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BIDIRECTIONAL STATIC LOAD TEST

MENAIKTARAF JALAN NEGERI (P10)


DARI BATU MAUNG KE JALAN SULTAN
AZLAN SHAH, PULAU PINANG
Method Statement (TP 1)
Date

: 9 June 2015

Version

: V1R0M0

Prepared by:
Strainstall Malaysia Sdn Bhd

(200894-H)

19, Jalan TPP 1/10


Taman Industri Puchong
47160 Puchong
Selangor Darul Ehsan, MALAYSIA

Bidirectional Static Load Test Method Statement


Batu Maung

Table of Content
1.0

OVERVIEW ......................................................................................................................... 3

2.0

INSTALLATION ................................................................................................................. 3

3.0

HYDRAULIC JACK POSITIONING ............................................................................... 4

4.0

INSTRUMENTATION........................................................................................................ 5

5.0

TEST PROCEDURE ........................................................................................................... 5

6.0

MEASUREMENTS.............................................................................................................. 6

7.0

REPORTING OF TEST RESULTS ................................................................................... 6

8.0

QUALITY ASSURANCE .................................................................................................... 7

9.0

GUIDE TO POST-TEST GROUTING .............................................................................. 8

APPENDICES
Appendix A

Instrumentation Schematic Showing the Pile Layout for a Bidirectional


Static Load Test
Figure 1 - Schematic Diagram of Bored Pile Layout
Figure 2 - Schematic Diagram of Annular Void Grouting
Figure 3 - Schematic Diagram of Jack Grouting
Figure 4 - Layout of Hydraulic Jack Assembly

Appendix B

Calculation of Hydraulic Jack Level

Appendix C

Loading Schedule of Test pile

Appendix D

Schematic Diagram of Testing Procedure

Appendix E

Construction of Equivalent Top-Loaded Load Settlement Curve

Appendix F

Sample Plots from a Typical Test

Appendix G

BDSLT Risk Assessment

Appendix H

Contractor Worksheet

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1.0

OVERVIEW
This method statement is aimed at describing a single-level bidirectional static load test that
has been proposed for one (1) number of working bored pile at the MENAIKTARAF JALAN
NEGERI (P10) DARI BATU MAUNG KE JALAN SULTAN AZLAN SHAH, PULAU
PINANG project. Test pile description is summarized as follows:
Pile
No.
TP1

Pile
Size
(mm)
800

Working
Load
(tonne)
350

Test
Load
(tonne)
700

Pile Length
(m)

Jack
Assembly

43.0

2x200T

The proposed test is executed using single-level configuration (comprising one level of
hydraulic jack assembly) to enable the top-loading equivalent load-settlement profile to be
computed. Using a single-level configuration, the pile will be divided into two segments.
The hydraulic jack assembly will contain bi-directional hydraulic jacks in a symmetrical
formation. The hydraulic jack assembly delivers 400 tonne loading in both the upward and
downward directions, resulting in a total capacity of 800 tonne. A schematic section of the
test pile is included in Appendix A.

2.0

INSTALLATION
Bored pile excavation will proceed under the piling contractors work plan as approved by
the Engineer. Upon reaching the final toe elevation, the pile bottom will be cleaned and
approved by the Engineer for concrete placement.
The hydraulic jack assembly, related hydraulic supply, and instrumentation will be lowered
into the hole attached to the steel cage. Hydraulic jack assembly inside the cage will be
supported either using angle bar welded to the cage or directly welded to the cage. The steel
cage will be fabricated in a number of pieces (depending on the pile length) and spliced
together over the bored hole. The number of cages should be kept to a minimum to speed up
the installation process.
The first section of the reinforcing cage containing the hydraulic jack assembly will be
lowered into the bored hole and temporarily supported on the steel casing. The second cage
section will then be lowered vertically into position and spliced to the top of the first cage.
After the entire reinforcing cage has been lowered into the shaft, the cage may be supported
on the steel casing during concrete placement. Alternatively, the cage can be fabricated in a
single piece, but the final arrangement must be coordinated with Strainstall Malaysia Sdn.
Bhd. personnel.
Concrete placement will commence utilizing suitable size tremie pipe of sufficient length so
as to extend beyond the hydraulic jack assembly to the pile toe. Cutouts of sufficient sizes
will be provided in the hydraulic jack steel bearing plates to accommodate the tremie pipe.

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A funnel will also be constructed between the opening in the top plate of the hydraulic jack
assembly and the main vertical rebar to guide the concrete tremie pipe through the steel
bearing plates. The funnel also serves as a means of preventing the tremie pipe from
accidentally hitting the hydraulic fittings on the top of jack by forming a physical barrier
apart from serving as a guide.
Further protecting to the hydraulic hoses is in the form of foam shields and protection bars
leading from the hydraulic fittings to the cell top the cage vertical rebars which protect the
hoses from the effects of flowing concrete. Alternative concreting methods may be used but
must be coordinated beforehand with Strainstall Malaysia Sdn. Bhd. personnel.
Temporary support will be welded between top and bottom bearing plates. This is to allow
the holding of weight below the bottom bearing plate once the reinforcing cage is cut off at
the bottom bearing plate level.
The concrete mix should allow for minimum slump between 175 25mm and should contain
sufficient retarder to maintain workability for a minimum of 3 hours is preferred. The
concrete will be placed up to the designed cut-off level as per standard / approved concreting
procedures. The Contractor Worksheet is included in Appendix H.

