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PAR T I

POLICE ORGANIZATION & ADMINISTRATION

CHAPTER
1
EVOLUTION OF THE PHILIPPINE POLICING SYSTEM
===========================================================
Introduction
From the simplest social structure-the family to the
most complex-the community of nations, it is essential that
certain norms and conduct are to be established and observed
in order to ensure that the cordial and harmonious
relationship among its members are preserved and maintained.
Primitive Evolution of the Philippine Policing System
The police under the local setting primitively evolved
from the practice of the different tribes to select ablebodied young men to protect the people from the assault of
the rival tribe, and to maintain peace and order within the
village.
The Spanish Era
By the coming of the Spaniards, who ruled the country,
using sword after the cross for more than three centuries,
the countrys police system started.
Police were then
called Cuardillo, later the general function of law
enforcement were assumed by the Cuerpo de Carabineros de
Seguridad Republica, in which the native Filipinos were
appointed up to the rank of Sergeant under the command of a
Spanish Officer. In 1852, Guardia Civil took over the peace
keeping duties in the island under a Royal Decree.

The American Era


After the Spanish Era ends, another master begin, the
Americans came to our country not to help the force of the
then Philippine Army, but to conquer and rule the Philippine
Republic.
While the American Soldiers were busy fighting
the tug army of Gen. Emilio F. Aguinaldo in the hinterlands,
Gov. William H. Taft, established a police which shall
maintain peace and
order.
On January 9, 1901, Manila
Police was formally organized by virtue of Act No. 183 of
the
Philippine
Commission.
Thereafter
adjoining
municipalities follow through.
The Political Era
The Administrative Code of the Philippines, promulgated
on September 10, 1955, provided for the constitution of a
police forces in every cities and municipalities with the
officers and members thereof being appointed by the City or
Municipal Mayor with the consent of the City or Municipal
Council.
Under this set-up the police is primarily a
political entity that tended to serve the wills of those in
power. By this system, law enforcement suffers ignominy of
being subservient to the political conditions prevailing at
any given time.
In an effort to improve the quality and morale of all
existing police forces, Republic Act No. 4864, known as the
Police Act of 1966 was enacted, by virtue of which, the
National Police Commission was created, vested with the
power to supervise and control the police forces all over
the country. Under this act, the power to appoint members
of the police forces remain rested on the Local Executives,
but administration, control and disciplinary measures,
including training of each member are placed under the
exclusive jurisdiction of the National Police Commission.
Qualification standards were also set in an effort to
upgrade the quality of police officers, thereby improving
the law enforcement aim of the government.

The Reform or New Society Era


As the political situation worsened during the late
1960s, giving rise to the collapse of law and order,
drastic measures had to be instituted only to save the
Republic from self-destruction.
The early 1970s saw the
advent of Military Rule, when the entire nation was placed
under Martial Law, and the Writ of Habeas Corpus was
suspended.
To ensure that beleaguered sectors of the
society will conform to the policies promulgated by the
government, then Pres. Marcos issued Proclamation No. 1081,
and subsequently Presidential Decree No. 765 was put into
effect.
This instituted the integration of the nations
police forces with the Philippine Constabulary, virtually
making the Integrated National Police a component of the
Armed Forces of the Philippines, and under the general
supervision of the Department of National Defense.
The Present Police System
Based on the provision of Section 6, Article XVI, New
Philippine Constitution, it expressly provide that, The
state shall establish and maintain one national police
force, which shall be national in scope and civilian in
character, to be administered and controlled by a national
police commission. The authority of local executives over
the police units in their respective jurisdiction shall be
provided by the law.
The Future of the Philippine Policing System
Another impending amendment is in progress under Senate
Series No. 1261 prepared by the Committee on Local
Government and National Defense and Security, entitled An
Act Further Amending Republic Act No. 6975, as Amended by
Republic Act No. 8551, Restructuring the Philippine National
Police and Empowering Local Government Units for the
Maintenance of Law and Order, and for Other Purposes.
In addition, The Magna Carta for Police Officers is
also being proposed by the Philippine National Police
hierarchy for the legislation of the joint Congress. This

covers three (3) bills pertaining to the police officer.

CHAPTER
2
POLICE SUPERVISION AND MANAGEMENT
===========================================================
Introduction
The

police are most involved in the complicated interrelationship within a social structure.
Due this, the
effectiveness of the organization is essentially dependent
on the manner the same is managed, administered and
controlled and most especially on the trust that the
citizens-clientele of policing business bestow upon it.
Definition of Police Management
In modern police administrative terminology, police
management is defines as the process of directing and
controlling people and things so that organizational
objectives can be accomplished.
Definition of Police Supervision
It is a part of the police management process, and it
is refers to the act of overseeing subordinates and line
officers.
Basic Police Supervisory Responsibilities
1.

Planner

As a planner, he must be an expert in planning


operational activities and methods.
He must capable of
inspecting work systems, conducting studies, analyzing data,

and developing matured recommendations for constructive


changes in organization and operation when necessary.
2.

Personnel Officer

As personnel officer, he should strive to assign his


subordinates as scientifically as possible to the positions
for which they are best suited and to the places and at
times they are most needed.
3.

Trainer

As a trainer, he must develop his abilities to train


subordinates to be efficient, effective producers who gain
satisfaction from their work.
4.

Controller

As a controller, he must be worthy on his position, and


he must learn how to control his subordinates properly.
5.

Decision Maker and Communicator

As a decision maker and communicator, the supervisors


primary function is the decision making, when he makes
decision, he often helps to shape the policy for the
organization.
6.

Motivating Employees

Unless the employee agrees with the objectives of his


organization and believes that they are attainable, they
wont be able to commit themselves to them.
7.

Leadership Responsibilities

A major responsibility of every supervisor is to


provide leadership for the men and women under him, and to
become a good leader, he must possess the traits of
honorableness,
courageousness,
vitality,
reasonably
intelligent, and good common sense.

Definition of Organization
An organization is a structure through people work as
group, and it presupposes an orderly arrangement between
individuals and groups.
Three Categories of Supervisors Job
1.

Leading

2.

Directing

3.

Controlling

The Supervisors Administrative Functions


1.

Planning

That is working out in broad outline the things that


need to accomplish the purpose set for the enterprise.
2.

Organizing

That is the establishment of the formal structure of


authority through which work subdivisions are arranged,
defined and coordinated for the defined objectives.
3.

Staffing

That is the whole personnel functions of bringing in


and training the staff and maintaining favorable conditions
of work.
4.

Directing

That is the continuous task of making decisions,


embodying them in specific general orders and instructions
and serving as the leader of the enterprise.
5.

Coordinating
That is the all important duty of interrelating the

various part of the work.


6.
Reporting
That is keeping those to whom the executive is
responsibly informed as what is going on, which thus
included keeping himself and his subordinates informed
through records, research and inspection.
7.

Budgeting

That is the accounting and control of funds


resources in the form of fiscal and budget plans.

and

Definition of Organizational Structure


An organizational structure is a mechanical means of
depicting by an arrangement of symbols the relationships
that exist between individuals, groups and functions within
the organization.
Types of Organizational Structures
1.

The Line Organization

The straight line organization, often called as the


individual, military or departmental type of organization,
is the simplest and perhaps the oldest type, but it is
seldom encountered in its true form except in any but the
smallest of establishment.
2.

The Functional Type of Organization

The functional type of organization in its pure form is


rarely found in present day organization except at or near
the top of a very largest establishment.
This type of
structure violated the primary rule that man perform best
when he is under one supervisor.
3.

The Line and Staff Type of Organization

The line and staff type of organization is a


combination of the line and functional types and is found in
almost all but the very smallest police organization today.

Principles Involved in Police Management and Supervision


1.

Division of Work

Organizational structure is established to designate


how work is to be divided among the various components of
the establishment.
2.

Unity of Command

In addition of providing a logical arrangement of work,


organizational structure should provide clear-cut channels
of authority. It is also being called as chain of command,
scalar chain, or scalar principle.
3.

Span of Control

The principle of span of attention, was initially


adopted from psychologists, and it refers to the number of
persons an individual can supervise effectively.
4.

Delegation of Work

The principle of delegation relates to the process of


committing an activity to anothers care.
5.

Personnel Development

The
practices
of
delegation
contribute
to
the
development of subordinates to perform the supervisors job
in his absence or when he is unable to act.
6.

Exception Principle

The development of the subordinates to take over in the


boss absence involves training, just as does the exception
principle, which specifies that the head of an organization
should not find it necessary to act personally on each
matter coming under his general jurisdiction.
7.

Completed Staff Work

The principle of completed staff work require that the


person to whom work has been assigned through the delegation
process is to complete it to such an extent that the only

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thing left to be done by the person who delegated it is to


approved it.
Definition of Leadership
Leadership is the art of influencing, directing,
guiding and controlling others in such a way as to obtain
their willing obedience, confidence, respect, and loyal
cooperation in the accomplishment of an objective.
Types of Leaders
1.

The Autocratic
The

autocratic leader is highly authoritative.


makes
decisions
without
allowing
subordinates
participate.
2.

He
to

The Democratic

The supervisor who leads democratically, seeking ideas


and suggestions from his subordinates and allowing them to
participate in decision making that affects them, by and
large and secures the best results as a leader.
3.

The Free Rain

The leader who plays down his role as such and


exercises a minimum control, seldom gives his subordinates
the attention or help they need.
Definition of Command Presence, How it Affects Leadership
Command presence to some denotes a military bearing.
To others, it means a distinctive type of appearance and
conduct. Others feel command presence is comprised of the
same ingredients as leadership.
In reality, it is a
composite of all those traits. It is a natural manner of an
individual indicating a complete command of his mental and
physical faculties and emotions.

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It encompasses the qualities of dignity, self-assurance


and poise.
It is that outward appearances which denotes
that the person has the ability and qualifications to take
command of any situation.
It is often said that command
presence is best reflected by the leader who looks calmer
and calmer as things getting worse and worse. The leaders
attitude quickly permeates a group.
If he displays anxiety, they will develop it.
They
will not perform well in atmosphere of anxiety, and tension.
He maintains a deportment of calmness and evidence of high
degree of emotional security, even under provocation.
Ways of Giving Orders
1.

Direct Command

Orders may be best given by command


conditions require direct prompt action.
2.

when

emergent

Request

Most orders should be framed as requests.


Employees
will resent the authoritarian and dictatorial method.
3.

Implied or Suggestive Orders

Implied or suggestive directives can be employed to


good effect with the reliable employee who readily assumes
responsibility for a task.
4.

Request for Volunteers

Occasionally, a supervisor will call for volunteers to


perform some dangerous assignment which he cannot or should
not perform himself.

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CHAPTER
3
REPUBLIC ACT NO. 6975
===========================================================
What is Republic Act No. 6975
It is an act establishing the Philippine National
Police under a reorganized Department of Interior and Local
Government, and for other purposes.
The Department of the Interior and Local Government
To carry out the policies and purpose of this Act, the
Department of Local Government is hereby reorganized into
the Department of Interior and Local Government, hereinafter
referred to as the Department, in accordance with the
provisions of this Act.
Powers and Functions of the DILG
In furtherance of the objectives of this Act, the
Department shall continue to exercise the powers and
functions of the Department of Local Government in addition
to the powers and functions as herein provided.
Organization of the DILG
The Department shall consist of the Department Proper,
the existing bureaus and offices of Department of Local
Government, the National Police Commission, the Philippine
Public Safety College, and the following bureaus:
the
Philippine National Police, the Bureau of Fire Protection,
and the Bureau of Jail Management and Penology.

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Specific Powers and Functions of the Secretary


In addition to the powers and functions as provided in
Executive Order No. 252, the Secretary as Department head
shall have the following powers and functions.
a)
Prepare and submit periodic reports, including a
Quarterly Anti-Crime Operation Report, and such other
reports as the President and Congress may require.
b)
Act as Chairman and
National Police Commission; and

Presiding

Officer

of

the

c)
Delegate authority to exercise any substantive or
administrative function to the members of the National
Police Commission or other officers of rank within the
Department.
Regional Offices of the DILG
The Department shall establish, operate and maintain a
regional office in each of the administrative regions of the
country to implement the policies and programs of the
Department.
Each regional office shall be headed by a
regional director to be assisted by two (2) assistant
regional directors:
one (1) for jail management and
penology and another one (1) for fire protection in addition
to the present regional directors of the Department of Local
Government.
Removal from Office
The members of the Commission may be removed from
office for cause. All vacancies in the Commission, except
through expiration of term shall be filled up for the
unexpired term only: Provided, That any person who shall be
appointed in this case shall be eligible for regular
appointment for another full term.

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Prohibitions to the Members of the Commission


The Chairman and members of the Commission shall not
engage in the practice of any profession, or intervene,
directly or indirectly, in the management and control of any
private enterprise. They shall not, directly or indirectly,
have any financial or material interest in any transaction
requiring the approval of their office.
Composition of the PNP
Subject to the limitations provided for in this Act,
the Philippine National Police, hereinafter referred to as
the PNP, is hereby establish, initially consisting of the
members of the police forces who were integrated into the
Integrated National Police (INP) pursuant to Presidential
Decree No. 765, and the officers and enlisted personnel of
the Philippine Constabulary (PC). For purposes of this Act,
the officers and enlisted personnel of the PC shall include
those assigned with the Narcotics Command (NARCOM) or the
Criminal Investigation Service (CIS); those of the technical
services of the AFP assigned with the PC and the civilian
operatives of the CIS.
The regular operative of the
abolished
NAPOLCOM
Inspection,
Investigation
and
Intelligence Branch may also be absorbed by the PNP.
In
addition, a PC officer or enlisted personnel may transfer to
any of the branches or services of the Armed Forces of the
Philippines in accordance with the provisions of Section 85
of this Act.
Powers and Functions of the PNP
a)
Enforce all laws and ordinances relative to the
protection of lives and properties;
b)
Maintain peace and order and take all necessary
steps to ensure pubic safety;
c)
Investigate and prevent crimes, effect the arrest
of criminal offenders, bring offenders to justice and assist
in their prosecution;

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d)
Exercise the general powers to make arrest, search
and seizure in accordance with the Constitution and
pertinent laws;
e)
Detain an arrested person for a period not beyond
what is prescribed by law, informing the person so detained
of all his rights under the Constitution;
f)
Issue licenses for the possession of firearms and
explosives in accordance with law;
g)
Supervise and control the training and operations
of security agencies and issue licenses to operate security
agencies, and to security guards and private detectives, for
the practice of their professions, and
h)
Perform such other duties and exercise all other
functions as may be provided by law.
In addition, the PNP shall absorb the office of the
National Action Committee on Anti-Hijacking (NACAH) of the
Department of National Defense, all the functions of the
present Philippine Air Force Security Command (PAFSECOM), as
well as the police functions of the Coast Guard. In order
to perform its powers and functions efficiently and
effectively, the PNP shall be provided with adequate land,
sea, and air capabilities and all necessary material means
or resources.
Organization of the PNP
The PNP shall be headed by a Chief who shall be
assisted by two (2) deputy chiefs, one (1) for operations
and one (1) for administration, both of whom shall be
appointed by the President upon recommendation of the
Commission from among the most senior and qualified officers
in the service:
Provided, however, That in no case shall
any officer who has retired or is retirable within six (6)
months from his compulsory retirement age be appointed as
Chief of the PNP.
The PNP shall be composed of a national office,
regional offices, provincial offices, district offices and

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city or municipal station.


At the national level, the PNP shall maintain its
office in Metropolitan Manila which shall house the
directorial staff, service staff and special support units.
At the regional level, the PNP shall have regional
offices, including that of the National Capital Region,
which may be divided into two (2) separate regions without
prejudice to the pertinent provisions of the Organic Act for
Autonomous Regions of the Cordillera and Muslim Mindanao
relative to the creation or a regional police force in the
area of autonomy. Each of these regional offices shall be
headed by a regional director for peace and order.
At the provincial level, there shall be a PNP office,
each headed by a provincial director.
In case of large
provinces, police districts may be established by the
Commission to be headed by a district director.
At the city or municipal level, there shall be a PNP
station, each headed by a chief police.
The Chief of the PNP shall, within sixty (60) days from
effectivity of this Act and in accordance with the broad
guidelines set forth herein, recommend the organizational
structure and staffing pattern of the PNP to the Commission.
Powers, Functions and Term of Office of the PNP Chief
The command and direction of the PNP shall be vested in
the Chief of the PNP who shall have the power to direct and
control tactical as well as strategic movements, deployment,
placement, utilization of the PNP or any units and
personnel, including its equipment, facilities and other
resources. Such command and direction of the Chief of PNP
may be delegated to subordinate officials with respect to
the units under their respective commands, in accordance
with the rules and regulations prescribed by the Commission.
The Chief of the PNP shall also have the power to issue
detailed implementing policies and
instructions regarding
personnel, funds, properties, records, correspondence and
such other matters as may be necessary to effectively carry
out the function, powers and duties of the bureau.
The

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Chief of the PNP shall be appointed by the President from


among the senior officers down to the rank of chief
superintendent,
subject
to
the
confirmation
of
the
Commission on Appointments. Provided, that the Chief of the
PNP shall serve a term of office not to exceed four (4)
years.
Provided, further, that in times of war or other
national emergencies declared by Congress, the President may
extend such term office.
Manning Levels of the PNP
On the average nationwide, the manning levels of the
PNP shall be approximately in accordance with a police-topopulation ratio of one (1) policeman for every five hundred
(500) persons.
The actual strength by cities and
municipalities shall depend on the state of peace and order,
population density and actual demands of the service in the
particular area.
Provided, that the minimum police-topopulation ratio shall not be less than one (1) policeman
for every one thousand (1,000) persons. Provided, further,
that urban areas shall have a higher minimum police-topopulation ratio as may be prescribed by regulations.
Key Positions in the PNP
The head of the PNP with the rank of director general
shall have the position title of Chief of the PNP.
The
second in command of the PNP with the rank of deputy
director general shall be the Deputy Chief of the PNP for
Administration. The third in command with the rank also of
deputy director general shall be the Deputy Chief of the PNP
for Operations.
At the national office, the head of the directorial
staff with the rank of deputy director general shall be
known as the Chief of the Directorial Staff of the PNP.
The heads of the various staff divisions in the
directorial staff shall have the rank of director with the
position title of Director of the Directorial Staff of their
respective
functional
division.
The
head
of
the
Inspectorate Division with the rank of chief superintendent
shall assume the position title of Inspector General. The

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heads of the administrative and operational support division


shall have the rank of chief superintendent.
The head of the NCR with the rank of director shall
assume the position title of NCR director.
The heads of the regional offices with the rank of
chief superintendent shall assume the position title of
Regional Director.
The heads of the NCR district offices with the rank of
chief superintendent shall have the position title of
District Director.
The heads of the provincial offices with the rank of
senior superintendent shall be known as Provincial Director.
The heads of the district offices with the rank of
superintendent shall have the position title of District
Director.
The heads of the municipality or city offices with the
rank of chief inspector shall be known as Chief of Police.
Appointment of PNP Officers and Members
a)
Police Officer I to Senior Police Officer IV.
Appointed by the PNP regional director for regional
personnel or by the Chief of the PNP for the national
headquarters personnel and attested by the Civil Service
Commission;
b)

Inspector to Superintendent. Appointed by the


Chief of the PNP, as recommended by their immediate
superiors, and attested by the Civil Service Commission;
c)
Senior Superintendent to Deputy Director General.
Appointed by the President upon recommendation of the
Chief of the PNP, with proper endorsement by the Chairman of
the Civil Service Commission and subject to confirmation by
the Commission on Appointments; and
d)
Director General. Appointed by the President from
among the senior officers down to the rank of chief
superintendent in the service, subject to confirmation by

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the Commission on Appointments: Provided, That the Chief of


the PNP shall serve a tour of duty not to exceed four (4)
years; Provided, further, That, in times of war or other
national emergency declared by Congress, the President may
extend such tour of duty.
Lateral Entry of Officers into the PNP
In general, all original appointments of commissioned
officers in the PNP shall commence with the rank of
inspector,
to
include
all
those
highly
technical
qualifications applying for the PNP technical services, such
as dentists, optometrists, nurses, engineers, and graduates
of forensic sciences. Doctors of medicine, members of the
Bar, and chaplains shall be appointed to the rank of senior
inspector in their particular technical service. Graduates
of the Philippine National Police Academy (PNPA) shall be
automatically appointed to the initial rank of inspector.
Licensed criminologists may be appointed to the rank of
inspector to fill up any vacancy after promotions from the
ranks are completed.
Support Units of the PNP
The PNP shall be supported by administrative and
operational support units. The administrative support units
shall
consist
of
Crime
Laboratory,
Logistics
Unit,
Communications Unit, Computer Center, Finance Center and
Civil Security Unit. The operational support units shall be
composed of the Maritime Police Units, Police Intelligence,
Police Security Unit, Criminal Investigation Unit, Special
Action Force, Narcotics Unit, Aviation Security Unit,
Traffic Management Unit, the Medical and Dental Centers and
the Civil Relations Unit.
To enhance police operational
efficiency and effectiveness, the Chief of the PNP may
constitute such other support units as may be necessary
subject to the approval of the Commission: Provided, That
no support unit headed by a chief superintendent or a higher
rank can be created unless provided by law.
a)
Administrative
Support
Units.

1)
Crime
Laboratory.
There shall be established a central Crime
Laboratory to be headed by a Director with the rank of chief

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superintendent, which shall provide scientific and technical


investigative aid and support to the PNP and other
government investigative agencies.
It shall
evaluation and
in crimes with
biological and

also provide crime laboratory examination,


identification of physical evidences involved
primary emphasis on their medical, chemical,
physical nature.

2)
Logistics Units.
Headed by a Director with the
rank of chief superintendent, the Logistics Unit shall be
responsible
for
the
procurement,
distribution,
and
management of all the logistical requirements of the PNP
including firearms and ammunition.
3)
Communications Unit.
Headed by a Director with
the rank of chief superintendent, the Communications Unit
shall be responsible for establishing an effective police
communications network.
4)
Computer Center.
Headed by a Director with the
rank of chief superintendent, the Computer Center shall be
responsible for the design, implementation and maintenance
of a database system for the PNP.
5)
Finance Center.
Headed by a Director with the
rank of chief superintendent, the Finance Center shall be
responsible for providing finance services to the PNP.
6)
Civil Security Unit.
Headed by a Director with
the rank of chief superintendent, the Civil Security Unit
shall
provide
administrative
services
and
general
supervision over the organization, business operation and
activities of all organized private detectives, watchmen,
security guard agencies and company guards.
The unit shall likewise supervise the licensing and
registration of firearms and explosives.
The approval of applications for licenses to operate
private security agencies, as well as the issuance of
licenses to security guards and the licensing of firearms
and explosives, shall be decentralized to the PNP regional
offices.

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b)
Operational Support Units. 1)
Maritime Police
Units.
Headed by a Director with the rank of chief
superintendent, the Maritime Police Unit shall perform all
police functions over Philippine territorial waters and
rivers.
2)
Police Intelligence Unit.
Headed by a Director
with
the
rank
of
chief
superintendent,
the
Police
Intelligence Unit shall serve as the intelligence and
counter-intelligence operating unit of the PNP.
3)
Police Security Unit. Headed by a Director with
the rank of chief superintendent, the Police Security Unit
shall provide security for government officials, visiting
dignitaries and private individuals authorized to be given
protection.
4)
Criminal Investigation Unit. Headed by a Director
with the rank of chief superintendent, the Criminal
Investigation
Unit
shall
undertake
the
monitoring,
investigation and prosecution of all crimes involving
economic sabotage, and other crimes of such magnitude and
extent as to indicate their commission by highly placed or
professional criminal syndicates and organizations.
5)
Special Action Force. Headed by a Director with
the rank of chief superintendent, the Special Action Force
shall function as a mobile strike force or reaction unit to
augment regional, provincial, municipal and city police
forces for civil disturbance control, counter-insurgency,
hostage-taking
rescue
operations,
and
other
special
operations.
6)
Narcotics Unit.
Headed by a Director with the
rank of chief superintendent, the Narcotics Unit shall
enforce all laws relative to the protection of the citizenry
against dangerous and other prohibited drugs and substances.
7)
Aviation Security Unit. Headed by a Director with
the rank of chief superintendent, the Aviation Security
Unit, in coordination with airport authorities shall secure
all the countrys airport against offensive and terroristic
acts that threaten civil aviation, exercise operational
control and supervisions over all agencies involved in
airport security operation, and enforce all laws and

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regulations relative to air travel protection and safety.


8)
Traffic Management Unit.
Headed by a Director
with the rank of chief superintendent, the Traffic
Management Unit shall enforce traffic laws and regulations.
9)
Medical and Dental Centers. Headed by a director
with the rank of chief superintendent, the Medical and
Dental Centers shall be responsible for providing medical
and dental services for the PNP.
10) Civil Relations Unit. Headed by a Director with
the rank of chief superintendent, the Civil Relations Unit
shall implement plans and programs that will promote
community and citizens participation in the maintenance of
peace and order and public safety.
Performance Evaluation System of the PNP
There shall be established a performance evaluation
system which shall be administered in accordance with the
rules and regulations and standards, and a code of conduct
promulgated by the Commission for members of the PNP. Such
performance evaluation system shall administered in such a
way as to foster the improvement of individual efficiency
and behavioral discipline as well as the promotion of
organizational
effectiveness
and
respect
for
the
constitutional and human rights of the citizens, democratic
principles and ideals and the supremacy of civilian
authority over the military.
The rating system as contemplated herein shall be based
on standards prescribed by the Commission and shall consider
the
results
of
annual
physical,
psychological
and
neuropsychiatric examinations conducted on the PNP officers
or members concerned.
Compulsory Retirement
Compulsory retirement, for officer and non-officer,
shall be upon the attainment of age fifty-six (56):
Provided, that in case of any officer with the rank of chief
superintendent, director or deputy director general, the

23

commission may allow his retention in the service for an


unextendible period of one (1) year.
Optional Retirement
Upon accumulation of at least twenty (20) years of
satisfactory active service, an officer or non-officer at
his own request and with the approval of the Commission,
shall be retired from the service and entitled to receive
benefits provided for by law.
Finality of Disciplinary Actions
The disciplinary action imposed upon a member of the
PNP shall be final and executory. Provided, that a
disciplinary demotion or dismissal from the service may be
appealed to the regional appellate board within (10) days
from receipt of the copy of the notice of decision:
Provided, further, that the disciplinary action imposed by
the Chief of the PNP involving demotion or dismissal may be
appealed to the National Appellate Board within ten (10)
days from receipt thereof. Provided, furthermore, that the
National or Regional Appellate Boards as the case may be,
shall decide the appeal within sixty (60) days from the
receipt of the notice of appeal: Provided, finally, That
failure of the National and Regional Appellate Boards to act
on the appeal within said period shall render the decision
final and executory without prejudice, however, to the
filing of an appeal by either party with the secretary.
Jurisdiction in Criminal Cases
Any provisions of law to the contrary notwithstanding,
criminal cases involving PNP members shall be within the
exclusive jurisdiction of the regular courts.
Provided,
that the court-martial appointed pursuant to Presidential
Decree No. 1850 shall continue to try PC-INP members who
have already been arraigned, to include appropriate actions
thereon
by
the
reviewing
authorities
pursuant
to
Commonwealth Act No. 408, otherwise known as the Manual for
Court-Martial.
Provided, further, that criminal cases
against PC-INP members who may have not yet been arraigned

24

upon the effectivity of this Act shall be transferred to the


proper city or provincial prosecutor or municipal trial
court judge.
Entitlement to Reinstatement and Salary
A member of the PNP who may have been suspended from
office in accordance with the provisions of this Act or who
shall have been terminated or separated from office shall,
upon acquittal from the charge against him, be entitled to
reinstatement and prompt payment of salary, allowances and
other benefits withheld from him by reason of such
suspension or termination.
Power to Administer Oaths
Officials of the Commission who are appointed by the
President, as well as officers of the PNP from rank of
inspector to senior superintendent, shall have the power to
administer oaths on matters which are connected with the
performance of their official duties.
Creation of the Philippine Public Safety College
There is hereby created the Philippine Public Safety
College (PPSC), which shall be the premier educational
institution for the training, human resource development and
continuing education of all personnel of the PNP, Fire and
Jail Bureaus.
Said college shall be under the direct supervisions of
a Board of Trustees composed of the Secretary and the three
(3) bureaus head.

