate E(j2 in Q2. On the other hand, /QZ = IQI, and no current will

that: with a b.ne to line fault, the current and voltage distributions in the

Fio. 8-6-4.

8-6-^. As for a line to ground fault, the currents and voltages in the

actual network are obtained from the corresponding quantities in the three

sequence networks, in the manner already explained in Arts. 7-1 and 7-7.

Thus the zero sequence component of the voltages at any point A of the

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given network is obtained from the zero sequence component of any gen-

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

A,

Ql

I'd

'21

*u

.L

21

r.

L.

?!'"

Jt_. i

G3

_3^ 1.

r12

L. lj?.

9,

J^.

Fio. 8-6-5.

erator by subtracting the drop in the zero sequence network between the

generator and the point A0, which, in the zero sequence network, corre-

sponds to the point A of the given network. The positive and negative

similar manner, from the positive and negative sequence networks. From

from these, in the actual network are readily obtained. As already noted

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the generators GI, G2, , Gn are assumed all equal in phase and magnitude

_ r

10 &20

Eln E22 =

= En0 = 0

= En2 = 0

we obtain

^1 T ^2

The same result may be derived from Eq. 8-6-2 in conjunction with Eqs.

EQO = 0 (8-6-4)

EQl = , Z2 (8-6-5)

A T *2

(8-6-6)

^1 + ^2

/. = -/6= J 7- (8-6-8)

*1 T *2

The current in phase a is zero. Of course, this does not mean that the

current in phase a in any other part of the given network is zero. It will

network with more than one circuit, if the impedances of the negative se-

satisfied by all static parts of the given network, such as transformers and

lines, but not by rotating apparatus such as generators and motors. On this

EQa = EQ1 +

EQb = a2EQl

EQc =

V2 ^1 _ . _

(,o-!)-y;

fQ R_m\

2\ + Z2

jTjF 2

i (,8-o-iu,)

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jr. . jf ^c_R_11^

= EQo EQb =

I-

*1 T ^2

224

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

If, as previously noted in Arts. 8-1 and 8-2, the generators' emf 's are not

equal in phase and magnitude and the loads are not neglected, more

ac.curate values for the fault currents and voltages can be obtained by

replacing El with Eji, the voltage existing at the point of fault before the

fault occurs.

8-7. Power with a Line to Line Fault. The effect of faults on the flow

of power was discussed in general terms in Art. 8-1. The matter was

discussed again in Art. 8-3 for a line to ground fault. Let us now apply

The total power at the fault is zero, and thus from Eq. 7-8-5, noting

that, in this case, at the fault, EQI = EQZ, IQO 0, and IQI = IQZ, we

obtain

3i/*i + 32/*2 = 0

*Qi is the average positive sequence, and 3(j2/*Q2 the average nega-

tive sequence power absorbed by the fault. As their sum is zero and the

power); that is, the fault acts like a phase converter, converting positive

sequence power into negative sequence power, the latter being forced

again, from the fault as a source, into the network. The discussion regard-

ing the power metered by meters, given in connection with line to ground

faults, applies to the present case as well; that is, a meter connected to

record the power absorbed by the line to line fault, causing the unbalance,

will record the positive minus the negative sequence power, that is, zero

other balanced load will record the sum of the positive and the negative

sequence power flowing through it and will be penalized for some wrong-

Q as shown in Fig. 8-8-1, may be reduced to the line to line short circuit

FIG. 8-8-1.

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FIG. 8-8-2.

225

impedance Z/2 equal to one half the impedance of the single-phase load,

and assuming a dead short circuit at the end of the two impedances on

phases b and c as shown in Q' of Fig. 8-8-2. It will be noted that Fig. 8-8-2

fault, the three sequence networks of Figs. 8-6-2, 8-6-3, and 8-6-4 must

be modified only for the addition of the impedance Z/2 in Qi, Q2, QO.

This, of course, will not affect the zero sequence network; it will, however,

affect the positive and negative sequence networks, so that Fig. 8-6-5

will be modified as shown in Fig. 8-8-3. From now on, currents, voltages,

and power calculations will proceed in exactly the same manner as for a

32

L,

Fio. 8-8-3.

For simplicity, the same symbols are used in Fig. 8-8-3 as in Fig. 8-6-5.

Of course, this does not mean that the currents and voltages obtained in the

two cases are the same. In Fig. 8-8-3, as in previous figures, broken lines

If the emf's generated by generators GI, G2, are all equal in phase

Zi

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(8-8-1)

where, as before,

from Qi.

from Q2-

I f J 1 /Q Q OI

EQO' = 0

Z2 + Z/2 ] (8-8-3)

From these the following expressions may be derived for the three line to

ground voltages at Q:

w, I r / i p / r. I 2Z2 + Z ]

1^1 -(- ^2 + *J

p' 2P / _i p / p 2

i^! + Z2 + ]

\Zi + LZ -+ }

EQO = 0

p r 7 i r J * ' /o o i I

(8-8-8)

from which the corresponding line to ground and line to line voltages are

readily obtained:

,I

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+ Z2 + Z.

\i -f- 2 T

v F F F I3*2 + ^^30

( i -r /2 ~r *

(/i + Z2 + Z

For the calculation of currents and voltages at any other point of the

ft

is as shown in Fig. 8-9-1. The same symbols will be used to indicate cur-

inclusive.

The currents flowing from the network into the fault over the three

Phase a: /Qa = 0

Phase 6: Aj6 ^ 0

Phase c: IQc * 0

IQO

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'02 =

228

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

from which

(8-9-1)

At the fault the voltages ij6, EQc from phases 6 and c to ground are both

and equating to zero their difference and either one of them, we obtain

the relation

Equations 8-9-1 and 8-9-2 are the equations that characterize a double

line to ground fault. The three networks of Figs. 8-1-1, 8-1-2, and 8-1-3

still apply. In this case the currents /Q0, IQl, IQ2 and the voltages ij0,

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with a line to line to ground short circuit, the current and voltage distribu-

tions in the three sequence networks are found by connecting the latter

in parallel at the point of fault. The currents and voltages in the actual

network are found as already explained in Arts. 7-1 and 7-7 and in some

FIG. 8-9-2.

With the usual assumption that the generators generate emf's of positive

Zq42

Zq + Z2

where Ei is the common value of the generators' emf's and Z1\ , Z0, Z2 are,

The negative and zero sequence components of the fault currents are

ha = 0

jZ0 + e*Z2

he ho + <*hi + a2h2 - v 31

jZ0 - e-Z2

(8-9-6)

(8-9-7)

The current in phase a at the fault is zero. At any other point, it may or

If these impedances are such that the current in any circuit of the positive

sequence network is equal and opposite to the sum of the currents in the

The three components of the voltages at the fault are, from Figs. 8-1-1,

Z0Z2

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Zq + z2

from which

77 77 I 7 7 i f y

1'7}7

*0 T ~2

QJ, = Qc = 0

As in the previous cases, if the generators' emf's are not equal in phase and

magnitude and the loads are not neglected, more accurate values for the

fault currents and voltages can be obtained by replacing EI with Ejlt the

The discussions of power in connection with line to ground and line to line

faults apply to this case also. The effect of capacitance on the three

case is shown in Fig. 8-11-1, where for brevity the network is represented

FIG. 8-11-1.

by a rectangle with the generator emf's EI, E2, E3, -,Ea feeding it. Only

at the point of fault. The analysis of this fault is then reduced to the

analysis of the fault discussed in Art. 8-9. The three voltages from phases

EQO', EQI', EQZ'. The three phase voltages from phases a, 6, c to ground Ar

are

Ea = E' -

(8-11-1)

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Ec = E.' -

231

EQO =

= EOI

(8-11-2)

sumed conditions,

EQO =

= ^i22

tively, as shown in Fig. 8-11-3. The system of this figure can be studied

tively, in Figs. 8-11-4, 8-11-5, and 8-11-6, where it has been assumed

FIG. 8-11-2.

