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1.

COAL MILL/PULVERIZER IN THERMAL POWER PLANTS


Pulverized coal burns like gas, can be easily lighted and controlled. Pulverized coal
achieved its first commercial success in the cement industry. At Wisconsin Electric Power
Company, the use of pulverized coal was also shown to be a viable fuel for electrical power
production after World War I Coal continues to play a predominant role in the production of
electricity in the world, A very large percentage of the total coal is burned in pulverized
form.2. 1.Introduction
The pulverized coal and air mixture is then transport to the boiler burner panels. The coal
flow is controlled by the feeder, allowing coal to flow into the pulverizer mill. One of the
critical power plant components that is relied upon to convert the energy stored in coal into
electricity is the coal pulverizer or mill.3. 2.Coal pulverizer/mill system
4. 3.Boiler Boiler drum Reheater Final Super Platen Super heater heater LTSH Economizer
Coal bunker Wind Box Secondary PA duct air duct Furnace Flue gas APH duct Coal feeder F
D Fan P A Fan Coal Pulverizer
Classification Circulation Grinding Drying There are four primary principals
involved in pulverization: The pulverizer receives the raw coal and reduces it to a very fine,
specified size consist, similar to face powder.5. 4.Pulverizer
The inherent and surface moisture of the coal is reduced by the exposure to hot air. During
the pulverization process the surface area of the coal particles increases dramatically
exposing fresh coal to the entrainment air. The coal that is passing through a pulverizer is
entrained by the use of hot air usually from the air heater.6. 4.1.Drying
3. Attrition where material is ground by rubbing or friction 2. Crushing where material is
forced between two fixed objects 1. Impaction where the material to be ground is hit or
impacted by an outside force There are three basic types of grinding:7. 4.2.Grinding
The primary air, is the method of circulating the coal through the pulverizer. Circulating air is
also important in allowing for the removal of heavy material such as pyrites, extraneous
metal, etc. by centripetal force that otherwise might damage the grinding mechanisms.8.
4.3.Circulation
The classifier, located on the top of a mill returns the over-size material back to the
pulverizer but allows the proper-sized material to pass out of the mill to the burners.
classifiers are critical in providing the desired quality of pulverized coal with the desired
fineness The circulating air is also used to classify the pulverized coal product prior to
carrying it to the burners.9. 4.4.Classification
10. 5.Types of PulverizersSpeed Low Medium High 10 to 20 40 to 70 900 to rpm rpm 1000
rpmType Ball tube Bowl Hammer mill Ball & race mill millDominating Attrition Crushing
Impactprinciple
11. 6.C-E Raymond Bowl Mill BOWL MILL
12. 7.Ball and race mill
13. 8.Foster Wheeler MBF Mill
14. 9.Tube Mill
Centrifugal force feeds the coal uniformly over the replaceable grinding ring where
independently spun rolls exert the required grinding pressure. The rolls do not touch the

