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# Planning and Design of Port Water Areas

## CIE4330 Ports & Waterways 1

Bas Wijdeven
September 11, 2014
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## Planning and Design of Port Water Areas

Determines to a large extend the port layout
Major part of the overall investment
Difficult to modify once built

www.hima.com
September 11, 2014

## A. Nautical design Hydraulic design

Planning elements
1. Access channel
2. Turning circle
3. Basins
4. Berths
NPA, Port of Durban
September 11, 2014

1. Access channel
a) Alignment
b) Width
c) Depth
d) Maneuvering space inside port

## September 11, 2014

a) Channel Alignment

Design considerations

## Minimize dredging costs

Avoid bends near the port entrance
Minimize effect of cross-currents
Small angle with dominant wave
direction

www.cruisingthevirginislands.com

## Some are conflicting  compromises

September 11, 2014

a) Channel Alignment

## Turning radius as a function of

rudder angle and water depth

## Turning radius at 35 rudder angle in

deep water at service speed:
Fast container vessels 26 knots: 6-8L
Bulk vessels 16 knots: 2.5-4L
GC/multipurpose/LNG: 2-2.5L
x

x
x

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September 11, 2014

b) Channel width

## Planning stage: PIANC method

Fast Time Simulation
Design stage: Real Time Simulation

## b) Channel width: PIANC Method

PIANC Method
One-lane channel: W = WBM + Wi + 2WB
in which: WBM = basic width
WB = bank clearance
Two-way channel: W = 2(WBM + Wi + WB) + WP
Wp = separation distance
September 11, 2014

## b) Channel width: PIANC Method

Basic width

WBM

Wi
Example: cross current/wind

Bank clearance

WB

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2-3L
Transition to
reduced width
inside the port

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c) Channel depth

PIANC:

d = 1.1 1.5 Ds

Planning stage:

d = Ds T + smax + r + m

Design stage:

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c) Channel depth

1.

3.
2.

4.
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## c) Channel depth: PIANC Method

Rule of thumb (PIANC)
- d = 1.1 Ds
- d = 1.3 Ds
- d = 1.5 Ds

sheltered water
Hs 1.0 m
Hs > 1.0 m

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c) Channel depth

## Example location specific

application:
Gross Underkeel Clearance
Westerschelde fixed at:

15%

12.5%
PLAATJE WESTERSCHELDE
10%

Sea Vlissingen: 15 %
Vlissingen- Rilland: 12.5 %
Scheldt River:
10 %
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## c) Channel depth: Planning stage

Deterministic formula:
d = Ds T + smax + r + m
in which:
d = guaranteed depth
Ds= draught design ship
T = tidal restriction
s = sinkage (squat and trim); rule of thumb: s = 0.5
r = response to waves; rule of thumb: r = Hs / 2
m = safety margin / net underkeel clearance

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c) Channel depth

## m depends on seabed characteristics:

- Soft bottom m = 0.3 m
- Sandy bottom m = 0.5 m
- Rock bottom m = 1.0 m

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## c) Channel depth: Tidal window

Tidal restrictions:
d is always related to Chart Datum (CD)
CD is defined by Lowest Astronomical Tide (LAT)
or by LLWS
Without tidal window T = 0
Tidal window: a reduction of required depth related to CD
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c) Channel depth
Example planning stage formula:
d = Ds T + smax + r + m
Ds = 18.0 m
smax= 0.5 m
r = Hs/2 = 1.0 m
m = 0.5 m

)
)
)
)

d = 20 m

## Rule of thumb: d = 1.5 x 18 = 27 m!

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## c) Channel depth: Ship factors

Squat: sinkage due to water flow around the ship

Many formulae

## For straight sailing

in shallow water
Barrass formula

condition: generally 0, due to fuel efficiency!

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## c) Channel depth: Ship factors

Responses to waves:
Vertical motions

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## c) Channel depth: Ship factors

Response depends on the wave length
(actually the wave period)
Lateral motion:

Pitch
L=2Ls

Heave
L>Ls

Roll
Te=7-17 s
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## Apparent wave period Ta for a sailing ship:

L = cT = caTa = (c Vs)Ta
c = wave celerity (m/s)
Stern waves: - Vs

## Stern waves: Ta is longer!

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T=17 sec

Wave
spectrum

T=7 sec

------

Ship motion
spectrum ____
RAO

..

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## Rule of thumb: D = 2 Ls (normal tug assistance)

In case of high freeboard and wind/current: more
(or more/stronger tugs)
Limited space available: possibly less, but subject to
simulations

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## Rules of thumb for quay length and basin width

Special considerations:
Long basins : required possibility to turn ships (wide basins
or turning circle at the end)
Exposed ports: wave resonance effects in the basins
Container terminals: uncertainty future ship dimensions 
flexibility needed

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## d) Maneuvering space inside port: Basins

Rule of thumb: 5B + 100 m,

## Orientation: berthing line preferably // main wind direction

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## d) Maneuvering space inside port: Basins

Example: Amazonehaven
Width 255 m, just suited for
Panamax ships (B=32.2 m: 261 m)
New generation container ships
much wider: B=46 m, so required
330 m

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## d) Maneuvering space inside port: Berths

Terminal with more berths: try to put them in line
(marginal quay):
more flexibility in allocation of ships and use of cranes
less waiting time for ships / better berth occupancy
less sensitive to changes in ship sizes

Port of Bremerhaven

## Lq = 1.1 x n x (Loa+ 15) + 15

with:
n number of berths
Loa length overall, average ship
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## Computer model of the sailing ship

Using all characteristics of the real ship
Simulating actual currents, wind and waves (various
conditions)
With or without tug assistence
But: pre-defined track and auto-pilot: no human factor!

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## Mock-up ship bridge (Full Bridge Simulator)

Computer generated outside view
Real helmsman (captain, pilot, etc.)
Tug assistance automatic or separate tug RTS
Human factor included
Relatively costly
Mainly used to confirm final layouts, to investigate
emergency manoeuvres, to find the operational limits and
to train pilots

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Full-mission bridhe

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