Nt-

m '*! h

S*2 J

*A

\ '1N)

rr

f^, fP

*. I i J;

1*1

4---J

1 W

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FIG. 8-11-3.

EQO

(8-11-3)

Now to the zero sequence network of Fig. 8-11-6 let us add in series in

emf from EQO to a value EQO" such that the current remains at the value

232

i \*11 *

1\

Positive sequence

k (1)

1)

I s ,.

ff,

Fio. 8-11-4.

tf,

Negative sequence

ff,

Fio. 8-11-5.

1N

y*

N,

Evidently

Zero sequence

Fio. 8-11-6.

0 EQO = ZO/QO 4

jo 3Z/QQ

With this addition the network of Fig. 8-11-6 becomes the one of

Fig. 8-11-7.

Since

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233

we can use only one imaginary generator in Figs. 8-11-4, 8-11-5 and

Fig. 8-11-2.

Zero sequence

32

Fio. 8-11-7.

Except for the insertion of the impedance 3Z in the zero sequence net-

work, the analysis of this fault is conducted like the analysis outlined in

Art. 8-9. Thus, if loads are neglected and it is assumed that generators

generate no emf's of zero and negative sequences and that all emf's of

, , (*o -

As previously noted, more accurate values for the fault currents and

Efi, the voltage existing at the point of fault prior to the fault occurrence.

Fio. 8-12-1.

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234

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

/ 21 11 -.

FIG. 8-12-2.

Fio. 8-12-3.

combining the above with the results of Art. 8-11. The connections of the

three networks will be as shown in Fig. 8-12-2, except that the impedance

3Zn will be added in series between N0 and JV2 in the zero sequence network,

tween the Short Circuit and the Third Phase. This case is shown in Fig.

_~, ,

FIG. 8-13-1.

Fio. 8-13-2.

Let E,0, E,i, E,2 be the sequence components of the three voltages E,.

.0 t1 t2 _ -

Since it is assumed that the fault does not involve the ground,

/.o = 0

Ia ~ Ial + /a2

(8-13-1)

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(8-13-2)

8-13-3. In the lower part of this figure an impedance Z/3 to which a volt-

age E,i is applied, is also considered. Because of Eq. 8-13-1, the current

flowing through Z/3 is /a. Since E,2 = Etl in Fig. 8-13-3, only one gener-

1,1 + /a2 - /a = 0

/.I

| Pos.

*1

Neg.

-VW-

Fio. 8-13-4.

In Figs. 8-13-3 and 8-13-4 it has been assumed that the generators

If in addition they generate emf's of zero sequence, the zero sequence net-

work must be taken into consideration. This, however, will show an open

assumed that the emf's generated by the generators are equal in phase and

magnitude.

More accurate values of the fault currents and voltages are obtained by

with the sequence components /i, Ef0, /2 of the voltages existing at the

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Fig. 8-14-1. From Eqs. 7-6-8, 7-6-9, and 7-6-10, the sequence

(8-14-3)

, ^^^

FIG. 8-14-1.

Since the network is balanced except for the three impedances, Eqs.

8-1-1, 8-1-2, and 8-1-3 are also satisfied and they take the form

JF 71 ffL'i 1 ^"\

In the six preceding equations, Elt E0, E2 and all the impedances are

known, a0, ai, EaZ, Iao, Ial, Ia2 are unknown and can be determined as

E2 = Ea2 4

1.1

2 *a

Zoo = ZOO + Zo

where

6 oo

," = Zn + Zi (8-14-8)

" 7 ''7

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2 ^22 ~T ^2

Zi2Zp2) ,-.

~'

- -- - *0 + - -5- - ,

(8-14-9)

(ZOO Zi2 Z

o Zii

H -- ^

where

If Z0i, ZIQ, Z2o, Z02, Zi2, Z2i are negligible in comparison with Zn",

W\ V 't nt // fw 't /O t A 1 t \

01 p 02

- a y n -1 _ // _

(8-14-12)

/ = Z20 _ Z21 ^ ^2

That is, for this approximation each sequence voltage generates a current

of the same sequence limited only by the impedance to currents of the same

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238

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

Let us return now to the genera] equations, 8-14-1, 8-14-2, and 8-14-3.

Assume that

Zc = Zb (8-14-13)

Za Z6

(Z - Z*)

(/ao + /.I

(/

aO

(8-14-17)

(8-14-18)

From these equations and the discussion in Art. 8-2 which led us to the

connections of Fig. 8-2-1, we can easily see that this case can be studied by

considering the four networks shown in Figs. 8-14-2, 8-14-3, 8144, and

Pv

Positive

sequence

IT ZL I

Native *f w^ro^

sequence ''

FZ

;2l

\ *i V

~\ ^J

r\

Fio. 8-14-2.

Ia

Zero

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Fio. 8-14-3.

sequence

H yfVfr.

"^ *j

8-14-5 where Eal, Ea2, and Ea0' are the voltages generated by four

imaginary generators:

E '= E ZtJ = ~ /

239

Since all four generators generate the same voltage, Eal', we can use only

one imaginary generator, and, since the current through this common

generator would be zero, we can omit it altogether and thus arrive at the

-/vw-rnnr* t

Fio. 8-14-7.

/oo is zero and the emf EqO' connected to the zero sequence network in

The cases discussed in Arts. 8-6, 8-8,8-9, and 8-12 are all special applica-

Let us assume now that there is an impedance /,, between the common

point of the three impedances Za, Zb, Zc and the ground, as shown in Fig.

8-14-8. Let EA, EB, EC be the voltages from a, 6, c to 0', the common

point of the three impedances. Let 0o be the voltage between 0' and 0

EC Ec EO-O

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240

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

Positive

sequence

6 ^6

iS. c *. I

ri

'c

Fio. 8-14-8.

*o

That is,

SEa = SEA

SlE

Al

O + 3Zn/a0)

+ ZoJal + Z I

a0 = (.Zb + 3Zn)/ao

Fio. 8-14-9.

(8-14-19)

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241

ft

z.

Zn

CO

CO

00

Figs. 8-14-8 and 8-14-9. More specifically, the results of these articles

can be obtained from Figs. 8-14-8 and 8-14-9 by giving to Za, Zb, Zc, Zn

the values

Article Z,

8-6

8-8

8-9 *

8-11

8-12

8-13 Z

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cussed in Art. 8-14. Ea, Eb, Ec are the voltages from a, b, c to the ground 0.

Let Ea, Eb, Ec be the voltages from a, b, c to 0', the common point of

Let E&0 be the voltage between 0' and 0 directed from 0' to 0:

Ea Ea E0>0

Eb = Eb Eo'o

Ec = Ec Eo'o

0 fflnmjjtfffwim

Fig. 8-15-1.

That is,

From Eqs. 8-14-1, 8-14-2, 8-14-3, and 7-6-11 to 7-6-19 inclusive, for

(8-15-1)

(8-15-2)

(8-15-3)

These three equations are useful because they permit us to calculate the

voltage E0>o from 0' to the neutral of the system, which usually is the

Solving Eqs. 8-15-1 to 8-15-3 inclusive for EAO, Ial, Ia2, we obtain

_ _ a aa , a a

A0 ~ 77 7 * l 77 7 *

7~

*ol*o2

EA2Za0

*.2 = 77 7

*ol^o2 ~ *

Putting

Ze K2Za

Zal = (1 + ^1 + A)

which gives the voltage between the common connection 0' of the three

ai, Ea2 of the voltages applied at the terminals of the three impedances,

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position to see how such a neutral may be found in practice. If in the pre-

then

and

Za = Zb = zc

Ki = K2 = 1

That is, 0' will coincide with the neutral of the system in the section under

Ea ~ Eb Eb ~ Ec Ec - Ea

The voltage from 0' to ground is 2?o'o = Ea0. If Ea0 = 0, both 0' and the

ground coincide with the neutral of the system. If three other equal

their common connection, 0" is the neutral of the system in that section.

