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Planning and Design of Port Water Areas

CIE4330 Ports & Waterways 1

Bas Wijdeven
September 11, 2014
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Section of Hydraulic Engineering

Planning and Design of Port Water Areas


Determines to a large extend the port layout
Major part of the overall investment
Difficult to modify once built

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September 11, 2014

A. Nautical design Hydraulic design


Planning elements
1. Access channel
2. Turning circle
3. Basins
4. Berths
NPA, Port of Durban
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1. Access channel
a) Alignment
b) Width
c) Depth
d) Maneuvering space inside port

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a) Channel Alignment

Design considerations

Minimize dredging costs


Avoid bends near the port entrance
Minimize effect of cross-currents
Small angle with dominant wave
direction

www.cruisingthevirginislands.com

Some are conflicting  compromises


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a) Channel Alignment

Turning radius as a function of


rudder angle and water depth

Turning radius at 35 rudder angle in


deep water at service speed:
Fast container vessels 26 knots: 6-8L
Bulk vessels 16 knots: 2.5-4L
GC/multipurpose/LNG: 2-2.5L
x

x
x

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b) Channel width

Planning stage: PIANC method


Fast Time Simulation
Design stage: Real Time Simulation

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b) Channel width: PIANC Method


PIANC Method
One-lane channel: W = WBM + Wi + 2WB
in which: WBM = basic width
Wi = width additions
WB = bank clearance
Two-way channel: W = 2(WBM + Wi + WB) + WP
Wp = separation distance
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b) Channel width: PIANC Method


Basic width

WBM

Additional widths
Wi
Example: cross current/wind

Bank clearance

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WB

b) Channel width: PIANC Method

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b) Channel width: PIANC Method

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b) Channel width: PIANC Method

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b) Channel width: Port entrance

2-3L
Transition to
reduced width
inside the port

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c) Channel depth

PIANC:

d = 1.1 1.5 Ds

Planning stage:

d = Ds T + smax + r + m

Design stage:

probabilistic computer model

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c) Channel depth

1.

3.
2.

4.
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c) Channel depth: PIANC Method


Rule of thumb (PIANC)
- d = 1.1 Ds
- d = 1.3 Ds
- d = 1.5 Ds

sheltered water
Hs 1.0 m
Hs > 1.0 m

For large ships: not realistic!

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c) Channel depth

Example location specific


application:
Gross Underkeel Clearance
Westerschelde fixed at:

15%

12.5%
PLAATJE WESTERSCHELDE
10%

Sea Vlissingen: 15 %
Vlissingen- Rilland: 12.5 %
Scheldt River:
10 %
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c) Channel depth: Planning stage


Deterministic formula:
d = Ds T + smax + r + m
in which:
d = guaranteed depth
Ds= draught design ship
T = tidal restriction
s = sinkage (squat and trim); rule of thumb: s = 0.5
r = response to waves; rule of thumb: r = Hs / 2
m = safety margin / net underkeel clearance

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c) Channel depth

m depends on seabed characteristics:


- Soft bottom m = 0.3 m
- Sandy bottom m = 0.5 m
- Rock bottom m = 1.0 m

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c) Channel depth: Tidal window

Tidal restrictions:
d is always related to Chart Datum (CD)
CD is defined by Lowest Astronomical Tide (LAT)
or by LLWS
Without tidal window T = 0
Tidal window: a reduction of required depth related to CD
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c) Channel depth
Example planning stage formula:
d = Ds T + smax + r + m
Ds = 18.0 m
smax= 0.5 m
r = Hs/2 = 1.0 m
m = 0.5 m

)
)
)
)

Without tidal window


d = 20 m

Rule of thumb: d = 1.5 x 18 = 27 m!


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c) Channel depth: Tidal window

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c) Channel depth: Ship factors


Squat: sinkage due to water flow around the ship

Many formulae

For straight sailing


in shallow water
Barrass formula

Trim: difference in draught fore and aft, due to loading


condition: generally 0, due to fuel efficiency!

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c) Channel depth: Ship factors


Responses to waves:
Vertical motions

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c) Channel depth: Ship factors


Response depends on the wave length
(actually the wave period)
Lateral motion:

Pitch
L=2Ls

Heave
L>Ls

Roll
Te=7-17 s
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c) Channel depth: Ship factors

Apparent wave period Ta for a sailing ship:


L = cT = caTa = (c Vs)Ta
c = wave celerity (m/s)
Stern waves: - Vs

Head waves: +Vs

Stern waves: Ta is longer!


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c) Channel depth: Ship factors


T=17 sec

Wave
spectrum

T=7 sec

------

Ship motion
spectrum ____
RAO

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..

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d) Maneuvering space inside port: Turning circle

Rule of thumb: D = 2 Ls (normal tug assistance)


In case of high freeboard and wind/current: more
(or more/stronger tugs)
Limited space available: possibly less, but subject to
simulations

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d) Maneuvering space inside port: Basins

Rules of thumb for quay length and basin width


Special considerations:
Long basins : required possibility to turn ships (wide basins
or turning circle at the end)
Exposed ports: wave resonance effects in the basins
Container terminals: uncertainty future ship dimensions 
flexibility needed

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d) Maneuvering space inside port: Basins


Rule of thumb: 5B + 100 m,

with B = beam design ship

Orientation: berthing line preferably // main wind direction


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d) Maneuvering space inside port: Basins


Example: Amazonehaven
Width 255 m, just suited for
Panamax ships (B=32.2 m: 261 m)
New generation container ships
much wider: B=46 m, so required
330 m

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d) Maneuvering space inside port: Berths


Terminal with more berths: try to put them in line
(marginal quay):
more flexibility in allocation of ships and use of cranes
less waiting time for ships / better berth occupancy
less sensitive to changes in ship sizes

Port of Bremerhaven

Lq = 1.1 x n x (Loa+ 15) + 15


with:
n number of berths
Loa length overall, average ship
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Preliminary design stage: Fast Time Simulation

Computer model of the sailing ship


Using all characteristics of the real ship
Simulating actual currents, wind and waves (various
conditions)
With or without tug assistence
But: pre-defined track and auto-pilot: no human factor!

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Example fast-time simulation: track plot

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Example fast-time simulation: output along track

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Example fast-time simulation: output along track

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Detailed design stage: Real Time Simulation

Mock-up ship bridge (Full Bridge Simulator)


Computer generated outside view
Real helmsman (captain, pilot, etc.)
Tug assistance automatic or separate tug RTS
Human factor included
Relatively costly
Mainly used to confirm final layouts, to investigate
emergency manoeuvres, to find the operational limits and
to train pilots

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Example Realtime simulations: Beira Mozambique

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Full-mission bridhe

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Example RTS: Beira Mozambique real situation

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