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KUALA LUMPUR METROPOLITAN UNIVERSITY COLLEGE

COSMOPOINT INTERNATIONAL COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY


HDP 112 -ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 2
MID TERM EXAMINATION: JANUARY 2015
SECTION - A
Answer all the multiple choice questions given below:
Shade your answer in the shading sheet provided

10 x 1mark = 10 marks

1.

The base of the heart lies in the ____________.


A
2nd intercostal space-left side
B
2nd intercostal space-right side
C
5th intercostal space left side
D
5th intercostal space-right side

2.

The impulse for cardiac contraction starts at___________.


A
SA node
B
AV node
C
Bundle of his
D
Purkinje fiber

The junction where the trachea and the two primary bronchi branch is
reinforced by a cartilage plate called the _______.
A
Tracheal cartilage
B
Corniculate cartilage
C
Ventricular cartilage
D
Carina

The very small functional units of the lung is:


A
Alveoli
B
Alveolar duct
C
Terminal bronchiole
D
Respiratory bronchiole
5

Tidal volume is air ________.


A
remaining in the lungs after forced expiration
B
exchanged during normal breathing
C
inhaled after normal inspiration
D
forcibly expelled after normal expiration

Processes that carry nerve impulses away from the cell body are called

A
dendrites.
B
axons.
C
synapses.
D
myelin sheaths

7. What is function of the oligodendrocytes?


A.
create myelin layer
B.
clean up cellular debris
C.
supply blood and nutrients
D.
alert the body to an infection
8

The salivary glands in the human body are _________.


A
B
C
D

10

Parotid gland,sub-maxillary gland,sublingual gland


Paratid gland,sub-maxillary gland, submandibular gland
Paratid gland,submandibular gland,sublingual gland
Submandibular gland, submaxillary gland, sublingual gland

Which of the following is the function of liver?


A
Release pepsin
B
Reservoir for bile
C
Secrete insulin
D
Detoxification of drugs
Gullet is another name for ________
A
Oeshopagus
B
Oropharynx
C
Stomach
D
Small intestine

SECTION - B
Answer ALL of the following SHORT questions:

1.

4 x 5 marks = 20 marks

Describe structure of heart chamber and valves.

(a)

(5 marks)

What is ECG?

(b)

(2 marks)

Write on normal ECG waveform.

(3 marks)

3.

Describe in details on hypoxia.

(5 marks)

4.

With the help of a labeled diagram, explain in details the different part of
neuron.

(5 marks)

SECTION - C
Answer ANY ONE of the following ESSAY questions:
1

1 x 20marks = 20 marks

Explain in details the structure of the lungs under the following headings.
.
(a)
Lobes and bronchopulmonary segments
(b)
Pleura and pleural space
(c)
Muscle of respiration

(10 marks)
(5 marks)
(5 marks)

A) Define digestion.
b) Explain the structure and function of osephagus , stomach and liver.

(2 marks)
(18 marks)

END OF QUESTIONS

KUALA LUMPUR METROPOLITAN UNIVERSITY COLLEGE


COSMOPOINT INTERNATIONAL COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY
HDP 112 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 2
SOLUTION
Q.No

Solution

Question A1
Question A2
Question A3
Question A4
Question A5
Question A6
Question A7
Question A8
Question A9
Question A10
Question A11
Question A12
Question A13
Question A14
Question A15
Question A16
Question A17
Question A18
Question A19
Question A20
Question B1

(a ) 80 mmHg
(c) 5th intercostal space-left side
(c) Aorta
(c) Pulmonary artery
( c) To keep dust out of the lungs
(A) SA node
(d) Epiglottis
(d) Carina
(a) alveoli
(a) alveoli
(c )Hypoxia
(b) exchanged during normal breathing
(a) cyanosis
(b) pons and medulla
(a)SA NODE
(a) HR X SV
(a)Parotid gland,sub-maxillary gland,sublingual gland
(d) detoxification of drug
(a) renal hilum
(a) Oeshopagus

Question B2

Breathing during exercise


During exercise the muscle cells use up
more oxygen and produce increased
amounts of carbon dioxide.
The lungs and heart have to work harder to
supply the extra oxygen and remove the
carbon dioxide.
breathing rate increases and also
becomes more deep.
More oxygen is used by the cells for activity. So
internal respiration increases; gas
exchange increases at tissue level.
More CO2 is produced
The brain detects increasing levels of CO2 a
signal is sent to the lungs to increase
breathing.
Breath rate and depth increases.
Gas exchange at lung level(external respiration)
increases.