Let Ea0' be the zero sequence component of the three voltages Ea', Eb', Ec'

from the conductors in the new section to ground. The voltage from 0" to

ground is 0"o = Ea0'. In general, E0>a will be different from 0"0, and

K,=j

K2 = 1

Now suppose that the three voltages Ea, Eb, Ec are balanced and sym-

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Ea = Eai

Eb = a2ai

Ec = aEai

EA = Ea EO,O

EC = Ec E

0,0

This is done graphically in Fig. 8-17-2, which shows that here the magni-

flowing through lamp La will be larger than the current flowing in lamp Lc;

j 0.4691

FIG. 8-17-2.

FIG. 8-17-3.

therefore the former will burn brighter than the latter. If the sequence of

Ea, Eb, Ec is Ea, Ec, Eb, that is, negative, Eal = 0 and

Ea = Ea2

Eb = aEa2

If - ~2F

EC ** **a2

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The voltages EA, EB, Ec are determined as before. This is done graphically

in Fig. 8-17-3, which shows that in this case the voltage EC across Lc is

larger than the voltage EA across lamp La. Lc will then burn brighter than

of Arts. 8-15, 8-16, and 8-17 may be obtained much more quickly by using

Let us write

ZZz

We obtain

a = EA Ya /6 = Eg Yb Ic EC Yc

or SIa = SEASYa

But

Therefore

O/o = O { (a-,

+ EA2Ya2 + EAoYai)

+ EAOYa2 4 EAiYal)

from which

i P v tr v if v /ft_ift-7i

where

F F F.

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Ea2 = EA2

Ka,

0-0 = a0 + a1

YaO

a2 Ka0

P IP i

A fio I *oO T J

ai^ +

^M

YaO/

I^oO

B.,&^

2^

'aO

E y2 +

raA

^oO

YaO/

given by

/p ^^ F v i r

+ *.i ^ -

h a2 ^) r.

'oO

faO/

t- .-(*.

+ Eal ^ -

^S)',

Yao

+ *.,f^

My

'aO

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I- A2^-j *r

'aO/

components,

EalY

ala

(l - ^

\ *oO

V ^ M

= aiKc(a - I

\ *oO/

/C

If the three voltages Ea, Eb, Ec have no zero and no positive sequence com-

ponents,

I A Ea2Ya

(-r)

\ * oO/

IB = Ea2Yb [a I

\ -TaO/

EaftYc

yIy1y1

~ft "jR r ft

a0 ~ 3 ~ 3ft V j

rn + g2rt + aI'c = o^

"2 ~ 3 ~ 3ft

and

* oO I T O

'oO I T *?

which, except for the small errors due to the use of the slide rule in making

8-17. Moreover,

ft ft

1.49 ,.2

'

RR

ft R

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ft ft e

248

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

Therefore the currents IA and /c, when the three voltages Ea, Eb, Ec have

ft

That is, IA > Ic, and lamp La will be brighter than lamp Le.

Ea

04

_ * , I p V.^

e-jW

That is, /c > I A, and lamp Lc will be brighter than lamp LA-

Yc = Yb

= Ya2 =

(8-18-5)

In Eq. 8-18-1, 0'o is the voltage from 0 to 0 (Fig. 8-14-8). Since 0' is

Since

E0,0 = 3/a0Zn

(8-18-6)

I Yb + EA

EA

(8-18-8)

(8-18-9)

and 8-14-18.

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aginary generator generating the voltages Ea, Eb, Ec. In so doing, the

249

where ai = EAI, Ea2 = EAZ, and Ea0 are the sequence components of

Now

Positive

/al F,

Negative

'a2 F2

sequence

"_L

fi\

sequence

\. A2 ( T

Jl

..

v xl ^ T J

St

where EAO i8 the zero sequence component of the three voltages from

10

Zero

sequence

/o Fo

r. / I \

/E E

E'\ * y

/'*20 *n

FIG. 8-18-3.

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FIG. 8-18-4.

02 and F2, and between F0 and 0', as shown in Figs, 8-18-5, 8-18-3, and

8-18-7. The currents flowing through the three admittances will be,

respectively,

- 3Zn/ao)

250

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

Positive

sequence

t5* 3

Nx ll'*-u

2i *n

FIG. 8-18-5.

FIG. 8-18-7.

Because of Eqs. 8-18-7, 8-18-8, and 8-18-9, the currents through the

. (Y. - Yb)

Then the three networks can be connected as shown in Fig. 8-18-8, assum-

EA(Yo Yb)/3, so that no current will flow through the generator, which

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thus can be disconnected. The final result will be as shown in Fig. 818-9.

251

*3ir

Positive

sequence

fc.H

. K*"

wvnnnr' -

*Mrb

E3i'

l\

'*A 3 I

Positive

sequence

Jai

K_2J-

fM

Negative

sequence

<r.-n>

*3

i-AAAr jTnnr>

7!

Zero

sequence

r'

KIZZ7

~i

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EAZY

Negative

sequence

i-AA^yW5^-4H-t

L' I

N- -7! I

Zero

sequence

'aO I

-VVA.rnnp-i

Oo 3Z O'

I wvt> 1

A3

Fiq. 8-18-8.

Fig. 8-18-9.

Z n = 0, ,

Y=

Ya Z

Yb= Yc = 0

Ya- Yb _ 1

3 3Z

252

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

phase circuits one phase becomes open occasionally. This may happen, for

instance, when a circuit breaker opens, owing to the fact that the three

N,

m m'

A1 M 'A'

Ic C

4-

N,

Fig. 8-19-1.

The currents flowing in the circuit where the unbalance occurs are

h * 0 h * 0 Ic ?* 0

I E. I

-tf

1oi

Fio. 8-19-2.

T.,

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N,

Circuit Analysis o/A-C Power Systems, Vol. I (New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1948),

253

The sequence components EAO, EAl, EA2 of the voltages EA, 0, 0 ap-

EA ^ ZJa

33

(8-19-1)

/.O

ft

"20

m0 m's

FIG. 8-19-3.

Jal

NU

TO. m i

FIG. 8-19-4.

m2

"142

FIG. 8-19-5.

8-19-5, let us apply in Fig. 8-19-6 a voltage EAl across the impedance

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For simplicity, only two generators are shown, one for each network.

In the actual case more than two generators are usually in operation. If

Z0, Z2 are the impedances of the system to currents of zero and negative

FIG. 8-19-6.

254

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

*aO TOo

TOO 'oo

\I

-9*

N*

"10

1 Zero sec

. neutral

'ai ntil

1m; /ai

- "n

"^

T"""

na

[ Pos. seq.

neutral

r Ni2

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'a2 nt2j[

|n>2 'o2

JVa

Neg. seq.

neutral

Fio. 8-19-7.

t'

flf

motor, supplied from a network when a fuse on one phase blows out or when

one phase becomes open for any other reason, as shown in Fig. 8-19-8.

respectively. Obviously, if Zi =

zi

JJ,t Pos.seq. ||

Fio. 8-19-9.

FIG. 8-19-10.

networks will be exactly as shown in Fig. 8-19-7, the only difference being

- *1

B Z B'

*2

C 2 C'

*1

Fio. 8-19-11.

, z A^^A

.,

I Z B B,

N2

+ /VW <J o

i*i

FIG. 8-19-12.

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Fig. 8-19-7.

256

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

Fig. 8-19-13.

generates into a stub wye grounded load with the three impedances Za, 2,

N,

f*

^vw

i- N

1*1

(*t

z)\

Fig. 8-19-14.

Z, respectively, on phases a, b, c.

r-

N,

10

-wv-

'oO

N,.