grinding ring even when the mill is empty. Crushed raw coal at a controlled rate is fed into
the revolving bowl of the Bowl Mill. The mill output can be easily varied, as per the turndown
ratio from its minimum to maximum load. Bowl mills are employed to pulverize the precrushed raw coal to the required fineness before it is admitted into the boiler furnace for
combustion.15. 10.Bowl Mill
16. 10.1.Designation of C-E Bowl Mills
17. 11.Bowl Mill Grinding rolls
18. 12.Pulveriserfor 500 MW1. TYPE- XRP 10032.NO OF MILL- 103.CAPACITY - 62.9
T/HR4.MOTOR 525 KW5.SPEED - 600 RPM
REJECTS CAPACITY, COAL GRINDABILITY, FINENESS,19. 13. Mill Performance
Criteria
In addition, coal retained on the 50 mesh screen should be in the 12% range. Higher
values indicate worn internals or improper settings. Also, the higher percentages can cause
boiler slagging and high unburned carbon. Values lower than 70% mean higher carbon loss
and increased fuel consumption. The mill wear and the power consumption are increased if
the 70% value is exceeded. A 70% coal sample passing through a 200 mesh screen
indicates optimum mill performance. Fineness is an indicator of the quality of the pulverizer
action. Specifically, fineness is a measurement of the percentage of a coal sample that
passes through a set of test sieves usually designated at 50, 100, and 200 mesh20.
13.1.Fineness
21. 13.2.Sieve distribution chart & Fineness testingscreen - Plot of coal fineness on Fineness
testing screen Rosin and Rammler
Figure shows the effect of coal grindability (HGI) and desired fineness (percent passing a
200 mesh screen) on the mill capacity.22. 13.3.Mill capacity vs Grindability
The dashed line estimates the increase in mill capacity in going from a high-volatile B
bituminous coal with a 55 HGI, 12% moisture and a desired mill output of 70% through a 200
mesh screen to a highvolatile B bituminous coal with an HGI value of 60, a moisture content
of 14% and the same fineness. Figure demonstrates how moisture and grindability affect
pulverizer capacity. 23. 13.4.Moisture and grindabilityeffects on mill capacity
However, it is not economical to attempt to grind and burn pyrites Pyrites are the common
mineral iron disulfide (FeS2) that has a pale brass-yellow color and metallic luster. The
amount of pulverizer rejects is one indication of mill performance.24. 13.5.Mill Rejects &
Pyrite Scraper and Guard Assembly rock.
25. 13.6. Grindability Index, Moisture, Fineness vs mill capacity (XRP 883 Bowl mill) Design
parameters Mill capacity- 42.48 T/HR Total moisture-10% HGI -50
26. 13.7.Logic tree Mill Fineness Decrease in mill fineness SIEVE TEST RESULTS 70%
THRU 200 MESH 99.2% THRU 50 MESHClassifier Loss of Ring or Classifier Exceeding
Vane Roller Roller Vane Millposition tension wear wear capacity
carbides in the metal part, High chromium cast iron materials are used for improved
abrasion resistance. Worn Journal Roll In coal pulverization, 520% of the material being
crushed is abrasive mineral. Coal is not abrasive by itself. The minerals in coal that are the

most abrasive are quartz and pyrite, which cause a abrasion or severe wear.27.
14.Abrasion in pulverizer
P = 0.1 % max S = 0.1 % max Si = 0.5 1.0 % Mn = 1.0 2.0 % W = 1.0 2.0% Mo
= 1.0 2.0 % Cr = 15.0 22.0 % C = 2.6 3.0 % CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE
INSERTS: This specification of high chrome white cast iron inserts for making Insert
Grinding Rolls.28. 14.1.CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THEINSERTS GRINDING ROLLS
There has been success in the industry using ceramic materials. Classifier cone with
ceramic Erosion can produce holes in steel liners and deep depressions in large section
cast parts. Erosion by mineral particles picked up in the air stream carrying pulverized coal
through the mill, classifier, exhauster, and transport pipe is a recognized problem.29.
15.Erosion in Pulverizer
The startup procedures, in addition to the controls and interlocks, should follow the
requirements of NFPA 85.30. 16.Startup Procedures
Any other test recommended by OEM. Sediment in Lubricating Oils Condition of oil
additives Total acid measure Viscosity Particle count Lubricant Oil analysis Vibration
analysis , The main technologies used in condition monitoring are:31. 17.Condition
Monitoring
Air in-leakage sources Feeder settings Pyrite rejects chute and/or damper condition
Pyrite scraper clearance Spring pressure for rolls Grinding roll-to-bowl clearance
Journal assembly condition Inverted cone clearance Deflector ring length Classifier
internal condition Following inspection parameters are critical for bowl mill
performance:32. 18.Inspection
Effect of changes in pulverizer component settings on product fineness, pulverizer capacity,
and power consumption. Capacity, Fineness of product, Raw coal feed, Grindability,
Moisture, Sizing, Power consumption and Effect of changes in raw coal Characteristics on
product fineness, pulverizer capacity, and power consumption. The purpose of this code is
to establish procedures for conducting performance tests to determine:33. 19.Test code of
Pulverizer::ASME PTC 4.2
34. THANKING YOU
35. Logic tree Mill Fineness Decrease in mill fineness SIEVE TEST RESULTSClassifier
Loss of Ring or Classifier Exceeding Vane Roller Roller Vane Millposition tension wear wear
capacity