Composition, Powers and Functions of the PPSC


The College shall consist of the present Philippine
National Police Academy established pursuant to Section 13
of Presidential Decree No. 1184, the Fire Service Training
Center, the Philippine National Police Training Centers, the

25

National Police College, Jail National Training Institute,


and other special training centers as may be created by the
Department, whose functions shall be as follows:
a)
Formulate and implement training programs for the
personnel of the Department;
b)
Establish and maintain adequate physical training
facilities;
c)
Develop and implement research and development to
support educational training programs;
d)
Conduct an assessment of the training needs of all
its clientele, and
e)
Perform such other related functions as may be
prescribed by the Secretary.
Incentives and Awards
There shall be established an incentives and awards
system which shall be administered by a board under such
rules, regulations and standards as may be promulgated by
the Department: Provided, that equivalent awards shall be
given by the Department for every award duly given by
respectable civic organization in a nationwide selection for
outstanding achievement and/or performance of any member.
Longevity Pay and Allowances
Uniformed personnel of the Department shall be entitled
to a longevity pay of ten percent (10%) of their basic
salaries for every five (5) years of service, which shall be
reckoned from the date of the personnels original
appointment in the AFP, or appointment in the police, fire,
jail or other allied services prior to the integration of
the PC and the INP.
Provided, that the totality of such
longevity pay shall not exceed fifty percent (50%) of the
basic pay.
They shall also continue to enjoy subsistence
allowance, quarter allowances, clothing allowance, cost of
living allowance, hazard pay, and all other allowances as
provided by existing laws.

26

Retirement in the Next Higher Grade


Uniformed personnel covered under this Act shall, for
purposes of retirement pay, be retired in one (1) grade
higher than the permanent grade last held. Provided, that
they have served for at least one (1) year of active service
in the permanent grade.

27

CHAPTER
4
REPUBLIC ACT NO. 8551
===========================================================
What is Republic Act No. 8551
It
is
an
act
providing
for
the
reform
and
reorganization of the Philippine National Police, and for
other purposes.
Relationship of the DILG with the DND
The Department of the Interior and Local Government
shall be relieved of the primary responsibility on matters
involving the suppression of insurgency and other serious
threats to national security.
The Philippine National
Police shall, through information gathering and performance
of its ordinary police functions, support the Armed Forces
of the Philippines on matters involving suppression of
insurgency, except in cases where the president shall call
on the PNP to support the AFP in combat operations.
Creation and Composition of NAPOLCOM
A National Police Commission, hereinafter referred to
as the Commission, is hereby created for the purpose of
effectively discharging the functions prescribed in the
Constitution and provided in this Act. The Commission shall
be
composed
of
a
Chairperson,
four
(4)
regular
Commissioners, and the Chief PNP as ex-officio member.
Three of the regular commissioners, shall come from the
civilian sector who are neither active nor former members of
the police or military one (1) of whom shall be designated
as Vice-Chairperson by the President.

28

The fourth regular commissioner shall come from the law


enforcement sector, either active or retired.
Provided,
that an active member of a law enforcement agency shall be
considered resigned from said agency once appointed to the
Commission. Provided, further, that at least one (1) of the
Commissioners shall be a woman.
The Secretary of the
Department shall be the ex-officio Chairperson of the
Commission, while the Vice-Chairperson shall act as the
executive officer of the Commission.
Powers and Functions of the Commission
The Commission shall exercise the following powers and
functions:
a) Exercise administrative control and operational
supervision over the Philippine National Police which shall
mean the power to:
1) Develop policies and promulgate a police manual
prescribing
rules
and
regulations
for
efficient
organization, administration, and operation, including
criteria
for
manpower
allocation,
distribution
and
deployment, recruitment, selection, promotion and retirement
of personnel and the conduct of qualifying entrance and
promotional examinations for uniformed members;
2) Examine and audit, and thereafter establish the
standards for such purposes on a continuing basis, the
performance, activities, and facilities of all police
agencies throughout the country
3)

Establish a system of uniform crime reporting;

4) Conduct an annual self-report survey and compile


statistical data for the accurate assessment of the crime
situation and the proper evaluation of efficiency and
effectiveness of all police units in the country;
5) Approve or modify plans and programs on education
and training, logistical requirements, communications,
records, information systems, crime laboratory, crime

29

prevention and crime reporting;


6) Affirm, reverse or modify through the National
Appellate Board, personnel disciplinary actions involving
demotion or dismissal from the service imposed upon members
of the Philippine National Police by the Chief of the
Philippine National Police;
7) Exercise
appellate
jurisdiction
through
the
Regional Appellate Boards over administrative cases against
policemen and over decisions on claims for police benefits;
8) Prescribe minimum standards for arms, equipment,
and uniforms and, after consultation with the Philippine
Heraldry Commission, for insignia of ranks, awards, and
medals of honor.
Within ninety (90) days from the
effectivity of this Act, the standards of the uniformed
personnel of the PNP must be revised which should be clearly
distinct from the military and reflective of the civilian
character of the police;
9) Issue subpoena and subpoena duces tecum in matters
pertaining to the discharge of its own powers and duties,
and designate who among its personnel can issue such
processes and administer oaths in connection therewith;
10) Inspect and assess the compliance of the PNP on
the
established
criteria
for
manpower
allocation,
distribution, and deployment and their impact on the
community and the crime situation, and thereafter formulate
appropriate guidelines for maximization of resources and
effective utilization of the PNP personnel;
11) Monitor the performance of the local
executives as deputies of the Commission, and
12) Monitor
irregularities.

and

investigate

police

b) Advice the President on all


police functions and administration;

anomalies

matters

chief
and

involving

c) Render to the President


and to the Congress an
annual report on its activities and accomplishments during
the thirty (30) days after the end of the calendar year
which shall include an appraisal of the conditions obtaining

30

in the organization and administration of police agencies in


the municipalities, cities and provinces throughout the
country, and recommendations for appropriate remedial
legislation;
d) Recommend to the President, through the Secretary,
within sixty (60) days before the commencement of each
calendar year, a crime prevention program; and
e) Perform such other functions necessary to carry
out the provisions of this Act and as the President may
direct.
Qualifications of the Members of the Commission
a)

He or she is a citizen of the Philippines;

b) A member of the Philippine Bar with at least five


(5) year experience in handling criminal or human rights
cases or a holder of a masters degree but preferably a
doctorate degree in public administration, criminology,
criminal justice, law enforcement, and other related
discipline; and
c) The regular member coming from the law enforcement
sector have practical experience in law enforcement work for
at least five (5) years while the three (3) other regular
Commissioners must have done extensive research work or
projects on law enforcement, criminology or criminal justice
or members of a duly registered non-government organization
involved in the promotion of peace and order.
Term of Office
The four (4) regular and full-time Commissioners shall
be appointed by the President for a term of six (6) years
without re-appointment or extension.

Expiration of the Term of Office of Current Commissioners

31

Upon the affectivity of this Act, the terms of the


current Commissioners are deemed expired which shall
constitute a bar to their re-appointment or an extension of
their
term
in
the
Commission,
except
for
current
Commissioners who have served less than two (2) years of
their terms of office, and who may be appointed by the
President for a maximum term of two (2) years.
Temporary or Permanent Incapacity
In case of absence due to the temporary incapacity of
the Chairperson, the Vice Chairperson shall serve as
Chairperson until the Chairperson is present or regains
capacity to serve. In case of death or permanent incapacity
or
disqualification
of
the
Chairperson,
the
acting
Chairperson shall also act as such until a new Chairperson
shall have been appointed by the President and qualified.
Organizational Structure
a) Commissioner Proper. This is composed of the
office of the Chairman and four (4) Commissioners.
b) Staff Services. The
Commission shall be as follows:

Staff

Services

of

the

1) The Planning and Research Service, which shall


provide technical services to the Commission in areas of
overall policy formulation, strategic and operational
planning, management systems or procedures, evaluation and
monitoring of the Commissions programs, projects and
internal operations, and shall conduct thorough research and
analysis on social and economic conditions affecting peace
and order in the country;
2) The Legal Affairs Service, which shall provide the
Commission with efficient and effective service as legal
counsel
of
the
Commission
and
submit
appropriate
recommendations
pertaining
thereto;
and
render
legal
opinions arising from the administration and operation of
the Philippine National Police and the Commission;
3)

The

Crime

Prevention

and

Coordination

Service,

32

which shall undertake criminological researches and studies;


formulate a national crime prevention plan; develop a crime
prevention and information program and provide editorial
direction for all criminology research and crime prevention
publications;
4) The Personnel and Administrative Service, which
shall perform personnel functions for the Commission,
administer the entrance and promotional examinations for
policemen, provide the necessary services relating to
records, correspondence, supplies, property and equipment,
security and general services, and the maintenance and
utilization of facilities, and provide services relating to
manpower,
career
planning
and
development,
personnel
transactions and employees welfare;
5) The Inspection, Monitoring and Investigation
Service, which shall conduct continuous inspection and
management audit of personnel, facilities and operations at
all levels of command of the PNP, monitor the implementation
of the Commissions programs and projects relative to law
enforcement; and monitor and investigate police anomalies
and irregularities;
6) The Installations and Logistics Service, which
shall review the Commissions plans and programs
and
formulate policies and procedures
regarding acquisition,
inventory, control, distribution, maintenance and disposal
of supplies and shall oversee the implementation of programs
on transportation facilities and installations and the
procurement and maintenance of supplies and equipment, and
7) The Financial Service, which shall provide the
Commission with staff advice and assistance on budgetary and
financial
matters,
including
the
overseeing
of
the
processing and disbursement of funds pertaining to the
scholarship program of the surviving children of deceased
and/or permanently incapacitated PNP personnel.
c) Disciplinary Appellate Board. The Commission
shall
establish
a
formal
administrative
disciplinary
machinery consisting the National Appellate Board and the
Regional Appellate Boards.
The National Appellate Board shall decide cases on

33

appeal from decisions rendered by the PNP chief, while the


Regional Appellate Boards shall decide cases on appeal from
decisions rendered by officers other than the PNP chief, the
mayor, and the Peoples Law Enforcement Board (PLEB) created
hereunder.
Qualifications of Regional Directors
No person
unless:
a)

shall

be

appointed

regional

directors

He or she is a citizen of the Philippines; and

b) A holder of masters degree and appropriate Civil


Service Eligibility.
Authority of the Commission to Reorganize the PNP
Notwithstanding the provisions of Republic Act No. 6975
on the organizational structure and rank classification of
the PNP, the Commission shall conduct a management audit,
and
prepare
and
submit
to
Congress
a
proposed
reorganization plan of the PNP not later than December 31,
1998 subject to the limitations provided under this Act and
base on the following criteria:
a)
increased police
visibility through the dispersal of personnel from the
headquarters to the field offices and by the appointment and
assignment of non-uniformed personnel to positions which are
purely administrative, technical, clerical or menial in
nature and other positions which are not actually and
directly related to police operation, and b) efficient and
optimized delivery of police services to the communities.

General Qualifications for Appointment in the PNP


a)

A citizen of the Philippines;

b)

A person of good moral character;

34

c) Must have passed the psychiatric/psychological,


drug and physical tests to be administered by the PNP or by
any NAPOLCOM accredited government hospital for the purpose
of determining physical and mental health;
d) Must possess a formal baccalaureate degree from a
recognized institution of learning;
e) Must be eligible in accordance with the standards
set by the Commission;
f) Must not have been dishonorably discharged from
military employment or dismissed for cause from
any
civilian position in the Government;
g) Must not have been convicted by final judgment of
an offense or crime involving moral turpitude;
h) Must be at least one meter and sixty-two
centimeters (1.62 cm) in height for male and one meter and
fifty-seven centimeters (1.57 cm.) for female;
i) Must weigh not more or less than five kilograms (5
kgs.) From the standard weight corresponding to his or her
height, age, and sex,
j) For a new applicant, must not be less than twentyone (21) nor more than thirty (30).
Except for the last
qualification, the above-enumerated qualifications shall be
continuing in character and an absence of any one of them at
any given time shall be a ground for separation or
retirement from the service. Provided, that PNP members who
are already in the service upon the affectivity of this Act
shall be given at least two (2) more years to obtain the
minimum educational qualification and one (1) year to
satisfy the weight requirement.
For the purpose of determining compliance with the
requirements on physical and mental health, as well as the
non-use of prohibited drugs, the PNP by itself or through a
NAPOLCOM accredited government hospital shall conduct
regular psychiatric, psychological drug and physical tests
randomly and without notice.
After the lapse of the time period
for the

35

satisfaction of a specific requirement, current members of


the PNP who will fail to satisfy
the requirements
enumerated under this section shall be separated from the
service if they are below fifty (50) years of age and have
served in the Government for less than twenty (20) years or
retired if they are from the age of fifty (50) and above and
have served the Government for at least twenty (20) years
without prejudice in either case to the payment of benefits
they may be entitled under existing laws.
Waivers for Initial Appointments to the PNP
The age, height, weight, and educational requirements
for initial appointments to the PNP may be waived only when
the number of qualified applicants fall below the minimum
annual quota. Provided, that an applicant shall not below
twenty (20) or over thirty-five (35) years of age.
Provided, further, That any applicant not meeting the weight
requirement shall be given reasonable time but not exceeding
six (6) months within which to comply with the said
requirement. Provided, furthermore, that only applicants who
have finished second year college or have earned at least
seventy-two (72) collegiate units leading to a bachelors
degree shall be eligible for appointment.
Provided,
furthermore, that anybody who will enter the service without
a baccalaureate degree shall be given a maximum of four (4)
years to obtain the required educational qualification.
Provided, finally, that a waiver for height requirement
shall be automatically granted to applicants belonging to
the cultural communities.
Selection Criteria Under the Waiver Program
The selection of applicants under the Waiver Program
shall be subject to the following minimum criteria:
Applicants who possess the least disqualifications
shall
take
precedence
over
those
who
possess
more
disqualifications.
The requirements shall be waived
order:
a)
age;
b)
height;
c)
education.

in the following
weight;
and d)

36

The Commission shall promulgate rules and regulations


to address other situations arising from the waiver of the
entry requirements.
Nature of Appointment Under a Waiver Program
Any PNP uniformed personnel who is admitted due to
waiver of the educational or weight requirements shall be
issued a temporary appointment pending the satisfaction of
the requirement waived. Any member who will fail to satisfy
any of the waived requirements within the specified time
period under Section 13 of this Act shall be dismissed from
the service.
Re-application
Program

of

Dismissed PNP Member Under a New Waiver

Any PNP member who shall be dismissed under a waiver


program shall be eligible to re-apply for appointment to the
PNP.
Provided, that he or she possesses the minimum
qualifications under Section 14 of this Act and his or her
reappointment is not by virtue of another waiver program.
The Field Training Program
All uniformed members of the PNP shall undergo a Field
Training Program for twelve (12) months involving actual
experience
and
assignment
in
patrol,
traffic,
and
investigation as a requirement for permanency of their
appointment.
Increased Qualifications for Provincial Directors
No person may be appointed Director of a Provincial
Police office unless:
a)
He or she holds a masters degree in public
administration, sociology, criminology, criminal justice,
law enforcement, national security administration, defense
studies, or other related discipline from a recognized

37

institution of learning; and


b)
Has satisfactorily passed the required training
and career courses necessary for the position as may be
established by the Commission.
Any PNP personnel
who is currently occupying the
position but lacks any of the qualifications mentioned above
shall be given three (3) years upon the affectivity of this
Act to comply with the requirements,
otherwise he or she
shall be relieved from the position.
Examination of Policeman
The National Police Commission shall administer the
entrance and promotional examinations for policemen on the
basis of the standards set by the Commission.
Qualifications
Stations

of

Chief

of

City

and

Municipal

Police

No person shall be appointed chief of a city police


station unless he/she is a graduate of Bachelor of Laws or
has finished all the required courses of a masters degree
program in public administration, criminology, criminal
justice, law enforcement, national security administration,
defense studies, and other related disciplines from a
recognized institution of learning.
No person shall be
appointed chief of a municipal station unless he or she has
finished at least second year Bachelor of Laws or has earned
at least twelve units (12) in a masters degree program in
public administration, and other related disciplines from a
recognized institution of learning. Provided, that members
of the Bar with at least five (5) years of law practice,
licensed criminologist or graduates of the Philippine
National Police Academy and who possess the general
qualifications for initial appointment to the PNP shall be
qualified for appointment as chief of a city or municipal
police station. Provided, further, that the appointee has
successfully passed the required field training program and
has complied with other requirements as may be established
by the Commission. Provided, furthermore, that the chief of
police shall be appointed in accordance with the provisions

38

of Section 51, paragraph (b), subparagraph 4 (i) of this


Act.
Attrition by Attainment of Maximum Tenure in Position
The maximum tenure of PNP members holding key positions
is hereby prescribed as follows:
Position

Maximum Tenure

Chief

four (4) years

Deputy Chief

four (4) years

Directors of the Staff Services

four (4) years

Regional Directors

six

Provincial/City Directors

nine (9) years

(6) years

Except for the Chief, PNP, no PNP member who has less
than one (1) year of service before reaching the compulsory
retirement age shall be promoted to a higher rank or
appointed to any other positions.
Attrition by Relief
A PNP uniformed personnel who has been relieved for
just cause and has not been given an assignment within two
(2) years after such relief shall be retired or separated.
Attrition by Demotion in Position or Rank
Any PNP personnel, civilian or uniformed who is
relieved and assigned to a position lower than that
established for his or her grade in the PNP staffing pattern
and who shall not be assigned to a position commensurate to
his or her grade within eighteen (18) months after such
demotion in position shall be retired or separated.
Attrition by Non-Promotion

39

Any PNP personnel who have not been promoted for a


continuous period of ten (10) years shall be retired or
separated.
Attrition by Other Means
A PNP member or officer with at least five (5) years of
accumulated active service shall be separated based on the
following conditions.
a)
inefficiency based on poor performance during the
last two (2) successive annual rating periods;
b)
inefficiency based on unsatisfactory performance
for three (3) cumulative periods;
c)
physical and/or mental
police functions and duties, and

incapacity

to

perform

d)
failure to pass the required entrance examinations
twice and/or finish the required career courses except for
justifiable reasons.
Rationalization of Promotion System
Within six (6) months after the effectivity of this
Act, the Commission shall establish a system of promotion
for uniformed and non-uniformed personnel of the PNP which
shall be based on merits and on the availability of vacant
positions in the PNP staffing pattern. Such system shall be
gender fair and shall ensure that women members of the PNP
shall enjoy equal opportunity for promotion as that of men.

Promotion by Virtue of Position


Any PNP personnel designated to any position whose rank
is lower than that which is required for such position
shall, after six (6) months of occupying the same, be
entitled to a rank adjustment corresponding to the position:
Provided, that the said personnel shall not be reassigned to

40

a position calling a higher rank until two (2) years from


the date of such rank adjustment. Provided, further, that
any personnel designated to the position who does not posses
the established minimum qualifications therefore shall
occupy the same temporarily for not more than six (6) months
without reappointment or extension.
Promotions of the PNP
a)
A uniformed member of the PNP shall not be
eligible for promotion to a higher position or rank unless
he or she has successfully passed the corresponding
promotional examinations given by the commission, or the
Bar, or the corresponding board examination for technical
services and other professions, has satisfactorily completed
the appropriate and accredited course in the PNPA or
equivalent training institutions, and has satisfactorily
passed the required psychiatric/psychological and drug test.
In addition, no uniformed member of the PNP shall be
eligible for promotion during the tendency of his or her
administrative and/or criminal case or unless he or she has
been cleared by the Peoples Law Enforcement Board (PLEB)
and the Office of the Ombudsman or any complaints proffered
against him or her, if any.
b)
Uniformed member of the PNP who has exhibited acts
of conspicuous courage and gallantry at the risk of his/her
life above and beyond the call of duty, shall be promoted to
the next higher rank.
Provided, that such acts shall be
validated by the Commission based on established criteria.
Retirement Benefits
Monthly retirement pay shall be fifty percent (50%) of
the base pay and longevity pay of the retired grade in case
of twenty (20) years of active service, increasing by two
and one-half percent (2.5%) for every year of active service
rendered beyond twenty (20) years to a maximum of ninety
percent (90%) for thirty six (36) years of active service
and over. Provided, that the uniformed personnel shall have
the option to receive in advance and in lump sum his
retirement pay for the first five (5) years. Provided
further, that payment of the retirement benefits in lump

41

shall be made within six (6) months from effectivity date of


retirement and/or the completion of service. Provided
finally, that the retirement pay of the officers/nonofficers of the PNP shall be subject to adjustments based on
the prevailing scale base pay of police personnel in the
active service.
Permanent Physical Disability
An officer or non-officer who is permanently and
totally disabled as a result of injuries and/or suffered
sickness contracted in the performance of his duty as duty
certified by the National Police Commission, upon finding
and certification by the appropriate medical officer, that
the extent of the disability or sickness renders such member
unfit or unable to further perform the duties of his
position, shall be entitled to one years salary and to
lifetime pension equivalent to eighty percent (80%) of his
last salary, in addition to other benefits as provided under
existing laws.
Should such member who has been retired under permanent
total disability under this section die within five (5)
years from his retirement, his surviving legal spouse or if
there be none, the surviving dependent legitimate children
shall be entitled to the pension for the remainder of the
five (5) years guaranteed period.
Status of Members of the Philippine National Police
The uniformed members of the PNP shall be considered
employees of the National Government and shall draw their
salaries there from. They shall have the same salary grade
level as that of the public school teachers. Provided, that
PNP members assigned in Metropolitan Manila, chartered
cities and first class municipalities may be paid financial
incentive by the local government unit concerned subject to
the availability of funds.
Early Retirement Program
Within three (3) years after the effectivity of this

42

Act, any PNP officer or non-commissioned officer may retire


and be paid separation benefits corresponding to a position
two (2) ranks higher than his or her present rank subject to
the following conditions.
a)
that at the time he or she applies for retirement,
he or she has already rendered at least ten (10) years of
continuous government service;
b)
the applicant is not scheduled for separation or
retirement from the service due to the attrition system or
separation cause;
c)
he or she
criminal case ; and

has

no

pending

administrative

or

d)
he or she have at least three (3) more years in
the service before reaching the compulsory retirement age
and at least a year before his or her maximum tenure in
position.
Rationalization of Retirement and Separation Benefits
The
Commission
shall
formulate
a
rationalized
retirement and separation benefits schedule and program
within one (1) year from the effectivity of this Act for
approval by Congress. Provided, that the approved schedule
and program shall have retroactive effect in favor of PNP
members and officers retired or separated from the time
specified in the law, unless the retirement or separation
is for cause and the decision denies the grant of benefits.

Creation, Powers and Functions of the IAS


An Internal Affairs Service (IAS) of the PNP is hereby
created which shall:
a)
pro-actively conduct inspections and audits on PNP
personnel units;

43

b)
investigate complaints
support of an open investigation;

and

gather

evidence

in

c)
conduct summary hearings on PNP members facing
administrative charges;
d)
submit a periodic report on the assessment,
analysis, and the evaluation of the character and behavior
of the PNP personnel and units to the Chief PNP and the
Commission;
e)
file appropriate criminal cases against PNP
members before the court as evidence warrants and assist in
the prosecution of the cases;
d)
provide assistance to the Office of the Ombudsman,
in cases involving the personnel of the PNP;
The IAS shall also conduct, motu
investigation of the following cases;
a)
firearm;

propio,

automatic

incidents where a police personnel discharges a

b)
incidents where death, serious physical injury, or
any violation of human rights occurred in the conduct of a
police operation;
c)
incidents where evidence was compromised, tampered
with, obliterated, or lost while in the custody of police
personnel;
d)
incidents where a suspect in the custody of the
police was seriously injured; and
e)
incidents
where
the
engagement have been violated.

established

rules

of

Finally,
the
IAS
shall
provide
documents
or
recommendations as regards to the promotion of the members
of the PNP or the assignment of PNP personnel to any key
position.
Organization of IAS

44

National, regional, and provincial offices of the


Internal Affairs Service shall be established. Internal
Affairs Service shall be headed by an Inspector General who
shall be assisted by a Deputy Inspector General. The area
offices shall be headed by a Director while the provincial
offices shall be headed by a Superintendent. Provided, that
the head of the Internal Affairs Service shall be a civilian
who shall meet the qualification requirements provided
herein.
Appointments in IAS
The Inspector General shall be appointed by the
President upon the recommendation of the Director General
and duly endorsed by the Commission. Appointments of
personnel who shall occupy various positions shall be made
by the Inspector General and shall be based on an
established career pattern and criteria to be promulgated by
the commission.
Entry Qualifications to IAS
Entry to the Internal Affairs Service shall be
voluntary and subject to rigid screening where only PNP
personnel who have at least five (5) years experience in law
enforcement and who have no derogatory service records shall
be considered for appointment. Provided, that members of the
Bar may enter service laterally.
Inclusion of Supervisors and Superiors in IAS Investigation
The immediate superior or supervisor of the personnel
or units being investigated under the preceding section
shall be automatically included in the investigation of the
IAS to exclusively determine lapses in administration or
supervision.
Disciplinary Recommendations of the IAS
a) Any uniformed PNP personnel found guilty of any

45

cases mentioned in Section 39 of this Act and any immediate


superior or supervisor found negligent under Section 48
shall be recommended automatically for dismissal or
demotion, as the case may be.
b)
Recommendations by the IAS for the imposition of
disciplinary measures against erring PNP personnel, once
final, cannot be revised, set aside, or unduly delayed by
any
disciplinary
authority
without
just
cause.
Any
disciplining authority who fails to act or who acts with
abuse of discretion on the recommendation of the IAS shall
be made liable for gross neglect of duty. The case of erring
disciplinary authority shall be submitted to the Director
General for proper disposition.
Appeals on the Decisions Made by IAS
Decisions rendered by the provincial inspectors shall
be forwarded to the area internal affairs for review within
ten (10) working days upon the receipt thereof. Decisions of
the area offices may be appealed to the national office
through the Office of Inspector General. Decisions rendered
by the Inspector General may be appealed at the National
Appellate Board or to the court as may be appropriate.
Provided, that the summary dismissal powers of the Director
General and Regional Directors as provided in Section 42 of
Republic Act No. 6975 shall remain valid: Provided, further
That the existing jurisdiction over offenses as provided
under Republic Act No. 6975 shall not be affected.
Complaints Against the IAS
A complaint against any personnel or office of IAS
shall be brought to the Inspector Generals Office or to the
Commission as may be appropriate.
Citizens Complaints
Any complaint by a natural or juridical person against
any member of the PNP shall be brought before the
following:
by

1) Chiefs of Police, where the offense is punishable


withholding of privileges, restriction to specified

46

limits,
suspension
or
forfeiture
of
salary
or
any
combination thereof, for a period not exceeding fifteen (15)
days;
2) Mayors of cities and municipalities, where the
offense is punishable by withholding of privileges,
restriction to specified limits, suspension or forfeiture of
salary, or any combination thereof, for a period of not less
than sixteen (16) days but not exceeding thirty (30) days;
3) Peoples Law Enforcement Board, as created under
Section 43 hereof, where the offense is punishable by
withholding of privileges, restriction to specified limits,
suspension or forfeiture of salary, or any combination
thereof, for a period exceeding thirty (30) days or by
dismissal;
The commission shall provide in its implementing rules
and regulations a scale of penalties to be imposed upon any
member of the PNP under this section.
Internal Discipline
On dealing with minor offenses involving internal
discipline found to have been committed by any regular
member of their respective commands, the duly designated
supervisors and equivalent officers of the PNP shall, after
due notice and summary hearing, exercise disciplinary powers
as follows:
1) Chief of Police or equivalent supervisors may
summarily impose the administrative punishment of admonition
or reprimand; restriction to specified limits, withholding
of privileges; forfeiture of salary or suspension; or any of
the combination of the foregoing. Provided, that, in all
cases, the total period shall not exceed fifteen (15) days;
2) Provincial directors or equivalent supervisors may
summarily impose administrative punishment of admonition or
reprimand; restriction to specified limits: withholding of
privileges, forfeiture of salary or suspension; or any of
the combination of the foregoing. Provided, that, in all
cases, the total period shall not exceed thirty (30) days;

47

3) Police
regional
directors
or
equivalent
supervisors shall have the power to impose upon any member
the disciplinary punishment of dismissal from the service.
He may also impose the administrative punishment of
admonition of reprimand; restrictive custody; withholding of
privileges; suspension or forfeiture of salary; demotion; or
any combination of the foregoing. Provided, that, in all
cases, the total period shall not exceed sixty (60) days;
4) The Chief of the PNP shall have the power to
impose upon any member the disciplinary punishment of
dismissal from the service; suspension or forfeiture of
salary; or any combination thereof for a period not
exceeding one hundred eighty (180) days. Provided, further,
that the chief of the PNP shall have the authority to place
police personnel under restrictive custody during the
pendency of a grave administrative case filed against him or
even after the filing of a criminal complaint, grave in
nature, against such police personnel.
Exclusive Jurisdiction
A complaint or a charge filed against a PNP member
shall be heard and decided exclusively by the disciplining
authority who has acquired original jurisdiction over the
case and notwithstanding the existence of concurrent
jurisdiction as regards the offense. Provided, that offenses
which carry higher penalties shall be referred to the
appropriate authority which has jurisdiction over the
offense.
For purpose of this Act, a minor offense shall refer
to any act or commission not involving moral turpitude, but
affecting the internal discipline of the PNP, and shall
include, but not limited to:
1)

Simple misconduct or negligence;

2)

Insubordination;

3)

Frequent absences and tardiness;

4)

Habitual drunkenness; and

48

5)

Gambling prohibited by law.

