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MS 416 Pesawat

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LOAD AND FORCE

Tito Shantika, Meng


Mechanical Engineering Department

Classification of Loads

Loads that affect cranes can be organized into


three categories:
categories
regular,
occasional,

and
exceptional.
exceptional

Including static and dynamic load.

Regular loads

Regular loads derive from gravity effects and from


acceleration ind
induced
ced b
by the crane drives
dri es and
brakes. These are the loads that repeatedly occur
during normal crane operation.

The occasional load

The occasional load category includes in-service


wind snow
wind,
snow, ice,
ice and temperature
temperat re effects
effects; skewing
k i iis
added to this group for bridge-, gantry-, and
portal-mounted cranes.
Wind is almost always presentwhen a crane is
working, but it infrequently reaches velocities as
hi h as th
high
the value
l used
d ffor d
design.
i

Exceptional loads

Exceptional loads are infrequent, introduced by


e ents such
events
s ch as extreme
e treme storm winds,
winds erection and
dismantling, testing, and earthquakes.
The category of a load should not be taken as an
indication of its importance.

Static loads

Static loads associated with crane and derrick


operations occ
occurr d
during
ring a state of rest but
b t also
underlie dynamic loadings.
They derive from the lifted load, from the
deadweight of the machine, and from snow or ice
accumulation.

Lifted Loads

The definition of lifted load is, quite simply, that which is


given byy the manufacturer of the particular
g
p
machine in
question. The definition is not the same for all equipment.
For mobile cranes and manyy other types
yp of lifting
g devices,, it
includes the hook block and overhaul weights as well as the
live load and all accessories used to attach and hold the
load.
For hammerhead tower cranes and some large-capacity
lifting machines where the hoisting-system reeving is
unchanging, the hook block and overhaul weights are taken
as machine
hi d
dead
d weight
i h and
d not as part off the
h load.
l d

Dead Loads

Dead Loads For critical calculations, deadweights


from handbooks or from the nominal dimensions of
plate stock should be adjusted to allow for normal
variations.
As parts move in relation to each other during
machine functions, dead loads of components must
b taken
be
t k in
i their
th i active
ti positions.
iti
L ffi booms,
Luffing
b
live
li
masts, and boom-hoist spreaders are common
components that move with radius changes.

Effects of Load Distribution

As a crane superstructure swings, forces acting on its


s pports redistrib
supports
redistribute.
te For a fixed-base
fi ed base machine,
machine
compressive support reactions may change to uplift
reactions that require tie-downs and vice versa.
The reactions are readily found by static equilibrium
with considerationof consistent strains.

Friction

Friction Earlier discussions have shown how friction is


an important factor in computing
comp ting wire-rope
wire rope loads,
loads
lead-line forces, and overhauling weight
requirements. Friction must, of course, be considered
g of everyy mechanism.
in the design

Out of Level Supports


Out-of-Level

All cranes and derricks must be mounted level to within close


tolerances.
A common specification for mobile equipment permits a
maximum of 1% out of level between supports.
pp
Tall and
limber machines are more sensitive; an initial deviation from
a level base will be amplified by beam-column action so
that even more strict tolerances are the norm.
For machines with high CGstower cranes are the prime
examplea relatively small difference in levelness of the
supports can result in a significant horizontal displacement
off the
h CG
CG. This
Thi alters
l
support reactions
i
and
d component
loadings and can reduce resistance to overturning

Misalignment and Skew

The wheels of track-mounted equipment are


flanged on one or both edges or have
ha e lateral guide
g ide
rollers to keep the machine on the rails.
At the very least, side forces increase load on
travel-train
travel
train components and drive motors causing
accelerated wear at the points of contact; the
th
thermal
l effect
ff t can iinduce
d
th
the motors
t tto cutt outt and
d
interrupt travel

Earthquake

Studies of earthquake effects on cranes are few,


and code development
de elopment in this area is in its infanc
infancy.
Generally, permanent installations such as bridge
cranes and port cranes can be subjected to seismic
y using
g the same principles
p
p as those used for
analysis
other fixed structures.

earthquake

1.

2.

3.