-VNAr-

Fig. 8-19-15.

consider again the networks of Fig. 8-19-1. Assume now that the two

phases b and c are open. This may happen, for instance, when a breaker

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opens the circuit and the three phases do not open simultaneously. Con-

257

voltages across the phases from B to B' and from C to C' are EB and Ec.

The voltage EA across A A' is zero. The system of Fig. 8-20-1 can be re-

r- N,

E,

m m'

'a 'V

-* &

ii

L^h

Fig. 8-20-1.

placed with the system of Fig. 8-20-2, where phases b and c have been

section M which generates the voltages 0, EB, Ec. The network of Fig.

820-2 can now be replaced by the three networks of Figs. 8-19-3, 8-19-4,

N,

E,

m m'

OI

*^r+

A'

-2,"ftLf

Fig. 8-20-2.

liJi

N,,

m'

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'oi m.

.?. /-i

m.

"* / -2"

Negative sequence H

Zero sequence

Fig. 8-20-3.

"M

.J

JV22 I-,

AU -,

Because of Eq. 8-20-2 the three networks can be connected in series and

/a!

?t l /al . f I

^\ j^ v y

\;

\ i Pos. seq.

ft

_ik..

/K

Fio. 8-2(M.

load, two phases open ahead of the third, or if, upon closing of the breaker,

one phase closes ahead of the other two. The network of Fig. 8-20-3 re-

duces to the network of Fig. 8-20-5, where the various symbols have the

Zi = Z2 = ZO = Z

8-21. f One Phase Open and a Line to Ground Load on the Same Phase

Sequence Components

At M

AA

BB'

CC"

E^

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Voltages

Et,11,

^,

Currents

IA

IB

/c

/ 1' . / ! ', ^

'^>

At 3f

X.

ao, -Cal,

.,

Currents

/.

/oa, /!, A

"

259

Wm

*>xi LAZ ^

Thus the sequence components of these currents and voltages satisfy the

relations

EA "'

(8-21-2)

(8-21-3)

(8-21-4)

Fio. 8-21-1.

X^\

Fio. &-21-2.

Zero sequence

"

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Fio. 8-21-3.

260

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

network of Fig. 8-21-6. Because of Eq. 8-21-1, mo, mi, m2, m3 can be

Wli Al "*i

1 Nll

1* 'M

21

,f

\EI

\Eal

.:

Fio. 8-21-4.

Fio. 8-21-5.

connected together, and also m0', mi', m2', m3', and only one imaginary

generator vised, which will generate the voltage EAi. If this is done, the

current through the generator will be zero and thus the generator can be

omitted. The network of Fig. 8-21-7 is the result. Since the three currents

In the preceding discussion it has been assumed that the line to ground

the derivation that this limitation is not necessary, and another network

can be interposed between the location of the unbalanced phase and the

location of the line to ground load. The only limitation that exists is that

both the load and the unbalance must be on the same phase. In this more

general case, there must be added in series with Za another network AT3

The result is shown in Fig. 8-21-9, where N3i, Ns2, N30 are the sequence

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"Al

Fro. 8-21-6.

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261

Fig. 8-21-7.

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282

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

FIG. 8-21-8.

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263

Fig. 8-21-9.

264

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

networks of the network NZ and El" is the positive sequence voltage gen-

If there are other line to ground loads, at other locations (but on the same

phase) through other networks, they can be taken into consideration, each

PROBLEMS

XJ = 11%

Xd" = 8%

Xt = 100%

8%

4%

2%.

(a) Calculate the subtransient, transient, and steady state fault current with a

440 volts

_J

Generator

PROB. 8-1.

Autotransformer

(b) Show the distribution of sequence currents and total currents in the three

(c) Find the components of the average power at the terminals of the generator.

PROB. 8-2.

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265

The reactances of the various pieces of equipment in per unit on system kva are

as follows.

Reactances

Equipment

Subtransient Transient

Synch.

-V:

Generator H

0.3

0.3

0.45

0.15

Neutral of Gen. H - X.

0.4

0.4

0.4

Step-up transformer Ti

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

Line Lt

0.4

0.4

0.4

0.4

0.0

Line LZ

0.4

0.4

0.4

i) 1

0.0

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

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Step-down transformer Tt

Metropolitan system S

0.14

0.23

0.14

0.12

Load A/n

1.1

1.1

Load3/.

1.1

1.1

(a) Draw the three sequence networks under transient conditions with faults

at A, B, C respectively.

(d) What is the effect of the fault at C on the average power supplied to the

load J/k?

8-3. Consider the network shown in the figure. Assume that the voltages of

generators GI. Gt and loads MI, M^ are 13,800 volts line to line, and that the

Two lines

Each:

PROB. 8-3.

voltage of the two lines is 138,000 volts line to line, and that all reactance* are

per unit at 100,000 kva. Resistances are neglected. Assume that a line to ground

266

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

Calculate the three voltages from line to ground at D and at B. Calculate the

8-4. A salient pole generator without damper windings has positive, negative,

and zero sequence reactances of 30, 48, and 19% respectively. The generator is

connected in Y and the neutral is brought out. The station construction is of the

isolated phase type, so that only line to ground faults can be expected.

(a) What value of reactance must be placed in the generator neutral so that

the fault current with a line to ground fault of zero fault impedance will not

(b) What value of resistance must be placed in the generator neutral to serve

X0 = 2%.

(a) Assuming a line to ground fault at F on the bus, compute the sequence

components of the average power at the fault F and at the generator terminals T

(b) Discuss briefly what happens to the sequence components of the power

at the fault.

(c) Assume now that the neutral of the generator is grounded through a

reactance that will cause the magnitude of the fault current obtaining with a line

PROB. 8-5.

PROB. 8-6.

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common bus. All the generators have the same reactances in per unit on rating

as follows:

Xt 0.15 p.u.

Xt 0.08 p.u.

(b) Under the same conditions compute the phase currents in the three gen-

erators.

(c) Compare the currents in (a) and (b) with the currents obtaining with a

100 mva

- Ground

(a) Neglecting the impedance of the transformer itself, find the ohmic value R

of each resistor, which, with a line to ground fault on the bus F, will limit the

(b) With the line to ground fault as in (a), show the phase current distribution

(c) With the line to ground fault as in (a), what is the voltage from the neutral

(d) Under the same fault conditions, compute the three sequence components

(e) Discuss briefly what happens to the sequence components of the power at

8-8. A generator of negligible resistance having 1.0 per unit voltage back of

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transient reactance is subject to different types of faults. The per unit values of

268

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

Find the per unit values of the positive sequence transient reactance and of the

positive sequence:

K. = 100 volts

Vb = a'100 volts

Vc = al00 volts

By connecting a line to line load Z as shown by the broken line between phases

2012

ion

abc

i \z

-_-j

_j

PROB. 8-9.

Load

4000 kva

PROB. 8-10.

factor and at 13,800 volts. The reactances of the generator are X* = 1.0 p.u.;

Xi = 0.12 p.u.

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(c) Compute the sequence components of the average power supplied to the

269

the figure. The reactances of the generator and transformer in per unit at rated

kva are

Generator Transformer

XB = 0.18

Xd = 1.0

13.8 kv

138 kv

(a) Calculate the fault currents under transient, subtransient, and steady

<**

Prob. 8-11.

Mw

pf Xi' Xt

Gen. A (hydro)

Gen. B (steam)

40

100

0.8

0.8

20

15

13

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Transformer Data

Reactances, % on rating, Xi = X = Xt 10 10

Conductors, each

Equivalent spacing

795,000-CM ACSR

20 ft

Assume that the zero sequence impedance is three times the positive sequence

13.8 kv

'i*i

H,

Z\> a b >gZ\

Prob. 8-12.