Forum shopping or multiple filing of complaints. When


an administrative complaint is filed with a police
disciplinary authority, such as the Peoples Law Enforcement
Board (PLEB), no other case involving the same cause of
action shall be filed with any other disciplinary authority.
Summary Dismissal Powers of the National Police Commission,
PNP Chief and PNP Regional Directors
The National Police Commission, the Chief of the PNP
and PNP regional directors, after due notice and summary
hearings, may immediately remove or dismiss any respondent
PNP member in any of the following cases:
a) When the charge is serious and the evidence of
guilt is strong;
b) When the respondent is a recidivist or has been
repeatedly charged and there are reasonable grounds to
believe that he is guilty of the charges; and
c) When the respondent is guilty of a serious offense
involving conduct unbecoming of a police officer.
Any member or official of the PNP who shall go on
absence without official leave (AWOL) for a continuous
period of thirty (30) days or more shall be dismissed
immediately from the service. His activities and whereabouts
during the period shall be investigated and if found to have
committed a crime, he shall be prosecuted accordingly.
Disciplinary Appellate Boards
The formal administrative disciplinary machinery of the
PNP shall be the National Appellate Board and the regional
appellate boards.
The National Appellate Board shall be composed of the
four (4) regular commissioners and shall be chaired by the
executive officer. The board shall consider appeals from

49

decisions of the Chief of the PNP.


The National Appellate Board may conduct its hearing
or sessions in Metropolitan Manila or any part of the
country as it may deem necessary.
There shall be at least one (1) regional appellate
board per administrative region in the country to be
composed of a senior officer of the regional Commission as
Chairman and one (1) representative each from the PNP, and
the regional peace and order council as members. It shall
consider appeals from decisions of the regional directors,
other officials, mayors, and the PLEBs. Provided, that the
Commission may create additional regional appellate boards
as the need arises.
Preventive Suspension Pending Criminal Case
Upon filing of a complaint or information sufficient in
form and substance against a member of the PNP for grave
felonies where the penalty imposed by law is six (6) years
and one (1) day or more, the court shall immediately suspend
the accused from office for a period not exceeding ninety
(90) days from arraignment. Provided, however, that if it
can be shown by evidence that the accused is harassing the
complainant and/or witnesses, the court may order the
preventive suspension of the accused PNP member even if the
charge is punishable by a penalty lower than six (6) years
and one (1) day. Provided, further, that such preventive
suspension shall not be more than ninety (90) days except if
the delay in the disposition of the case is due to the
fault, negligence or petitions of the respondent. Provided,
finally, that such preventive suspension may be sooner
lifted by the court in the exigency of the service upon
recommendation of the Chief, PNP. Such case shall be subject
to continuous trial and shall be terminated within ninety
(90) days from arraignment of the accused.
Creation and Functions of the Womens Desks
The PNP shall established womens desk in all police
stations throughout the country to administer and attend to
cases involving crimes against chastity, sexual harassment,

50

abuses committed against women and children and other


similar offenses. Provided, that the municipalities and
cities presently without policewomen will have two (2) years
upon the effectivity of this Act within which to comply with
the requirement of this provision.
Prioritization of Women for Recruitment
Within the next five (5) years, the PNP shall
prioritize the recruitment and training of women who shall
serve in the womens desk. Pursuant to this requirement, the
PNP shall reserve ten percent (10%) of its annual
recruitment, training, and education quota for women.
Non-Prohibition for Promotion
Notwithstanding in this title shall be construed as a
restriction on the assignment of the policewomen to other
positions in the PNP or shall any provisions of this title
be used for the non-promotion of a PNP female personnel to
higher position.
Operational Supervision and Control
The term operational supervision and control shall
mean the power to direct, superintend, and oversee the dayto-day functions of police investigation of crime, crime
prevention activities, and traffic control in accordance
with
the
rules
and
regulations
promulgated
by
the
Commission.
It shall also include the power to direct the
employment and deployment of units or elements of the PNP,
through the station commander, to ensure public safety and
effective maintenance of peace and order, prevention of
crimes, arrest of criminal offenders and bringing the
offenders
to
justice,
and
ensuring
public
safety,
particularly in the suppression of disorders, riots,
lawlessness, violence, rebellious and seditious conspiracy,
insurgency, subversion or other related activities.
Employment

refer

to

the

utilization

of

units

or

51

elements of the PNP for purposes of protection of lives and


properties, enforcement of laws, maintenance of peace and
order and prevention of crime, arrest of criminal offenders
and bringing the offenders to justice, and ensuring public
safety, particularly in the suppression of disorders, riots,
lawlessness, violence, rebellious and seditious conspiracy,
insurgency, subversion, or related activities.
On the other hand deployment shall mean the orderly
and organized physical movement of elements or units of the
PNP within the province, city or municipality for purposes
of employment as herein defined.
Other Powers of the Municipal and City Mayor
In addition to the aforementioned power, city and
municipal mayors shall have the following authority over the
PNP units in their respective jurisdictions:
i)
Authority to choose the chief of police from a
list of five (5) eligibles recommended by the provincial
police director, preferably from the same province, city or
municipality. Provided, however, that in no case shall an
officer in-charge be designated for more than thirty (30)
days. Provided, further, that the local peace and order
council may, through the city or municipal mayor, recommend
the recall or reassignment of the chief of police when, in
its perception, the latter has been ineffective in combating
crime or maintaining peace and order in the city or
municipality. Provided, finally, that such relief shall be
based on guidelines established by the NAPOLCOM.
ii) Authority to recommend to the provincial director
the transfer, reassignment or detail of PNP members outside
of their respective city or town residences, and
iii)Authority to recommend from a list of eligibles
previously screened by the peace and order council the
appointment of new members of the PNP to be assigned to
their respective cities or municipalities without which no
such appointments shall be attested. Provided, that whenever
practical and consistent with the requirements of the
service, PNP members shall be assigned to the city or
municipality of their residence.

52

The control and supervision of anti-gambling operations


shall be within the jurisdiction of local government
executives.
Local Government Executives as Commissions Representatives
Governors and mayors, upon having been elected and
having qualified as such, are automatically deputized as
representatives of the National Police Commission in their
respective jurisdiction. As deputized agents of the
Commission, local government executives can inspect police
forces and units, conduct audit, and exercise other
functions as may be duly authorized by the Commission.
Suspension or Withdrawal of Deputation
Unless reversed by the President, the Commission may,
after consultation with the provincial governor and
congressman concerned, suspend or withdraw the deputation of
any local executive for any of the following grounds:
a)

Frequent unauthorized absences;

b)

Abuse of authority;

c)

Providing material support to criminal elements;

d) Engaging in acts inimical to national security or


which negate the effectiveness of the peace and order
campaign.
Upon good cause shown, the President may directly or
through the Commission, motu propio restore such deputation
withdrawn from any local executive.
The Peoples Law Enforcement Board (PLEB)
Creation
and
Functions.
The
sangguniang
panlungsod/bayan in every city and municipality shall create
such number of Peoples Law Enforcement Boards (PLEBs) as
may be necessary. Provided, that there shall be at least one

53

(1) PLEB for every five hundred (500) city or municipal


police personnel and for each of the legislative districts
in a city.
The PLEB shall be the central receiving entity for any
citizens complaint against the officers and members of the
PNP. Subject to the provisions of Section 41 of Republic Act
No. 6975, the PLEB shall take cognizance of or refer the
complaint to the proper disciplinary or adjudicatory
authority within three (3) days upon the filing of the
complaint.
3) Three (3) other members who are removable only for
cause to be chosen by the local peace and order council from
among the respected members of the community known for their
probity and integrity, one (1) of whom must be a woman and
another a member of the Bar, or, in the absence thereof, a
college graduate, or the principal of the central elementary
school in the locality.
The Chairman of the PLEB shall be elected from among
its members. The term of office of the members of the PLEB
shall be for a period of three (3) years from assumption of
office. Such member shall hold office until his predecessor
shall have been chosen and qualified.

Request for Preventive Suspension


The PLEB may ask any authorized superior to impose
preventive suspension against a subordinate police officer
who is the subject of a complaint lasting up to a period as
may be allowed under the law. A request for preventive
suspension shall not be denied by the superior officer in
the following cases:
a)
when the respondent refuses to heed the PLEBs
summons or subpoena;
b)
when the PNP personnel has been charged with the
offenses involving bodily harm or grave threats;

54

c)
when the respondent is in a position to tamper the
evidence.
d)
when the respondents is in a position to unduly
influence the witnesses.
Any superior who fails to act on any request for
suspension without valid grounds shall be held liable for
serious neglect of duty.

55

REVIEW QUESTIONS
POLICE ORGANIZATION & ADMINISTRATION
==================================================================
INSTRUCTIONS: Select the correct answer for each of the following
questions
1.
It is known as the Philippine National Police Reform and
Reorganization Act of 1988.
A.
C.

RA 8515
RA 8155

B
D.

RA 8551
RA 8115

2.
One of the roles of PNP shall through __________ and
performance of its ordinary functions support the AFP on matters
involving suppression of insurgency.
A.
C.

information gathering B.
internal security
D.

intelligence gathering
counter-insurgency

3.
The NAPOLCOM is composed of a Chairperson, four (4) regular
Commissioners, and the Chief, PNP is __________.
A.

Executive Officer
B.
C.
Regular Commissioner

4.
The NAPOLCOM shall
__________ over the PNP.
A.
C.

exercise

operational control
employ and deploy

B.
D.

Ex-Officio
Chairperson
D.
Ex-Officio Member
administrative

control

and

administrative supervision
operational supervision

5.
No person shall be appointed regular Commissioners of the
NAPOLCOM, EXCEPT.
A.
C.

citizens of the Phil. B.


member of the Press
D.

member of the Phil. Bar


member of the NGO

6.
The term of office of the four (4) regular Commissioners
upon appointment by the President is for a term of __________
years without reappointment or extension.
A.
C.

two (2) years


six (6) years

B.
D.

four (4) years


three (3) years

56

7.
In case of absence due to temporary incapacity of
Chairperson, NAPOLCOM, who will serve as the Chairperson?
A.
C.

DILG Secretary
Regular Commissioner

B.
D.

the

Executive Officer
Ex-Officio Member

8.
Any superior officer who fails to act on the request made by
the PLEB for the suspension of subordinate police personnel can
be held liable for what particular administrative cases.
A.
C.
9.

neglect of duty
in-action

B.
D.

conduct unbecoming
serious neglect of duty

RA 8551 was approved by former Pres. Ramos on what date.


A.
C.

February 15, 1998


February 5, 1998

B.
D.

February 25, 1998


February 25, 1989

10. The three (3) other members of the PLEB shall be chosen by
the local __________ from among the respected members of the
community known for their probity and integrity.
A.
C.

Sanguniang Panglunsod B.
Peace & Order Council D.

Sanguniang Pambayan
Local Executives

11. The preference in choosing the members of the PLEB shall be


as follows, member of the Bar, college graduate or the principal
of the central elementary school, and one must be __________.
A.
C.

ABC Captain
man

B.
D.

Councilor
woman

12. The term of office of the PLEB shall be for a period of how
many years.
A.
C.

two (2) years


four (4) years

B.
D.

three (3) years


five (5) years

13. Is the central receiving entity for any citizens complaint


against any officers and members of the PNP.
A.
C.

Chief of Police
IAS

B.
D.

Provincial Director
PLEB

14. It is the orderly and organized physical movement


elements or units of the PNP through the Chief of Police.
A.
C.

employment
employ

B.
D.

deploy
deployment

of

57

15. It shall mean the power to direct, superintend and oversee


the day-to-day functions of police investigation of crime, crime
prevention, and traffic control.
A.
C.

operational control
all of the above

b.
d.

operational supervision
non of the above

16. It shall be established by the PNP in all police stations


throughout the country to administer and attend cases involving
women and children.
A.
C.

Womens Desk
Complain Desk

B.
D.

Childrens Desk
Desk Officer

17. In the prioritization of women for recruitment, the PNP


shall reserve how many percent to its annual quota for
recruitment and education.
A.
C.

15%
10%

B.
D.

20%
5%

18. Upon filing of the complaint or information the court can


immediately suspend the respondent PNP members after arraignment
for a period of __________ days, if the impossible penalty is six
(6) years and one (1) day or more.
A.
C.

30 days
90 days

B.
D.

60 days
120 days

19. It shall consider appeals from the decisions made by the


Chief, PNP.
A.
C.

NAB
NAPOLCOM

B.
D.

RAB
DILG

20. It shall consider appeal from the decisions made by police


authorities other than the Chief, PNP, Mayors and the PLEB.
A.
C.
21.

NAB
NAPOLCOM

B.
D.

RAB
DILG

The members of the RAB shall be as follows, EXCEPT.


A.
C.

member of the RPOC


politicians

B.
D.

member of the commission


representative from PNP

58

22. For how many days can a member of the PNP who will undergo
on absence without official leave be dismissed immediately in the
police service.
A.
C.

15 days
30 days or more

B.
D.

30 days
16 days of more

23. Summary dismissal powers are provided to the following


authorities over officers and members of the PNP, EXCEPT.
A.
C.

NAPOLCOM
PLEB

B.
D.

Chief, PNP
Regional Director

24. It shall refer to any act or omission, but not involving


moral turpitude but affecting the internal discipline of the PNP.
A.
C.

major offenses
neglect of duty

B.
D.

minor offenses
serious offenses

25. It is any complaint filed by natural or juridical persons


against any officers of members of the PNP.
A.
C.

complaint
citizens complaint

B.
D.

information
minor offenses

26. The complaint against any members of the IAS can be brought
to the NAPOLCOM and to the __________.
A.
C.

Inspector General
Ombudsman

B.
D.

Chief, PNP
Sandiganbayan

27. How many days can a decisions rendered by the Provincial IAS
be forwarded to the Regional IAS for review.
A.
C.

10 days
15 days

28. Decisions rendered by the


through what particular office.
A.
B.

Inspector General
NAPOLCOM

B.
D.

20 days
30 days

Regional
B.
D.

IAS

can

be

appealed

Chief, PNP
Internal Affairs Office

29. The Inspector General shall be appointed by the __________


upon recommendation of the Chief, PNP and duly endorsed by the
NAPOLCOM.
A.
C.

President
B.
Chairperson, NAPOLCOM D.

Secretary, SILG
Commission on Appointment

59

30. Entry to the IAS shall be voluntary and subject to rigid


screening where only PNP personnel who have at least __________
experience shall be considered for appointments.
A.
C.

10 years
15 years

B.
D.

5 years
20 years

31. No person shall be appointed PNP Provincial Director unless


he
has
satisfactorily
met
the
following
conditions
and
qualifications, EXCEPT.
A.
C.

recommended by RD
graduate of law

B.
D.

masters degree
political interference

32. No person shall be appointed Chief of Police of city police


stations, unless he has the following qualifications, EXCEPT.
A.
C.

graduate of law
recommended by PD

B.
D.

masters degree
political interference

33. No person shall be appointed Chief of Police of municipal


police stations, unless he has the following qualifications,
EXCEPT.
A.
B.

2nd year LLB


12 masters units

C.
D.

recommended by PD
political interference

34. The following can also be designated Chief of Police of city


or municipal police stations, provided they posses the initial
qualifications for appointment in the PNP, EXCEPT.
A.
C.

member of the Bar


Graduate of the PNPA

B.
D.

Licensed Criminologists
lateral entrants

35. Any PNP uniformed personnel who has been relieved for just
cause and has not been given assignment within two (2) years
after such relief shall be retired or separated, and that is.
A.
C.

attrition by relief
B.
attrition by demotion D.

attrition by other means


attrition by non-promotion

36. Any PNP personnel with at least five (5) years of active
service shall be separated based on inefficiency, incapacity or
failure to pass the required entrance examination, and that is.
A.
C.

attrition by relief
B.
attrition by demotion D.

attrition by other means


attrition by non-promotion

60

37. Any PNP personnel who has not been promoted for a continuous
period of ten (10) years shall be retired or separated in the
police service, and that is.
A.
C.

attrition by relief
B.
attrition by demotion D.

attrition by other means


attrition by non-promotion

38. Any PNP personnel who is relieved and assigned to a position


lower than what established for their rank in the staffing
pattern, and who has not assign to the position commensurate to
the rank is considered retired or separated, and that is.
A.
C.

attrition by relief
B.
attrition by demotion D.

attrition by other means


attrition by non-promotion

39. The NAPOLCOM shall be the one to administer what kind of


examinations to the officers and members of PNP.
A.
C.

entrance
all of the above

B.
D.

promotional
non of the above

40. The maximum tenure of officer of the Regional Director, PROs


is how many years.
A.
C.

nine (9) years


four (4) years

B.
D.

six (6) years


non of the above

41. The maximum tenure of officer of the Provincial Director,


PPOs is how many years.
A.
C.

nine (9) years


four (4) years

B.
D.

six (6) years


non of the above

42. The maximum tenure of officer of the Chief, PNP, DCA, DCO,
CDS and Directorial Staffs is how many years.
A.
C.

nine (9) years


four (4) years

B.
D.

six (6) years


non of the above

43. Other positions higher than the Provincial Director, PPOs


shall have the maximum tenure of officer of how many years.
A.
C.

44.

nine (9) years


four (4) years

B.
D.

six (6) years


non of the above

Any personnel of the PNP who is permanently and totally

61

disable as a result in the performance of duty shall be entitled


to one years salary and to lifetime pension equivalent of how
many percent of their salary.
A.
C.

50%
75%

B.
D.

80%
90%

45. The monthly retirement pay shall be equivalent to how many


percent of the base pay and longevity pay of the retired grade in
case of twenty (20) years of active service.
A.
C.

50%
75%

B.
D.

80%
90%

46. PNP personnel are entitled for ______ to any position whose
rank is lower that which is required for such position, after six
(6) months of occupying such position.
A.
C.

rank adjustment
promotion

B.
D.

rank re-classification
demotion

47. Uniformed members of the PNP who has exhibited __________


and gallantry at the risk of life beyond the call of duty shall
be promoted to the next higher rank.
A.
C.

conspicuous courage
bravery

48. The following


promotion, EXCEPT.
A.
C.

are

the

promotional exam.
pending cases

B.
D.

heroism
commendable deeds

qualifications
B.
D.

for

the

regular

career schooling
time-in-grade

49. Personnel of the IAS, in addition to other allowances


authorized under existing law be granted occupational specialty
pay of how many percent in their base pay.
A.
C.

50%
75%

B
D.

25%
100%

50. The members of the PNP is considered as employees of the


__________ and shall draw their salaries there from, and they
shall have the same salary grade level as that of public school
teachers.

51.

A.
local government
B.
provincial government
C.
municipal government D.
national government
It is defines as the process of directing and controlling

62

people and things


accomplished.
A.
C.

so

that

organizational

police management
management function

B.
D.

objective

can

be

police supervision
police leadership

52. It is refers to the act of overseeing subordinates and line


officers.
A.
C.

police management
management function

B.
D.

police supervision
police leadership

53. This is working in broad outline the things that need to


accomplish the purpose set for the enterprise.
A.
C.

directing
organizing

B.
D.

staffing
planning

54. This is the establishment of the formal structure of


authority through which work sub-divisions are arranged, defined,
and coordinated for the defined objectives.
A.
C.

directing
organizing

B.
D.

staffing
planning

55. This is the whole personnel functions of bringing in and


training the staff, and maintaining favorable conditions of work.
A.
C.

directing
organizing

B.
D.

staffing
planning

56. This is the continuous task of making decisions, embodying


them in specific general orders and instructions, and serving as
the leader of the enterprise.
A.
C.

directing
organizing

B.
D.

staffing
planning

57. This is the important duty of inter-relating the various


parts of the work.

58.

A.
C.

reporting
coordinating

That

is

keeping

B.
D.

those

to

budgeting
management function

whom

the

police

executive

is

63

responsibly informed as what is going on which thus included


keeping himself and his subordinates informed through records and
inspection.
A.
C.

reporting
coordinating

B.
D.

budgeting
management function

59. This is the accounting and control of funds and resources in


the form of fiscal and budget plans.
A.
C.

reporting
coordinating

B.
D.

budgeting
management function

60. It is a mechanical means depicting by arrangement of symbols


the relationship which exists between individuals, groups and
functions.
A.
C.

organization
structure

B.
D.

organizational structure
staffing pattern

61. It is often called as the individual, military or


departmental type of organization, and it is the simplest, and
perhaps the oldest type of organizational structure.
A.
C.

line and staff type


line type

B.
D.

functional type
staffing pattern

62. It is rarely found in present day organization except at or


near the top of a very largest establishment.
A.
C.

line and staff type


line type

B.
D.

functional type
staffing pattern

63. It is a combination of the line and functional type, and it


is found in almost all but the very smallest police organization.
A.
C.

line and staff type


line type

B.
D.

functional type
staffing pattern

64. Organizational structure is established to designate how


work is to be divided among the various components of the
establishment.
A.
C.

65.

delegation of work
unity of command

B.
D.

span of control
division of work

In addition of providing a logical arrangement of work,

64

organizational
authority.
A.
C.

structure

should

delegation of work
unity of command

provide
B.
D.

clear-cut

channels

of

span of control
division of work

66. It is initially adopted from psychologists, which refers to


the number of person an individual can supervise effectively.
A.
C.

delegation of work
unity of command

B.
D.

span of control
division of work

67. It is refers to the process of committing an activity to


anothers care.
A.
C.

delegation of work
unity of command

B
D.

span of control
division of work

68. This
principle
involves
the
practice
of
delegation
contribute to the development of subordinates to perform the
supervisors job in the boss absence or when the boss is unable
to act.
A
C.

completed staff work B.


personnel development D.

exception principle
leadership ability

69. This principle involves the training of subordinates to take


over in the boss absence.
A.
C.

completed staff work B.


personnel development D.

exception principle
leadership ability

70. This principle requires that the person to whom work has
been assigned through the delegation process is to complete it.
A.
C.

completed staff work B.


personnel development D.

exception principle
leadership ability

71. It is the art of influencing, directing, guiding and


controlling others in such a way as to obtain their cooperation
in the accomplishment of an objective.
A.
C.

72.

management
supervision

B.
D.

leadership
control & direction

To some denotes a military bearing, to other it means a

65

distinctive type of appearance and conduct.


A.
C.

command presence
management

B.
D.

leadership
supervision

73. This is an act establishing the PNP under the reorganized


DILG and for other purposes.
A.
C.

RA 6975
RA 6957

B.
D.

RA 9675
RA 9675

74. This is the particular section of the Constitution that


mandated the establishment of PNP.
A.
C.

Sec. 6, Art. XVI


Sec. 9, Art, VI

B.
D.

Sec. 16, Art. VI


Sec. 61, Art. XVI

75. As provided by the Constitution, this expressly provide the


establishment of a national police which shall be national in
scope and __________.
A.
C.

civilian in character B.
govern by the mayor
D.

administered by NAPOLCOM
decentralized policing

76. The regional offices of the DILG shall be headed by Regional


Director, and shall be assisted by two (2) Assistant Regional
Directors, one for jail management and penology and one for
__________.
A.
C.

local government
public safety

B.
D.

fire protection
peace and order

77. The PNP shall be headed by a Chief, and who shall be


assisted by two Deputy Chiefs, from among the two deputies who is
the second in command.
A.
C.

Dep. for Admin.


Dep. for Intel.

B.
D

Dep. for Opns.


Dep. for Pers.

78. The ideal manning levels of the PNP shall be approximately


in accordance with the __________ police-to-population ratio.
A.
C.

79.

1:1,000
1:2,000

B.
D.

1:500
1:1,500

These are vested in the Chief, PNP who shall have the power

66

to direct and control tactical as well as strategic movements,


deployment, placement, utilization of the PNP units.
A.
C.

command & direction


mgmnt. & supervision

B.
D.

leadership & authority


employment & deployment

80. The city and municipal mayors has the power to choose from a
list of how many eligibles recommended by the provincial
director, prior designation as chief of police.
A.
C.
81.

5
4

B.
D.

3
6

The third in command in the PNP is the __________.


A.
C.

Dep. for Opns.


Dep. for Intel.

B.
D.

Dep. for Admin.


Dep. for Pers.

82. The head of the PNP shall have the position title of the
Chief, PNP, and who shall have the rank of _________.
A.
C.

Chief Superintendent B.
Dep. Director General D.

Director
Director General

83. The head of the provincial offices shall be known as the


__________.
A.
C.

Provincial Director
Provincial Head

B.
D.

Provincial Superintendent
Provincial Chief of Police

84. The head of the regional offices shall be known as the


__________.
A.
C.

Regional Director
Regional Head

B.
D.

Regional Superintendent
Regional Chief of Police

85. The head of the city or municipal police stations shall be


known as the __________.
a.
c.

Station Commander
Police Supervisor

b.
d.

Chief of Police
Municipal Police Head

86. PO1 to SPO4 are being appointed by the __________, confirmed


by the NAPOLCOM, except to those assigned at the NHQ.
A.
C.
87.

President
Regional Director

Police

Inspector

to

B.
D.
Police

Chief, PNP
DILG
Superintendent

are

being

67

appointed by the __________, and attested by the NAPOLCOM.


A.
B.

President
Regional Director

B.
D.

Chief, PNP
DILG

88. The appointment of Doctors of Medicine, members of the Bar,


and Chaplains shall commence with the rank of _________.
A.
C.