3.0

HYDRAULIC JACK POSITIONING


Positioning of hydraulic jack assembly is determined based on soil data. This is used as the
basis to compute the expected skin friction and end-bearing capacities of the pile. Strainstall
Malaysia Sdn. Bhd. will normally present the optimum position of the hydraulic jack
assembly in the pile for the Engineers approval.
The main aim of positioning the assembly will be to equalize the bi-directional forces in the
pile so that failure in one direction does not occur prematurely. The detailed positioning
requirements are calculated based on the Engineers pile design and the soil conditions as
shown by the borehole records.
It must be stressed that all calculation are based on empirical formulae which does not imply
that they are fail-proof but at the time represents the most prudent and accurate positioning
based on available information and knowledge. By the acceptance of this method statement,
the Engineer is deemed to have reviewed the computations as contained herein and is
agreeable to the recommendation for the jack location.
The position of the hydraulic jack assembly for pile no. TP1 is recommended at 17.0m from
the pile toe level. The pile design calculation is included in Appendix B.

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4.0

INSTRUMENTATION
Hydraulic jacks
the site.

All hydraulic jacks will be calibrated individually prior to sending to

Measurement of movements
For measurement of the movement of the bearing
plates, tell-tale extensometers with displacement transducers of maximum 100 mm stroke
will be used.
Measurement of jack pressure
A high-pressure bourdon gauge and calibrated
electronic pressure transducer capable of taking pressure reading up to 15,000 PSI will be
used to monitor the hydraulic jack pressure, from which the loading is derived by applying
the calibration factor of the hydraulic jack to the pressure.

5.0

TEST PROCEDURE
The bi-directional static load test will be carried out when the concrete strength of the pile is
adequate to sustain the maximum required test load. During the commencement of the test,
all hydraulic jacks forming part of the assembly will have the welded seal break off during
the process of load applying.
The hydraulic jack will be internally pressurized using a common hydraulic system (which
ensures uniform and synchronised pressurization of both hydraulic jacks), creating an upward
force on the shaft in upper friction and an equal, but downward force in combined lower shaft
friction and/or end bearing.
As mentioned, the hydraulic jack load is determined by relating the applied hydraulic
pressure to load calibration. A high-range calibrated pressure transducer will be used to read
the pressure on the pump line. Schematic diagram of testing procedure is included in
Appendix D.
The load will be removed and testing considers finished when one of the following conditions
prevail before the load cycle(s) complete:
1. The test pile reaches its ultimate capacity in either the upward or downward direction
(when either one of the upward or downward displacement exceeds the limit set by
the Engineer or 10% of the pile diameter, whichever is lesser);
2. The hydraulic jack reaches its maximum loading capacity;
3. The maximum travel of the jack is reached. The nominal stroke for each of the
hydraulic jack used in these test is nominally 180 mm.
Load-settlement readings will be automatically recorded at 1-minute interval. The loading
will be carried out in stages as shown in Appendix C.

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6.0

MEASUREMENTS
The downward expansion of each of the hydraulic jack assembly is measured directly by
using two (2) nos. displacement transducers attached to tell tale extensometers that are
anchored against the bottom bearing plate of the hydraulic jack assembly at equidistant.
The upward vertical movement of the top of the hydraulic jack assembly is measured using
two (2) nos. displacement transducers attached to tell-tale extensometers that are anchored to
the top bearing plate of the hydraulic jack assembly at equidistant.
Pile compression above hydraulic jack assembly will be measured directly at the top of the
shaft using two (2) nos. displacement transducers and/or non-encased telltale rods attached to
the pile top at equidistant.
Pile compression below hydraulic jack assembly will be measured using two (2) nos.
displacement transducers and non-encased telltale rods installed at the pile bottom at
equidistant.
The movement of the pile is closely monitored and the displacement transducers are adjusted
if the movements exceed 100 mm. This is in keeping with the normal practise in maintained
load tests where pile movements exceed the range of the displacement measurement
instruments.
The displacement and pressure transducers are connected to data logger or equivalent
equipment. The data logger is, in turn, connected to a laptop computer. This arrangement
allows the reading of displacement and pressure to be recorded and stored automatically
during the test.
All measurements are made with reference to a reference frame constructed at platform level.
Precise level will be used to monitor any possible deflection for the constructed reference
beam during testing.

7.0

REPORTING OF TEST RESULTS


Upon completion of the test, the client will be issued with a preliminary report that shows the
load-settlement curves for the test. A sample of the load-settlement charts provided in a
typical report is included in Appendix F.
A final test report to be endorsed by a Professional Engineer will be issued within a predetermined time frame, in accordance with the contract allowing for review of the report by
the clients Engineers.
The write-up on Construction of Equivalent Top-Loaded Settlement Curve is included in
Appendix E.

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8.0

QUALITY ASSURANCE
The hydraulic jacks have been tested and calibrated to a specific capacity individually and
then welded in the closed position prior to shipment. The hydraulic hose assembly will be
tested to 10,000 PSI prior to installation to ensure a leak-free system. All displacement
transducers are calibrated individually by the respective manufacturers (and/or accredited
calibration laboratory) prior to shipment, to ensure specified accuracy and functionality.
The on-site inspection and checking of the hydraulic jack assembly includes, but is not
limited to the following:
1.