(a) Draw the three sequence networks, expressing impedances in per unit at

270

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

(b) Repeat (a), assuming that each of the two transformers is grounded

2.3 kv

33 kv

69 kv

Autotransformer

PROB. 8-13.

Generator G

Transformers

Xt 0.2 p.u.

Xd 0.3 p.u.

X0 0.18 p.u.

Xd 1.25 p.u.

kva

Rating

20,000

5000

5000

5000

Reactance, p.u.

on rating

0.06

0.07

0.07

0.06

T,

Tt

Tt

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69/33 kv 0.05

69/13.8 kv 0.06

33/13.8 kv 0.08

What is the effect of this motor on the fault currents? What is the effect of

8-14. Two generators d, G2, each of 50,000 kva, 3 phases, 13.8 kv, 60 cycles,

are connected through a tie line 5 miles long, having 0.8 ohm/mile reactance.

In synchronizing the two generators breaker B2 is closed when the two voltages

in phase a are in phase. However, because of a mistake the two phases 6 and c

abc

L 1 r-i

&L

iI

H 1-

Ia | 1 Line

ab

*1K

G,

Bus'l

B,

li

B,

Bus* 2

Pbob. 8-14.

(b) What are the loci of the line to neutral voltages at bus 1?

8-16. A phase sequence indicator of the type shown in Fig. 8-17-1 with a

resistance R of 121 ohms is connected across a line to line voltage of 110 volts of

sequence a, b, c.

Find the magnitude of the voltage o-o. What will this magnitude be if the

sequence is a, c, 6?

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quence components E/i, Et2, Ef0 of the voltage existing in section F prior to the

8-18. High-voltage t capacitor banks for power factor correction are sometimes

been lost

Each bank is composed of a multiple series section per phase and a sufficient

number of parallel capacitor units per series section. In the United States, most

t After you have solved this problem, consult O. R. Compton, "Balancing Double-Wye

High Voltage Capacitor Banks," Transactions, AIEE, XIX (Aug. 1955), 573-80.

272

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

voltage tolerance. At least one capacitor unit may be removed from any series

upper tier at a higher temperature caused by the air rising from the lower tiers.

Let

(a) Assume S open. Assume that one phase of bank 1 becomes unbalanced

because of the loss of K units as above. Calculate the voltage between the two

positive sequence.

(b) Assume now that S is closed. Calculate the current /a flowing between the

2 neutrals from the voltages calculated in (a), making use of Thevenin's theorem.

8-19. A 1000-hp, 3-phase, 60-cycle, 6-pole, 2200-volt induction motor has the

ft

0.14

Xi = Xt = 0.56

G = 0.0037

B = 0.058

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Calculate the torque developed by the motor under the above conditions, as-

are used which have two windings, the so-called main and auxiliary windings.

located on the stator at 90 electrical degrees from one another. These two wind-

Hill Book Co., Inc., 1952), p. 478; R. H. Frazier, "Analysis of the Drag-Chip a.c.

ings may be, but need not be, identical. Thus they need not have the same

number of turns; in fact, they rarely do. The voltage Vm applied to the main or

Va = jVa

or for that matter a symmetrical polyphase rotor. The air gap is uniform. The

Zim = rim + jxim is the leakage impedance of the main winding, with

respect to the air gap flux, plus any series impedance connected

respect to the air gap flux, plus any series impedance connected

/ and /. are the corresponding currents flowing in the main and auxiliary

windings respectively.

Let ., and be the voltages induced by the resultant air gap flux in the main

.Vm is the effective number of turns of the main winding, that is, the actual

number of turns multiplied by the pitch factor and by the breath factor for the

fundamental component of the air gap mmf. Na is the effective number of turns

(a) Show that the symmetrical components or the so-called forward and back-

ivard components of currents and voltage in terms of the main winding are

K, - jaVa

Vm+jaV,,

where

N,

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t See, for instance, A. E. Fitzgerald and C. Kingsley, lac. tit., fig. 10-24, p. 478.

874

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

(b) Show that the equivalent circuit of the motor as viewed from the main

winding is as shown in Fig. B, where the subscripts m, a,/, and 6 are used, respec-

gOOOOOOOO

Stator

Core

(stationary)

'la

(A)

tively, for the main winding, the auxiliary winding, the forward component, and

"~ 2

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winding.

A'j/ is the rotor leakage reactance at frequency sf with respect to the air gap

Xy, is the rotor leakage reactance at frequency (2 s)f with respect to the

8 is the slip of the rotor speed in per unit of the synchronous speed.

(c)t When used as an a-c tachometer, the main winding is energized from a

constant amplitude, constant frequency voltage source Vm. The auxiliary wind-

ing is connected to the high-impedance grid circuit of a vacuum tube and there-

(2) Show that the magnitude of the voltage Ea induced in the auxiliary wind-

(e) Show that the torque of the motor at slip 8, in newton-meters, is given by

where

tt. \ 8 2 8 /

2irni

~60~

systems are called upon to separate the two systems in case of loss of synchronism.

In these applications the circuit breaker may be called upon to separate the two

systems at a time when they are anywhere from zero to 180 apart.

Since the extinction of the a-c arc will take place at a zero of the current and

the currents on the three phases reach zero at different times, interruption of the

three phases will not occur simultaneously,. Each of the recovery voltages across

(a) Across one open-circuited breaker pole with the other two poles con-

ducting.

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(b) Across each of the two open-circuited breaker poles with the third pole

still conducting.

(c) Across each of the three open-circuited breaker poles when none is

conducting.

t R. H. Frazier, loc. tit.; A. E. Fitzgerald and C. Kingsley, op. tit., pp. 468-69.

in Fig. A and that it is equipped with no ground wires. Assume also that the

opening sequence is a, c, b.

!*<

k*

Prob. 8-21.

o 1 )j

(B)

In making these calculations assume that the positive (7i) and the negative (Zi)

sequence impedances of the network as viewed from the circuit breaker terminals

are equal, or

from the circuit breaker terminals, show that the fundamental frequency com-

Xo Ro Ri

Xj Xi Xi

Show the variation of the maximum value of the fundamental frequency com-

Discuss what would happen if the interconnection were equipped with ground

wires.

What would be the effect on the value of the fundamental frequency component

Discuss the effect of the last two items (ground wires and grounding trans-

former) from the general standpoint of their influence on the zero sequence

impedance Zn.

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100-mile, 230-kv line between Grand Coulee and Midway was used as a test

277

figure.

13.8/230 kv

100 miles

795,000 ACSR

No ground wire

-D*

PROB. 8-22.

The subtransient reactance of each generator and transformer was 0.4 per

unit at 108,000 kva. A fault was applied at F and cleared by the circuit breaker.

grounded and tertiary winding as shown in the figure. The impedances of the

Source Si

Xt = Xt = 7%

Xf = 3%

Source St

X, - X, = 20%

X, - 10%

Autotransformer

XH = 12.5%

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XL = -4.2%

XT = 61.5%

(a) Find the sequence currents in the sources, the autotransformer and at the

(b) Find the current in the neutral of the autotransformer in both cases and

278

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

the figure. The line voltages on the low and high sides are, respectively, VL

Directional

ground

relay

PROB. 8-24.

to use the current in the neutral to polarize the relay. This can be done only if

the current in the neutral flows in the same direction, regardless of whether the

What conditions must be satisfied in order to be able to use the current in the

on the ratio of the voltage applied to the relay to the current flowing in the relay,

Find the expression for the primary impedances of the relay elements in terms

8-26. Another typical connection for distance relays is shown in the figure.

Find the expression for the primary impedances of the relay elements in terms

\Ibid.

660-72.

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281

C.T. ,F

-* [Wr

LuudlaaflJ

Pot

trans, nnjirprinr

ZTTi

'ledances

figure

Ihnnrj

Ihnnn

Tnnp i

Tripping direction

Pbob. 8-26.

