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International Journal of Mechanical Civil and Control Engineering

Vol. 1, Issue. 2, April, 2015

ISSN (Online): 2394-8868

Experimental Study on Concrete using Steel Fibre


1

1,2,3,4

K.Saravanan, 2S.Arul Vignesh, 3R.Santhosh, 4K.Alagusankareswari


Department of Civil Engineering, Vel tech high tech Dr.R.R Dr.S.R engineering college, Chennai, INDIA

Abstract

Fibre reinforced concrete (FRC) is concrete


containing fibrous material which increases its
structural integrity. So we can define fibre reinforced
concrete as a composite material of cement concrete
or mortar and discontinuous discrete and uniformly
dispersed fibre.

Normally a huge quantity of concrete is required for the


construction but we know that concrete is weak in tension
and strong in compression and the fine aggregate that
normally used for concrete is natural river sand but our aim
is to replace the natural sand by artificial sand
(manufactured sand) and to increase the compressive and
tensile strength of the concrete by addition of steel fibre
for the experimental purpose we casted cube and cylinders
of 1%,2%,3%,4% addition of steel fibre and used two
different shapes of steel fibre (crimpled and cranked shape)
along with that of M sand as fine aggregate

II.

Cement
The cement used for this work is OPC of 53 grades.
The specific gravity of cement was tested as per IS:
8112 and was found to be 3.15.In this research
cement used OPC 53 grade confirming to IS: 8112.
The physical properties of the cement obtained on
conducting appropriate are IS: 10262-2009. A
cementations material is one that has the adhesive
and cohesive properties necessary to proper bond
inert aggregates into a solid mass adequate strength
and durability.

KEYWORDS: steel fibre, M sand

I.

MATERIALS AND METHODOLOGY

INTRODUCTION

Concrete generally uses natural sand as fine


aggregate due this more amount of river sand is
consumed for the construction this leads to depletion
of natural resources in order to overcome such
situation we planned to use M sand as fine aggregate
m sand are nothing but cursed stone at the required
gradation in order to attain its uniformity of gradation
due to its uniformity the achieve the higher gradation
level that means these falls at Zone 2 and these due to
not have any impurities such like that natural sand
due to the deposition of the clay and slit due to the
low tensile strength of concrete its necessary to
increase the strength by addition of reinforcement but
this may increase the cost but by addition of steel
fibre we can increase the strength at low cost. The
micro cracks that are developed are arrested by this
addition of steel fibre tensile strength is due to the
propagation of such micro cracks, eventually leading
to brittle fracture of the concrete. It has been
recognized that the addition of small, closely spaced
and uniformly dispersed fibres to the concrete would
act as crack arrester and would substantially improve
its Compressive and tensile strength.

Table.1 Properties of OPC (53 grade)


Properties
Specific gravity
Fineness
Normal consistency
Initial setting time
Final setting time

Values
3.15
95 %
35%
30mins
600mins

Fine Aggegate
Scarcity of good quality Natural River sand due to
depletion of resources and restriction due to
environmental consideration has made concrete
manufactures to look for suitable alternative fine
aggregate. One such alternative is Manufactured
sand

International Journal of Mechanical Civil and Control Engineering


Vol. 1, Issue. 2, April, 2015

ISSN (Online): 2394-8868

M Sand
Manufactured Sand is sand produced from crushing
of granite stones in required grading to be used for
construction purposes as a replacement for river sand.
As per reports, manufactured sand is widely used all
around the world and technicians of major projects
around the world insist on the compulsory use of
manufactured sand because of its consistent gradation
and zero impurity.
Fig.3 cranked shape steel fibre

Fig.1 Msand

Steel fibres used are Crimpled shape, Cranked shape


steel fibers.