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5 marks

5 marks

The chest wall is formed by 12 pairs of ribs, strernum,


costal cartilage and the 12 thoracic vertebrae.
4

1st rib- during inspiration the 1st rib elevates and moves
superiorly and posteriorly at costovetebral joints and
pushes the manubrium superiorly. This increases the
vertical diameter of the rib cage.
2nd rib-6th rib During inspiration, the upper half of
ribs moves superiorly and anteriorly increasing the
anterio-posterior diameter of the thorax(Pump handle
movement).

5 marks

5 marks

Stages of Cardiac Cycle.


Cardiac cycle occurs due to:
Systole- period of contraction
Diastole a period of relaxation of the heart chambers. 5 marks

5 marks

7th-10th ribs- during inspiration the lower half of the


ribs moves superiorly and laterally increasing the
lateral diameter of the thorax (Bucket handle
movement)
11-12th ribs they can move in any direction because
they dont have any attachment with sternum.

Question B3

The Cardiac Cycle

Stages of Cardiac Cycle


Atrial Systole - contraction of atria-0.1 sec
Venticular Systole contraction of ventricles-0.3 sec
Complete Cardiac Diastole relaxation of the atria
and ventricles -0.4 secs
Atrial contraction : SAnode triggers causing atrial
contraction. Blood from the atria enter into the
ventricles.
Ventricular systole : AV node troggers and impulse
travel through the ventricles. Ventricles contract,
Atrioventricular valve close, aortic and pulmonary
valve open. Blood from the ventricles flow into the
aorta and the pulmonary artery.
Complete cardiac diastole after contraction of the
ventricles there is a complete cardiac diastole when the
atria and ventricles are relaxed. Aortic and pulmonary
valves close, while atrioventricular valves open. The
blood from the veins fill the two atria- superior and
inferior vena cava fill the right atrium and the
pulmonary veins fill the left atrium. The
5

atrioventricular valves are open and blood flows to the


ventricles passively.
Question B4

(a)
Gas exchange is the exchange of respiratory gases
(oxygen and carbon dioxide) between tissues and
blood.

1 marks

5 marks
(b)Factor affecting gas exchange:
-The thickness of the membrane: this comprises the
thickness of the alveolar wall, capillary wall and the
interstitial membrane. The thicker the membrane the
lesser gas exchange.
-The surface area of the membrane: These comprise
the surface area available for gas exchange. The more
the surface area, the more gas exchange.
-The diffusion coefficient of the gas through the
membrane; the more the diffusion gradient, the greater
is the gas exchange
-The partial pressure difference of the gas between the
two sides of the membrane ;this comprises the
difference in the amount of gas present in the tissue
and the blood. The greater the difference in the partial
pressure, the more gas exchange.
Question B5

Electrocardiogram:
(a) Definition:
An electrocardiogram is a non-invasive procedure for
recording of the electrical signal produced by heart
muscle fibers during each heartbeat,
(b) ECG Normal waveform
- P wave represent atrial depolarization.
- QRS complex represent ventricular depolarization
- T wave represent ventricular repolarization

Question B6

4 marks

2 marks
5 marks
3 marks

hypoxia is a pathological condition in which


the body as a whole or a region of the body
does not receive adequate oxygen
supply.
If the body is affected as a whole it is
called generalized hypoxia
If the part of the body is affected it is
called tissue hypoxia.

5marks

5 marks

Clinical features
Depressed mental activity, sometimes
culminating in coma, and
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reduced work capacity of the muscles


headaches,
fatigue,
shortness of breath
Nausea
Death(if severe hypoxia

Question B7

(A)
Cardiac output is defined as the quantity of blood
pumped by heart in 1 minutes.