C.T.

Tripping direction

tt

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Pbob. 8-26.

278

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

8-24.

autot-

the

(a)

(1.)

Zb = Z, = R

Z = jR

Zb = Zr = R

Za = -jR

Cl

0* 1 2

TT

~[C0TC0JC

Pbob. 8-29.

shown in the figure. The generator reactances to currents of zero, positive, and

Xo, At, Xi

The generator generates the voltage E. Assume now that the capacitive load is

(a) Show the sequence network connections for the first phase open, and for

breaker poles in terms of Co, C\, Xo, X\, X2, and Xl-

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AIEE, LXXIV, pt. Ill (Aug. 1955), 624-35; and I. B. Johnson, A. J. SchulU, N. R.

281

8-30. j Show the connections of the sequence networks when three impedances

and Zb = Zc Z.

Prob. 8-30.

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CHAPTER 9

trical circuits 1, 2, mutually coupled. From the expression for the mag-

netic field energy, it can be shown that the coefficient of mutual induction

d,2 are two elements of the two circuits taken in the directions of the

currents through them; /3 is the angle between them, that is, between the

extended to all elements of the two circuits; that is, each element of one cir-

cuit must be associated with each and every element of the other circuit.

t J. G. Coffin, Vector Analysis, 2nd ed. (New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1923),

(9-1-1)

(9-1-2)

p. 175.

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282

in air, large compared to its radius r, we obtain for its coefficient of self-

inductance L

henrys. The term (10r7/2)i/ir in Eq. 9-1-3 corresponds to the flux inside

outside of the conductor. For copper and aluminum /ir = 1; thus, ordi-

narily, since

l0g 0779 = 4

If the cross section of the conductor or conductors is of any shape, but the

current density is, or can be assumed to be, uniform, the expressions for the

where GMD is the geometrical mean distance between the cross sections

of the two conductors, in meters, and GMR is the geometrical mean radius

of GMD and GMR for conductors of various shapes are available in the

literature. t

the GMD is equal to the distance of the axes of the two conductors. Under

the same assumption, the GMR for stranded conductors can be expressed

t L. F. Woodruff, Electric Power Transmission, 2nd ed. )New York: John Wiley &

Papers, No. 169 (Washington, D.C.: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1948), p. 166.

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284

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

Number of Strands

GMR

0.421 VA = 0.6780r

0.4114 Vl = 0.7253r

19

0.4345VA = 0.7570r

37

0.4418VI = 0.7680r

61

0.4448VA - 0.7720r

91

0.4464VI = 0.7744r

127

0.4473VA = 0.7750r

0.3894VA = 0.7788r

The values for M and L obtained on this basis, assuming uniform current

have been derived on the assumption of a current density among the various

conductors are obtained by disregarding the current in the steel core except

used for calculating M and L with appropriate values of GMD and GMR.

The GMR of an annular area of outside and inside radii r! and r2,

(rl r2 )

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The GMD between two annular areas in the same plane is equal to the

rl r2 i

Working charts of Eqs. 9-1-7 and 9-1-8 are available in the literature.J

the periphery. This is the so-called skin effect. The flux outside the con-

ductor is not affected by the current density distribution. The flux inside

the conductor changes. This means that the coefficient of mutual induction

corresponding to the flux external to the conductor is not affected, and the

skin effect. It can be shown that the ratio Liac/Lidc between the com-

with a-c current (L,oc) and with d-c current (L,</c) is a function of

m = V (9-2-D

where

/ = frequency, in cycles

For a round, hollow conductor of external and internal radii rx, r2 it can

Liac jVjmp

= imaginary component of

x Yi(j\rjmr2)J0(jVjmri) - Ji(jVjTnr2)Y0(jVjmn) (g 2 2^

yi(jy^rjmr2)Ji(j\^jmr1) - Ji((jVjmr^Yi((jVjmri)

where

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Lidc =

where

where

and

Lidc

Y=

Z=

ber mr =

bei mr =

ber' mr =

bei' mr =

mr Y

(mr)* (mr)s

2242 + 224262g2

(mr)2

22 22426:

d(ber mr)

d(mr)

d(bei mr)

d(mr)

(mr)6 (mr)10

2 + 2242g282102

(9-2-4)

(9-2-5)

(9-2-6)

(9-2-7)

(9-2-8)

(9-2-9)

(9-2-10)

(9-2-11)

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In the general case the calculation of the self-inductance with a-c current

2. The component Lac of L, due to the flux inside the conductor, is sub-

tracted from L; thus L the component due to the flux external to the

conductor, is obtained.

3. The ratio Liac/Lidc is calculated, and from it and L,-^, Liac is determined.

putting

1Z1

Mr Tr = logT

mr Y

and

GMR = kr (9-2-13)

The preceding skin effect formulas are based on the assumption that the

are far apart from one another are being considered. It does not hold for

conductors which are closely spaced so that the current in one conductor

induces eddy currents inside the others with the result that the current

For power transmission lines having spacings in excess of five times the

diameter of the conductors the proximity effect is usually small and can be

take this effect into consideration when it is not negligible, as, for instance,

in cable installations. t

ohm-meters, is

Resistivity I

Fia. 9-3-1.

Electric Corp., pp. 68-71; A. E. Knowlton, Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineers,

8th ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc.); H. B. Dwight, "Proximity Effect in

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288

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

we have

Pi = Ti = Tp + h

p2 T2 T0 + l2

where p\ and p2 are the resistivity at the temperatures T\ and T2, measured

from - T0-

Resistivity at 20 C,

ohm-meters

To,

degrees C

Material

1.724 X 10-*

234.5

Silver

1.63 X 10-

hard-drawn

2.83 X 10""

228.2

Lead

22.50 X 10-

density across the area of the conductor. With a-c current the current

In fact, it can be shown that for a tubular conductor the ratio R/Rdc,

R , , c jVji(ri2 - r22)

= real component of

Rdc 2ri

Yi(jVjmr2)J0(jVjmri) - Ji(jVjmr2)Y0(jV~jmr1)

(9-3-2)

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where the various symbols have the same meaning as in Art. 9-2.

R . jV jmr J0(jVjmr)

(9-3-4)

R _ mrW

Rdc ~ ~2Y

t See, for instance, H. H. Skilling, Electric Transmission Lines (New York: McGraw-

Hill Book Co., Inc., 1951), table 7-2, p. 138; O. W. Eshbach, Handbook of Engineering

Fundamentals (14th printing; New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1950), p. 8-13 and

Section 11.

where the symbol Y has the same meaning as in Art. 9-2 and

calculating the impedance of the loop have been given by Carson, Ruden-

berg, Mayr, and Haberland. Carson's formulas will be given here in some

Fig. 9-4-1.

grounded at the far end and free at the home end. If a voltage1 Ea is applied

Ea = Ia(Za + Z - 2juMar)

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or

/ j / - 2 ,

0 (9-6-12)

(9-6-13)

Obviously, these expressions are identical with Eqs. 7-6-4, 7-6-5, and

7-6-6, the only difference being that they are expressed in terms of the self-

and mutual impedances of, and between, the loops formed by the conduc-

tors and ground and can be evaluated with the formulas in Art. 9-4.

Let

inclusive. We can establish the identity easily by noting that, from Eqs.

ZaaO = Za0 + Zg

a0 g

Zaa2 = Za2

o Mar0 ~ Mar0)

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CHAPTER 10

answered:

the first question, it will be noted that the so-called constants of a trans-

factors affecting their values, such as temperature, and the sag of the

the line, the supporting poles and towers, the angles and bends of the line,

the terminal apparatus, that is, by the location of the ground plane.

as much as 50 per cent larger on 33-kv systems, and 10 per cent larger on

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371

372

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

parallel to, and at a constant distance from, the ground, which is assumed

chapter.