Steel Fibre

Fig.4 Dry Mix

Plain concrete possesses a very low tensile strength,


limited ductility and little resistance to cracking.
Internal micro cracks are present in the concrete and
its poor tensile strength. It has been found that the
addition of small, closely spaced and uniformly
dispersed fibres to the concrete would act as crack
arrester and would substantially improve its
Compressive and flexural strength properties. This
type of concrete is known as fibre reinforced
concrete. The crimped and cranked steel fibres are
used in this study. The sizes (Length/aspect ratio) of
the steel fibres are of
Aspect ratio of fibre

= length/diameter
=32/0.5
=64

Fig.2 crimpled shape steel fibre

International Journal of Mechanical Civil and Control Engineering


Vol. 1, Issue. 2, April, 2015

ISSN (Online): 2394-8868


tamped. The flow table mould is removed and the
flow table is rotated for 15 times in 15 seconds

Fig.5 compaction of specimen

III.

Table.3 Flow Table Value


Trial no
Flow table value(cm)
I.
33
II.
37
III.
36
Flow percentage = (average spread diameter in cm
25) / 25
= [{(33+37+36)/3} 25]/25
= 0.41x100
= 41%
The flow table percentage of the fresh concrete is

RESULT AND DISCUSSION

Tests On Fresh Concrete


Slump cone test
Apply grease (or) oil to the slump cone and
screw the slump cone tightly. Take the mix concrete
proportions of cement sand and coarse aggregate and
if there is mix of steel fibre take 1.54 m 3 of dry
concrete mix for 1m3 of wet concrete and convert it
to the volume of slump cone system. Pour the
concrete into the slump cone and compact it of 25
blows for each layer. Fill up of the concrete of four
layers. Lift the slump cone and note the slump value

41%

Table.2 slump value


Concrete mix
Slump value (mm)
Normal M30 river sand
100
Normal M30 M sand
96
SFRAC 1% crimpled
97
SFRAC 1% crank
98
SFRAC 2% crimpled
95
SFRAC 2% crank
91
SFRAC 3% crimpled
89
SFRAC 3% crank
85
SFRAC 4% crimpled
82
SFRAC 4% crank
81

Fig.6 Wet Mix With Fibre


Table.4 Compressive strength of conventional
concrete
Compressive
Loads
strength
Type Of Sand
Avg
applied
(N/mm2)
770
750
River sand
770
34.2
790
830
Manufactured
840
830
36.4
sand
820

Flow Table Test


Clean and apply the crease (or) oil in the
flow table mould as well as in the flow table. Mix the
concrete grade in the tray with the trowel of various
materials such as cement, fine aggregate, coarse
aggregate and steel fibre with water
Fill the concrete in the flow table mould in 2
layers with each layer 25 times compacted (or)

Fig.7 compression testing

International Journal of Mechanical Civil and Control Engineering


Vol. 1, Issue. 2, April, 2015

ISSN (Online): 2394-8868


Table.8 Split tensile strength of SFRC (Crimpled
shape)
Load applied
% of steel
Split tensile
(KN)
fibre added
strength(N/mm2)
Average
0%
240
3.39
1%
261.6
3.7
2%
280
3.82
3%
220
3.96
4%
210
2.97

Table.5 Split tensile strength of conventional


concrete
Split Tensile
Loads
Type of sand
strength(N/mm
applied
Avg
2
)
200
River sand
200
2.85
190
210
240
Manufactured
240
3.39
250
sand
230

Table.9 Split tensile strength of SFRC (Cranked


shape)
Load
applied
% of steel
Split tensile
(KN)
fibre added
strength(N/mm2)
Average
0%
240
3.39
1%
250
3.53
2%
273.3
3.86
3%
251.6
3.56
4%
240
3.39

Table.6 Compressive strength of SFRC (Crimpled


shape)
Compressive
load applied
% Of Steel
Compressive
(KN)
Fibre Added
strength(N/mm2)
Average
0%
830
36.8
1%
840
37.33
2%
903.3
40.1
3%
1043.3
46.37
4%
933.3
41.14

Table.10 Comparison of compressive strength of


SFRC given by Crimpled and cranked shape
% of Steel Fibre
Crimpled
Cranked Shape
Added
Shape
0%
36.8
36.8
1%
37.33
37.1
2%
40.1
39.7
3%
46.37
37.37
4%
41.14
37.2
Fig.8 Comparison of compressive strength given
by Crimpled and cranked shape
CRIMPLED SHAPE
CRANKED SHAPE
compressive strength N/mm2