1 marks

Cardiac output= heart rate* stroke volume


5 marks
Factor affecting cardiac output:

4 marks

There are three important factors that affect the


cardiac output:
- Preload
-Contractility
-After load
Preload: preload means the amount of blood coming
back into the heart through the veins. More preload
greater is the cardiac output.
Contractility: it is the ability of the heart to produce a
strong contraction.
Contractility depends on the inotrophic agents
After load: it is the amount of back pressure that the
heart has to overcome before the semilunar vlve can
open and blood flow out into the aorta and pulmonary
artery. More the afterload lesser is the cardiac output.
Question B8

The major function of the kidney is to maintain


the fluid and electrolyte balance of fluids
Remove toxic waste products
Remove excess water and salts
Produce erythropoietin which stimulates red cell
production from the bone marrow
Help to keep calcium and phosphate in balance
for healthy bones
Maintain the blood in a neutral (non-acid) state

5 marks

5 marks

Q.No.

Solution
(a) The heart is a hollow muscular organ in the
thoracic cavity

Question C1

Chambers of the heart: The heart has 4


chambers.
o The two chambers on the right side are
called right atrium and right ventricle
o The two chambers on the left side are
known as the left atrium and left ventricle
o The left and right atria are smaller in size,
the upper chambers of the heart. The atria
are separated by interatrial septum.
o The left and right ventricles are larger in
size, the lower chambers of the heart. The
two ventricles are separated by
interventricular septum.

SubMarks TotalMarks

9 marks

Valves of the heart: The heart has 4 valves.


o The opening between the right atrium and
the right ventricle is guarded by the
tricuspid valve - right atrioventricular
(AV) valve.
o The opening between the left atrium and
the left ventricle is guarded by the
bicuspid valve -- Mitral valve - left
atrioventricular (AV) valve
o The opening between right ventricle and
pulmonary artery is guarded by the
Pulmonary valve.
o The opening between the left ventricle
and the aorta is guarded by the Aortic
valve.

20 marks

(b)

Layers of the heart: The heart has 3 layers


o The innermost layer is called
endocardium
o The middle layer is made of cardiac
muscles called myocardium
o The outermost layer is called the
pericardium
o The pericardium is divided further as the
fibrous pericardium and the serous
pericardium
o The serous pericardium is further divided
into visceral and parietal pericardium
o The pericardial fluid is present between
these two layers

6 marks

(c)

Coronary circulation: The heart receives


blood supply through the right and left
coronary arteries. They are the first branches
of aorta.
o Main branches of Right coronary
artery:
- Posterior interventricular branch
- Marginal artery
o Main branches of left coronary artery:
- Anterior interventricular branch
- Circumflex artery

5 marks

Venous blood of heart is collected by the coronary


sinus. It opens directly into the right atrium.
Veins draining into coronary sinus are:

Question C2

Great cardiac vein


Middle cardiac vein
Small cardiac vein

(a)
LOBES OF THE LUNGS AND
BRONCHOPULMONARY SEGMENT
Each lung is divided into lobes by means of fissures
The right lung which is bigger has 3 lobes
-upper lobe
-middle lobe
-lower lobe
The left lung has 2 lobes:
- Upper lobe
- Lower lobe
10 marks
The right lung has two fissures:
- The horizontal fissures
- The oblique fissures
The left lung has only one fissures:
- The oblique fissure
Bronchopulmonary segment
RIGHT LUNG
Upper lobe
-apical segment
-anterior segment
Posterior segment

20 marks

MIDDLE LOBE
-Medial segment
-Lateral segment
LOWER LOBE
-apicobasal
-Medial basal
-Anterior basal
-Lateral basal
- Posterior basal
LEFT LUNG
Upper lobe
-apical segment
-Anterior
-Posterior
Lingula
-Superior segment
-Inferior segment
Lower lobe
-Apicobasal
- lateral basal
-anterior basal
-posterior basal

(b) the pleura is the outer covering of the lung


It consists of two layers
- Parietal pleura
- Visceral pleura

5 marks

Pleural space
- Between the parietal and visceral pleura there
is a space called as pleural cavity.
- The pleural cavity contains pleural fluid.
- The pleural fluid prevents between the two
pleural during breathing movement.
Intercostal muscle
5 marks