The fabrication of the hydraulic jack assembly is supervised and the perpendicular
attachment to the main vertical rebar is supervised and checked to be within acceptable
tolerance;

2.

The tack welds holding the hydraulic jack assembly in the closed position are
visually checked prior to lifting and installation into the shaft;

3.

SSM personnel will work with the contractor to plan the hoisting and lifting of the
reinforcement cage from horizontal to vertical, paying specific attention to prevent
potential deflection of the reinforcing cage from exceeding the acceptable tolerance;

4.

Immediately prior to lowering the reinforcement cage into the shaft, it is again checked
to be within the acceptable tolerance. If this criterion is not met upon inspection,
corrective adjustments or corrective procedures will be suggested to bring the assembly
within the acceptable tolerance;

5.

Placement of tremie pipe and concrete is observed, in order to minimize the potential
for damage and improper seating. It must be noted however that the Contractor is
responsible for the overall successful completion of the concreting process which
includes the following: checking and ensuring that concrete of the required
specifications is used, and ensuring that the appropriate tremie pipe and concreting
equipment are used.

The BDSLT Risk Assessment analysis included in Appendix G summarizes the overall risks
associated with performing the specified BDSLT test.
In order to minimize potential problems arising from damage to electronic equipments during
installation, there are several built-in redundancies in the embedded measurement system:

The expansion of the hydraulic jacks will be monitored using a minimum of four (4)
nos. displacement transducers in conjunction with extensometers; any one of which
would provide adequate measurement should the other fail. If all were to fail, telltale
rods can be inserted into pre-installed grout pipes and/or pressure relief pipes (if
these are installed), which would enable mechanical measurements of the downward
movement of the bottom bearing plates.
The automated recording of all measurements allows for storage of the recorded data
on the data logger, on the laptop computer and other storage devices. Furthermore,
manual readings and notes are taken during the test as a backup. If any of the
automated equipment fails, backup manual readout devices will be on site and can be
used.

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9.0

All external measurement devices (above ground devices) used in measuring the pile
head movement, telltale movement, and hydraulic jacks can be replaced in the event
of malfunction. All devices are calibrated individually and certificates on each device
will be submitted prior to commencing the bidirectional load test.

GUIDE TO POST-TEST GROUTING


Working pile is to be grouted after the test is completed. This section of method statement
only serves as a guide on the grout mix and the grouting procedure. Grouting at site or the
grouting system is to formally proposed and carried out at site by the contractor.
The purpose of grouting is to fill up the voids created by the opening of the hydraulic jack(s)
during testing. The voids are found in two (2) specific areas of the hydraulic jack assembly:

within the jack chamber(s) which are filled with water after the test;

space immediately above the lower bearing plate of the hydraulic jack assembly that
is created due to the lifting of concrete from the debonded surface of the lower
bearing plate during the opening of the hydraulic jack(s).

Preparing the grout. The grout used shall consist of cement grout with non shrink additive
and water. NO sand should be used in the mix. The grout mixing and preparation shall be in
accordance to the manufacturers instruction. Depending on the pump used to deliver the
grout to the voids, the amount of water used can be adjusted to a suitable consistency
(remaining within the specifications and guidelines from the cement manufacturer).
It is recommended that the cement grout pass through a sieve so that lumps, if any, are
effectively removed from the mix to prevent any untoward incident of hose clogging during
grouting.
Grouting the jack chamber(s). The original hydraulic hoses are used to deliver the grout
mix. There are two (2) hoses for each hydraulic jack one serves as inlet and should be
attached to the grout mixer and the other which serves as outlet should be open-ended to
allow the discharge of water and subsequently excess grout during the entire process. At the
commencement of grouting, water will flow out of the outlet, followed eventually by grout of
the same viscosity and consistency to that which is pumped in through the inlet. This
indicates that the grouting process is completed. The outlet should then be closed with
suitable pressure applied before closing the inlet. Repeat the same procedure for other
hydraulic jack(s).
Grouting the void above the lower bearing plate. Four (4) nos. of preinstalled grouting
hoses are used for grouting. Grouting to the void between the steel plates as a result of jack
opening is via the HDPE hose (or equivalent) as provided. There are normally two conditions
for grouting the void:

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1. If jack opening is small after test, all the grouting hoses should be pump with water
using suitable coupling connect to the pump with appropriate pressure applied one at
a time to allow the seal of grouting hose that is near to the jack opening to break.
Subsequently grouting can be carried out by pumping the grout into all the hoses with
suitable pressure one at a time. The amount of grout used during this time should be
monitor as compared to the theoretical volume required to ensure the void is been
completely filled up.

2. If jack opening is reasonably big after test, grouting can be carried out without
applying water pressure as the grouting hoses would have been tear off due to the
jack opening. The amount of grout used during this time should be monitor as
compared to the theoretical volume required to ensure the void is been completely
filled up.

Quantity of grout to use.