Inspector
Senior Inspector

B.
D.

Chief Inspector
Senior Police Officer IV

89. Police Senior Superintendent to Deputy Director General are


being appointed by the __________, upon recommendation made by
the NAPOLCOM, endorsed by the CSC and confirmed by the CA.
A.
C.

President
Regional Director

B.
D.

Chief, PNP
DILG

90. Police Director General are being appointed by the President


from among the senior officer down to the rank of __________.
A.
C.

Police Director
B.
Police Superintendent D.

Police Chief Superintendent


Deputy Director General

91. The compulsory retirement age for the officers and members of
the PNP shall be upon the attainment of what age.
A.
C.

50 years
65 years

B.
D.

46 years
56 years

92. The optional retirement for the officers and members of the
PNP is upon accumulation of how many years of satisfactory
service.
A.
C.

30 years
15 years

B.
D.

10 years
20 years

93. The city/municipal mayors were given disciplinary power to


impose suspension, restriction, or forfeiture of salary for how
many days.
A.
C.

16 - 30 days
31 60 days

B.
D.

1- 15 days
61 180 days

94. The provincial directors were given disciplinary power to


impose suspension, restriction, or forfeiture of salary for how

68

many days.
A.
C.

16 - 30 days
31 60 days

B.
D.

1- 15 days
61 180 days

95. The regional directors were given disciplinary power to impose


suspension, restriction, or forfeiture of salary for how many
days.
A.
C.

16 - 30 days
31 60 days

B.
D.

1- 15 days
61 180 days

96. The chiefs of police were given disciplinary power to impose


suspension, restriction, or forfeiture of salary for how many
days.
A.
C.

16 - 30 days
31 60 days

B.
D.

1- 15 days
61 180 days

97. The city/municipal mayor has the power to choose from a list
of how many eligibles recommended by the provincial director prior
designation as provincial director.
A.
C.

5
4

B.
D.

3
6

98. The Chief, PNP was given disciplinary power to impose


suspension, restriction, or forfeiture of salary for how many
days.
A.
C.

16 - 30 days
31 60 days

B
D.

1 - 15 days
61 180 days

99. The PLEB was given disciplinary power to impose the following
administrative penalties, EXECPT.
A.
C.

dismissal
demotion

B.
D.

suspension
restriction

100. The provincial governor has the power to choose from a list
of how many eligibles recommended by the regional director, prior
designation as provincial director.
A.
C.

5
4

B.
D.

3
6

69

P A R T II
POLICE INTELLIGENCE & SECRET SERVICE

70

CHAPTER
5
HISTORY OF INTELLIGENCE
===========================================================
Introduction
The history of the military and police intelligence
provides some interesting insights, for it appears that only
rarely does an untried intelligence concept come. The artful
employers of intelligence agents have been a legion. We
could never possibly count them all, and probably, the
greatest of them are unknown to history. Historians, in
their greatman treatment of history have somewhat
neglected the commanders of the secret, invisible army of
intelligence agents which have had a profound effect on the
course of events.
Early Intelligence Personalities
The following are some of the early personalities, who
immensely contributed in the field of police operational
intelligence.
1.

Moses

One of the first recorded formalized intelligence


efforts with format can be found in the Holy Bible (Numbers
13:17):
The scriptures named the twelve intelligence agents
whom the Lord directed Moses to send into the land of Canaan
(Numbers 13:3-15) and records that all those men were heads
of the Children of Israel. When Moses sent them North to
spy out the land, he did not propose a mere topographical
expedition or cursory exploration.

71

Had Moses distributed his twelve intelligence agents as


cross-country chain, with each other dependent upon the
cooperation of his eleven associates, we would be able to
trace the origin of organized and systematic intelligence
from its earliest environment. The biblical record, however,
is clear; the instructions to the intelligence agents of
Israel show that they formed an espionage duplicated a dozen
times to allow for the probabilities of discovery and death.
2.

Alexander the Great

The necessities of compression and the complexities of


more modern intelligence services draw us rapidly down the
earlier centuries. When Alexander the Great was marching
into Asia, it is recorded there came to his hints, and
rumors of disaffection growing among his allies and
mercenaries.
The young conqueror thereupon sought the truth and got
it by the simplest expedient. He announced that he was
writing home and recommended to his officers that they do
likewise. Then, when the couriers were ladened and had set
out for Greece, he ordered them quietly recalled and
proceeded to investigate all the letters that they carried.
Malcontents were detected, legitimate causes of grievances
exposed.
3.

Akbar

By
means
of
remarkably
devised
operations
of
intelligence, the Mongul emperor of India regulated a vast
and populous realm having the utmost social and religious
complexity. Akbar as the Great Mongul, with no pressing
anxiety about his neighbors or interest in espionage beyond
his own frontiers. This sagacious master of Hindustan
employed more than four thousands agents for the sole
purpose of bringing him the truth that his throne might rest
upon it.
4.

Genghis Khan

The Golden Emperor of Cathay unwisely asked Genghis


Khan of Mongol aid in his continual war upon the ancient
house of Sung in South China. Chepe Noyon, . . . with his

72

weakness for wearing sable boots was sent a force of


cavalry to fight beside the Cathayans while closely
observing the riches of their land.
Soon after the return of this intelligence expedition
Genghis Khan began preparing to invade Cathay. This was his
first attempt upon a civilized power of superior defensive
strength, and even now he launched his campaign by
dispatching beyond the great wall of contingent of spies and
scouts, who were to capture and bring back informers.
Espionage and artifice had a vital part in the Mongol
conquest of China.
5.

Frederick the Great

Frederick the Great, father of organized military


espionage, has been quoted as saying that he had, when in
the field, one cook and hundred agents. It was his habit to
divide his agents into four classes. The energetic Prussian
did more than classify, he established rules for obtaining
and using every grade of spy of intelligence agent.
1)

Common Spies

Recruited among poor folk, glad to earn small sum


or to accommodate a military officer.
2)

Double Spies

The low informers and unreliable renegades of


value chiefly in spreading false information to the
enemy.
3)

Spies of Consequences

Courtiers and noblemen, staff officers and kindred


conspirators, invariably requiring a substantial bribe
or bait.
4)

Intimidated Spies

Persons who are


against their will.

forced

to

undertake

espionage

73

6.

Many Others

World War I and the related period contributed many


names of the roll call of intelligence agents. Those who
made major contributions are only few in number compared to
those who were caught and executed or imprisoned. However,
whether they died or not, a certain few had a considerable
impact on the history of their countries and some cases,
upon the future of mankind. Wassmuss of Persia, Captain Von
Rintelen, Mata Hari, Edith Canell, Alice Dubois, Captain M.
Cumming, Colonel Lawrence, and Elizabeth Schragmiller, were
by no means the only great agents. Space does not permit
recapitulation of their exploits, but one fact emerges, the
military leaders of the various nations were beginning to
formalize the intelligence activity and give it a much more
important role in the military and police affairs.
Intelligence in the Local Setting
During the Spanish era, the Cabeza de Barangay was
the head and leader of a group of settlers. The discipline
and punishment, as well as the conduct of government are
made by the barangay head. As the group increased in number,
the cabeza had to appoint certain trustworthy people to
keep watch. These eyes and ears made reports to the head,
not only for his protection but for suspicious outsiders
infiltrating within the settlement.
For money, favors, positions, or other motivations,
many did work for the Spaniards as agents, informants, or
undercover. The clergy had been mentioned by Rizals works
as part of the intelligence network. The discovery of the
secret of Katipunan was through some Filipino informers of
the Filipino armed movements that had spies in each others
camps.
When the Philippines was granted its Commonwealth
government by the U.S. in November 15, 1935, the first act
of the legislative body was the National Defense Act. This
act among other provisions, organized the citizens army
whereby with a small professional core, twenty-year old male
citizens would undergo compulsory military training, under
the Staff of the Army Headquarters, which was then the G-2,
or the Staff Officer for Intelligence.

74

Again, intelligence as a part of the military


establishment has staff units in all the major services, as
well as in the Headquarters. Known as the twos, each
service has its staff and field components involved in
military
intelligence.
Worthy
of
mentioning
is
the
Intelligence Service at Headquarters level, and the
intelligence unit in the major services, the task forces,
independent military groups, and the area commands.
Police Intelligence in the Present Era
By virtue of R.A. 6975, the Philippine National Police
(PNP) which is civilian in character and national in scope
was established under the reorganized Department of the
Interior
and
Local
Government
(DILG).
One
of
the
directorates among others in the organizational structure of
the
PNP
is
the
Directorate
for
Intelligence.
This
directorate is composed of four divisions, as follows:
Intelligence Operations Division; Counter-Intelligence &
Security
Division;
Foreign
Liaison
Division;
and
Intelligence Research Division.
The mission of the Directorate for Intelligence is to
assist the Chief, PNP in attaining intelligence objectives
through staff direction, planning, coordination, control and
supervision of all intelligence and counter-intelligence
activities of the PNP. In addition, the Police Intelligence
Group (PIG) was also activated as one of the operational
support units of the PNP. The PIG is under the auspices of
the Directorate for Intelligence. Its function is to serve
as the intelligence and counter-intelligence operating unit
of the PNP.

75

CHAPTER
6
INTRODUCTION TO POLICE INTELLIGENCE
===========================================================
Definition of Police Intelligence
It is the product resulting from the collection,
evaluation, analysis, integration, and interpretation of all
available information which concerns on or more aspects of
criminal activity, and which is immediately and potentially
significant to police planning.
Definition of Information
It is an evaluated material of every description
including those derived from observation, reports, rumors,
imagery, and other sources from which intelligence is
derived.
Major Categories of Intelligence
1.

Strategic Intelligence

All intelligence data that are not of an immediate


value. The bulk of strategic intelligence is usually
descriptive in nature. The accumulation of physical
descriptions of personalities, their telephone numbers, and
known associates are virtually classic examples of strategic
intelligence.
2.

Counter-Intelligence

Intelligence activity which is concerned principally


with the defending of the police organization against
penetration by individual and various groups who are

76

inimical to the best interest and general harmony. It is


concerned principally with the neutralizing and destroying
attempts of individuals or groups that seek to discredit law
enforcement.
3.

Line Intelligence

It involves both a process and an immediate product. It


can be said that line intelligence is the end product of
gathering and processing of information. That part of the
product which is of an immediate nature, and essential to
more effective police planning and operations.
Purpose of Intelligence Activity
Too often, police executives are required to make major
decisions based upon inadequate information. Intelligence
must fill the void often existing in police decision making.
Fundamentally stated, the purpose of the intelligence unit
is to increase the probability of accuracy, and reduced the
probability of error in operational staff decisions by
gathering the appropriate information. In other words, it
can be said that intelligence is the investigative arm of
the police planners.
Definition of Intelligence Cycle
It is a repetitive process used to produce intelligence
from information.
Phases of Intelligence Cycle
1.

Collection of Intelligence Information

It is the systematic exploitation of sources


information by collection agencies, and the delivery
information obtained to the proper intelligence agency.
The collection phase is
times its rewards or fruits
long range. The great bulk
cases will fall within the

of
of

costly, time-consuming and many


will be strategic in naturethe
of the data collected in most
long range category, and will

77

thus create an unconcerned attitude on the part of some


individuals. This is one of the dangers to the intelligence
for it is the beginning of its direction.
It must not be forgotten that information is like any
other commodity in the world. It has a value sometimes more
important than gold itself. In the collection effort, a
general axiom that will develop is, there is a direct
relationship between the quality of information and cost of
obtaining it. On the occasion, this will not hold true,
however, its generic application is fundamental.
The collection effort must include the development of
sources of information in all levels of society within the
community of police jurisdiction. It is imperative that the
collection effort incorporate sources within area of all
organized crimes and subversive activities.
The collection of information also carries with it
responsibility for its evaluation concerning reliability of
the source and credibility of information, though usually
considered in conjunction with sources, parallel information
that is already known.
It might be well to state a highly reliable source on
some occasions will provide information that is not totally
true. Intelligence agencies require an evaluation of the
source of information to be contained within each agent
report. Below is a typical evaluation using letters and
numbers.
Information Evaluation Rating
Reliability of Source
A
Highly Reliable
B
Usually Reliable
C
Fairly Reliable
D
Unreliable
E
Cannot Be Judge

Accuracy of Information
1
Confirmed Information
2
Probably True
3
Possibly True
4
Doubtfully True
5
Cannot Be Judge

Within the collection phase of intelligence activity,


there arises that vital item, the pertinence factor.
Police intelligence collection effort must contain a
pertinence consideration. In other words, there must be some

78

method to keep intelligence personnel from dashing into


remote tangent areas which paralyze their total productivity
with respect to overall existing police problems. In another
sense of the words, the pertinence rating is determined by
the existing problems at hand.
The
examination
of
information
for
pertinence,
specifically determine whether or not the information is:
pertinent with regard to the criminals and subversives or
the characteristics of the area of operation; needed
immediately; and of possible present or future value, and if
so, to whom.
Sources of Information
Are persons, things, or actions from which
information about criminals and/or subversives, weather, and
terrain is derived. Examples: maps, air photos, enemy
documents, enemy materials, prisoners of war, and weather
forecast.
Sources of Information
Letters
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z

Meaning
Direct Observation by the Police Executive
Penetration and/or Resident Agent
AFP Troops and PNP Personnel
Tactical Interrogation of Captured Enemy
Government Civilian Employee
Members of the Populace
Documentary Analysis

Most valuable information comes from overt sources.


Open sources probably contribute more than 80 percent of the
input to most police intelligence systems. Foreign and mass
media, including press, radio and television are a standard
source, and they require a massive effort in recording,
translating, and storing information.
Covert sources of intelligence are dramatic, falling
into the three major classifications as follows: aerial and
space reconnaissance, electronic eavesdropping and code

79

breaking, and intelligence operatives working at the classic


spy trade. Broadly speaking, the value of each as a source
of crucial information is probably in descending order as
listed. This is because a photograph constitutes hard, i.e.,
reliable intelligence, whereas the report of an intelligence
operatives may be speculative and difficult to prove, and
therefore soft.
Definition of Collection Agency
Is any person, unit, or activity that collects
and/or processed information by research, surveillance, or
the exploitation of the source of information.
Criteria in the Selection of Collection Agencies
1)

Suitability

The collection task assigned to a unit must be


compatible with its primary mission. Only the agencies best
suited to furnish the information are used.
2)

Multiplicity

Evaluation of information requires that it must be


compared with the information received from other sources
and agencies. Subject to the consideration of suitability
and capability more than one agency is used to obtain each
item of required information.
3)

Balance

Within
the
time
limits
imposed
by
other
considerations, the collection workload must be balanced
from among the collection agencies. Balance is
a
minor
consideration when compared with the importance of other
factors.
4)

Capability

An agency must be physically capable of providing


the desired information in a timely manner.

80

2.

Processing of Intelligence Information

It is in this phase in the intelligence cycle in which


information becomes intelligence.
The optical scanners and other refinements the fourth
generation computers will undoubtedly perform intelligence
functions beyond our widest imagination. The utilization of
single print fingerprint system, plus other factors, keyed
to these data processing giants will rapidly identify and
isolate, at a phenomenal speed, members of organized crimes
and subversive agents. However, it is doubtful that they
will ever be substitute for the values of personal contacts
by members of the intelligence community.
Though record complexes involving education, health,
welfare, vehicles, drivers license, military service, and
thousands other unrelated specifics will be very valuable.
Such things as liaison programs, informant networks,
clipping services, and de-briefing programs will still be
required, perhaps even more than ever.
Today, as well as in the future, the processing phase
of intelligence activity is the most expensive and time
consuming activity. The conversion of data into a useable
product, acceptable to the vast majority, will still require
the greatest expenditure of money. Data processing involves
the following:
1)

Integration or Recording

It is the reduction of information to writing or


some other form of graphical representation and the
arranging of information into groups related items.
2)

Evaluation

It is the determination of the pertinence or


significance
of
the
information
relative
to
police
operations, reliability of the sources or agency, and the
accuracy of the information.

81

3)

Analysis and Interpretation

It is the determination of the significance of the


information relative to the information and the intelligence
already known and drawing deductions about the probable
meaning of the evaluated
information.
3.

Dissemination and Use of Information

It is the timely conveyance of information and or


intelligence in an appropriate form, and by any suitable
means to those who need it. The primary purpose of timely
dissemination is to enable the police executive to make
decisions with confidence; a secondary purpose is to provide
knowledge in the light of which new information may be
processed.
Access to the intelligence products is one of the most
important issues facing any police executives. Few questions
take precedence over, who should have this information?
Lack of careful consideration of this question can have a
disastrous effect.
Two principles preclude the release of intelligence
information. First, there must be the need to know on the
part of the recipient. Need to know is not necessarily
determined by a persons position in the organizational
hierarchy. Need to know is usually akin to the task
performed. Secondly, a potential recipient should be
cleared by responsible authority as being eligible to
receive the intelligence data. Line officers, particularly
those in patrol and intelligence functions, after proper
security orientation, should be designated by the police
executives. Those designated should know each other.
Confidential
sources
are
the
lifeline
of
intelligence effort. They must be protected at almost
price. Therefore, it is apparent that the need to know
proper clearance of the receiver are surpassed by
consideration, will the use of data destroy or endanger
source of information?

the
any
and
the
the

One informant in the right place is worth many


divisions of uniformed or plainclothes police officers.
Generally stated, police intelligence data having a medium-

82

to-high probability of compromising the source should not be


released until it has been sanitizedsource identifying
features be removed.
Means of Disseminating Information
1)

Messages

This can be made by use of radio, utilization of


messengers or couriers, or by rapid means of signal
communication.
2)

Personal Contact

It can be done by the use of telephone, personal


visits, and de-briefings.
3)

Intelligence Documents

This is being accomplished through the transmittal


of documents in the form of periodic intelligence reports,
intelligence summaries, watch list, wanted list, operational
orders and intelligence annexes, terrain and weather
studies, and other special intelligence reports.
4.

Direction of the Information Collection Effort

The collection effort should include a systematic


exploitation
of
all
sources
of
information.
This
exploitation must be continuous, methodical, and carefully
controlled. The collection must also include a complete
delivery of all the information obtained to the processing
component.
The police executive must make certain that he has what
he needs and when he needs it. He must continually wonder
what criminals and/or subversives are doing, thinking, or
planning for the future operations, and about the nature of
the terrain and/or environment not under his control.

Steps in Directing the Information Collection Effort

83

1)

Determination of intelligence requirements.

2)

Determination of intelligence priorities.

3)
Determination
of
those
enemy
activities
or
characteristics of the area of operations which could
indicate the answers to the intelligence requirements, and
to determine the specific items of information.
4)
Selection of collection agencies to be employed
and issuance of necessary order and request for the
collection of information.
5)

Supervising the execution of orders and requests.

Importance of Intelligence and Information


1.
To arrive at sound and timely decisions in
preparing plans and estimates for future operations, and in
conducting current operations.
2.
To protect the police organization by avoiding
surprise, and denying the enemy information concerning it.
3.

To assist in the processing of other information.

Definition of Priority Intelligence Requirements (PIRs)


PIRs are those intelligence requirements for which the
police executive has an anticipated and stated priority in
his task of planning and decision making. They are the
highest intelligence requirements, and are the basis for
intelligence operations, and are personally approved by the
police executive.
Definition of Other Information Requirements (OIRs)
Are those items of information regarding the criminals
and/or subversives, and his environment which needs to be
collected and/or processed in order to meet the intelligence
requirements of the police executives.

84

Definition of Specific Orders/Request (SORs)


The product of the requirement analysis that are
required by the collection units or agencies in the form of
orders or request.
Definition of Intelligence Indicator
Are generalized theoretical actions that criminals
and/or subversives might be expected to take preparation for
aggressive actions, and that are things and/or events that
transpired in the past or things and/or events that are
presently occurring.
Aspects of Intelligence Cycle
1.

Assessment

It is the shifting and evaluation of sorted information


to isolate insignificant elements with respect to the
mission and operation of the police organization.
2.

Integration

Is
the
breakdown
assessed
intelligence
and/or
information and integrate it into its corresponding group.
3.

Deduction

Deduce conclusions from integrated intelligence and/or


information.
Tools in Recording Information
1.

Intelligence Journal

It is the permanent official chronological record of


the operations of the intelligence section, unit or agency.
It includes all incoming and outgoing messages, and
significant incidents concerning the operation of the

85

intelligence section, unit or agency. Journal of entries


should reflect the following:
1)
An accurate
report or event.

and

concise

statement

of

message,

2)
A notation of the sender or individual making the
report, to include unit duty position.
3)
The time of receipt or dispatch, and method of
transmission.
4)
Action actually taken as a result, to include
dissemination given to reports or information received and
other internal recording means.
2.

Intelligence Workbook

It is a device which provides a means of systematic


arrangement of information by type or subject, so that items
concerning a particular topic maybe grouped together for
ready reference and comparison.
3.

Situation Map

It is graphic representation of the current enemy


situation. The situation is posted on the map by means of
appropriately colored signs and symbols.
The following types of entries pertaining to the enemy
should be posted on the situation map:
1)

unit identification;

2)

unit dispositions;

3)

boundaries,

4)

location of weapons;

5)

obstacles or defensive installations;

6)

strong points activities; 7) terrain data; and

7)

roads and trails for movement of personnel.

86

The purpose of the situation map is to contribute to


sound decisions. The primary uses of the situation map are:
1)

To display enemy situation and disposition.

2)
To provide a basis for comparison in order to
determine the significance of newly received data pertaining
to the enemy forces.
3)
To provide a background for and basis
briefings, and other required intelligence reports.
4)
To
provide
the
basis
for
graphically portray the enemy situation.

overlays

5)
To assist in the determination
movement of insurgent forces.

of

for
which

patterns

of

6)
To focus attention on possible intelligence gaps
which require re-direction of the collection effort.
The secondary intelligence use of the situation map is
to postdirectly on it in its marginsthe following
information:
1)
computations
strength;

of

enemy

personnel

and

weapons

2)

organization charts of specified enemy units;

3)

summarization of weather and terrain data;

4)

listing of priority intelligence requirements;

5)

notations pertaining to current patrol plans;

6) listing of friendly attachments; and


7)
listing of enemy locations believed to be in area
of responsibility.
4.

Intelligence Files

87

These are files which are necessary to permit ready


access to all available information.
Most Commonly Maintained Intelligence Files
1.

Journal File

The journal file contains a record copy of each message


or document noted in the journal. It supports the journal
and also a permanent and official record.
2.

Information or Reference File

All information of possible future value is cross


indexed in this file. Much information is collected which
has no immediate interest but which may be of future value.
3.

Order of Battle and Wanted List Files

Order of Battle is the identification, strength,


command structure, and disposition of personnel, units, and
equipment of subversive elements. While the wanted list
files is the consolidated list of persons with warrant of
arrest.
What is Interpretation of Information
It is consist of determining the significance of the
information
with
respect
to
other
information
or
intelligence ready on hand. It is accomplished by analysis
of the information, integration of significant items of
information
with
previously
collected
and
processed
intelligence, and finally drawing conclusions as to the
probable meaning of information.
What is Police Intelligence Estimates
A police intelligence estimate is a study which
describes, discusses, and interprets the current crimes
and/or subversives situation in order to determine organized
crimes and/or insurgents capabilities, vulnerabilities, and
probable courses of actions. It also describes the effects

88

of the area of operations upon both police and criminal


elements and/or subversive groups courses of actions.
Parts of Police Intelligence Estimates
1.

Mission

It is a general statement describing the current police


internal defense, internal development, and psychological
operations responsibilities of the organization.
2.

Area of Operation

It discusses the characteristics of the area of the


operating syndicate and/or subversive, and the probable
effect upon the police units and on itself.
3.

Crime Situation or Subversive Condition

It
describes
the
syndicate
organization
and/or
subversive structure, and its recent criminal activities
within that area or underlying areas.
4.

Capabilities of Criminal or Subversive Groups

It enumerates the current criminal syndicate and/or


subversive
groups
capabilities
and
discusses
the
probability of adoption of each capability.
5.

Conclusions

It states the conclusions concerning the area upon


which police courses of action will effect the probable
action of the criminal elements and/or subversive groups,
and the exploiting of enemy vulnerabilities and weaknesses.

Liaison Activities
1.

In General

89

Probably the main reasons more people do not actively


assist the police lies in the simple fact that the police
fail to personally solicit their help. Liaison is little
more than making friends to those who have access to an
intelligence item, particularly people within organizations
and records systems.
A liaison program is one of the
principal activities of police intelligence operations. A
limited liaison program will usually produce a limited
intelligence product.
2.

Specific Assignments

One of the essential ingredients of a successful


liaison program is the specific assignment of personnel to
specific targets. With the full realization that staff
requests are usually in a constant state of change,
consistent with the situations, liaison assignments will
also be subject to some change.
3.

Press Liaison

Any police organization that fails to remember that the


press always has the last word is slated for trouble. An
alert news media can be one of the most powerful forces in a
community in fighting the activities of organized crime.
Liaison with the press is therefore essential.
News Clipping and De-Briefing Activities
1.

News Clipping

Clipping articles from newspapers in accordance with an


existing format is an important method of gathering
intelligence data. The communications networks of modern
newspapers make this an excellent source of highly valuable
material.

2.

De-Briefing Activities

A de-briefing program can be established by simply


setting-up a tape recorder with speaker where officers going

90

off duty can have access to it. The ground rules for its use
may vary. On, an intelligence analyst with a format in mind
may conduct one or two minute interviews with personnel
going off duty at a centralized location. Multiply this
activity by each precincts and the usable product may be
surprising, particularly after an orientation period has
past.
Use of Intelligence
A weekly intelligence summary is probably the most
common intelligence product available for use. The format
for this summary will vary widely, however this could
include the following:
1)
in general terms a summary of organized crimes
activities;
2)
subversive
police operations;

activities

that

will

affect

general

3)
minority activity, gang activities, particularly
juveniles;
4)

a concise summary of crime and traffic trends;

5)

information regarding nomadic hoodlums; and

6)

a concise statement of vice activities.

91

CHAPTER
7
SURVEILLANCE AND CASING
===========================================================
Conducting
surveillance
and
casing
is
generally
expensive. Indeed to be successful, considerable resources
in the form of work-hours, equipment, and time must be
invested. Given certain conditions, however, it may be the
only means by which particular information can be obtained.
The lore of surveillance is based for the most part on
three perspectives. One view is the result of the private
eyes experience in divorce case, in which a relatively
simple, one-on-one observation is feasible. Another is that
of the street smart intelligence operative who learns from
tailing professional criminals of the elaborate precautions
they take to shake off the police. The third and most
sophisticated derives from the experience of intelligence
operatives surveilling espionage agents who have been
trained to detect and then loose anyone thought to be
following them.
The following treatment will reflect all three
perspectives in varying degrees. Regardless of the types of
surveillance, whether it pertains to individual or location,
certain concepts are fundamental to all. Yet in the same
breath, it must be remembered that surveillance can produce
rapidly changing situations which require the application of
the best of imaginations. Few mistakes can be permitted as
the stakes are many times quite high.
Definitions of Terms
To understand the literature or participate in a
surveillance,
the
intelligence
operatives
should
be
conversant with the terms and jargons of the field.

92

Surveillance. The observation of a person, place or


thing, generallybut not necessarilyin an unobtrusive
manner.
Subject. The party under surveillance.
Surveillant. The person conducting the surveillance.
Tail. To
surveillance.

follow

and

keep

under

surveillance;

Stakeout. Also called a plant or fixed surveillance;


here the surveillant remains essentially in one position or
locale.
Undercover. An undercover agent who often gets to know
or work along-side the subject. The term roping describes
this situation, and the undercover agent is said to be
planted.
Convoy. A countermeasure to detect a surveillance; a
convoy, usually a person, is employed to determine whether
or not a subject is under surveillance.
Shadow. To follow secretly; to place a person under
surveillance.
Be Made. To be detected
surveillant by the subject.

or

suspected

of

being

Burn the Surveillance. When a surveillants behavior


cause the subject to surmise or know that he or she is under
surveillance.
Close Surveillance. The subject is kept under constant
surveillance. Also termed
tight surveillance, the aim is
not to lose the subject even at the risk of being made.
Fixed Surveillance. Similar with stakeout.
Moving Surveillance. The surveillant moved about in
order to follow the subject.