Intercostal muscles are groups of muscles


that run between the ribs, and help form and
move the chest wall.
the external intercostal muscles, which aid in
quiet and forced inhalation. They originate on
ribs 1-11 and have their insertion on ribs 212. The external intercostals are responsible
for the elevation of the ribs.
Intercostal muscles are groups of muscles that
10

run between the ribs, and help form and move


the chest wall.
the external intercostal muscles, which aid in
quiet and forced inhalation. They originate on
ribs 1-11 and have their insertion on ribs 212. The external intercostals are responsible
for the elevation of the ribs.

d) diaphragm
The diaphragm is a sheet of internal muscle that
extends across the bottom of the rib cage.
The diaphragm separates the thoracic cavity (heart,
lungs & ribs) from the abdominal cavity and
performs an important function in respiration

Origin :
Sternal: back of the xiphoid process
Costal: the inner surfaces of the lower six ribs
on either
side
Lumbar: the lumbar vertebrae
Insertion:
Central tendon
Nerve supply:
Phrenic nerve

Question C3
a) The system responsible for the processing and absorption of
orally consumed nutrients in the form of food.
B) OESOPHAGUS
It is the first section of the digestive tract which conveys
ingested food and drink from the mouth to the stomach.
This is partially under the effect of gravity but also as a
result of the continuous contraction and relaxation of the
muscular wall of the oesophagus, a process known as
peristalsis.
It is also called as food pipe or gullet
The oesophagus is continuous with the laryngeal part of the
pharynx at the level of the C6 vertebra.
The oesophagus passes through a hole in the diaphragm at the
level of the tenth thoracic vertebrae (T10)
The wall of the oesophagus has four layers
-Mucosa
-Submucosa
-Muscularis externa
-Adventitia
FUNCTION OF THE OESOPHAGUS.
Transmission of food from the mouth to the stomach-periltassis

STOMACH
The stomach is a hollow, J- shaped muscular organ
of the digestive tract. It is involved in the
second phase of digestion, following
mastication (chewing).
-

2marks

6 marks

20 marks

6 marks

It is on the left upper part of the abdominal


cavity while the top of the stomach lies against
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the diaphragm.
FUNCTIONS OF THE STOMACH
Bolus (masticated food) enters the stomach through the
esophagus via the esophageal sphincter.
The stomach releases proteases( protein-digesting enzymes
such as pepsin) and hydrochloric acid, which kills or
inhibits bacteria and provides the acidic pH for the
proteases to work.

6 marks

LIVER
The liver is the largest internal organ of the
abdomen, triangular in shape and lies on the
right side of the abdominal cavity just below
the diaphragm.
The liver is a vital organ, plays a major role in
metabolism and has a number of functions in
the body.
The liver has FOUR lobes
Left lobe
Right lobe
Caudate lobe
Quadrate lobe
Folds of peritoneum form the supporting
ligaments attaching the liver to the inferior
surface of the diaphragm.
FUNCTIONS OF THE LIVER
Important in carbohydrate, protein and fat
metabolism.
Breaks down the erythrocytes and defense against
microbes
Detoxification of drugs and harmful substances
Production of heat
Secretion of bile
Storage for glycogen, vitamins, minerals.
Inactivation of hormones

(a)

Question C4

CELL BODY/SOMA
The expanded portion of the cell contains the nucleus
and the apparatus necessary to sustain the metabolic
activities of the cell.
The nucleus has a inner core called nucleolus.
10 marks
The other structures present in the cell body are golgi
apparatus, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum.

20 marks

AXON
12

Axon is a longitudinal, tubular extension of the cell


membrane and cytoplasm.
The function is to transmit information away from
the cell body, the cell membrane surrounding the
axon is referred to as axolemma.
DENDRITES
They are processes of the cell membrane that radiate
from the cell body in various directions and are
responsible for receiving information and
transmitting it to the cell body.

(b)
STRUCTURE OF A PERIPHERAL NERVE
A peripheral nerve is formed by a number of axons.
The size of the nerve depends on the number of
axons.
Individual myelinated axons are surrounded by a
tubular sheath of fibrous tissue called endoneurium.
A group of axons are held together by a larger
fibrous sheath called perineurium
A bundle of axons held within a perineurial sheath is
called as a nerve fascicle.
The fascicles inside a peripheral nerve is bound by
an external sheath of fibrous tissue called epineurium

10 marks

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