Table.7 Compressive strength of SFRC (Cranked


shape)
Compressive
load applied
% of steel
Compressive
(KN)
fibre added
strength(N/mm2)
Average
0%
830
36.8
1%
835
37.1
2%
865.3
39.7
3%
840
37.37
4%
850
37.2

47

46.37

41
35

40.1
39.7

36.8

37.33
37.1

41.14
37.37 37.2

0%
1%
2%
3%
4%
percentage of steel fibre added

International Journal of Mechanical Civil and Control Engineering


Vol. 1, Issue. 2, April, 2015

ISSN (Online): 2394-8868


the maximum compressive strength of 46.7 N/mm2
is achieved thus increase in compressive strength is
28.2% than the conventional concrete.
The increase in split tensile strength is
16.81% than the conventional concrete. Thus we
concluded that the optimum dosage of crimpled
shape steel fibre that can be added in concrete is 3%.
While in addition of cranked shaped steel
fibre the maximum compressive strength of 39.7
N/mm2 is observed at 2% of addition of fibre and
increase in compressive strength is 7.8% than the
conventional concrete.
Further addition of steel fiber tends to
reduce the workability and compressive strength of
concrete. The increase in split tensile strength is
13.86% than the conventional concrete at 2%
addition of cranked shaped fibre.
Thus the optimum dosage of cranked shaped
fibre is 2% and we concluded that crimple shaped
fibre is efficient than the cranked because it increase
the strength by 14.84% than the cranked.

Table.11 Comparison of split tensile Strength of


SFRC given by Crimpled and cranked shape
% of Steel Fibre
Crimpled
Cranked Shape
Added
Shape
0%
3.39
3.39
1%
3.7
3.53
2%
3.82
3.86
3%
3.96
3.56
4%
2.97
3.39

Fig.9 Comparison of split tensile strength given by


Crimpled and cranked shape

compressive strength N/mm2

CRIMPLED SHAPE
CRANKED SHAPE

4.5

4
3.5
3

3.7
3.39
3.39

3.82

3.96

3.86
3.53

3.56

2.97
3.39

REFERENCES
1. Amit Rana.,Adhoc Lecturer., Some
Studies on Steel Fibre Reinforced
Concrete (International Journal of
Emerging Technology and Advanced
Engineering)(ISSN 2250-2459 ),Volume 3,
Issue 1, January 2013)

2.5
0%
1%
2%
3%
percentage of steel fibre added
IV.

4%

CONCLUSION

Based on the investigation for various concentration


of steel fibre and the concrete cured for 28 days, the
following conclusions can drawn.
The graph clearly shows that the
compressive strength of the natural river sand is less
when compared with the manufactured sand.
The average compressive strength given by
the M sand concrete is36.4 N/mm2 and compressive
strength increase by 6.43% than the river sand
concrete.
Thus from the study it is seen that
manufactured sand is the suitable alternative for the
natural river sand in the concrete.
The compressive strength and split tensile
strength of the concrete increase simultaneously on
the addition of steel fibre than the conventional
concrete. On addition of 3% of crimpled shaped fibre

2.

A.M.Shende1.,A.M.
Pande.,M.Gulfam
Pathan., Experimental Study on Steel
Fibre Reinforced Concrete for M-40
Grade International Refereed Journal of
Engineering and Science (IRJES) ISSN
(Online) 2319-183X, (Print) 2319-1821
Volume 1, Issue 1 (September 2012),

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C.B.MishraRavindra.
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Concrete Pavement with Steel Fibre
Reinforced Concrete Pavement ( Indian
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Remigijus.,Salna.,Gediminas Mariukaitis.,
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International Journal of Mechanical Civil and Control Engineering


Vol. 1, Issue. 2, April, 2015

ISSN (Online): 2394-8868

Strength Of Steel FibreReinforced


Concrete(Modern building materials,
structures and techniques) May 19-21 2010,
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