93

Loose Surveillance. A cautious surveillance; also


termed discreet surveillance because the loss of the subject
is preferred to possible exposure.
Open Surveillance. A surveillance with little or no
attempt at concealment; also termed rough surveillance. The
subject is most likely aware of the surveillance, but must
not be lost.
Mustard Plaster. A form of open surveillance; here, the
subject is followed so closely that surveillant and subject
are almost in lock step. It is tantamount to protective
custody.
Plant. Similar with stakeout and undercover.
Tailgaiting. A form of open surveillance in which the
subjects vehicle is closely followed.
Technical Surveillance. Surveillance involving the use
of scientific device to enhance hearing or seeing the
subjects activities.
Bugging. Eavesdropping by electronic means, such as
hidden microphone or radio transmitter; buga device used
for such eavesdropping.
Pen Register. A device that records all numbers dialed
on a telephone companys central office.
Beeper. A battery operated device that emits radio
signals which permit it to be tracked by a directional
finder-receiver. Also called beacon, transponder, and
electronic tracking device.
Practical Considerations in the Conduct of Surveillance
1.

Tactics

Strategic considerations govern the use of surveillance


in particular case. Tactical concerns determine its
execution. A major problem that soon intrudes is how to
weigh the possible loss of contact with a subject against
the risk of being detected or exposed.

94

A quick, believable response is called for when a


subject take some action to determine whether there is
indeed surveillance. It is easier to drop surveillance
before being confronted than to respond to a confrontation
by convincing the subjects that he or she is mistaken.
1)

Loose Surveillance

Loose surveillance is used when the objective is


to locate a suspect by tailing his or her relatives and
friends. The surveillant exercises great caution while
observing the subject, preferring to drop the tail rather
than risk detection or exposure. Whether espionage,
burglary, or terrorism, this tactic applies when a groups
activities are under scrutiny to determine their contacts
and intentions.
2)

Close Surveillance

The aim of close surveillance is to avoid losing


the subjecteven at the risk of detection or exposure. When
the goal is to prevent a crime or learn more about the
subjects contacts, it is acceptable procedure. A subject
who is nave or lacks of experience in crime may panic and
reveal valuable clues when the fact of the surveillance is
realized.
2.

Planning

Never to lose a subject or to arouse suspicion is


impossible, of course. When confronted with either decision,
any vacillation is an additional hazard. Investigative
momentum will be squandered if plans are not made in
anticipation of such contingencies.
Should a subject be lost,
him or her is often by educated
of habit, doing the same things
day. Prior surveillance reports
insight.

a viable method of locating


guesspeople being creatures
at about the same time each
on the case can also furnish

95

3.

Preparation

The success of surveillance depends on the degree of


forethought and thoroughness given to the preliminary
preparations. It is important to develop a plan of action
for handling contingencies and to understand its objectives.
Without such a plan, obvious, everyday matterssuch as
having a supply of coins and tokens available for
transportation and telephone callscan be overlooked.
1)

Familiarization

It is crucial that the surveillant be certain of


the identity of the subject, who should, if possible, be
pointed out by one who knows him or her by sight. Though
less
satisfactory
than
direct
fingering,
recent
photographs are also acceptable. The surveillant must be
familiar with details of the case, trough discussion with
others working on it and reading the previous surveillance
reports.
It is helpful to be familiar with the probable
area of operations; for those working in unknown territory,
preliminary
inspections
are
worthwhile.
Since
many
surveillances are conducted in cities it is important to
know
about
the
type
of
people,
the
transportation
facilities, street layout, public buildings, and other
physical features. The intelligence operatives should be
able to operate any technical equipment used. When teams of
operatives are expected to work together a briefing session
is appropriate.
2)

Equipment

It is hardly need to be said that all technical


equipment be serviced, checked, and ready to operate. This
applies
to
vehicles
in
which
unmistakable
police
paraphernalia must be disguised or concealed. Some thought
should be given to converting and enclosed, moderate-sized
truck or van to suit the needs of lengthy fixed
surveillance. Disguises for an automobile requires an extra
sets of license plate numbers, window and bumper stickers, a
set of props in the cars trunks, such as shopping bag
filled with groceries, a briefcase, and few changes of outer

96

clothing and headgear. The area of operation will suggest


the props.
3)

Blending-In

A surveillant must blend with the neighborhood of


the operation. The aim is to play the role locals will
accept without question or suspicion. Practical matters must
be planned, providing relief for the surveillants personal
necessities and time-off, and securing a supply of public
transit tokens.
5.

Discontinuing the Surveillance

Usually, a surveillance can be discontinued without


repercussions, but should the subject directly or indirectly
indicated that its existence is suspected, breaking off
contact requires caution. It must be made certain that the
intelligence operative has not been placed under countersurveillance by the subject or an associate. Accordingly,
the intelligence operatives should not return directly to
the safe house until sure that no convoy was used.
In the event of a direct challenge, it is important to
be prepared with a response that has been thought through.
Rehearsed, and is almost instinctive for the surveillant. An
improvised response would not ring true; it would only
confirm
the
subjects
suspicions.
Neither,
should
intelligence operatives immediately deny being a police
officer. It might be feasible not to react with some
irritation, impatient comments such as youre bothering me
or this is new approach might work. These suggestions are
offered as practical responses in a given situation.
Tailing Methods
1.

One-Man Method

A one-man tail is a difficult one, in all cases it


must be a close one or the person being followed will be
lost. It is readily noted by anyone just by turning a
corner, stopping, then watching for the investigator to come
around the corner. Unless a loose tail is sufficient in the
coverage, a one-man tail is almost useless. However, when

97

observation has disclosed a regular routine on the part of


the subject, then it is sufficient. The intelligence
operatives can then readily relocate the subject in the
event he does lose contact.
A variation of one-man tail is to have several
intelligence operatives rotate on the assignment, either by
days or by the time of the day. Perhaps one-man would work
on Monday, another on the following days, etc., or one would
take the mornings, and the others the evenings and the night
time. This is the relay technique and prevents the subject
from readily identifying the intelligence operatives or his
assistant, and not thereby becoming aware of the tail.
2.

Leaf-Frog Method

Only one member of the team maintains contact with the


subject. It is a close tail, with the other members of the
squad keeping contact with those immediately ahead of them.
At stated intervals of five to six minutes or upon signal,
the man immediately behind the one keeping contact will
move-up and take his place, the one that had been in contact
will stop, look in a show window or wait at a traffic light,
then take his place behind the last man of the group. This
procedure is continued in rotation as long as the tail is
maintained.
Such method is particularly desirable when it is
believed that subject may use a motor vehicle. The last man
of the team drives an automobile, and at pre-arranged signal
the car moves-up and passed through the group. The members
of the group jump in the car if time permits; otherwise the
driver continues the tail.
3.

Group Method

When several men are assigned to a group tail, each


man maintains contact with the subject. One may be abreast
of the subject at the opposite side of the street, another
behind the subject, and others in similar position. In order
to prevent discovery, such positions can be exchanged
between members of the group, but they do not leap-frogeach
tries to maintain contact. This is close tail and is
necessary only when discovery is preferable to losing the
subject.

98

No matter how many men are assigned to a tail job, the


problem of not losing contact with the subject is always
present. It is for this reason that many intelligence
operatives never work with less than one co-workers, and
they operate an automobile. If the subject boards a public
transportation, it is much safer to maintain contact by
following such public transportation by automobile. Unless a
close contact is imperativeperhaps the subject may make
contact with someone on the bus or trolleythis is a better
procedure than having intelligence operatives board the same
conveyance.
Casing
It is the visual inspection of an area, installation or
building to determine its suitability for operational
activities, e.g., safe-house, meeting place for agents and
their
contacts,
establishment
of
communications
net,
training ground for agents, intended raids and/or seizures
of vital evidence, or simply keeping track with the
activities of certain area.
Types of Casing
1.

Exterior Casing

It is the observation of the whole picture of the area,


building and/or installation giving close observation as to
its location, possible exits and approaches, types of
physical vicinity that may possibly of help to any
intelligence or counter-intelligence operation that may be
launched.
2.

Interior Casing

It is the close observation of the lay-out of the


building. Include herein all items that can be observed in
building which are of intelligence and counter-intelligence
value.

99

CHAPTER
8
COVER AND UNDERCOVER OPERATIONS
===========================================================
Cover and undercover operations represents another
means by which intelligence and information is collected;
these techniques should be viewed in most cases as a
feasible way to reach as high into the criminal enterprise
as possible. Cover and undercover operations involve a
degree of specialization and training. However, it is
important to recognize that these intelligence operations
are perhaps the most dangerous in police work today.
Definition of Cover
It is a means by which individual, group or
organization conceals the true nature of its activities, and
existence from the observer. It is also a device or
stratagem by which the intelligence agents conceal his
identity, and his relationship with the intelligence
collection agencies.
It is used so that intelligence
agencies may operate with minimal interference from the
outside elements. By outside elements, it is means those
not having the Need-to-Know. Undercover is a person with
cover.
Functions of Cover
1.

Offensive

Gives access to the target and


achievement of the clandestine objectives.
2.

Defensive

facilitates

the

100

Serve to prevent detection.


Broad Concepts of Cover
1.

Cover for Status

A cover that is general in nature and relatively


permanently adopted to explain the work presence in any
given area and general status in society.
2.

Cover for Action

A cover designed to explain away or allow to perform


given clandestine activity. It may be an extension of cover
for status.
3.

Natural Cover

A cover which completely fits the true background and


capabilities of the agent, it affords to provide maximum
security protection to any clandestine activity and allows
greater operational flexibility.
4.

Living Ones Cover

Agent must make sure that every public action he takes


fits his assumed cover, and that a total picture presented
to others accurately reflects his cover.
5.

Official Cover
A cover sponsored by an overt agency of a government.

6.

Non-Official Cover

Cover adopted
connection.
7.

by

person

free

of

any

official

Artificial Cover

Cover using biographical data adopted for the purpose


that is fictitious.

101

Types of Cover
1.

Natural Cover

Using true or actual personal background to fit for the


purpose.
2.

Artificial Cover

A cover using biographical data adopted for the purpose


that is fictitious.
3.

Cover within a Cover

Use of secondary cover in case of compromise which


necessitates the admission of lesser crime.
4.

Multiple Cover
Any cover identity wished.

Definition of Organizational Cover


An account consisting of biographical data which when
adopted by individual will assume the personality he want to
adopt.
Objectives of Organizational Cover
1.
To camouflage and protect operational personnel and
their activities.
2.
Protect installation in which clandestine activities
are based.
Guidelines to Organizational Cover
1.
Organizational cover must appear to produce
something.

102

2.
Should device that not all personnel will work
together at the same time.
3.
Cover should be devoted to mission.
4.
Start with small organizational cover and provide
room for expansion as it continue to grow.
Guidelines When
Compromised

Cover

and

Organizational

Cover

is

In case cover is compromised, the following must be


observed:
1)

move-out immediately;

2)

start new facility for operations and develop it;

3)

build entirely new cover;

4)
use circuitous route and provide careful countersurveillance; and
5)

be patient, build slowly and carefully.

And if organizational cover is compromised, hereunder


are the things to be considered, i.e.:
1)

make a physical move or re-location;

2)

start new facility for old operation and let it

3)

use new personnel;

4)

let old personnel remain in place; and

5)

build entirely new cover identity.

grow;

Undercover Operations
Undercover operations have become a standard feature of
the contemporary police activities. This can take in many
forms, from an inconspicuous stranger who turns up to help a

103

demonstration, to a trained
many years working inside
operations can be launched
enforcement agencies, or by
and/or offices.

deep cover agent who may spend


a target organizations. These
locally by the police, or law
any intelligence collection unit

Another major source of inside information for


intelligence is the CI or confidential informant. These
can be a private citizens recruited to infiltrate group, or
fearful members who turn on their friends. Without the
existence of the CI, or snitch, there would in fact be
very few arrests made for major crimes.
However, CIs do have major shortcomings from a police
perspective,
including
their
general
unreliability,
questionable status in testifying as witnesses, and frequent
refusal to testify in open court.
Definition of Undercover Assignment
It is an investigative technique in which agent conceal
his official identity in order to obtain information from
the target organization.
Broad Categories of Undercover Agents
1.

Deep Cover

It may be someone with extensive experience in


undercover work, or a young person selected from an academy
training class. Novices are actually preferred sometimes
because they have not acquired the typical authoritarian
habits that might give them away as police officer, and also
because they are less likely to be recognized by regular
police officer in the field who might unknowingly reveal
their identity in a chance encounter.
2.

Light Cover

An undercover police officer working under light may


have
a
spurious
document
to
establish
fictitious
identification, i.e., ID, drivers license, etc., but will
most likely go home to his family and real life. Sometimes

104

drug enforcement officers and other specially trained


agents will be called for these assignments.
Factors
to be Considered in Planning for Undercover
Assignment
1.
Determine
intended.

the

level

of

which

investigation

is

2.
Developing appropriate cover story and cover, and
selection of qualified personnel.
3.
Considerations
of
all
undercover
operations
details to include documentation, briefing, coaching, and
rehearsing.
Types of Undercover Assignment
1.

Dwelling

Is one where the undercover agent established residence


in or near the dwelling which houses the subject.
2.

Work Assignment

Places the undercover agent in a type of employment


where he can observe the activities of the subject at his
place of work.
3.

Social Assignment

It requires the undercover agent to frequent places of


social entertainment and amusement known to be habitually
visited by target personalities and their associates.
4.

Multiple Assignments

An undercover agent is given the task of covering two


or more of the above specific assignments simultaneously.
5.

Personal Contact Assignment or Rope Job

The undercover agent is required to develop friendship


and trust with the target personality for the purposes of
obtaining information or evidence.

105

Cover Story
It is a biographical account, true or fictitious, or a
combination of truth or fiction which portrays the
undercover agents past history, and current status. This
may be a natural cover story, artificial cover story, and
combination of true or false personal data.
Factors to be Considered in Choosing a Cover Story
1.

Justification for Presence and Activities

The story must


undercover agents
activities in which
investigation and/or
2.

include a logical explanation for the


presence, and consistent with the
he must engage during the conduct of
collection of information.

Mutual Point of Interest

The story must provide point of mutual interests


between
the
target
personalities,
undercover
agents,
undercover operations, and cover story.
3.

Complete Background

The cover story must include the material on all


aspects of the undercover agents previous background,
regardless of whether or not it is anticipated that this
information will be required.
4.

Continuous Contact

It includes provisions for sufficient contact between


the undercover agent, and the target of interest to produce
worthwhile results.
5.

Safe Departure

It must consider the removal of the undercover agent


from the target area in the event of compromise, or the

106

conclusion of
information.

the

investigation

and/or

collection

of

Modes of Employment of Undercover Assignment


1.

Long Range

Provides reliable, accurate, and continuing access to


information that would not be attainable, and which requires
considerable time and effort, painstaking analysis of the
mission, and thorough study of all the details relating to
the
selection,
training,
and
actual
performance
of
undercover personnel.
2.

Short Range

It provides for the immediate objective solution to the


following: 1) background investigation; 2) preparation for
raid operation; and 3) installation or servicing of
technical equipment.

107

CHAPTER
9
INFORMANTS CULTIVATION AND MOTIVATION
===========================================================
Definition of Informant
It is an individual who openly or secretly obtain or
assists in obtaining information for intelligence and
counter-intelligence
purposes
in
exchange
for
some
recompense, monetary or otherwise.
Purposes of Informants in Intelligence Operations
1.
Gain access
intelligence.

to

areas

and

targets

inaccessible

2.

Provide anonymity to investigation and operation.

3.

Increase the scope of area and target coverage.

to

Usefulness of Informants
The
reasons
individuals
furnish
information
to
intelligence operatives can be laudable as well as
nefarious. Whatever the reason, an informant is one who
furnishes intelligence that may:
1.
Prevent
committed.

crime

which

is

planned

but

not

yet

2.
Uncover a crime which has been committed, but has
not been discovered.
3.

Identify the perpetrator of a crime.

108

4.
Locate the perpetrator
locate stolen property.

of

crime

or

help

to

5.

Exonerate a suspect.

6.

Lower morale among criminals through apprehension.

Categories of Informants
1.

Incidental Informants

Individuals who furnish information with no intention


of repeating his services of furnishing information on a
continuing basis.
Types of Incidental Informants
1)

Interviewees

Individuals contacted by investigation or summoned


by an intelligence unit for questioning, and who are aware
that they are in contact with an official police/military
agency.
2)

Walk-ins or Volunteers

Individuals who of their own accord contact an


intelligence operatives in order to divulge information that
believes to be of intelligence interest, e.g., well-meaning,
patriotic citizens, and with range of persons motivated by
malice, avarice, revenge or jealousy who may volunteer
biased, distorted or completely false information for
personal reasons.
3)

Unwitting Informants

Those who provide information of intelligence


interests, and who are aware that they are imparting such
information that may be obtained from such person by subtle
elicitation techniques or through technical surveillance.

109

2.

Casual Informant

Individuals who by social or professional position,


posses or has access to information of continuing interest
and who willingly provides information on the intelligence
unit, either in response to a specific request or on his own
initiatives.
3.

Automatic Informants

Those by virtue of their official positions are


expected or obligated to furnish information openly to
intelligence unit in normal course of their duties, e.g.,
government officials, AFP and PNP members, and technical
experts.
4.

Recruited Informants

Individuals that are selected, trained and utilized as


continuous
overt
and
covert
sources
of
information
concerning specific intelligence targets.
Types of Recruited Informants
1)

Ordinary Informants

Individuals who obtained the desired information


during their normal daily routine, but whose affiliation
with the counter-intelligence unit is covert and under the
control of that unit. It is use primarily to achieve
counter-intelligence area coverage.
The factors of control and covert affiliation
distinguished ordinary informants from casual informants,
e.g., the manager or headwaiter in a hotel habitually
frequented by members of criminal syndicates and/or
suspected subversives would be an ordinary informant if
recruited, trained and put into the operational control of
counter-intelligence unit.

110

2)

Penetration Informants

Those assigned with the mission of obtaining


information within a specific target. They may be recruited
outside the target and placed therein or more usually
selected and recruited from among the personnel within the
target itself.
3)

Full-time Informants

Those that is available for counter-intelligence


missions at all times, and who may derive the major part of
their income from their work as informants. They must have
cover employment which will permit irregular hours, frequent
absences, extensive travel, and will provide an explanation
for income and contacts with persons of many social levels.
They are normally trained in investigative procedures.
5.

Others
1)

Double Agents

Individuals who are simultaneously employed by two


opposing intelligence agencies with one of the agencies are
aware
of
his
dual
role.
Double
agents
controlled
intelligence unit may produce very valuable information,
particularly in long-range counter-espionage operations, but
their control and exploitation complex difficult, and
requires extremely stringent security operations and control
measures.
2)

Dual Agents

Individuals
who
are
simultaneously
and
independently employed by two or more friendly intelligence
units, and who do not show preference for either, and
normally motivated by material gain. When an informant is
determined to be dual agent, his services will normally be
terminated.

Motives for Informing

111

1.

Self-Serving Reasons

Three kinds of self-serving motives are: cutting a


deal, elimination of competition, and building a line of
credit.
1)

Cutting a Deal

A deal is cut when a defendant agrees to impart


what he or she knows about criminal activities in exchange
for a promise that a recommendation for consideration will
be made to a judge in pending prosecution. By this means,
informants may reduce or avoid altogether the punishment
that would otherwise be expected in conviction. As a quid
pro quo arrangement, cutting a deal is in one sense a form
of plea bargaining.
2)

Elimination of Competition

In specialized crimes, particularly dangerous


drugs and illegal gambling, one law breaker may, most often
anonymously, betray a rival to eliminate competition. This
can occur when a new robber invades the area and the rash of
break-ins increases community pressure and police activity.
By taking competitor out of circulation, community anxiety
will be kept at a level that does not provoke undue police
response.
3)

Building a Line of Credit

Uneasy pawnbrokers and secondhand dealers worry


that police may one day discover stolen goods in their shops
and accuse them of being a fence. Some will attempt to
establish that they are not fence by identifying those in
the community who are fencing stolen goods, using this as a
way to ingratiate themselves with authorities. For others on
the fringe of the underworld, the ploy is to earn favors
which could stay an arrest should they be apprehended for
some law violation.

2.

Mercenary Reasons

112

The old saying among intelligence operatives, when the


money ceases to clatter, the tongue stops the chatter,
confirms that they well know; namely, that offering a reward
for information is of fundamental importance. Merchants and
farmers have long resorted to a bounty system; they will pay
to find those responsible for stealing their merchandize or
rustling their cattle. Police organizations budget ready
monies to buy information. The national government is more
lavish in this regard.
3.

Self-Aggrandizement

Ordinary citizens as well as reformed criminals are


motivated by vanity to provide information, believing it
will win favorable attention from authorities. Employers,
friends, and even the media in important cases may put them
in the spotlight, making them instant celebrities. Since
anonymity offers the best protection against retaliation, it
is prudent that police safeguard such informants until
public attention is directed elsewhere.
4.

Emotions

Fear, revenge, jealousy, and repentance are among the


emotions that often induce people to divulge what otherwise
would remain unrevealed. When the information concerns
criminal activity, it usually constitutes a major break
through in an investigation.
1)

Fear

Fear is a powerful inducement to becoming an


informer; however, protection must be negotiated with
authorities. It may be for ones self of fear for ones
family being killed, tortured, or harmed in some fashion.
Fear of imprisonment will cause some people to seek a tradeoff: information for nol-prossing an indictment. When a gang
member takes to heavy drinking, becomes sexually involved,
and rashly starts to tell a new partner everythingor
displays conduct that otherwise seems to threaten the
security of the grouphe or she will be told in no certain
terms to change, or else. For more than few, the reaction
would be to inform on the gangs activities.

113

2)

Revenge and Jealousy

A grudge based on a perception of unfair treatment


can provoke a desire for revenge. However hackneyed the
expression, hell hath no fury like a woman scorned, is
still seems to speak for the pain of rejection. Indeed, any
pain of distress induced by another can result in jealousy
and the need for revenge, and turn a person to informing.
The need to get even is deep in the human psyche.
3)

Repentance

Just as those who have got religion will be led


by a need for forgiveness and re-establishment in the
community to furnish what they would not have discovered
before, so will the outcast make amends by informing on
confederates in past crimes. The approbation of newlyacquired peers is an especially strong stimulus.
5.

Gratitude

Gratitude is not usually a major factor in prompting an


individual to furnish information, but it can be potent at
times.
6.

Civic Duty

A significant motivating factor for informing is a


sense of good citizenship. When an eyewitness tells the
police of observations made while a crime was being
committed, or of suspicious behavior noted, the persons
carries out a civic duty.

114

CHAPTER
10
COUNTER-INTELLIGENCE OPERATIONS,
PERSONNEL AND DOCUMENTS SECURITY
===========================================================
Definition of Counter-Intelligence
That aspect of police intelligence activities relating
to all security measures, both offensive-active and
defensive-passive, designed to insure the safeguarding of
information, personnel, material, and installation against
espionage, sabotage, and subversive activities of foreign
power, and disaffected or dissident groups or individuals
that constitute threats to national security, and other
inimical foreign intelligence activities.
1)

Detection
Knowing the clandestine operation of the enemy.

2)

Prevention

Application of counter-intelligence operations to


avoid enemy activities.
3)

Neutralization
Containment of enemy activities.

Measures for Effective Counter-Intelligence Operations


1.

Passive-Defensive

Counter-intelligence measures that seek to conceal


information from the enemy. Examples: secrecy discipline,

115

communication security, concealment and camouflage. Passive


counter-intelligence measures can be readily put into SOPs
for implementation regardless of the specific nature of the
offices or units mission.
2.

Active-Offensive

Counter-intelligence measures that seek to actively


block the enemys attempt to gain information, or to
actively block the enemys effort to engage in espionage,
sabotage, or subversion. This includes measures such as
detection, prevention, and neutralization.
Broad Categories of Counter-Intelligence Operations
1.

Police Security

Encompasses measures taken by an office or group to


protect
itself
against
espionage,
enemy
observation,
sabotage, subversion, or surprise. The measures includes
secrecy discipline, special safeguarding of classified
information and equipment; security to troop movement;
special handling of evaders and escapees; counter-subversion
within the police service; and tactical measures in combat
areas.
2.

Civil Security

Encompasses active and passive counter-intelligence


measures affecting civilians permanently or temporarily
residing in an area under police or military jurisdictions.
It includes systematic registration of civilians, neutral
and
enemy
allies;
control
of
circulation;
curfew;
surveillance of suspected political organizations; security
screening of labor; issuance of passes and permits; and
control of commercial commerce.
3.

Special Operation

Employment of active counter-intelligence techniques


and procedures in the conduct of clandestine or covert
operations
against
hostile
and
enemy
intelligence
organizations and agencies. It covers counter terrorism;
counter sabotage; counter espionage; and counter subversion.

116

4.

Port, Frontier and Travel Security

The application of both police and civil security


measures for counter-intelligence control at points of only
one departure, international borders or boundaries. It
includes responsibility for security control of seaports and
frontiers.
5.

Censorship

Control and examination of communications to prevent


the transmission of information that may fall to the hands
of the enemy, and to collect and disseminate information of
intelligence value.
Definition of Personnel Security
Personnel security includes all the security measures
designed to prevent unsuitable individuals or persons of
doubtful loyalty to the Philippine Government, from gaining
access to classified matter or to any security facility, and
to prevent the appointment, employment, or retention as
employees of such individuals.
Definition of Personnel Security Investigation
It is an inquiry into the character, reputation,
discretion and loyalty of an individual in order to
determine a persons suitability or access to classified
matter prior to the granting of security clearance. Put it
in another way, it is the process of inquiring into persons
suitability to be given security clearance.
Definition of Sensitive Position
A sensitive position is any position within the
government, police, and military, the occupant of which
could bring about by virtue of the position a material
adverse effect to national security.

117

Authority to Issue Security Clearance


Adhering to the principle of command responsibility,
the basic authority to grant or deny security clearance
rests exclusively with the highest official of the office or
unit.
Types of Personnel Security Investigation
1.

National Agency Check (NAC)

This is an investigation of an individual made upon the


basis of written information supplied by him in response to
official inquiry, and can be used as a reference to
appropriate national agencies. It is simply a check on the
files and records of national agencies. The national
agencies checked under this type of investigation are the
following:
1)
2)

National Intelligence Coordinating Agency (NICA);


National Bureau of Investigation (NBI);

3)
Intelligence
Service,
Armed
Forces
of
the
Philippines (ISAFP) or J2 Division, General Headquarters,
Armed Forces of the Philippines (J2, GHQ, AFP);
4)
Directorate
for
Intelligence,
National
Headquarters, Philippine National Police (DI, NHQ, PNP);
5)
Criminal
Investigation
National Headquarters, Philippine
NHQ, PNP); and
6)
2.

and
Detection
National Police

Group,
(CIDG,

G2 Division, Philippine Army (G2, PA).

Local Agency Check (LAC)

This type of investigation consists of written


inquiries sent to appropriate local government agencies,
former employer, character references, and schools listed by
the person under investigation. The local agencies normally

118

check besides the past employment, schools, and character


references are the following:
1)
Place of the locality where the individual is a
resident;
2)
Mayor of the locality where the individual is a
resident;

3.

3)

City and/or municipal police station;

4)

Provincial and/or city prosecutors office; and

5)

City and/or municipal judge.