The quantity of
(conservatively) based on the following formulas:

grout

required

can

be

estimated

(a) Grouting of hydraulic jacks:


Nominal maximum stroke of hydraulic jack
multiply by
Area of jack based on nominal outer diameter
multiply by
no. of hydraulic jacks used
multiply by 2 (provision for excess)
(b) Grouting of void above lower bearing plate:
Cross sectional area of pile based on nominal pile diameter
multiply by
Nominal maximum stroke of hydraulic jack
multiply by 2 (provision for excess)

Compression test
specific waiting time.

During grouting, samples of grout can be taken and tested after a

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Appendix A
Instrumentation Schematic Showing the Pile Layout for a
Bidirectional Static Load Test

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Figure 1: Schematic Diagram of Bored Pile Layout

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Figure 2: Schematic Diagram of Annular Void Grouting

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Figure 3: Schematic Diagram of Jack Grouting

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Proposed Wisma Matex, Johor

Figure 4: Layout of Hydraulic Jack Assembly

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Appendix B
Calculation of Hydraulic Jack Level

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Appendix C
Loading Schedule of Test Pile

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Loading Schedule of Test Pile:


Cycle

Percentage of
Working Load
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
75%
50%
25%
0%
25%
50%
75%
100%
110%
120%
130%
140%
150%
160%
170%
180%
190%
200%
150%
100%
50%
0%

Minimum Holding
Time (mins)
0
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
60
10
10
10
30
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
120
10
10
10
30

The loading stage of 100% and 200% shall be sustained at a constant magnitude until the rate
of settlement for cell top and cell bottom is less than 0.25 mm/hr respectively and slowing
down.

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Appendix D
Schematic Diagram of Testing Procedure

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FOR ILLUSTRATION ONLY

hydraulic cell hose


connect to
manifold

hydraulic pump powered


using air compressor

pressure dispersed
into hydraulic cell
through manifold

hydraulic pressure
monitored using
pressure transducer

tell tale extensometer


for pile top, cell top,
cell bottom and pile toe
displacement reading
log by datalogger

displacement & pressure


reading viewed on laptop

Displacement vs. load


curves plotted on the spot

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pressure reading
log by datalogger

Bidirectional Static Load Test Method Statement


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Appendix E
Construction of Equivalent
Top-Loaded Load Settlement Curve

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CONSTRUCTION OF THE EQUIVALENT TOP-LOADED LOAD-SETTLEMENT


CURVE FROM THE RESULTS OF
BIDIRECTIONAL STATIC LOAD TEST (BDSLT)
Introduction:
BDSLT can provide a good estimate of a curve showing the load versus settlement of a top-loaded driven or bored pile
(drilled shaft) with the following assumptions, which is consider good sense and usually conservative:

1. The end bearing load-movement curve in a top-loaded shaft has the same loads for a given
movement as the net (subtract buoyant weight of pile above hydraulic jack) end bearing loadmovement curve developed by the bottom of the hydraulic jack when placed at or near the
bottom of the shaft.
2. The side shear load-movement curve in a top-loaded shaft has the same net shear, multiplied
by an adjustment factor F for a given downward movement as occurred in the BDSLT for
that same movement at the top of the jack in the upward direction. The same applies to the
upward movement in a top-loaded tension test. Unless noted otherwise, a factor F=0.95 for
compression in cohesionless soils and F=0.80 for tension tests in all soils is used.
3. The pile behaves as a rigid body, but include the elastic compressions that are part of the
movement data obtained from a bidirectional static load test (BDSLT). Procedure 1 interprets
an equivalent top-load test (TLT) movement curve and procedure 2 corrects the effects of the
additional elastic compressions in a TLT.
4. The part of the shaft below the hydraulic jack (one or multi level) has the same loadmovement behavior as when top-loading the entire shaft. The subsequent end bearing
movement curve refers to the movement of the entire length of shaft below the jack.
Procedure 1:
Figure A shows BDSLT results and Figure B shows the construction of equivalent top loaded
settlement curve. Each of the curves shown has points numbered from 1 to 12 such that the same
point number on each curve has the same movement magnitude.
With the above assumptions, the equivalent curve can be constructed as follows:
Select an arbitrary movement such as the 0.40 inches to give point 4 on the shaft side shear load
movement curve in Figure A and record the load of 2,090 tons in shear at that movement. With the
initial assumption of a rigid pile, the top of pile moves downward the same as the bottom. Therefore,
find point 4 with 0.40 inches of upward movement on the end bearing load movement curve and
record the corresponding load of 1,060 tons.
Adding these two loads will give the total load of 3,150 tons due to side shear plus end bearing at the
same movement and thus gives point 4 on the Figure B load settlement curve for an equivalent toploaded test.
Procedure 1 can be used to obtain all the points in Figure B up to the component that moved the least
at the end of the test, in this case point 5 in side shear.
Suitable hyperbolic curve fitting technique can be used for extrapolation of the side shear curve to
produce end bearing movement data up to 12. Some judgment is required for deciding on the
maximum number of data points to provide good fit with high correlation coefficient, r2. Using the
same movement matching procedure described earlier, the equivalent curve to points 6 to 12 can be
extended. The dashed line shown in Figure B, signify that this part of the equivalent curve depends
partly on extrapolated data.