In adopting a philosophy for earthquake resistance, the


crane analyst or designer might consider one or more of
three
h
riskk mitigation levels,
l l or llimit states.
The earthquake design does not cause structural damage
t the
to
th crane. All stresses
t
remain
i iin th
the elastic
l ti range.
The design earthquake may result in some damage that
could be readily repaired and the crane restored.
restored Failure
may occur in components that are not part of the main
force-resisting system.
Controlled ductile yielding may result in the complete
functional loss of the crane, which would be replaced, but
th avoidance
the
id
off a catastrophic
t t hi failure
f il
lleaves th
the public,
bli
workers, and surroundings protected.

Dynamic Loads

In addition to the centrifugal force previously


mentioned dynamic loads are for the most part those
mentioned,
associated with masses undergoing changes in
motion.
motion
Each crane and derrick motionhoist, trolley, luff,
slew,
l
and
d travelproduces
l
d
a dynamic
d
i force
f
as the
h
motion begins and ends.
Each accelerating mass within the crane is subjected
y
force following
g Newtons Second Law,,
to a dynamic
F = ma,

Linear Motion

The force required to accelerate or decelerate a


mass in linear motion can be fo
found
nd simpl
simply b
by
applying Newtons law if the acceleration rate is
known.
For friction cranes acceleration and deceleration is
not linear, as drive and braking systems are
generally
ll capable
bl off ffar greater
t fforce th
than
needed and are modulated by the operator.

Linear Motion

When a load is dropped in free fall, the


acceleration is retarded by friction at the sheaves
and the inertia of the winch drum. Considering only
gravity and friction,
friction resulting acceleration is given
by

with h as the height of fall.

Taking the kinetic energy at the time of application of the brakes


and adding the potential energy of the load W and dynamic rope
stretch ,
we can equate this with the potential energy in the ropes
after stretching is complete. If F is the final total force in the ropes:

but the spring rate of the ropes is k = F/.


Substituting this and rearranging, we get

impact force

Although the term impact is generally, and more correctly, applied to


the striking of a body by another body, it is also used to describe
the increase in load effect due to dynamic causes
causes. The impact force
Fi is then given by F W, and impact can be expressed as

Example 1

An operator allows a 5000-lb (2268-kg) load to


free fall for 10 ft (3.05
free-fall
(3 05 m) before realizing
reali ing that it is
going too fast. In panic, he applies the brake fully,
causing a virtually instantaneous stop. What peak
p in the rope
p if three parts
p
of line
force will develop
were in use, friction loss can be taken as 2%, and
the rope spring constant is 2300 lb/in per part
(402.8 N/mm per part)?

Solution

Solution

Example 2

What maximum velocity would have to be


maintained to keep impact from exceeding
e ceeding 30% if
the stopping distance is not to exceed 5 ft (1.52 m)?

Solution

Example 3

For the velocity developed in part 1, 24.88 ft/s


(7 58 m/s),
(7.58
m/s) what stopping distance would be
needed to hold impact to 30%?

Example 4

Example 5

Wind Loads

At any particular location, actual wind measurements will


continuously and randomly vary in both velocity and
d
direction.
Within
W h the
h randomly
d l varying pattern, a trend
d or
average can be discerned for any time interval.
I EEurope, th
In
the standard
t d d method
th d for
f reporting
ti maximum
i
storm winds is based on a 10-min average in open country
g
at 10 m above the ground.
in the United States, the standard method was based on the
time it takes 1 mi (1.6 km) of air to pass the monitoring point
at an elevation of 10 m (33 ft). This fastest-mile wind is an
average of the gusts and lulls that occur during a maximum
period of 1 min when the wind is blowing at 60 mi/hr (34
m/s).

Wind Velocity Pressure


Wind-Velocity

Air at rest at sea level induces an ambient pressure of


about 14.7
14 7 lb/in2 (101.4
(101 4 kN/m2) absolute
absolute.
To put the phenomenon in scale, a change of only 1% in
normal pressure is equivalent to 21 lb/ft2
/ (1014
N/m2)a mighty wind capable of great destruction.
The static pressure relationship is given by
(where is the density of air):

Wind Pressure on Objects

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