Background Investigation (BI)

This is a much more comprehensive investigation than


the National Agency Check or the Local Agency Check. A
thorough and complete investigation of all or some of the
circumstances or aspects of a persons life is conducted.
This type of Personnel Security Investigation may either of
the following:
1)

Complete Background Investigation (CBI)

Consist of the investigation of the background of


individual, particularly all the circumstances of his
personal life.
2)

Partial Background Investigation (PBI)

Consist of the investigation of the background of


an individual but limited only to some of the circumstances
of his personal life which are deemed pertinent to the
investigation.
Definition of Security Clearance Certificate
The certification by a responsible authority that the
person described is cleared for access to classified matter
at the appropriate level.

119

Definition of Adjudication Process


It is the process of evaluating a persons suitability
for a security clearance.
Types of Security Clearance
1.

Final

It is valid for five years unless sooner revoked by the


issuing authority.
2.

Interim

It is valid for two years unless sooner revoked by the


issuing authority.
Definition of Personal History Statement (PHS)
This is a form required to an individual who is being
processed for a security clearance. The form calls for
pertinent data and information on the various aspects of a
subjects personal life.
Security Education
This is another security measure involved in Personnel
Security. It is primarily designed to enable the office or
unit to achieve and maintain a sound and effective security.
To this end, it provides the means or ways by which all
personnel and employees are trained to acquire the necessary
knowledge and principles as will develop in them such
desirable security habits and attitudes and make them ever
security conscious and disciplined.
1.

Security Orientation

This consists of initial briefings made upon the


new personnel and employees on security and its various
aspects, and its importance. They are familiarized and made

120

to
acquaint
themselves
with
the
security
rules
and
regulations of the office or unit and the importance of
observing them. They are also made aware of the security
practices and procedures in the office or unit.
2.

Security Indoctrination

This is a continuous and systematic program


designed to meet the security needs of the office or unit.
It aims to train all personnel so that each shall possess
the skills and vigilance in the performance of their
security responsibilities. This security indoctrination
program may take the form of lectures on appropriate
subjects on security, showing of films bearing on security
and other instructional devices.
3.

Security Reminders

This is a phase of security education program


which makes use of security poster, slogans, signs and
stickers. This is an indirect approach to inculcating
security on the personnel and employees, but it does serve
its purpose.
4.

Security Promotion

This is another phase of security education


program which is a positive effort to sell security. This
may take various forms such as a personal recognition on a
personnel who has done an effective security job. This
personal recognition will go far in selling security to
others. Contest on security posters, slogans or stickers may
arouse interest on security and also provides materials for
security reminders.
5.

Security Seminars

Attending lectures on instructions and discussions


on security will widen the personnels horizon, security
wise, and probably make him more security conscious and
disciplined.
Definition of Document

121

Any recorded information regardless of its physical


form or characteristics, including but not limited to the
following: 1) written matters whether handwritten, printed
or typed; 2) all painted, drawn or engraved matters; 3) all
sound and voice recordings; 4) all printed photographs and
exposed or printed films, still or moving; and 5) all
productions of the foregoing for whatever purpose.
Definition of Classified Matter
Information or material in any form or of any nature,
the safeguarding of which is necessary in the interest of
national
security.
The
term
classified
military
information or classified police information includes all
information concerning documents, cryptographic devices,
developments, projects, and materials.
Four Categories of Classified Matter
1.

Top Secret

Information and materials the unauthorized disclosure


of which would cause exceptionally grave damage to the
nation, politically, economically, or from a security
aspect. This category is reserved for the nations closest
secrets and is to be used with great reserve. It is covered
with legal size bond paper lined with inch green border.
2.

Secret

Information and material the unauthorized disclosure of


which would endanger national security, cause serious injury
to the interest or prestige of the nation or of any
governmental activity or would be of great advantage to a
foreign land. It is covered with legal size bond paper lined
with inch red border.
3.

Confidential

Information and material the unauthorized disclosure of


which, while not endangering the national security would be
prejudicial to the interest or prestige of the nation or any
government
activity,
or
would
cause
administrative

122

embarrassment or unwarranted injury to an individual or


would be of advantage to a foreign nation. It is covered
with legal size bond paper lined with inch blue border.
4.

Restricted

Information
and
material
which
requires
special
protection other than that determined to be TOP SECRET,
SECRET, or CONFIDENTIAL. Cover sheet is not necessary, what
is important is a bold RESTRICTED word at the top and at
the bottom of the bond paper.
Definition of Need-to-Know and Compartmentation
Need-to-know is the term given to the requirement that
dissemination of classified document and information be
limited strictly to those persons whose official duty
requires
knowledge
or
possession
thereof,
while
compartmentation is the granting of access to classified
document or information only to properly cleared persons
when such classified document or information is required in
the performance of their official duties, and restricting it
to specified physical confines when feasible.
Definition of Security Officer
A properly trained and cleared individual who assists
the
head
of
the
department
in
discharging
the
responsibilities of safeguarding classified documents and
materials.
Definition of Regrading or Declassify
The act of changing the assigned classification of a
document or material, and as part of the process, it
involves notification of cognizant authority.
Definition of Upgrading or Classify
to

Classify is the assigning of an information or material


one
of
the
four
security
classifications
after

123

determining that such information or material requires


security protection, while upgrading is the changing of the
classification of classified matter to a category higher
than that previously assigned to it.

124

REVIEW QUESTIONS

POLICE INTELLIGENCE & SECRET SERVICE


==================================================================
INSTRUCTIONS: Select the correct answer for each of the following
questions.
1.
It is the product resulting from the collection, evaluation,
analysis, integration, and interpretation of all available
information which is significant to police planning.
A.
C.

intelligence
information

B.
D.

police intelligence
military intelligence

2.
It is an evaluated material of every description including
those derived from observation, reports, rumors, imagery, and
other sources from which intelligence are derived.
A.
C.

classified matters
information

B.
D.

classified documents
reports and records

3.
These are intelligence data that are not of an immediate
value.
A.
C.

line intelligence
false intelligence

B.
D.

strategic intelligence
counter intelligence

4.
It is the exploration of sources of information by the
collection agencies, and the delivery of the information obtained
to proper intelligence unit.
A.
C.

collection
dissemination

B.
D.

processing
direction

5.
It is a repetitive process used to produce intelligence from
information.
A.
C.

intelligence effort
intelligence work

B.
D.

intelligence activity
intelligence cycle

6.
The reliability of the source is highly reliable and the
accuracy of information is confirmed information what will be
the evaluation rating of the information.

125

A.
C.
7.

A-1
C-3

B.
D.

B-2
D-4

He is the father of organized military espionage.


A.
C.

Akbar
Genghis Khan

B.
D.

8.
It is in this phase of
information becomes intelligence.
A.
C.

collection
dissemination

B.
D.

Frederick the Great


Alexander the Great
intelligence

cycle

in

which

processing
direction

9.
It includes the systematic exploitation of all sources of
information.
A.
C.

collection
processing

B.
D.

dissemination
direction

10. Are those items of information regarding criminals or


subversives, and that needs to be collected and/or processed in
order to meet the intelligence requirements of police executives.
A.
C.

other information
requirements
orders and request

B.
D.

priority intelligence
requirements
intelligence indicator

11. It is the timely conveyance of information and or


intelligence in any appropriate form and by any suitable means.
A.
C.

collection
dissemination

B.
D.

processing
direction

12. It is the observation of a person, place or thing, generally


but not necessarilyin unobtrusive manner.
A.
C.

informant operation
surveillance

B.
D.

undercover operation
intelligence activities

13. Also called as a plant or fixed surveillance, here the


surveillant remains essentially in one position or locale.
A.
tail gating
B.
stakeout
C.
convoy
D.
undercover
14. The term roping described this situation, and it is said to
be planted.

126

A.
C.

undercover
stakeout

B.
D.

shadow
convoy

15. The subject is kept under constant surveillance, and the aim
is not to loose him even at the risk of being made.
A.
C.

close surveillance
open surveillance

B.
D.

loose surveillance
mustard plaster

16. It is a surveillance involving the use of scientific devices


to enhance hearing or seeing the subjects activities.
A.
C.

tailgaiting
mustard plaster

B.
D.

stakeout
technical surveillance

17. To be detected or suspected of being surveillant by the


subject.
A.
C.

be made
shadow

B.
D.

burn out
convoy

18. It is a devise which provides a means


arrangement of information by type of subject.
A.
C.

intelligence journal B.
intelligence workbook D.

of

systematic

enemy situation map


order of battle

19. It is not usually a major factor in prompting an individual


to furnish information, but is can be potent at times.
A.
C.

gratitude
emotions

B.
D.

civic duty
mercenary

20. It is an individual who openly or secretly obtained or who


assist in obtaining information for intelligence and counterintelligence purposes.
A.
C.

informant
eye witness

B.
D.

source
intelligence asset

21. Individuals who are selected, trained and utilized as


continuous covert sources of information concerning specific
intelligence aspects.
A.
casual informant
B.
recruited informant
C.
automatic informant
D.
incidental informant
22. Individuals who are simultaneously employed by two opposing
intelligence agencies with one of the agencies aware of his dual
role.

127

A.
C.

dual agents
informers

B.
D.

double agents
informants

23. It is a means by which individual, groups or organization


conceals the true nature of its activities and existence from
observer.
A.
A.

surveillance
intelligence

B.
D.

cover assignment
undercover assignment

24. It is an individual who provides information because of


monetary consideration.
A.
C.

informer
eye witness

B.
D.

source
informant

25. It is an inquiry into the specific phases of an individual


life history, including to a minimum, national agency check,
character reference, and former employers.
A.
C.

local agency check


partial background
investigation

B.
D.

national agency check


complete background
investigation

26. It is an inquiry into the loyalty, integrity, character,


morale, and discretion of an individual because of the sensitive
position he holds, or is about to assume.
A.
C.

personnel security
investigation
partial background
investigation

B.
D.

complete background
investigation
national and local
aqency check

27. This is an information or materials whose unauthorized


disclosures would cause grave damage to the security.
A.
C.

restricted
secret

B.
D.

confidential
top secret

28. When a surveillants behavior causes the subject to surmise


or know that he or she is under surveillance.
A.
C.

be made
burn out

B.
D.

burn the surveillance


all of the above

29. This letter represent that the source of intelligence


information is from tactical interrogation of captured enemy.

128

A.
C.

U
W

B.
D.

V
X

30. Information or material in any form, or of any nature, the


safeguarding of which is necessary in the interest of national
security.
A.
C.

documents
security clearance

B.
D.

classified matters
vital information

31. It is the act of changing the assigned classification of a


document or material.
A.
C.

classify
classification

B.
D.

declassify
compartmentation

32. It is the assigning of an information or material to one of


the four security classification.
A.
C.

classify
classification

B.
D.

declassify
compartmentation

33. A properly trained and cleared individual who assist the


head of the department in discharging the responsibilities of
safeguarding classified documents and materials.
A.
C.

intel. operatives
security officer

B.
C.

undercover agent
confidential agents

34. It is the term given to the requirement to those persons


whose official duty requires knowledge of possession thereof.
A.
C.

compartmentation
cleared individuals

B.
D.

need-to-know
security officer

35. It is the granting of access to classified document or


information.
A.
C.

compartmentation
cleared individual

B.
D.

need-to-know
security officer

36. Information and material which requires special protection,


and this not anymore required cover sheet.
A.
restricted
B.
confidential
C.
secret
D.
top secret
37. Information or material the unauthorized disclosure of which
would cause administrative embarrassment of unwarranted injury.

129

A.
C.

restricted
secret

B.
D.

confidential
top secret

38. Information or material the unauthorized disclosure of which


would endanger national security and will cause serious injury.
A.
C.

restricted
secret

B.
C.

confidential
top secret

39. Information or material the unauthorized disclosure of which


would cause exceptionally grave damage to the nation.
A.
C.

restricted
secret

B.
D.

confidential
top secret

40. It is any recorded information regardless of its physical


form or characteristics.
A.
C.

classified document
information

B.
D.

document
material

41. Information or material in any form, the safeguarding of


which is necessary in the interest of national security.
A.
C.

classified document
information

B.
D.

document
material

42. That aspect of police intelligence activities relating to


all security measures, both offensive and defensive.
A.
C.

counter-intelligence
strategic intel.

43. Counter
intelligence
information from enemy.
A.
C.

B.
D.

measures

active-offensive
counter-intelligence

B.
D.

line intelligence
intelligence
that

seek

to

conceal

passive-defensive
intelligence

44. Counter intelligence measures that seek to block the enemys


effort to engage in espionage, sabotage or subversion.
A.
active-offensive
B.
passive-defensive
C.
counter-intelligence D.
intelligence
45. It encompasses measures taken by an office or group to
protect itself against espionage, enemy observation, sabotage, or
subversion.
A.

police security

B.

civil security

130

C.

special operation

D.

censorship

46. It encompasses active and passive counter-intelligence


measures affecting civilians permanently or temporarily residing
in an area under police or military jurisdictions.
A.
C.

police security
special operation

B.
D.

civil security
censorship

47. It is the employment of active-counter intelligence


techniques and procedures in the conduct of clandestine or covert
operations.
A.
C.

police security
special operation

B.
D.

civil security
censorship

48. It is the control and examination of communications to


prevent the transmission of information that may fall to the hand
of the enemy.
A.
C.

police security
special operation

B.
D.

civil security
censorship

49. It includes all the security measures designed to prevent


unsuitable individuals or persons of doubtful loyalty.
A.
C.

background invest.
counter-intelligence

B.
D.

personnel security
neighborhood check

50. It is an inquiry into the character, reputation, discretion


and loyalty of an individual.
A.
C.

Personnel Security
Investigation
Partial Background
Investigation

B.
D.

Complete Background
Investigation
all the above given
answers

51.
It is any position within the government, police, military,
the occupant of which could bring about by virtue of the position
a material adverse effect to national security.
A.
C.

sensitive position
security officer

B.
D.

confidential agent
intelligence authority

52. This is an investigation of an individual made upon the


basis of written information supplied by him in an official
inquiry.
A.

local agency check

B.

national agency check

131

C.

partial background
investigation

D.

complete background
investigation

53. This is a type of investigation which consists of written


inquiries sent to appropriate local government agencies.
A.
C.
54.

local agency check


partial background
investigation

B.
D.

national agency check


complete background
investigation

This is much more comprehensive investigation.


A.
C.

local agency check


partial background
investigation

B.
D.

background investigation
complete background
investigation

55. Consist
of
the
investigation
on
the
background
of
individual, particularly all the circumstances of his personal
life.
A.
C.

local agency check


partial background
investigation

B.
D.

national agency check


complete background
investigation

56. Consist of the investigation of the background of an


individual, but limited only to some of the circumstances of his
personal life.
A.
C.

local agency check


partial background
investigation

B.
D.

national agency check


complete background
investigation

57. It is valid for five years unless sooner revoked by the


issuing authority.
A.
C.
58. These
EXCEPT:

interim
security clearance
are

the

purpose

B.
D.
of

final
not of the above
police

intelligence

activity,

A.
to reduce error
B.
to conceal identify
C.
to increase accuracy D.
to help in decision making
59. It is primarily designed to enable the officer of unit to
achieve and maintain a sound and effective security system.
A.
C.

security educ.
scty. indoctrination

B.
D.

security orientation
security reminders

132

60. This consists of initial briefing on security, its various


aspects, and its importance and it is made to the new personnel
and employees.
A.
C.

security education
scty. indoctrination

B.
D.

security orientation
security reminders

61.

It is the determination of the pertinence or significance of the


information relative to police operations.

A.
C.
62.

evaluation
interpretation

B.
D.

analysis
integration

The process of making conclusions from integrated intelligence

and/or information.

A.
C.
63.

integration
evaluation

B.
D.

assessment
deduction

It is the graphic representation of the current enemy situation.

A.
C.

intelligence journal
situation map

B.
D.

intelligence files
intelligence workbook

64. A cautious surveillance, because the loss of the subject is


preferred to possible exposure.
A.
C.

close surveillance
loose surveillance

B.
D.

open surveillance
mustard plaster

65. A surveillance with little or not attempt at concealment,


the subject is most likely aware of the surveillance, but must
not be lost.
A.
C.

close surveillance
loose surveillance

B.
D.

open surveillance
mustard plaster

66. The subject is followed so closely that surveillant and


subject are almost in lock step.
A.
close surveillance
B.
open surveillance
C.
loose surveillance
D.
mustard plaster
67. A form of open surveillance in which the subjects vehicle
is closely followed.
A.
C.

tech. surveillance
directional finder

C.
D.

tailgaiting
protective custody

133

68. Its functions is to serve as the intelligence and counterintelligence operating unit of the Philippine National Police.
A.
C.

Intel. Service, AFP


NICA

B.
D.

Police Intelligence Group


Directorate for Intel.

69. It is a difficult one, in all cases it must be a close one


or the person being followed will be lost.
A.
C.

leaf frog method


group method

B.
D.

one-man method
mixed method

70. It is a close tail, with other members of the squad keeping


contact with those immediately ahead of them.
A.
C.

leaf frog method


group method

B.
D.

one-man method
mixed method

71. This is close tail, and is necessary only when discovery is


preferable to losing the subject.
A.
C.

leaf frog method


group method

B.
D.

one-man method
mixed method

72. It is the visual inspection of an area, installation or


building to determine its suitability for operational activities.
A.
C.

surveillance
stake out

B.
D.

casing
mustard plaster

73. It is one of the principal activities of police intelligence


operations, and limited activities on this will usually produce a
limited intelligence product.
A.
C.

news clipping
de-briefing

B.
C.

liaison activities
counter-intelligence

74. The intelligence operatives are being asked


personal
experiences
and
observations
while
intelligence operations.

about his
conducting

A.
news clipping
B.
liaison activities
C.
de-briefing
C.
counter-intelligence
75. It is an important method of gathering intelligence data,
and this is an excellent source of highly valuable material.
A.
C.

news clipping
de-briefing

B.
C.

liaison activities
counter-intelligence

134

76. Those assigned with the mission of obtaining information


within a specific target.
A.
C.

penet. informants
ordinary informants

B.
D.

full time informants


incidental informants

77. Those that is available for counter-intelligence mission at


all times, and who may derive the major part of their income from
their work as informants.
A.
C.

penet. informants
ordinary informants

B.
D.

full time informants


incidental informants

78. Individuals who furnish information with no intention of


repeating his services or furnishing information on a continuing
basis.
A.
C.

penet. informants
ordinary informants

B.
D.

full time informants


incidental informants

79. A cover that is general in nature and relatively permanently


adopted to explain the work presence in any given area.
A.
C.

natural cover
living ones over

B.
D.

cover for status


cover for action

80. A cover designed to explain away or allow to perform a given


clandestine activity, it may be an extension of cover for status.
A.
C.

natural cover
living ones over

B.
D.

cover for status


cover for action

81. Agents must make sure that every public action he takes
fits his assumed cover, and that a total picture presented to
others accurately reflects his cover.
A.
C.

natural cover
living ones over

82. A cover which completely


capabilities of the agent.
A.
C.

natural cover
living ones over

B.
D.

fits
B.
D.

cover for status


cover for action

the

true

background

and

cover for status


cover for action

83. Using true or actual personal background to fit for the


purpose.

135

A.
C.

multiple cover
artificial cover

B.
D.

cover within a cover


natural cover

84. A cover using biographical data adopted for the purpose that
is fictitious.
A.
C.

multiple cover
artificial cover

B.
D.

cover within a cover


natural cover

85. It includes provisions for sufficient contact between the


undercover agent, and the target of interest to produce
worthwhile results.
A.
C.

continuous contact
safe departure

B.
D.

complete background
mutual interest

86. The cover story must include the material on all aspects of
the undercover agents previous background, regardless of whether
or not it is anticipated that this information will be required.
A.
C.

continuous contact
safe departure

B.
D.

complete background
mutual interest

87. Two kinds of opportunity must prevail if an individual is to


function as an informant, most often and the rest of the time, it
is provided by, EXCEPT:
A.
C.

motives
propinquity

B.
D.

chance
proximity

88. The undercover agent is required to develop friendship and


trust with the target personality for the purposes of obtaining
information or evidence.
A.
C.

dwelling
personal contact

D.
D.

social assignment
work assignment

89. It places the undercover agent in a type of employment where


he can observe the activities of the subject at his place of
work.
A.
C.

dwelling
personal contact

B.
D.

social assignment
work assignment

90. It is the process of evaluating the persons suitability for


a security clearance.

136

A.
C.

security clearance
compartmentation

B.
D.

background investigation
adjudication process

91. This is a form required to an


processed for a security clearance.
A.
C.

personal data sheet


curriculum vitae

B.
D.

92.

automatic informants B.
incidental informants D.

who

is

being

bio-data
personal hist. statement

Those by virtue of their official


obligated to furnish information openly.

A.
C.

individual

positions

are

expected

or

casual informants
recruited informants

93.

Individuals who by social or professional position, posses or has


access to information of continuing interest.

A.
C.

automatic informants B.
incidental informants D.

casual informants
recruited informants

94. This is a continuous and systematic program designed to meet


the security needs of the office or unit.
A.
C.

security education
scty. indoctrination

B.
D.

security orientation
security reminders

95. This is a phase of security education program which makes


use of security posters, slogans, signs and stickers.
A.
C.

security education
scty. indoctrination

B.
D.

security orientation
security reminders

96. This is a motive wherein persons hold belief inimical to


their country, and they are of course vulnerable to the approach
of the subversive groups or enemies.
A.
revenge
B.
material gain
C.
personal prestige
D.
ideological beliefs
97. On of the most powerful of motivations that make people
susceptible to pressure.
A.
C.

jealousy
B.
weakness of character D.

gullibility
serious indebtedness

98. It is an individual who accept every story at face value and


can see no wrong in anyone, and they fall into this category.

137

A.
C.

jealousy
B.
weakness of character D.

gullibility
serious indebtedness

99. Because of this, such a person, approached with the lure of


a large sum of money is very vulnerable and a definite security
risk.
A.
C.

jealousy
B.
weakness of character D.

gullibility
serious indebtedness

100. It is someone from the enemy side held as prisoner while the
war is going on.
A.
C.

prisoners of war
internee

B.
D.

enemy intelligence
captives

138

P A R T III
PATROL ORGANIZATION & OPERATIONS

139

CHAPTER
11
INTRODUCTION TO POLICE PATROL

Crime results from the existence of the elements of


crime, i.e., desire to commit the act, the capability of the
offenders, and the belief that the opportunity to do so
exist.
When the either factor is absent, criminal acts will
not be committed. The presence of the other two factors,
regardless of how strong it may be will not result in crime.
The elimination or reduction of these elements of
crime, therefore is a basic police duty. One task is to
prevent or eradicate criminality in the individual mind, and
the other is to embrace all security measures designed to
hamper or prevent criminal operation.
Brief History of Police Patrol
The
society.
animals,
protect
entrance

history of police patrol is as old as organized


Man has always needed protection, first from
and then from his own kind. His first attempt to
himself and his family involved barricading the
to his cave.

Then as mankind multiplied, they grouped together in


small communities and protection developed into a community
affair. As the communities enlarged, so theres a need for
developing a specialized group or agency to handle
protection. Warfare has always been a part of mans social
history, and since each community has had to have warriors
to carry out the task of war, the duties of police
protection usually involved night patrols of soldiers on the
town or city, and group of soldiers stationed at various

140

posts around the perimeter, and at major points within the


same town or city.
The key to the development of police patrol is closely
associated with the congestion of population, where the
population is spare or spread out, the justification of a
police patrol becomes less warranted. But as the towns
become cities and the cities grow in population, both the
justification and the need for a police patrol become
greater.
The word police originated from the Greek word
Politeia meaning government of a city. It applied to civil
officers and not necessarily policeman. The Romans changed
the word to Police and applied it to those persons who
actually enforced the law. Thereafter, the English and the
Americans borrowed the word intact from the French and used
it to describe a law enforcement terms which assimilated to
the English and American language were of the French origin.
The words, constable and patrol are likewise French.
Patrol is from the French Patroullier which means to go
through puddles. Even today with our modern patrol system.
The definition still attached well.
Nature of Police Patrol
As it used in most agencies today, police patrol
function embraces many other activities beyond the physical
act of patrolling the street.
Police patrol work involves the following:
1)

Extensive crime prevention;

2)

Public contact and social services duties;

3)

Criminal investigation;

4)

Traffic enforcement, and

5)
Any element of line activity carried out by beat
patrol or field personnel.
Primary Purpose of Patrol

141

1.
The elimination of the actual opportunity or the
belief in the opportunity for successful misconduct is the
basic purpose of police patrol.
2.
A thiefs desire and capability to steal is not
diminished by the presence of a patrol officer, but the
opportunity for successful thief is negated.
3.
The apparent likelihood of arrest influences the
desire to which the potential offender is convinced that the
opportunity for successful misconduct is absent.
4.
Police patrol provides favorable influence more
completely than any other methods of police service.
5.
An impression of omni-presence is frequently
created by conspicuous patrol activities at every hour and
in all sections of the community.
6.
Suitable patrol activities succeeds in effecting
immediate apprehensions, and since nothing succeeds like
success, reputation for quick and certain apprehensions is
spread by the press, radio and the word of mouth.
7.
The potential offender is then persuaded without
the necessity of personal experience that the police patrol
activities is invulnerable.
Effective Patrol Operations
To be effective, modern patrol officers must perform
three (3) major sphere of activity-often simultaneously.
There is no inherent priority among these functions:
1.
They must handle calls for service. When the
service involves genuine emergency, the call must be handled
when demand is received.
2.
Patrol officer must participate in tactical
responses to apprehend perpetrators, to displace or disrupt
problem patterns. These tactics must be undertaken when the
chance of success are greatest.

142

3.
Patrol officer must engage in strategic-problem
solving efforts with the community. These must occur when
neighborhood residents, workers, community agencies, and
other players are available to meet and work with the police
officers which are not swamped by calls requiring immediate
response.
How effective an organization adjusts and re-adjusts
its emphasis and activities in light of this ever-shifting
array of demands and opportunities largely determines the
potential effectiveness of its overall patrol operations.
Indispensability of Patrol
Patrol tagged as the backbone of the police
organization. This often said statement is very true since
the patrol division is the only division in the police
organization that cannot be possibly eliminated.
This is
for the reason that the traditional police organization are
usually small that they could not have or can not justify,
separate division such as traffic, investigation, juvenile
and other specialized areas.
Their size and caseload requires that all duties and
functions shall be handled only by the Patrol Division. But
even in those departments which have specialized divisions,
the Patrol Division is often the only one that performs
twenty four (24) hours duty.
As the department grows to keep up with the increasing
population, expanding geographical boundaries, and diversity
of the jurisdiction, the authorities will be in to hire
office personnel to take over the secretarial and recordkeeping functions in order to free policeman for their field
of responsibilities.
As the department continues to grow, officers are taken
out of the field to specialize in traffic investigation and
control, juvenile victim and perpetrators, plainclothes
detective activities, and all other specialized functions,
all the while adding to the patrol force, replacements for
the specialists.
In the meantime, the patrol force
continues to exist as the principal functional unit or
backbone of the department. It is also an indispensable

143

service that plays a leading role in the accomplishment of


the police purpose, because of the following reasons:
1.
It is the only form of police service that
directly attempts to eliminate opportunity for misconduct.
2.
It is also checks the development of desire for
misconduct by destroying unwholesome stimuli, and creating
wholesome one.
3.
It favorably influenced individual and group
attitudes in its routine daily association with the public.
In so far as the patrol activities fails to eliminate
desire, capability and opportunity, and misconduct results,
the patrol officer is immediately available with the
hereunder reactive police activities:
1)

To investigate offenses;

2)

To apprehend suspects; and

3)

To recover stolen properties.