The electric flux density D at distance x from the axis of the conductor

is obtained from

2rxD = q

where

D = &E = &0kE

gradient.

fe" = &0k

KT9

fen =

36t

A; x

dx

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- dV = E dx =

18 X 109 >02

Eu = ^ q log (10-2-1)

Charges,

Conductors

?.

Id

The potential difference E12, in volts, between points 1 and 2 directed from

1 to 2 is given by

99 1

1 *2

fro

OO

,f O l.

CO

7r/77/m7mm?/mmGround

-9 _

a'

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and potential distribution above ground, will be the same as those between

from 1 to 2 is

DalDa.2

(10-4-1)

CHAPTER 11

impregnated paper.

cables.

loss and power factor than impregnated paper. This characteristic, coupled

with the inevitable entrapped air, limits the maximum operating voltage.

Impregnated paper shows the lowest dielectric loss and power factor.

For a given voltage impregnated paper requires the least thickness and

t A. E. Knowlton, Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineers, 8th ed. (New York:

ground Cables," Reprint from articles published in Electric Journal, May to Nov. 1932,

table 1.

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421

CHAPTER 12

12-1. Definitions. Let us consider a line to line fault on the wye side

transformation. The currents on the wye side and on the delta side are,

respectively,

=/

= r/c = -

rl

Ic

=-

Ih

= -rh =

-rl

la

k>

Ac

Fig.

12-1-1.

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are called the 0, a, and 0 components and are denned as follows. Consider

the system of three phasors (Ei, E2, E3). This system of phasors is equal

(2)

(3)

(1, 1, l)*10

<10

433

That is,

EI = ^10 + Eia

Ela V/3 _

*, Elo- + Elff

The components Elo, la, Elp are obtained from Eqs. 12-1-1:

El + E2 + 3

(11-1-2)

Thus the zero sequence component is identical with the zero sequence

From Eqs. 12-1-1, by adding the second and third equations, we obtain

~r = i - T

(E2 + 3) 3

E2 - 3) (12-1-4)

Letting S0 = (1, 1, 1)

..-^,,-

we obtain

2. a current flows in one phase and returns in the other two phases.

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. .V3/Aa J,*

or

U = - V3^

the system of phasors SEi = (E\, E2, E3) are given by Eqs. 12-1-2,12-1-3,

and 12-1-4. What are the 0, a, and j3 components of the systems SE2 =

(E2,E3,Ei)? By definition,

_ E2 + 3 + Ei

*20 ^ 10

V3

= -i[V31 +

More directly, the equations similar to Eqs. 12-2-1 and 12-2-2 will be

where 21, 22 are the positive and negative sequence components of SE2

E2i a2 En

E22 = aEi2

a2

= h(V3Eit - Eia)

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(12-4-1)

441

we obtain

30 = Ei0 = 20

3 = 31 + 32

30 = J (31 E32)

where 31, 32 are the positive and negative sequence components of SE3.

Noting that

31 = aEn

32 = a212

30 = %[\/3Eia 1(j]

In Art. 7-1 it was shown that Kirchhoff's first law applies to the current

Consider again the node N of the general network of Fig. 7-1-1. Again

let Na, Nb, Nc be the corresponding nodes of the three phases a, b, c, and

Obviously, the currents in each node are given by Eqs. 7-1-1, 7-1-2, and

a._,.|[a_flftH]

V3

= ^-[h,-ie'] + -L[ib"-ie"}+.

-V +V.+ -0 (12-5-2)

That is, each component obeys Kirchhoff's first law and may, for this

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concerned, the currents in each phase of Fig. 12-5-1 are obtained by adding

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

and 12-5-2(|S).

3'aO 3/o O O

again to Fig. 7-6-1 and use the same symbols as in Art. 7-6.

Fig. 7-6-1 are given in Eqs. 7-6-8, 7-6-9, and 7-6-10. In order to obtain

obtain

Z0i

Z\\ ^12

1 ^22

Rearranging the first equation and adding and subtracting the last two, we

obtain

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+ 3 ~ h (12-6-1)

443

3%

H n *<#

(12-6-1)

The values of Zoo, Z0\, Z02, Zi0, Zu, Zi2, Z20, Z2\, Z22 are defined by

Z0a

ZOi + Z02

Z20 + Z\o

Z0p = j

ZOi Z02

(12-6-2)

2Z0a

Zna

(12-6-4)

(12-6-5)

Zap = j

. (Za\ Za2) 2

Zpo =

Z10 ~ Z20

(12-6-6)

Zal Z,

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a2

= 2Z0p

(12-6-7)

444

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

(Za\ Za2)

2j

w(a2Mabi aMab2)

He

we obtain

(Zal + Za2)

(12-6-8)

(12-6-9)

These equations show that, from the standpoint of Kirchhoff's second law,

the 0, a, and 0 networks are not independent of one another. They can

aa0

OS

TT~

Eap

Fig. 12-6-1.

mutual impedances, however, would not be the same in the two directions.

For this purpose it suffices to note that the a and 0 components of the

three line impedances Za, Zb, Zc are, from Eqs. 12-1-3, 12-2-1 and 12-1-4,

12-2-3,

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Similarly, the a and f3 components of the mutuals Mab, Mbc, Mca and

2/ \Mbc + Mca)\

2/ {Mbr + M)\ ,

1 (12-6-11)

V3

2/ {Mob + Mbc}\

V3

objective.

A more direct derivation will be given for the case of complete symmetry

of the circuits.

is symmetrical,

Zn + Z22 (12-7-1)

It is thus seen that, if the circuits of the network of Fig. 7-1-1 are sym-

impedances to a currents and to /3 currents of a circuit are the same and are

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positive and negative sequence. For static equipment the latter two are

equal, and thus the impedances of the a and 3 networks are the same as

those of the positive sequence network For rotating equipment the im-

currents, and thus the average of these impedances must be used in the

a and 8 networks.

More directly, for this case consider now the portion of the original

network between the two sections .4 and .4' of Fig. 7-1-1. In terms of

as in Chapter 7, or

- 3SMor0/aro] + SE

from which

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447

or

considered independently; that is, the actual network may be replaced with

three networks, which are exact duplicates of the original network, to which

ances of the zero sequence network are the same as the impedances used in

For networks composed of circuits with equal positive and negative se-

use for Z0O, Z01, Z02, Zn, Zi2, Z2\, Z22 expressions 9-6-14 to 9-6-21 in-

clusive, thus expressing Z0a, Z0p, Zaa, Zap, Za0, Zp0, Zpp, Zpa in terms of the

the loops formed by the conductors and ground returns. In practical cases

the relations expressed in Eqs. 12-7-1 are satisfied or that in Eqs. 12-6-10

all Z's are zero excepting Zoo, Zaa, and Zpp. The latter two are both taken

equal to the value given by the last of Eqs. 12-7-1. They could be calcu-

voltages.

only, the 0, a, /3 components (we shall call En the voltage of the general

generator) will be

(Za0 jwMabo)Iap

Eap = jE ii

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/ = /

448

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

ho = 0

ha = I

hp = ~fl

aEvJLa2E

n a2I

aI

Gen. Load

3 '^h^^

n -f

(c) a network

'2*11 '2'

Fig. 12-8-1.

only and supplying a symmetrical network, only the a and /3 networks need

be considered.

system. Let the generator voltages be En, E2\, ", Eni and let Eli be

the voltage existing at the point of fault prior to the fault, as discussed in

generator voltage En, E2\, , Eni or the voltage E//i. The a and /3

networks in the two cases will be as shown in Figs. 12-8-2a and 12-8-2b

the impedance to negative sequence currents, the two networks are iden-

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tical. The applied voltages are the same in magnitude, but at 90 degrees

449

with respect to one another; the currents will thus be equal in magnitude

and at 90 degrees from one another so that only one network need be con-

21

Em/7

*3l\

(a)

21

-JBnl/

II

Ll

i_

0>)

Fio. 12-8-2.