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If the data warrants, the extrapolations of both side shear and end bearing to extend the equivalent
curve to a greater movement than the maximum measured (point 12) will be used. An appendix in
this report gives the details of the extrapolation(s) used with the present BDSLT and shows the fit
with the actual data.
Procedure 2:
The elastic compression in the equivalent top load test always exceeds that in the BDSLT. It produces
more top movement and also additional side shear movement, which then generate more side shear,
more compression, etc. An exact solution of this load transfer problem requires knowing the side
shear vs. vertical movement (t-y) curves for a large number of pile length increments and solving the
resulting set of simultaneous equations or using finite element or finite difference simulations to
obtain an approximate solution for these equations.
The attached analysis P.6 gives the equations for the elastic compressions that occur in the BDSLT
with one or two levels of hydraulic jacks. Analysis P.7 gives the equations for the elastic
compressions that occur in the equivalent TLT. Both sets of equations do not include the elastic
compression below the hydraulic jack because the same compression takes place in both the BDSLT
and the TLT. This is equivalent to taking l3 = 0. Subtracting the BDSLT from the TLT compression
gives the desired additional elastic compression at the top of the TLT. The additional elastic
compression is then added to the rigid equivalent curve obtained from Part 1 to obtain the final,
corrected equivalent load-settlement curve for the TLT on the same pile as the actual BDSLT.
Note that the above p.6 and p.7 give equations for each of three assumed patterns of developed side
shear stress along the pile. The pattern shown in the center of the three is applicable to any
approximate determined side shear distribution. Experience has shown the initial solution for the
additional elastic compression, as described above, gives an adequate and slightly conservative (high)
estimate of the additional compression versus more sophisticated load-transfer analyses as described
in the first paragraph of this Part II.
The analysis p.8 provides an example of calculated results in English units on a hypothetical 1-stage,
single level BDSLT using the simplified method in Part II with the centroid of the side shear
distribution 44.1% above the base of the hydraulic cell. Figure C compares the corrected with the
rigid curve of Figure B. Page 9 contains an example equivalent to that above in SI units.
The final analysis p.10 provides an example of calculated results in English units on a hypothetical 3stage, multi level BDSLT using the simplified method in Part II with the centroid of the combined
upper and middle side shear distribution 44.1% above the base of the bottom hydraulic jack. The
individual centroids of the upper and middle side shear distribution lie 39.6% and 57.9% above and
below the middle hydraulic jack, respectively. Figure E compares the corrected with the rigid curve.
Page II contains an example equivalent to that above in SI units.
Other Tests: The example illustrated in Figure A has the maximum component movement in end
bearing. The procedures remain the same if the maximum test movement occurred in side shear. Then
we would have extrapolated end bearing to produce the dashed-line part of the reconstructed top-load
settlement curve.
The example illustrated also assumes a pile top-loaded in compression. For a pile top-loaded in
tension we would, based on Assumptions 2 and 3, use the upward side shear load curve in Figure A,
multiplied by the F = 0.80 noted in Assumption 2, for the equivalent top-loaded displacement curve.

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Expected Accuracy: There are only five series of tests that provide the data needed to make a direct
comparison between actual, full scale, top-loaded pile movement behaviour and the equivalent
behaviour obtained from a BDSLT by the method described herein. These involved three sites in
Japan and one in Singapore, in a variety of soils, with three compression tests on bored piles (drilled
shafts), one compression test on a driven pile and one tension test on a bored pile. The largest bored
pile had a 1.2 m diameter and a 37 m length. The driven pile had a 1-m increment modular
construction and a 9 m length. The largest top loading = 28 MN (3,150 tons).
The following references detail the aforementioned Japanese tests and the results therefore:
Kishida H. et al., 1992, Pile Loading Tests at Osaka Amenity Park Project, Paper by
Mitsubishi Co., also briefly described in Schmertmann (1993, see bibliography). Compares
one drilled shaft in tension and another in compression.
Ogura, H. et al., 1995, Application of Pile Toe Load Test to Cast-in-place Concrete Pile and
Precast Pile, special volume Tsuchi-to-Kiso on Pile Loading Test, Japanese Geotechnical
Society, Vol. 3, No. 5, Ser. No. 448. Original in Japanese. Translated by M.B. Karkee,
GEOTOP Corporation. Compares one drilled shaft and one driven pile, both in compression.
We compared the predicted equivalent and measured top load at three top movements in each of the
above four Japanese comparisons. The top movements ranged from inch (6 mm) to 40 mm,
depending on the data available.
The (equiv./meas.) ratios of the top load averaged 1.03 in the 15 comparisons with a coefficient of
variation of less than 10%. These available comparisons help support the practical validity of the
equivalent top load method described herein.
L.S. Peng, A.M. Koon, R. Page and C. W. Lee report the results of a class-A prediction by others of
the TLT curve from a BDSLT on a 1.2 m diameter, 37.2 m long bored pile in Singapore, compared to
an adjacent pile with the same dimensions actually top-loaded by kentledge. They report about a 4%
difference in ultimate capacity and less than 8% difference in settlements over the 1.0 to 1.5 times
working load range comparable to the accuracy noted above. Their paper has the title
OSTERBERG CELL TESTING OF PILES, and was published in March 1999 in the Proceedings
of the International Conference on Rail Transit, held in Singapore and published by the Association
of Consulting Engineers Singapore.
B.H. Fellenius has made several finite element method (FEM) studies of a BDSLT in which he
adjusted the parameters to produce good load-deflection matches with the BDSLT up and down loaddeflection curve. He then used the same parameters to predict the TLT deflection curve. We
compared the FEM-predicted curve with the equivalent load-deflection predicted by the previously
described Part I and II procedures, with the results again comparable to the accuracy noted above. A
paper by Fellenius et. al. titled BDSLT and FE Analysis of a 28 m Deep Barrette in Manila,
Philippines, awaiting publication in the ASCE Journal of Geotechnical and Environmental
Engineering, details one of the comparisons.
Limitations: The engineer using these results should judge the conservatism of the aforementioned
assumptions and extrapolation(s) before utilizing the results for design purposes. For example, brittle
failure behaviour may produce movement curves with abrupt changes in curvature (not hyperbolic).
However, the hyperbolic fit method and the assumptions used usually produce reasonable equivalent
top load settlement curves.
Feb, 2007