Constant availability is important because time is of


the essence in most police work.
In addition to performing duties relating to incidents
of misconducts, the complete coverage provided by patrol
activities, makes it available for other activities, such
as:
1)
Patrol officer searches for and return lost
persons and properties, and informs and assist citizens;
2)
Patrol officer serves as the eyes and the ears of
the police organization by gathering information useful to
the police executives, to other branches of the unit, and to
other government agencies.

What is Police Patrol

144

To the layman, the word patrol suggest little more


than inspectional activity, whether carried out on foot,
mobile or some other way.
Importance of Police Patrol
1.
Patrol officer should be practical social workers
and encourage persons to come to them for assistance and
advice them in time of trouble.
2.
Distress situation are frequently a symptoms of
deep rooted social ills. That, if not corrected, may result
in criminal or other anti-social conduct and thus adversely
affect the remainder of the life of the individual.
By
giving assistance, advice and sympathy to those distress,
patrol officer help prevent wasted lives and also win
friendship and cooperation for the organization.
Classifications of Police Patrol
1.

Reactive Patrol

This is a patrol activity which consists of driving


around the district, waiting for something to happen. It is
not very different from the stereo-type old-time policemen
who just sit around in the station while waiting for calls.
The sensibility and affordability of this scheme is now
being questioned because of budgetary constraints and
skyrocketing prices.
2.

Proactive Patrol

An alternative patrol system which means the fielding


of
the
field
units
in
their
respective
area
of
responsibility with prescribed objectives and verifiable
tasks schedule of the day to augment the calls and other on
sight activities that makes up the patrol officers day.

Patrol Officer A Roving Representative

145

The
patrol
officer
is
the
ultimate
in
the
decentralization of police service.
He is the roving
government information and counter for the distress citizen
disgruntled by the inconvenience or trips to the government
offices, unsatisfactory telephone calls, and sometimes
apparent lack of attention to this complaint.
The constant availability and mobility of the patrol
officer make his services useful to other government
agencies, and he improves both public and interdependent
relationships by attending more immediately to citizens
needs.
The extent to which patrol officers will provide extra
police is determined by the local executives of the locality
and other of different government agencies.
When the essential character of patrol services is
understood, it is apparent that the patrol force is the
backbone of any police organization because of these
reasons:
1.
It is the only branch of police service that is
practically without limit in responsibility;
2.
Patrol service is able to perform other police
task if there is a need for special units;
3.
Patrol branch is indispensable and the unit which
carries this activity will continue to be the most important
single division of the police organization.
Police manpower is limited and increased specialization
usually results in a diminished patrol activities. Not only
are men drawn from patrol activities, but generally the most
competent are taken in the creation of specialized units.
In some instances, such action may be desirable, but the
indiscriminate transfer of the most capable patrol officer
from patrol to special units jeopardizes effective service.
Showing off competent patrol personnel by assigning
them to undercover and specialized positions will defect
both, while attempts to improve the image of the patrol
force.

146

What are Attractive Nuisances and Patrol Hazards


1.

Attractive Nuisances

It is known doctrine of law wherein an individual is


said to be maintaining on his premises, business or
residential a condition, instrumentality, machine, or other
agency that is dangerous to young children because of their
inability to appreciate peril, which may reasonably be
expected to attract children to such premises, and that one
therefore has a duty to the children, and the society in
general, to exercise reasonable care to protect against the
dangers of such attraction.
2.

Patrol Hazard

This term is frequently used to describe a specific


condition or place that requires the patrol officers
special attention.
The hazard may be a bar where fights
frequently occur.
It may be an abandoned digging filled
with stagnant water and used as a swimming hole by children
or an abandoned building or a haunted house used for illegal
activities.
Preparations During Patrol Operations
1.

General Preparation

The patrol officers value system must be in harmony


with the objectives of law enforcement and sense of fair
play. The first and foremost in his preparation for patrol
duty is attitude preparation.
As much as possible, his
attitude must be positive since many things around him and
so many people are so negative, that he will most likely end
up negative and depress.
2.

Pre-Patrol Preparation

Prior to going out on patrol, the patrol officer should


have knowledge about their tasks each day, there is usually
a fall-in formation at the police station or the police
block as the case may be, which is devoted to the giving of
specific assignments, vehicle to be used and partner, if

147

any, break and mealtime and patrol assignment.


Other
matters include new laws or court decisions affecting field
activities, changes in jurisdictional boundaries, general
and special orders from higher offices or the administration
and new techniques for the improvement of field personnel.
3.

In-Field Preparation

Whenever possible, the police officer who is to go out


on patrol should have a debriefing conference with the
officer who is being relieved and who had just spent the
previous tour of duty in the patrol district.
4.

Orientation Tour

Once in the field, the patrol officer should take a


general familiarization and inspection tour of his assigned
district in order to orient himself of its patterns and
characteristics.
Objectives of Patrol Operations
1.

Serve & Protect

Include the objectives of protecting lives and


properties, and providing all the other services which are
required or expected from police officers. This objective
may be effectively established by maintaining open line of
communication between the people and the officers who serve
them.
Included in this category are the functions of
police community relations.
2.

Participative Law Enforcement

Locally referred to as Community Oriented Policing


System (COPS), it is now being widely applied by the law
enforcement agency particularly in Metro Manila area.
Actually, the teamwork concept between the police and the
citizenry is not something new although it seems to be
something new although those are not aware of or have
forgotten the basic. Teamwork between the police and the
citizens will always be necessary in order that the law
enforcement functions may be performed effectively.

148

3.

Prevention of Criminal & Delinquency Behavior

This field objective is particularly aimed at ways and


means of reducing the desire to commit crimes.
It is a
police responsibility to be able to identify the would-be
offenders, delinquents and near-delinquents before an arrest
becomes necessary.
This is more regularly carried out by
the field officer in contacts with juveniles whose behavior
patterns are not so indelibly impressed and who might be
amenable to change. The police officer should take steps to
help the child to redirect energies into lawful and socially
accepted channels.
4.

Repression of Criminal & Delinquent Behavior

Repressions of crimes are generally accomplished


whether having officers present at specific locations
maintaining a highly visible profile or by publicizing a
highly active undercover operation.
In both cases, the
objectives are to cause people to decide not to commit
crimes for fear of being caught in the act. The theory is
based upon the assumption that people will not commit crimes
if they believe they are certain to be arrested.
This
repressive police activity is accomplished by making their
presence know in such a way that even when they are not in a
specific location a would-be felon will refrain from
misbehavior because of the likelihood that they will
suddenly appear from nowhere.
This is actually refers to
this phenomenon as police omni-presence.
5.

Identification & Apprehension of Offenders

Patrol officers are usually in a position to readily


identify obvious or suspected violation of the laws and to
take enforcement action immediately when possible. When a
policeman is assigned to investigate a complaint of a crime,
it is his responsibility to know what crime is or what is
not. He must initiate the investigation immediately, locate
and question victims and witnesses, protect the crime scene
and make every effort to locate and apprehend the suspect.
6.
Traffic Flow & Collision Reduction
Pedestrian and vehicle traffic must be free-flowing and
collision free so that people may move safely from one place
or another. The police objective is to determine the causes

149

of
congestion
and
to
relieve
it,
which
involves
investigation, and the five (5) Es of traffic management.
Factors that Determine Patrol Deployment
1.
Resident and transient populations, particularly
in the business sector, the university and tourist belt
areas. Some areas may double its population in the daytime
because of the transients while some may be virtually empty
during working hours on weekdays.
2.

Numbers of types of crimes and arrest.

3.

Locations of crimes and arrest.

4.

Traffic collision statistics and patterns.

5.
Locations of frequent incidents or hazards
requiring concentrated police coverage such as, sports
arenas,
stadium,
popular
nightspots,
bars,
theaters,
transportation terminals, or other places were people
usually gather.
6.
Disappropriate concentration of population, such
as widely separated single family residence versus the
heavily concentrated dwellings in the depressed areas.
7.
Socio-economic factors, people from the high
income groups tend to stay away from home more often than
the low income groups which has preference or without any
choice but to stay at home.
8.
Zoning plan of the city, relative locations of
business, industrial, residential and other types of zoning.
By their nature, certain types of businesses and industries
call for higher volumes of police service.

Factors to be Considered in Designating Patrol Districts


1.
Divide patrol districts that
handled by the assigned patrol officers.

can

be

suitably

150

2.
Separate the jurisdiction into very small segments
known as reporting districts to maintain complete records
on each districts.
3.
Group the
patrol districts.

reporting

districts

4.
Assign the patrol officers
proportionate needs of the districts.

to

into
the

contiguous
indicated

Reasons Why Frequent Change of Beat Undesirable


1.
The higher quality of patrol service results from
the permanent assignment of patrol officer to a particular
beat.
2.
Police hazard vary from one place to another, and
the resulting police duties consequently vary in nature from
beat to beat.
3.
Advantages may be taken of difference in abilities
and preferences of patrol officers by assigning them to
beats having duties for which they are best suited.
4.
Frequent beat changes prevent patrol officer from
becoming
well
acquainted
with
persons,
hazards
and
facilities on his beat.
5.
It is also interfere the continuity of service
because the investigation and disposition of cases sometimes
extend over several days and when the change is made, there
is a delay and sometimes, neglect in disposing this cases.
6.
Frequent changes of beat assignments make it
difficult to pinpoint responsibility for unsatisfactory
condition.
Principal Duties of Patrol Force
The principal duties of patrol force are:
1.
To prevent violations of statues and ordinances
and suppresses disturbances.

151

2.
To give relief information as the circumstances
requires.
3.
These are accomplished by active patrol on the
street in all areas and particularly those areas where crime
frequently occur.
An active patrol force in the locality
open guarantees an orderly government, carried out, if
possible by persuasion, if necessary by force.
Objectives of Patrol Force
The function of the police organization and its basic
purpose may be classified under six (6) headings:
1.

Prevention of crime.

2.

Suppression of criminal activity.

3.

Apprehension of criminal.

4.

Preservation of the peace.

5.

Regulation of non-criminal conduct.

6.

Protection of life and property.

These objectives cover a wide scope, and the operative


methods or procedure applied by patrol officer in their
achievement and are marked by even greater variety of range.
Activities of Patrol Forces
1.

Patrol and Observation

Patrol diminished the potential offenders belief in


the existence of an opportunity to successfully violate the
law.
The patrol officer must be constantly alert, while
moving about his beat, for conditions and things which may
facilitate or promote the commission of crimes and other
incidents that require police service.

152

Observation is the function that most completely


describes the patrol officers jobs. Most of his duties
depend on what he has observed.
2.

Control of Public Gatherings

The patrol officer is frequently assigned to public


meeting and assemblies, he may be sent to a regularly
scheduled meeting to maintain order at the entrances and
exits of the building, and to quell disturbances which may
occur, or he may be called upon to handle a spontaneous
gathering of citizens which was assembled on the street or
another public places for some particular purpose.
3.

Miscellaneous Field Service

The patrol officer performs a wide variety of public


services while on duty.
Some services are provided to
citizen who called to the station or approach the officer on
the street for assistance.
However, many are initiated by the officer himself by
observing a situation that requires his attention.
Since
the patrol officers primary duty is to prevent crime, his
first attention should be given to the security of persons
and property on his beat.
4.

Answering Calls

The patrol officer is dispatched to every conceivable


type of emergency such as:
accidents of every kind,
suicides, illness, including childbirth, fires, explosions,
and other assistance, and to know what is required in
particular situation.
When sent to the scene of the crime, he should arrest
the perpetrator or pursue him if apprehension seems likely,
take care of injured persons, safeguard physical evidences,
and recover stolen properties.
He is also called upon to
render wide services.
By these he should perform
cheerfully-as a good neighbor.
5.

Disposing of Minor Complaints

153

The patrol officer is called upon to serve a variety of


complaints that are non-criminal in character or that
involves minor violation, the more friendly the patrol
officer is with the people on his beat the more people
likely to go with him for advice and help when they are in
trouble.
6.

Investigation on Patrol

The patrol officer makes any investigation.


Some
relates to the complaints mentioned above; others grow out
of observation by the patrol officers on conditions or
situations on his beat that requires his attention.
7.

Preservation of Physical Evidence

Evidence which may be tampered with curious onlookers


or removed and destroyed by the companions or friend of the
violators must be preserved as nearly as possible on the
condition in which found.
The volume of evidence destroyed by carelessness of
policeman in many police organizations is falling. To allow
essential evidence to be altered or carried away by an
unauthorized person might cause the failure of a case
against the person charged.
8.

Arrest of Offenders

If the patrol officer observes the commission of a


crime, he may be able to arrest the offender at once. In
fact, this is his primary duty when he is called to scene of
a crime. Where he is the first officer to arrive, there may
be indication that the trail of the criminal is hot and
immediate pursuit is maybe a logical move.
In any event he is instantly on the alert for wanted
characters in order to take them into custody. In order to
carry out this function, he must be aware of the strategy of
arrest where resistance or escape is likely, and he must be
able to repel physical assault with a deadly weapon.
9.

Preparation of Reports

154

In order that the patrol officers observation and


investigation activities are to be the most productive it
must be documented and supported by complete and carefully
prepared reports.
Through out this volume, the value of
accurate and up-to-date records and statistical information
of police activities has been stressed.
Since the patrol officer is the primary contact man of
the police organization, it is up to him to provide the bulk
of the raw data from which adequate records can be prepared.
He will prepare a report, by typewrite or dictating
equipment, on the results of his investigations and the
action that he has taken. Frequently he will make follow-up
investigations and submit additional report on them.
10.

Testifying in Court

Patrol officer are often called upon to witness in


criminal case.
Sometimes, the patrol officer is only
witness to the commission of a crime, or he may have secured
important evidence.
Policy Concerning Distribution of Patrol Force
1.
Which calls for service will be handled completely
by telephone, and which one requires an officer to be sent
to the callers address?
2.
Which calls will be counseled out by advising
the calling party that the matter can better be handled by
another agency?
3.
To what extent will the officers become involved
in neighborhood quarrels and family disputes; advise
children regarding their school attendance and other
behavior
patterns;
give
advice
on
interpersonal
relationships; and undertake peacekeeping functions?
4.
What portion of the crime investigation will be
handled by patrol officers, and at what point will cases be
turned over to the specialist?
5.
What is the patrol officers role in
accident investigation and traffic law enforcement?

traffic

155

6.
To what extent will the officers be responsible
for building security in their districts that necessitate
their being away from their patrol units for extended
periods of time?
7.
How much of the public relations function of the
department will directly involved the patrol officers?
8.
What will be the reporting responsibilities of the
patrol officers?
9.
How will priorities be established
precedence to certain types of calls over others?

to

give

10. How are the supervisors and administrators used


for management of the patrol officers?
11. What types of forms and other documents must be
maintained as supervisory control devices over patrol
officersdaily logs, tally sheets, etc.?
Other Factors that Determine Deployment of Patrol Force
1.

Size of the jurisdiction and shape.

2.

Park and recreational facilities.

3.

Streets and highways.

4.
Locations and number of attractive nuisances,
including abandoned wells and mines, deserted buildings,
swimming pools, open holes, woods and sandpits.
5.

Age ratios of population.

6.
Male female
unmarried population.
7.
Homogeneity
populations.

ratios
and/or

and

married
mixture

8.
Modes
of
transportation
transportation terminals.

and

couples
of

versus

cultural

location

of

156

9.
Restaurants
clientele, and hours.

and

theaters;

volume

and

types

of

10. Known locations where criminal offenders live and


go for recreation.
11. Number and qualifications of officers available
for field duties.
12. Amount of trust and confidence of the people in
the police organization, which may influence the frequency
and type of calls for police service.
Types of Police Patrol
The most important function of police patrol is to
serve the organizations actual field contact with the
people, whether law abiding or criminal.
The types of
patrol refer to the various means of getting from one place
to another in the district.
None of them are intended to
isolate the patrol officers from the people they serve.
1.

Foot Patrol

Its methods consist of the fixed post, line beat, and


random patrol. Foot patrol is restricted to small areas and
is used to deal with special problems of prevention and
repression that cannot adequately handled by the officers in
patrol cars. Fixed foot patrol is usually used for traffic,
surveillance, parades and special events.
Moving foot
patrol is used where there is a considerable foot traffic,
as in business and shopping centers, bars, taverns, high
crime areas and special hazard areas and in place where
there are many multiple family dwellings.
Foot patrol is the most expensive type of patrol, and
most police organizations have reduced their foot patrols to
a minimum because of the expenses.
However, it does have
certain advantages that warrants its continued use if even
on a limited basis.
2.

Horse Patrol

157

Horse may be used for certain patrol problems in


jurisdiction that contain large park areas or similar places
where automobiles either cannot go or may be forbidden.
Mobile patrol cars cannot be expected to race scoured fields
or wooded areas, but horse provides the best mobility in
those situations.
3.

Bicycle Patrol

The bicycle patrol has been used in many countries as a


simple and inexpensive means of silent transportation to
carry police officers throughout their patrol districts.
Bicycle may be used for routine patrol to replace or augment
foot or mobile patrol under conditions that is more
practical than conventional modes of travel. The versatility
of bicycle made them indispensable for covering crowded
areas and places unreasonable for mobile patrol.
4.

Motorcycle Patrol

Primary used for traffic control and enforcement, their


speed and maneuverability make them indispensable police
vehicle.
5.

Bay & River Patrol

In some areas surrounded with water, including inland


waterways, various types of sea or water crafts may be
commissioned for police service especially where smuggling
of undocumented people becomes common.
6.

Air Patrol

Except for patrolling long sketches of highway or


expenses of inaccessible land, air patrol has very little
flexibility in congested metropolitan areas. They are
however excellent for traffic control in long stretches of
highways, and for search and surveillance, and other special
missions. The air patrol on the other hand, has the
advantage of being able to travel at low speeds, to cover if
necessary, and to land even in inaccessible areas because of
its special take-off and landing capabilities. It is useful
for rescue, medical evacuation, general patrol, criminal
apprehension, crime prevention and repression, emergency
transportation, surveillance and other activities.

158

7.

Mobile Patrol

The mobile patrol is the most extensively used and the


most effective means of transportation for police patrol.
Equipped with the latest kind of police gear, it provides a
rapid, safe, efficient means of transportation under average
operating conditions.
8.

Fixed Surveillance

Although not a means of transportation, it must not be


overlooked as a type of patrol. Usually accomplished either
in persons with the used of televisions cameras or monitors,
or stop-frame photography which makes it possible for the
police to watch several locations at the same time for
immediate response when necessary.
Various types of
listening and viewing devices are being used to supplement
routine patrol in line with the concept of pro-active
patrol.

159

CHAPTER
12
PATROL STRATEGIES AND TACTICS
===========================================================
Patrol Strategies in Crime Prevention
If the police are to continue to fulfill their basic
responsibilities to prevent crime and apprehend criminals,
which are the primary goals of patrol activities, then they
must continue to search for new and more effective
strategies.
Police department whether large or small, perform
patrol functions in many different ways and through the use
of a variety of methods.
No single patrol strategy will
work well in all cases or in every police jurisdiction
because their choice of particular patrol strategy, or
combination of strategies, to be applied will depend upon,
the following:
1.
The resources of the department involving men,
money and property.
2.
The particular crime problems, according to time
and place.
3.

The characteristics of the community.

4.
The imagination and determination of the police
executive and patrol officers on developing patrol programs
to meet the needs of his department and the community.
While it is true that the patrol officer cannot detect
the thinking desire of the criminal, yet, he can destroy the
opportunity to commit a crime by his ever presence patrol
strategy the psychological atmosphere of omni-presence.

160

The Strategic Objectives of Omni-Presence


The patrol officer to be seen alert and on constant
patrolling so as to establish a highly visible police
presence, hence, to make his presence psychologically be
felt in spite of his physical absence, hereby creating:
1.
A feeling of security on the part of the law
abiding citizen.
2.
A feeling of fear on the part of the would-be
violator.
3.
A feeling of confidence that the police are
constantly available to respond to any situation at a
moments notice.
Establishing the Police Presence
An effective strategy in crime prevention work is
constant and alert patrolling.
The patrol function, if
effectively implemented, is the most recognizable form of
police activity, furthering the community as well as being
in perception.
Traditional Patrol Pattern
In spite of a variety of other useful patrol methods
introduced by progressive police organizations abroad, some
of which are applicable to suit local condition, still the
traditional walking beat method is used in the countrys
policing system, because:
1.

Financial constraint.

2.
Lack of interest on the part of police executives,
administrators, commanders to initiate programs to improve
crime prevention techniques.
3.
The thinking of contemporary police officials are
more concerned on the glamorous crime fighting rather than
crime preventing.

161

Types of Patrol Pattern


The police manual and the list of patrol beats were the
bible.
It must be memorized if one has to stay in the
police service. Each beats has its corresponding numbers.
1.

The Clockwise Pattern

The objective of the clockwise patrol pattern at the


start of the eight (8) hours tour of duty is for the patrol
officer to survey the situation and condition of the
boundaries of his area of responsibility, for the next
forthcoming hours, his technique will be zigzag, counter
clockwise or the straight way and criss-cross pattern.
2.

Zigzag or Free Wheeling Pattern

This is done by patrolling the streets within the


perimeter of the beats, not at random, but with a definite
target location where he knows his presence is necessary,
this action is of course based on his study of the
situations and conditions of his beats.
3.

Straightway and Criss-cross Pattern

The straightway pattern is patrolling the length of a


street, and therefore, the easiest to observe the moment of
the patrol officer.
Whereas, the criss-cross is more or
less similar to zig-zagging.
What is important is that the moment techniques of a
patrol officer must have a purpose and objective, it is not
aimless nor at random. The observation of the patrol officer
must keenly be aimed at person and things, the sources of
hazards. It is the hazard which must immediately be remedied
and remove within the beat through appropriate police
action.
4.

Counter Clockwise Pattern

This technique is simply the reverse of clockwise


pattern. It is done at the last eight (8) hour tour of duty
in order to ensure that nothing unusual happened in his area
of responsibility.
An outgoing patrol officer must not
leave his beat unless properly relieved.

162

Considerations When Designing Patrol Beats


1.

The size of the area to be covered.

2.
Natural or man-made barriers, rivers, railroad,
tracks, major thoroughfares, bridges, buildings, etc. to
serve as boundaries.
3.

The average work load.

4.
The number of patrol officers to be assigned at
any one time.
5.
Different characteristics within the area such as
residential, commercial, financial, crime density, etc.
Considerations in Determining the Size of the Beat
1.

The type of area to be patrolled.

2.

The type of criminal activity that occurs in the

3.

The frequency of crime in the area.

area.

Advantages of Foot Patrol


1.
The foot patrol officers can provide immediate
traffic control when he is needed.
2.
public.

More person-to-person contact can be made with the

3.
The patrol officer can actually get to know the
physical layout of his beat later.
4.
He can get to know the people on his beat better,
and can develop criminal informants easier.
5.
A foot patrol officer can sneak up on a situation
where a patrol car is easily noticed when it approaches.

163

6.
By use of two-way radios, the foot patrol officer
can maintain communications with the station and mobile
patrol units.
Foot Patrol Procedures and Techniques
1.

Dont establish a set of patterns of patrol.

2.
When checking doors for forced entry, use
flashlights on the area around the lock to see if there are
fresh or noticeable latent prints.
3.

When an open door is found, never enter alone.

4.
At least once a night use the fire escape to check
the roofs in the commercial districts for possible cutthrough or roof-jobs as they sometimes happen.
5.
Since criminals need some device to assist them in
gaining entry, the foot patrol officers should be very alert
for boxes, ropes and ladders that might have been used to
gain access to a roof.
6.
At night, foot patrol officer should occasionally
step into an alley or store entrance, and get out of the
light as much as possible.
7.

Foot-care is a prime consideration.

8.
During bad weather condition, foot patrol officer
must also walk his beat, taking into considerations his
state of health by having with him the necessary clothing
and individual equipment.
9.
A foot patrol officer should make a conscious
effort to make friends on the beat, not only for good
police-community relations but to develop informants.
10. The foot patrol officer should never smoke while
in uniform on the street, nor should he chew gum.
11.

Use of all five (5) senses while walking the beat.

164

12. Foot patrol officer should plan strategies before


the problems takes place.
13. Improve face-to-face interactions with the members
of
the
community
to
improve
rapport
and
encourage
cooperation among the public.
Foot Patrol Tactics and Strategies
1.
Patrol officer should develop a friendly attitude
while on foot patrol because they perform community relation
tasks of the organization in addition to their usual patrol
duties.
2.
Maintaining a free flow of pedestrian traffic is
just as important as keeping vehicular traffic moving.
3.
When walking in the beat, patrol officer should
not develop a routine but should see to it that their area
is given sufficient coverage during their tour of duty.
4.
The entire of duty time of the patrol officer
belongs to the organization and to the people in general, it
should therefore spend accordingly.
5.
The patrol officer on beat should walk his beat
from one place to another so that it will appear to the
observer that he is patrolling and not loitering.
6.
Know the personalities in the area, particularly
the wanted persons, known felonies, drug users and pushers,
and the business establishments which usually fall prey to
armed robbery or burglary.
7.
When patrolling at nighttime, patrol officer
should always approach building with caution, always
assuming the possibility that a felon may be lurking inside.
8.
In patrolling, walk close to the curb during day
time and close to the building during night time.
The
reason offered for this is that the objective of daytime
patrol is to contact and to be seen by many people as
possible and the objective of nighttime foot patrol is to be

165

seen by few people as possible, and to catch criminals in


the act before they are aware of police presence.
9.
Patrol officer should keep in mind that police
patrol means service as well as protection, they should
never hesitate therefore, whenever practicable, to offer
their services in whatever way consistent with the purpose
of law enforcement.
10. When things are slow, the patrol officer should
plan strategies.
The Plainclothes Patrol
1.
This type of assignment is particularly effective
for saturation coverage of high crime area. It provides
extra coverage without alarming the occupants with an
unusual number of policeman.
2.
For this kind of patrol, policemen should dress to
fit the occasion and wear whatever clothing is the mode of
the day and fits the type of activity to be covered.
3.
The purpose of this patrol is two fold, first is
the gathering of information and police intelligence, and
second is to let businessmen in these areas know that the
police organization is present and aware of their problems.
4.
Another purpose of this group is to patrol the
downtown and skid row areas in plain clothes to develop
informants.
Advantages of Mobile Patrol
1.
Where speed and mobility are needed such as in
large area that must be covered by few foot patrol officers,
the speed of a mobile car allows them to service the whole
area and do so efficiently.
2.

It is one of the best means of preventive patrol.

3.

If offers protection to the police officer.

166

4.
It permits the patrol officer to carry necessary
equipment and clothing.
5.
The mobile car allows patrol officer to have a
partner when needed.
6.
In case of large patrol vehicle, it can be used as
emergency ambulance when disaster occurs, it can carry
larger pieces of evidences.
7.
blocks.

Mobile patrol can be used as barricades in road

Techniques and Procedure for Mobile Patrol Operation


1.
Check the mobile patrol thoroughly before leaving
the garage.
2.
As with the foot patrol officer, the beat should
not be traveled the same way each night.
3.
shops.

Dont spend too much time in drive-inns or coffee

4.

Do not drive too past on general patrol.

5.

During the normal patrol, observe the rules of the

road.
6.
The license plate numbers of
suspicious vehicles should be noted down.

all

strange

or

7.
Make it a habit not to leave the keys in the
mobile car.
8.
When working at nights, it is good idea to have
small snacks.
9.
Since we are creatures of habit, a patrol officer
must make it a habit to use seat belts at all times.
10. The patrol officer should learn the whereabouts of
all safes, safelights and outside lock of his beat.