12-8-3.

n.

Fio. 12-8-3.

The components of the load current, as viewed from the wye side of the

transformers, are

ho = 0

ha = /

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hp = -H

450

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

Thus the flow of IAo and IAp will be as shown in Figs. 12-8-4 and 12-8-5

respectively.

~z Load

Z3k

3/

2r

0 currents

/3 voltages

"2

a currents

a voltages

Fig. 12-8-4.

ponents, from Fig. 12-8-4, are (from Eqs. 12-1-3 and 12-1-4)

ho = 0

ha = 0

a currents

a voltages

J/3*

/3 currents

/3 voltages

Fig. 12-S-5.

It is thus seen that the load a currents become the generator 0 currents.

ho = 0

ha = -jV3~

hp = o

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451

E~

otE

|c b Ec ] Vc *

Fio. 12-8-6.

Let us now consider the generator voltages. These are of positive se-

quence; they are En, a2En, aEn. The voltages on the two sides of the

are

Ecb

= (a

- a2)u = jVSEn

Eac

= (1

- a)Eu = 0PjVsEn

- l)En = ajVaEn

EA

Eb

_ ^oe

= aV3^ = a2^

Ec

= *6a

= ajV3-^ = a^i

Ea0 = 0 EA0 = 0

V3 r

In passing through the transformer, the a currents on one side become the

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0 currents on the other. The a and 0 voltages on either side must be asso-

ciated with the a and /3 currents on the same side; this is shown also in Figs.

The above voltage and current components can be expressed in per unit.

En' is the normal voltage, L/N, on the wye side of the transformer.

1000 kva

In

Now

3En

1000 kva

Thus

Ea0 = 0 EA0 = 0

T - - ^IA 1 - - -L - J

*apu j *Aau / / *

'** n 'n * n

V3/^

/^Q

- Iu

Tin *n in

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admitting 0, a, /3 components:

20

Zero

'00 Fn

Fio. 12-9-1.

of unbalance after the unbalanced load has been connected are Ea0, Eaa,

Eap.

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E/a, E/p.

454

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

U = (12-9-1)

L = **-*" (12-9-2)

U = ^-=^ H2-9-3)

Fig. 12-9-2.

The relations among the components /a0, Iaa, hp and among Ea0, Eaa,

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455

-J

7.

Zero

oo F0

! /E.

21

iNrI

Fig. 12-&-3.

10

20 =

= E,o

Eia

ll

Eip =

-jEn

E2a

E2i

E2p =

-jE2i

Ena

Enl

EnB =

-jEi

E/o

E/a

E/i

E/p =

-jEn

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Fig. 12-9-1 will reduce to Fig. 12-9-3 and Fig. 12-9-2 will reduce to

Fig. 12-9-4.

456

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

\ Zero

J L'l

Fio. 12-9-4.

As shown in Art. 8-2, in this case the fault currents and voltages at the

fault are

Ea = 0

Thus

fa0,

Ioft

1*0

Ic = o

I 2/ao

E * 0

Ec * 0

EaO + Eaa

Eaa =

Eaff =

EaO =

(Eb + Ee)

V3

Eb + E,

(Eb - Ec)

In the 0 network shown in Fig. 12-9-4 the current Iap is zero; thus

Since the current flowing in the zero sequence network is one half the

current in the a network, two parallel zero sequence networks can be con-

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nected in series with the a network and the sum of the voltages Ea0 and Eaa

467

0, the result

2/a0 =

E,

+ Z

o , Z\ ~f~ ^2

22

network in series with a zero sequence network of one half the impedance

L.

Fig. 12-10-1.

b and c, the fault currents and the voltages at the fault in this case are

Thus

/ = 0

h - - / = /

ho = o/

L = o/

i - 21

tap 7=

V3

Eb - Ec = 0

Eap = 0

E/o 0, the zero sequence network need not be considered. Since Iaa = 0,

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taken into consideration as far as the fault currents are concerned and in it

It will be recalled that the /3 network is obtained by using for each part

currents.

458

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

quires the setting up of one network only instead of two, as when the fault

Fa

Fig. 12-11-1.

.i

Eaa , V^ag

22

Ia = 0

*0

h*o

= 0 = a0 -

Ic *0

= 0 = Ea0 -

Eb

-Ec = 0

Ea

V3Ea

t)

(a)

Fia. 12-12-1.

(6)

Thus

Iap

/-/.

V3

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h+h

a<i = 0

Eaa 2aQ

459

The voltage Ea0 is applied to the zero sequence network. If the imped-

ances of the zero sequence network are doubled and the voltage is raised

Since Iao = Iaa, this zero sequence network, with the impedances

that the resultant voltage, E/i + 2Ea0 Eaa = E/\, is applied to the

PROBLEMS

(a) Assume that a load is connected to the line drawing only a currents.

Calculate the phase currents in the generator, in the transformer, and in the line,

their 0, a, and /3 components, and their zero, positive, and negative sequence

(b) Same as (a), but assume that the load draws only /3 currents from the line.

12-2. Consider again the interconnection of Prob. 9-11 and assume that the

Find the generator and fault transient currents, using the 0, a, /3 components

method.

Disregarding the effect of the ground wire find the 0, a, and f3 capacitive sus-

12-3. A transmission line consists of three 4/0 copper power conductors and

one ground wire arranged as shown in the figure. The ground wire consists of

(a) Calculate the impedances, in ohms per mile, of the line to 60-cycle currents

ohm-meters.

(b) Under the same conditions as in (a), calculate the impedances to a and

0 currents.

t E. Clarke, Circuit Analysis of A-C Power Systems, Vol. 1 (New York: John Wiley &

Public Domain, Google-digitized / http://www.hathitrust.org/access_use#pd-google

Machine Short Circuits," Transactions, AIEE, LX, pt. II (1950), 671-79; E. W. Kim-

(1939), 894-910.

460

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

-i LI T

39'

777777m77?/777777777777777 Ground

Phob. 12-3.

(c) Assume now that the line is 70 miles long and is supplied from a 40,000-kva,

mva

Xd" Xi' X1

Generator

40

0.18

Transformer

25

0.04

A line to ground fault occurs at the far end of the line. Find the generator and

(d) With a line to ground fault as in (c), calculate the current in the ground

(e) Disregarding the effect of the ground wire, find the 0, a, and 0 capacitive

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INDEX

Admittance

normal, 62

definition, 433

boards)

Attenuation constant, 41

36

Base volt-amperes, 69

ponents)

Calculating boards

conversion factors, 91

general discussion, 90

General Electric, 97

Westinghouse, 99

Capacitance

371

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Capacitive

Characteristic equations, 20

Conjugate

phasors, 5

Current

normal, 69

phasor, 8

Electrostatic induction

e'O operator, 3

Equivalent networks

autotransformers, 36

mesh type, 32

star type, 30

coupled, 26

three-winding transformer, 36

462

INDEX

Ground displacement

Impedance

characteristic, 41, 44

of a loop, 289

turn, 289

normal, 62, 69

phasor, 7

surge, 41, 44

Impedances

terminal network, 27

10

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double, 227

load, 216

load, 224

Load

ungrounded, 241

235

Load, continued

233

289

Losses, 164

Mutual impedance

INDEX

463

Phase

of, 115

Phasors, 3

conjugate, 5

operations with, 8

Pi network, A, B, C, D constants, 39

Positive sequence

Potential

coefficients, 375

373

Power

factor, 162

representation of instantaneous, 10

230

Propagation constant, 41

Reactance

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normal, 62, 69

transformer, 72,

180

Resistance, 287

of, 5

Self-inductance, 282

Sequence

Sequence, continued

Sequence operators

464 INDEX

impedance to currents of, 308, 313, 320, with currents of, 341, 344, 347, 349

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