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Example of the Construction of an Equivalent Top-Loaded Settlement Curve (Figure B)


From BDSLT Results (Figure A)

Maximum Net Load


from BDSLT

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Theoretical Elastic Compression in BDSLT


Based on Pattern of Development Side Shear Stress

BDSLT = 1 + 2

BDSLT = 1 + 2

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Bidirectional Static Load Test Method Statement


Batu Maung

Theoretical Elastic Compression in Top Loaded Test


Based on Pattern of Development Side Shear Stress

Component loads Q selected at the same () BDSLT.

Page 27

Bidirectional Static Load Test Method Statement


Batu Maung

Example Calculation for the Additional Elastic Compression Correction for


Single Level Test (English Units)

Given:

Shear reduction factor

BDSLT
(mm)
0.000
0.100
0.200
0.300
0.400
0.600
0.800
1.000
1.200
1.500
1.800
2.100
2.500

QA
(MN)
0
352
635
867
1061
1367
1597
1777
1921
2091
2221
2325
2434

C1
AE
0
1
2
3

= 0.441
= 3820000 kips (assumed constant throughout test)
= 5.9
ft
= 48.2
ft (embedded length of shaft above hydraulic jack)
= 0.0
ft
= 0.0
ft
= 1.00 (cohesive soil)

QA
(MN)
0
706
1445
1858
2088
2382
2563
2685
2773
2867
2933
2983
3032

P
(MN)
0
1058
2080
2725
3149
3749
4160
4462
4694
4958
5155
5308
5466

Page 28

TLT
(mm)
0.000
0.133
0.257
0.339
0.396
0.478
0.536
0.579
0.613
0.651
0.680
0.703
0.726

BDSLT
(mm)
0.000
0.047
0.096
0.124
0.139
0.159
0.171
0.179
0.185
0.191
0.196
0.199
0.202

(mm)
0.000
0.086
0.160
0.215
0.256
0.319
0.365
0.400
0.427
0.460
0.484
0.504
0.524

BDSLT +

(mm)
0.000
0.186
0.360
0.515
0.656
0.919
1.165
1.400
1.627
1.960
2.284
2.604
3.024

Bidirectional Static Load Test Method Statement


Batu Maung

Example Calculation for the Additional Elastic Compression Correction for


Single Level Test (SI Units)

Given:

C1
AE
0
1
2
3
Shear reduction factor

BDSLT
(mm)
0.00
2.54
5.08
7.62
10.16
15.24
20.32
25.40
30.48
38.10
45.72
53.34
63.50

QA
(MN)
0.00
1.57
2.82
3.86
4.72
6.08
7.11
7.90
8.55
9.30
9.88
10.34
10.83

= 0.441
= 17000
MN (assumed constant throughout test)
= 1.80
m
= 14.69
m (embedded length of shaft above hydraulic jack)
= 0.00
m
= 0.00
m
= 1.00 (cohesive soil)

QA
(MN)
0.00
3.14
6.43
8.27
9.29
10.60
11.40
11.94
12.33
12.75
13.05
13.27
13.48

P
(MN)
0.00
4.71
9.25
12.12
14.01
16.68
18.50
19.85
20.88
22.05
22.93
23.61
24.31

Page 29

TLT
(mm)
0.00
3.37
6.52
8.61
10.05
12.14
13.60
14.70
15.55
16.53
17.27
17.84
18.44

BDSLT
(mm)
0.00
1.20
2.45
3.15
3.54
4.04
4.34
4.55
4.70
4.86
4.97
5.06
5.14

(mm)
0.00
2.17
4.07
5.46
6.51
8.10
9.26
10.15
10.85
11.67
12.29
12.79
13.30

BDSLT +

(mm)
0.00
4.71
9.15
13.08
16.67
23.34
29.58
35.55
41.33
49.77
58.01
66.13
76.80

Bidirectional Static Load Test Method Statement


Batu Maung

Example Calculation for the Additional Elastic Compression Correction for


Multi Level Test (English Units)

Given:

C1
C2
C3
AE
0
1
2
3
Shear reduction factor

BDSLT
(mm)
0.000
0.100
0.200
0.300
0.400
0.600
0.800
1.000
1.200
1.500
1.800
2.100
2.500

QA
(MN)
0
352
635
867
1061
1367
1597
1777
1921
2091
2221
2325
2434

= 0.441
= 0.579
= 0.396
= 3820000 kips (assumed constant throughout test)
= 5.9
ft
= 30.0
ft (embedded length of shaft above mid-jack)
= 18.2
ft (embedded length of shaft between hydraulic jack)
= 0.0
ft
= 1.00 (cohesive soil)

QB
(MN)
0
247
506
650
731
834
897
940
971
1003
1027
1044
1061

QB
(MN)
0
459
939
1208
1357
1548
1666
1745
1802
1864
1907
1939
1971

P
(MN)
0
1058
2080
2725
3149
3749
4160
4462
4694
4958
5155
5308
5466

Page 30

TLT
(mm)
0.000
0.133
0.257
0.339
0.396
0.478
0.536
0.579
0.613
0.651
0.680
0.703
0.726

BDSLT
(mm)
0.000
0.025
0.052
0.067
0.075
0.085
0.092
0.096
0.099
0.103
0.105
0.107
0.109

(mm)
0.000
0.107
0.205
0.272
0.321
0.393
0.444
0.483
0.513
0.548
0.575
0.596
0.618

BDSLT +

(mm)
0.000
0.207
0.405
0.572
0.721
0.993
1.244
1.483
1.713
2.048
2.375
2.696
3.118

Bidirectional Static Load Test Method Statement


Batu Maung

Example Calculation for the Additional Elastic Compression Correction for


Multi Level Test (SI Units)

Given:

C1
C2
C3
AE
0
1
2
3
Shear reduction factor

BDSLT
(mm)
0.00
2.54
5.08
7.62
10.16
15.24
20.32
25.40
30.48
38.10
45.72
53.34
63.50

QA
(MN)
0.00
1.57
2.82
3.86
4.72
6.08
7.11
7.90
8.55
9.30
9.88
10.34
10.83

= 0.441
= 0.579
= 0.396
= 17000
MN (assumed constant throughout test)
= 1.80
m
= 9.14
m (embedded length of shaft above mid-jack)
= 5.55
m (embedded length of shaft between hydraulic jack)
= 0.00
m
= 1.00 (cohesive soil)

QB
(MN)
0.00
1.10
2.25
2.89
3.25
3.71
3.99
4.18
4.32
4.46
4.57
4.64
4.72

QB
(MN)

P
(MN)

0.00
2.04
4.18
5.37
6.04
6.89
7.41
7.76
8.02
8.29
8.48
8.62
8.76

0.00
4.71
9.25
12.12
14.01
16.68
18.50
19.85
20.88
22.05
22.93
23.61
24.31

Page 31

TLT
(mm)
0.00
3.37
6.52
8.61
10.05
12.14
13.60
14.70
15.55
16.53
17.27
17.84
18.44

BDSLT
(mm)
0.00
0.64
1.31
1.69
1.90
2.17
2.33
2.44
2.52
2.61
2.67
2.71
2.76

(mm)
0.00
2.73
5.21
6.92
8.15
9.97
11.27
12.26
13.03
13.92
14.60
15.13
15.68

BDSLT +

(mm)
0.00
5.27
10.29
14.54
18.31
25.21
31.59
37.66
43.51
52.02
60.32
68.47
79.18

Bidirectional Static Load Test Method Statement


Batu Maung

Appendix F
Samples Plots from a Typical Test

Page 32

Bidirectional Static Load Test Method Statement


Batu Maung
Proposed Condominium Development of 33 Storey on
Lot 1311W TS 24 Angullia Park / Cuscaden Walk, Singapore
Bidirectional Static Load Test on Pile No. UTP
tested on 21st October 2009
CHART 1 - Load-Movement Plot

Unidirectional Load (tonnes)

250

500

750

1000

1250

1500

1750

2000

2250

2500

2750

3000

3250

3500

-20.0
-18.0
-16.0
-14.0
-12.0
-10.0
-8.0
-6.0
-4.0

Displacement (mm)

-2.0
0.0
2.0
4.0
6.0
8.0
10.0
12.0
14.0
16.0
18.0
20.0
22.0
24.0
26.0
28.0
30.0

Pile Top

Cell Top

Cell Bottom

Pile Bottom

Proposed Condominium Development of 33 Storey on


Lot 1311W TS 24 Angullia Park / Cuscaden Walk, Singapore
Bidirectional Static Load Test on Pile No. UTP
tested on 21st October 2009
CHART 2 - Equivalent Top Load vs Settlement Curve
Load (tonnes)

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

3500

4000

4500

0.0

5.0

Settlement (mm)

10.0

15.0

20.0

25.0

30.0

35.0

40.0

Settlement (Rigid Pile)

Settlement (Adjusted for Elastic Compression)

Page 33

5000

5500

6000

6500

Bidirectional Static Load Test Method Statement


Batu Maung

Appendix G
BDSLT Risk Assessment

Page 34

Bidirectional Static Load Test Method Statement


Batu Maung

RISK ASSESSMENT FORM


Probability

Risk

Use of Personal
Protective Equipment

General site
hazard

Proximity of Site
Operation

Injury to
person

Proximity to welding
operation

Eye damage,
burn injury

Lifting and crane


operation

Injury to
person

Use of Tools

Injury to
person using
tools
Eye / skin
hazard

Operation Hazard or
Potentially Hazardous

Use of chemical

Hazard

Control to Mimimise Risk

Ground and working


area conditions

Slip and trip


hazard

Unforeseen site danger

Nature
unknown

FINAL ASSESSMENT

Wear hard hat, safety boot. If required use


ear protection, mask, reflective jacket,
safety glasses and glove
Keep clear of piling or excavation activity.
Ensure work area is away and located in
safe area.
Ensure welding activity is carried out by
trained personnel only. Use screen where
possible. Keep safe distance from welding
activity
keep safe distance from any lifting /
cranage operation. Used trained slingers
and banksmen
Check all hand tools are in good condition.
Wear glove where necessary.
Use safety glasses / goggles and gloves
when using any hazardous materials /
chemicals. Standby water for cleaning
purpose.
Provide adequate walkway and working
area. Keep working area clear of
obstruction / debris.
Discuss safety with Safety Officer
beforehand. Identify gathering area in case
of emergency.
OVERALL RISK

Page 35

Residual Risk

Effect

General Operation

L
L

Bidirectional Static Load Test Method Statement


Batu Maung

RISK ASSESSMENT FORM

Attached instrumentation Injury to


to cages
person

Attach of hydraulic cell


assembly to cage

Make hose connection


inside cage
Fixing pipes inside upper
cages as cages are
spliced
Tying of hoses to the
cages as lowered into
hole

Injury to
person due to
lifting / welding
activity

Slip and trip


hazard
Injury to
person

Injury to
person

FINAL ASSESSMENT

Use trained personnel. Work from outside


the cage. Entry to cage should only be
made in exceptional circumstances and
only if egress is safe.
Use trained personnel. Use established
safe practice for welding and lifting. Keep
clear distance from any lifting and welding
activity.
Use trained personnel. Always to have a
assistant around to ensure safety work.

Residual Risk

Control to Mimimise Risk


Risk

Hazard
Effect

Operation Hazard or
Potentially Hazardous

Probability

BDSLT Installation

Use trained personnel. Wear glove and


safety glasses if needed.
Ensure proper instruction is given to crane
operator. Ensure work area clear of mud /
debris.

OVERALL RISK

RISK ASSESSMENT FORM

Injury to
person

Pressurised air hose


leakage / burst

Injury to
person

Electric shock

Injury to
person

FINAL ASSESSMENT

Control to Mimimise Risk

Residual
Risk

Pressurised Hydraulic
hoses leakage / burst

Risk

Hazard

Probability

Operation Hazard or
Potentially Hazardous

Effect

BDSLT Testing

Ensure adequate strength of hose / correct


rating. Check all hoses prior to work start.
Only allow authorised personnel into
working area.

Ensure adequate strength of hose / correct


rating. Check all hoses prior to work start.
Check correct operation and quality of air.
Ensure proper outdoor electrical connection
are used. Check all cables before
connection. Use only 110V supplies where
avaliable.
OVERALL RISK

Page 36

Bidirectional Static Load Test Method Statement


Batu Maung

Appendix H
Contractor Worksheet

Page 37

Bidirectional Static Load Test Method Statement


Batu Maung

Strainstall Malaysia Contractor's Worksheet


Project Name:

Date:

Project Location:

Country:

Number of Test on Site:

FIELD RESPONSIBILITIES FOR EACH INSTALLATION


Equipment / Supplies

Contractor

Reinforcement Cage

SSM

Remarks

Steel Bearing Plates

Hydraulic Jack, Instrumentation

6 times pile length

1 length

/2" Iron Pipe (6 m length)


/4" Iron Pipe (6 m length)

Lifting Equipment

Two cranes preferred

Right-angle rebar

200 x 200 mm; 25 mm

HDPE hose

Welding Personnel

Welding Equipment & Torches

Grinder

Hand Tools

Working Area

Personal Safety Equipment

If applicable

Procedure
Fabrication of Reinforcement Cage

Hydraulic Jack Assembly

Attach Hydraulic Jack to Cage

SSM Observe

Construct funnel

SSM Observe

Attach Instruments to Cage

Excavation of Bored Pile

Per Specification

Inspection of Bored Pile

Per Specification

Quality Control of Pile

Per Specification

Lifting of Cage

SSM Observe

Lowering of Cage with Jack Attached

SSM Observe

Attachment of Hoses to Upper Cages

SSM Observe

Lapping of Reinforcement Cages

SSM Observe Per Specification

Concrete Placement in Pile

SSM Observe Per Specification

Page 38

Bidirectional Static Load Test Method Statement


Batu Maung

Strainstall Malaysia Contractor's Worksheet


Project Name:

Date:

Project Location:

Country:

Number of Test on Site:

FIELD RESPONSIBILITIES FOR EACH TESTING


Equipment / Supplies

Contractor

SSM

Remarks

Welding Personnel

Welding Equipment & Torches

Grinder

Hand Tools

Air Compressor

175cfm

Fresh Water

100 L

Reference Beam & Supports

Weather Protection (sun / rain)

Test Instrumentation

Test Equipment

Surveyor's Level & Tripod

Grout Mixer and Pump

Lighting

If necessary

Procedure
Concrete Strength Test

Setup of Reference Beam

SSM Observe

Lowering of Telltale Rod into Iron Pipe

SSM Observe

Setup of Weather Protection

To cover pile and testing area

Setup of Test Instrumentation

Operation of Test Equipment

Recording of Test Data

Submission of Final Test Report

Page 39