167

11. A notebook or thickler should be carried at all


times in the mobile car.
12. If the beat contains factories and warehouses, the
mobile patrol officer should know what products they produce
or contain.
13. The mobile patrol officer must like the foot
patrol officer, always be on alert for possible informants.
Other Mobile Patrol Techniques and Strategies
1.
When on vehicle patrol, patrol officer should get
away of their car frequently in order to be visible and
accessible to the public. They should never use the car in
isolating themselves from the pubic they serve.
2.
When conducting solo patrol, frequent contact
should be made with communication personnel and other field
units.
When working in pairs or more, patrol officers
should work as a team for purposes of field contacts,
issuance of citations, checking open doors and responding to
calls for assistance.
3.
Operate the vehicle at normal speeds, consistent
with traffic conditions. A patrol officer is not of value
when driving a high speed.
4.
Patrol the district so that vehicle will be seen
by the greatest number of people, frequently turning corners
and covering the side streets as well as the main
thoroughfares.
5.
Whatever patrol pattern is being used, patrollers
should do it in irregular and unpredicted manner.
6.
The entire district should be given ample
attention with emphasis on those places that require special
attention because of high crime frequency.
7.
Always assume the possibility that a crime will be
committed in the most illogical places and at the most
unusual times of a day.

168

Tips in Driving a Patrol Car


1.
The use of seat belts/shoulder harness and the
safety devices installed in the patrol car should be
habitual among patrol officers. Not only they are installed
for personal safety, but of the people who have been cited
for failure to wear safety belts and children see that
policeman themselves are not using it, their credibility
would suffer.
2.
Keep awake. Driving at nighttime and during the
early morning hours often becomes monotonous. To drive away
sleepiness, the patrol officer may open the car windows for
fresh air, talk out loud occasionally, move eyes frequently
while along a straight stretch of road. Stop the car once
in a while, step out and flex muscles to stay awake.
3.
Set an example to other motorists by obeying all
traffic laws particularly the traffic lights/signals, speed
limits and the general rules of the road.
4.
Patrol vehicles should always be parked in a legal
manner unless an emergency condition exists.
Car keys
should not be left in their ignition, since criminals are
capable of resorting to anything even at the least expected.
Things to be Considered Before Driving a Patrol Car
At any time the patrol officer assumes control of the
assigned vehicle for his tour of duty, he must inspect and
make sure of the following:
1.

Clean windows and windshield.

2.

Adequate gasoline and correct oil level.

3.

Tire pressure and breaks.

4.

Possible engine malfunctions.

5.

Special weapons and equipment kept in car trunk.

6.
Rescue and first aid equipment, including fire
extinguisher.

169

7.

Emergency lamps, sound equipment, including siren.

Advantages of the Two-Man Patrol Cars


1.
A two man patrol car provides the officer with a
greater safety factor by doubling the firepower and the
physical protection, it prevents trouble in many case.
2.
The mistake that one man makes may be caught by
his partner, and vice versa.
3.
One officer does not have to drive a full eight
hours, and he is therefore more rested and can do a better
job.
4.
5.
drives.

Two pair of eyes are better than one.


One man can operate the radio while the other

6.
On quiet nights the driver can have someone to
talk to and help keep him awake.
Advantages of One Man Patrol Cars
1.
The preventive enforcement is doubled by having
twice as many police cars on the street.
2.
When the officer is alone, he devotes his full
attention to his driving and the beat rather than to the
conversation with his partner.
3.
In a two man car, the officers begin to rely on
each other, and a result of human error, an officer expects
support when it isnt there.
4.
In the two man car, an officer will take more
chances than if they are alone.
5.

Personality classes are reduced.

170

Common Purpose of Horse Patrol


1.

Park Patrol

In most parks of any size, there are trails that are


too narrow, steep and winding for automobile patrol, or even
jeep patrol. In parks of this sort, there is a great need
for a horse patrol because of the great number of deviates
who congregates in order to pick each other up, or to molest
the children who play in the park.
2.

Beach Patrol

In many areas containing large beaches, it has been


found that the horse patrol is quite suitable. The sand and
water make vehicle patrol difficult.
3.

Posse and Search Duty

Any community that is close to, or part of a


mountainous area has the problem of chasing down escaped
persons who have fled to these areas, the mounted posses is
undoubtedly the best means of locating these persons when
used in conjunction with air patrol.
4.

Parade and Crowd Control

Horses have been used for parade and crowd control for
centuries.
The height and size of horses has a strong
psychological advantage in dealing with unruly mobs.
Advantages of Air Patrol
1.
service.
2.

Improved

response

time

to

emergency

Increased apprehension of offenders.

Disadvantages of Air Patrol


1.

Bad weather will ground the helicopter.

calls

for

171

2.
Fogs and night or intermittent clouds might affect
the vision.
3.
This type of patrol requires special skills and
training.
4.
There is danger from high tension wires, trees and
similar objects.
5.

There can be difficulty in landing urban areas.

6.
Pilots are suffering from fatigue, and must work
shorter periods of time than regular shifts.
7.
8.
repair.

Refueling problems.
Special facilities are required for housing and

9.
There are many tactical problems to overcome such
as location of police units on ground and the exact
locations or address of the police stations from the air.
10. Adverse public reaction due to fear of spying
from the sky or just simple objection of the noise
involved.
11. Criminals
surprise is lost.

can

see

the

helicopter

coming

and

The Bicycle Patrol


1.
It can cover areas that are not accessible by
patrol cars, or are too widespread to be patrolled on foot.
2.
It has the combined advantage of mobility and
stealth because the bicycle can be operated very quietly and
without attracting attention.
3.
It is found to be highly effective in combating
theft, robbery, vandalism on residential areas, parks,
shopping malls.

172

4.
It is also being effectively used by plain clothes
patrol officers for surveillance in high crime areas wherein
the officers wear non-descript clothes to blend with the
apparel commonly worn by criminals and hoodlums.
Bay and River Patrol
1.
Marine or water patrol units, aside from being
highly specialized form of police patrol, it is likewise
expensive to maintain,
2.
The objective was to use the watercraft in the
anti-smuggling operation along rivers and bays, as well as
against robberies committed on bonded warehouse located
along the river bank.
3.
However, because the expenses occurred in
operation and maintenance it did not compensate
advantages, police-wise it becomes inoperative.
Necessity
Patrol

of

Foot

Patrol

its
the

Even in the Presence of Mobile

1.

Inspection may necessitate foot patrol.

2.

Frequency of patrol may necessitate foot patrol.

3.

Offender made submissive.

4.

Supervision is simplified.

Factors to be Considered in Shifting Patrol Officer


1.

Promotional device.

2.
Physical and domestic welfare of patrol personnel
requires that they works regular hours.
3.
Permanent
shifts
greatly
facilitate
having
different numbers of men in its shift in proportion to work
load.

173

4.
Most efficient patrol service is attained by the
patrol officers until such time as the quality and the need
for his service justify his transfer.
Duties and Responsibilities of Beat Patrol Officers
1.
He shall be ready at all times to perform his
duties and obey the lawful orders of his superior officers
or higher authority.
2.
He shall be responsible for the efficient
performance of his duties and adequate coverage of his beat
or post.
3.
He shall cooperate and coordinate with other
members of his relief, district or other division segments
so that their teamwork may insure continuity of purpose and
maximum achievement of the objectives of the department.
4.
He shall be available for duty at all times in
case of special needs and emergencies.
5.
He shall respond readily and report punctually to
all his assignments.
6.
He
shall
familiarize
himself
administrative and operational policies of
station.

with
all
the police

7.
He shall execute the service program within his
area
of
responsibility
providing
crime
prevention,
protection
of
life
and
property,
apprehension
and
prosecution of offenders, preservation of peace and
enforcement of regulatory measures.
8.
He shall be in prescribed uniform and have the
required equipment whenever he reports for duty.
9.
He shall be attentive to instructions and record
information given during the briefing or roll call training
and shall likewise record his activities during his tour of
duty in the prescribed manner.

174

10. He shall, unless otherwise ordered, report to his


superior for inspection and instruction at the conclusion of
his tour of duty.
11. When on patrol, he shall be constantly alert,
observing everything that takes place within his sight or
hearing. He shall not hold conversations with anyone except
in the discharge of his duty.
12. At night time, he shall exercise close vigilance
by watching and frequently examining and trying accessible
doors or entrances and windows of commercial or public
buildings, including vacant or unoccupied houses on his
beat.
He shall promptly investigate all suspicious
circumstances he may encounter.
In like manner, he shall
check all uninhabited buildings or dwelling places in the
day time.
13. As far as practicable, he shall exert efforts to
know the identities and other circumstances of permanent
residents of the area assigned to him and shall keep track
of movements of the newcomers or strangers transferring to
or merely loitering in the place.
He shall report his
findings without delay.
14. He shall take note of vehicles parked by day or
staying overnight in the different streets of his beat,
recording their plate numbers, and whenever possible, the
owners thereof and/or drivers or operators.
15. He shall undertake close surveillance over the
movements of suspicious persons and vehicles and keep record
of his observations for ready use when the need arises.
16. He shall take note and report all known suspected
places of vice, such as gambling dens, houses of ill-repute,
opium dives, hide-outs of persons of doubtful conduct and
places frequented by vagrants.
17. He shall keep himself informed of the places in
his area where violations are known or reputed to exist, and
he shall plan and take necessary action, duly advising his
superior officer as to the steps being taken.

175

18. He shall at all times, whenever in uniform, keep


his official badge properly displayed and courteously give
his name and badge number when duly requested to identify
himself.
19. He shall, in the event of any disturbances of the
peace within his beat or in its immediate vicinity, proceed
to the particular spot and exert efforts to restore order.
If a crime has been committed and offender can placed under
custody, he shall take immediate steps to bring him to the
police station. He shall endeavor to save life and protect
or preserve the crime scene until the arrival of the
investigator.
20. He shall not leave his beat until properly
relieved, except when required by the exigencies of the
service and for unavoidable reasons. He shall keep record
of the same in his memorandum book indicating the time he
left his beat, the reason for leaving and the time he
returned and resumed control of duty.
21. He shall take care of lost children by taking them
to the residence of their parents, if located within or near
the vicinity of his beat and shall promptly notify his
station of such action. If the residence is not known or at
some distant location, he shall take such necessary action
as may be required by the circumstances.
He shall be
observant of school children who are not in classes during
the proper hours, and after making inquiries, as to the
reasons therefore shall take appropriate action on any case
of truancy which may come to his notice.
22. He shall take note of all the obstructions in the
streets or sidewalks from which accidents may occur,
removing them when practicable. He shall also take
appropriate action on all nuisances and other matters
affecting the safety and convenience of the public or the
interest of the city and/or municipality.
23. He shall exercise vigilance in order to prevent
fire or avoid waste of water; take note of all garbage, dead
animals or other offensive matters thrown into the streets
and shall take appropriate action thereon.

176

24. He shall in order to summon aid, give three (3)


blasts with the whistle and in extreme emergency, he may
discharge his firearm in the air.
25. He shall familiarize himself with the location of
the street traffic signs, and if he sees them misplaced or
tampered with in any manner, he shall rectify the same. If
such signs are missing from their proper location, he shall
make proper report of such fact to his superior.
26. While on patrol duty, he shall not enter any bar,
nightclub, thereafter or any other place of amusement or
business except in the strict discharge of his duty.
27. He shall have an official note book in which he
shall enter the names of persons taken into custody by him
and such important particulars in each case as may be
necessary as well as other pertinent information and matters
relative to the discharge of his official
duties.
Such
memorandum book shall be subject to inspection by his
superior officers at any time.
28. He shall endeavor to be familiar with the bus
lines, the location of streets, public buildings and
offices, hospitals, courts, transportation offices and
depots, industrial plants, highways and boundaries thereof
and of the national provincial and municipal officials and
such other matters pertaining to the government of the city
or municipality, as this will enable him render intelligent
and helpful information and assistance when requested.
29. He
shall
perform
such
other
duties
and
responsibilities that may be assigned to him by his superior
officers or higher authority.
Duties of Police Officers Assigned to Patrol Cars
1.
He shall operate the patrol car at moderate rate
of speed and in such manner that will enable him to observe
any condition or occurrence in his patrol beat which may
require police attention.
He shall adhere to the method
prescribed for foot patrolmen, except as may be otherwise
directed.

177

2.
Unless otherwise directed, he shall report for
roll call at his station at the prescribed time. He shall
report hourly to the base control operator of such time as
may be assigned by his superior officer.
3.
He shall patrol his assigned beat
paying particular attention to critical areas.

regularly,

4.
He shall exercise judgment and care with due
regard to the safety of life and property when responding to
an emergency call.
5.
He shall be in proper uniform when on duty, unless
otherwise directed by his commander.
6.
He shall perform
assigned to him by his
authority.

such other duties


superior officers

as may be
or higher

178

CHAPTER
13
TECHNIQUES IN PURSUIT OPERATIONS
===========================================================
Introduction
Protection of life and property, which applies to
pursuit operations, included the lives of and property of
the individual being pursued, the officer, and any innocent
people who might become involved in a traffic accident a
direct result of the hot-pursuit operations. At sometime
during the pursuit operations, it may be necessary to
abandon the pursuit operations to uphold this police
responsibility. Consider also the likelihood that the driver
of the pursued vehicle will slow down to a normal speed once
he makes good his escape. Or will continue to jeopardize the
life of everyone who gets his way. There are many times when
circumstances may dictate the abandonment of the pursuitoperations.
Advantages of Patrol Officer in Pursuit Operations
1.
Police communications for tactical operations such
as interceptions and roadblocks can be made available.
2.

Numerical superiority.

3.
The officer has a better knowledge of the streets
and the general area.
4.
The officer has more experience and skill at high
speed driving.

179

Disadvantages of Criminals Being Pursued


1.
The pursued is under more pressure to escape and
make decisions.
2.
Unless the person is drunk or under the influence
of drugs, they are usually emotional and scared, and will
take more chances.
3.
If the pursued driver is under the influence of
drug or alcohol, his senses and reactions will be affected.
4.
Because of watching movies and television, the
suspect has the added fear that he will be shot.
5.
The siren and red lights tend to make the suspect
think that the police car is closer than it really is, and
that it is going much faster than it really.
Pointers During Pursuit Operations
1.
begins.

Notify

headquarters

immediately

when

the

chase

2.
Weigh the seriousness of the violations against
the possibility of wrecking the police car and causing self
injury.
3.
Do not actually begin the chase until the safety
belt is on the secure.
4.
Dont pursue a vehicle if you are carrying
passengers or prisoners unless it is in dire emergency.
5.
Dont make quick starts or dig-out when first
starting a chase.
6.
When not actually accelerating, keep your foot on
top of the brake without depressing it.
7.
Take into consideration the condition of the road,
the degree of traffic and the weather when chasing a
suspected vehicle.

180

8.
Plan
when
a
car
is
intersection that is approached.

entering

each

blind

9.
Keep radio control informed of each change in
direction so that other police cars may be directed to a
proper interception.
10. Dont use the siren unless you are the immediate
chasing car.
11. Dont accelerate on oil slicks, ice or slippery
parts of the road.
12. If you have partner, let him do the radio
broadcasting, have him sweep the approaching intersections
with the spot light if it is at night.
13. When approaching another vehicle from behind, slow
down gradually before actually arriving just behind him.
14. Give all cars ahead plenty of forewarning when you
are about to pass them.
15. If at all possible, avoid passing other vehicles
at intersections.
16.

Dont brake on turns.

17. When going into a turn at high speeds, accelerate


slightly.
18. If there is a strong wind blowing, plan on the
police vehicle swerving sharply when passing a large trucks
or when going into an underpass, because these act as wind
blocks, and have the same effect as if a person leaning
against you with his arm, and then suddenly pulled his arm
away.
19. If the suspect begins firing at your vehicle, be
very cautious on returning the fire.
20. In a long chase, the accelerator should not be
given full throttle for a long period of time.

181

21. In a long highway chase, the siren, if is not the


electronic type, should be used sparingly or it can burn
out.
22. If the officer sees that he is about to collide
with an oncoming vehicle, it would be better, if possible,
to run off the road, since it would result in less impact
than colliding with an oncoming vehicle.
23. An officer often forget to use turning signals
during a chase because his whole attention is centered on
the chase, it must not be forgotten at all times
Prime Considerations in Stopping the Vehicle
1.

As few escapes routes as possible.

2.

As little traffic hazard as possible.

3.

As little populated as possible.

Tips Before Getting Out of the Police Car


1.
Always call in the license plate number of all
vehicles stopped, and be sure to include a description of
the vehicle.
2.
As a routine matter, check all vehicles stopped
against the hot sheet, and give the radio operator a chance
to check the license number through their master files
before getting out of the car.
3.

Keep an eye on the driver of the stopped vehicle.

4.
If it is at night, turn-on spotlight on the
subject rear view mirror only when the vehicle was stopped.
Procedures in Approaching the Stopped Vehicle
1.

Check the trunk during the approach.

182

2.
Check the back seat and the floorboard during the
approach.
3.
If it is at night, the flashlight should be held
in the club position than the carrying position.
4.
Stop just before the doorpost and check for the
ignition key.
5.

Do not go further than the doorpost.

Methods of Stopping a Suspected Vehicle


1.

First Method

When the traffic is heavy, or the officer is alone in


the car, it is sometimes best not to park the vehicle out in
the traffic lane or too close to the suspect vehicle.
In
case of this sort, the police vehicle should park directly
behind the suspected vehicle, with the left rear slightly
jutting out toward the traffic.
This will offer a little protection for the officer
from passing traffic.
In the case of one man car, it
prevents the suspect from seeing how many officers are
actually in the vehicle.
At night this method has the
advantage of allowing both spotlights to be placed along the
side of the suspect vehicle.
The headlights should be on
high beam to increase the visibility into the suspects
vehicle.
2.

Second Method

The purpose of this method of stopping the suspect


vehicle is to provide the officers with some means of
physical barrier. In this case, the police car is turned in
at an angle behind the suspect car, so that the front left
end of the police car is jutting out in the traffic lane.
In this way, the driver can use the hood of the car for
a barrier and protection, and the passenger officer can use
the rear right fender for the same purpose.
This adds

183

greatly to the psychological pressure on the suspects not to


resist or initiate a gun battle.
3.

Third Method

This method will be covered in more detail in order to


follow through with the complete procedure to be used in
stopping vehicles with felony suspects:
1)
Step 1:
Turn on the red lights and sound the
siren or horn. Use the spotlight if it is at night.
2)
Step 2: If a two man car, the passenger officer
should roll his window down and project his weapon out of
the window at the driver of the suspect vehicle.
3)
Step 3:
Stop the vehicle one car width to the
left of the suspect vehicle, and slightly behind it.
4)
Step 4: Give the following orders to the suspects
in a loud, clear and steady voice:
Police Officers, dont leave the vehicle, dont move
unless we order you to do so, or we will shoot.
Keep
looking straight ahead.
5)

Continue giving the suspects the following orders:

a)
Driver, lay
steering wheel, palms up.

both

hands

on

top

of

the

b)
You in the front right, put your hands on
the windshield, palms against the glass.
c)
You in the rear seat, lay your hands on the
back of the front seat, palms up.
d)
All of you, keep looking straight ahead.
Dont move until told to do so.
Immobilizing the Suspects Vehicle
1.

Method 1: When the drivers window is rolled down.


1)
Step 1: Order the driver to slowly move his left
arm out the window.

184

2)
Step 2:
Order the driver slowly move his right
hand from the steering wheel and out the window to open the
door from the outside with his right hand. This puts him in
physical disadvantages.
3)
Step 3:
Order the driver to put his right hand
back on top of the steering wheel.
4)
Step 4: Order the driver to slowly reach for the
keys with his left hand, and slowly drop them on the ground.
2.

Method 2:

When the drivers window is rolled up.

In this situation, the driver would have to remove his


hands from sight to roll the window down anyway, so this
movement might as well be utilized to open the door.
He
should be ordered to raise his left elbow up in the air,
then keeping his elbow high, open the door with his right
hand.
In this position the driver would find it more
difficult to pull a fast one than if his arm were
completely out of sight while opening the door.
Once the
door is open. Steps 3 and 4 would be the same.
3.

Method 3:

To save time.

While the officers are fully protected by using the


police car as a barricade, simply order the driver to open
the door and drop the ignition keys out into the road. Then
look through the open door, and to the dashboard to make
sure that he didnt throw out some key other than the
ignition key.
Removing the Suspect from the Vehicle
1.

The Driver

The driver should always be removed first.


He is
usually the leader. Have him grab the top of the steering.
When his feet are on the ground, have him then place his
hands high in the air. Then have him slowly back out toward
you. He must then be placed in a position where he may be

185

watched and later searched.


against the fender is good.
2.

The spread eagle position

The Front Passenger

Have the front seat passenger slide over to the driver


side of the car and put his hands on top of the steering
wheels.
Then have him repeat the same procedure as the
driver.
3.

The Rear Passengers

Have the rear seat passengers put both hands out of the
door windows and open the doors from the outside with their
hands remaining on the outside. When their feet are on the
ground, have them raise their hands high and back out toward
you.
If the windows are rolled up, have the passenger in
the rear left side raise his left elbow and open the door
with his right hand. Then place both hands on top of the
front seat.
He can then back out in normal way.
The
passenger in the right rear seat should then slide over to
the left and repeat the process.
Definition of Handcuffs
It is a device to keep a person from using his arms,
usually of two steel bracelets, fined by a short chain and
fastened around the wrist.
Applying the Handcuffs
Handcuffs should be applied if
suspect is in the wall search position.

possible

when

the

Step 1:
Take the handcuffs in the closed, single
locked position, and grip them by the links with the left
hand so that the movable arm of the cuffs is on the bottom,
and keyhole is facing the subject.
Step 2: Tell the subject to put his right hand behind
his back with the back of his hands facing the body.

186

Step 3: Grab the subjects fingers on the right hand


with your right hand as though you were shaking hands with
him, only gripping lower to prevent Indian Wrestling.
Then bend the fingers outward.
Step 4: Lay the right cuff on his wrist and then give
a quick downward snap so the swinging arm of the cuff swings
around and locks.
You can complete the swing with your
fingers if it doesnt complete by itself.
With a little
practice, an officer can become quite proficient at this. A
word of warning, do not bring the cuffs down on the
subjects wrist with great force. It is not required, and
it can hurt the subjects wrist. The cuff should touch the
wrist before the downward snap is given.
Step 5: Grab the handcuff links with your right hand
and tell the suspect to put his head against the wall, and
then bring his left hand back in the same manner as before
with the right hand.
Step 6: Grasp his left hand with your left hand as you
did with the right hand, and apply the handcuffs with your
right hand as was done before.
Step 7:

Double lock both cuffs.

Step 8: Put your hand over his shoulder and pull him
back to a standing position.
Plastic Handcuffs
Few officers carry an extra pair of handcuffs, yet many
times an officer arrest more than one suspect.
In fact,
today multiple arrests are certainly more common than in the
past.
One answer to this problem is the plastic strip
handcuff.
This type of restraining device has many
advantages. First, it is relatively inexpensive, and can be
easily purchased by the police officers if the police
organization does not provide them. Secondly, they will fit
any person, wrist or ankle. There are occasions where the
suspect had such large wrist, then handcuffs would not fit.
Finally, they are very versatile in their application and

187

are easily stored in the officers carrying case. The only


problem is that some type of cutting pliers is needed to
remove them. Because of their wide use today, most booking
officers have a pair of snipers for this purpose.
When There are Two Officers and Three Prisoners
Use any of the combinations previously mentioned for
one and for two prisoners.

188

CHAPTER
14
COMMUNITY-ORIENTED POLICING SYSTEM
===========================================================
Community-Oriented Policing System:

The Philippine Setting

Basically, it was derived from the Koban Policing


System of Japan, sensing its effectivity the Philippine
National Police hierarchy has architected and gradually
embraced a new philosophy in its crime prevention and
control undertaking, which gave birth to the Community
Oriented Policing System (COPS), with the primary purpose of
addressing the crime by knowing its root causes, and to
maintain peace and order through the involvement of the
citizenry.
Definition of Community-Oriented-Policing System
It
is
new
policing
concept
that
combines
the
familiarity, trust and sense of belongingness characterized
by the beat cop with the professionalism and expertise of
the professional policing model.
What is a Beat Cop
It is a policeman patrolling the streets or locality
around the clock by maintaining direct contact with local
residents to prevent crimes.
Patrols may be by foot,
bicycle or mobile.
How will the Objectives of COPS Be Implemented
1.
Patrolling the streets and by visiting private
homes and business offices.

189

2.

Control of road traffic.

3.

Guidance of juvenile delinquents.

4.

Taking drunks under protection.

5.
Providing counseling
problems of residents.

service

on

troubles

and

Concept of Community-Oriented Policing System


Under this revolutionized concept in modern policing
and a new strategy for delivering basic police service, the
law enforcement officers is given the responsibility for a
limited area of territory. Through this scheme, the officer
get to know its own neighborhood policemen.
COPS
is
a
developing
philosophy
and
may
need
modifications for the Philippine setting. In fact there
might be modifications for geographical localities.
It
requires inputs from all sectors concerned. To be sure, it
is an addition and not supposed to be a substitute for the
traditional police tactics of crime prevention.
What are These NCOBs, COPS/KCs or PCPs
The NCOBs, COPS/KCs or PCPs are mini police-stations
which serves as the centerpiece of the COPS. The following
are its distinct advantage: 1) an information center; 2) a
crime prevention center; 3) an emergency center; and 4) a
merging point for community activity.
New COPS on the Blockss or PCPs Activities
1.

Block Box

This is the NCOBs/PCPs center of command and control of


its activities and as the police base from which citizens
may seek police assistance whether in person, by radio or
telephone.

190

2.

Patrol

NCOBs will provide round the clock patrolling to keep


watch over the assigned area.
3.

House Visitation

Police officers on patrol visit every home and work


place to offer crime prevention, advised and organized anticrime group.
4.

Street Questioning

Police officers on patrol may interview within the


bounds of the law as deterrent to persons who intend to
commit a crime.
5.

Police Social Services

This project concerns a wide variety of activities such


as physical fitness and sports development, environmental
protection,
clean
and
green,
values
formation
and
educational and livelihood projects.
Duties of the Police Assigned in NCOBs, COPS/KCs & PCPs
1.

Desk Watch

The policeman
complaints.
2.

will

sit

his

desk

and

entertain

Sitting Watch

The policeman will sit


observe what is going on.
3.

at

outside

the

police

box

and

Patrolling

The policeman will patrol his assigned area.


include visitation and counseling.

This will

191

4.

Community Organizer

The
policeman
will
assist
community
centeredorganizations that will aid in the prevention of crimes.
5.

Public Advocate

The policeman will be the role model player for the


community to emulate, he will perform public safety services
through the following:
1)

Quick response to all emergencies.

2)
Information relative to both safety and public
protection.
3)

Control and management of traffic.

192

REVIEW QUESTIONS

PATROL ORGANIZATION & OPERATIONS


==================================================================
INSTRUCTIONS: Select the correct answer for each of the following
questions.
1.

It is the primary purpose of patrol.


A.
B.
C.
D.

elimination of actual opportunity


diminishment of desire and capability
development of omni-presence
prevention and control of crimes

2.
This is done by patrolling the streets within the perimeter
of the beats, not at random, but with a definite target location
where he knows his presence is necessary.
A.
C.

clockwise pattern
criss-cross patterns

B.
D.

counter-clockwise pattern
free-wheeling pattern

3.
It suggest little more than inspectional activity, whether
carried out on foot, mobile or some other way.
A.
C.

patrol
patroullier

B.
D.

police
constable

4.
It is an alternative patrol system which means the assigning
of the field units in their respective area of responsibility
with prescribed objectives and verifiable tasks schedule of the
day.
A.
C.

proactive
mobile patrol

B.
D.

reactive
beat patrol

5.
This term is frequently used to describe a specific
condition or place that requires the patrol officers special
attention.
A.
C.

attractive nuisances
all of the above

B.
D.

patrol hazard
non of the above

193

6.
Its methods consist of the fixed post, line beat, and random
patrol, and it is the most expensive type of patrol.
A.
C.

mobile patrol
helicopter patrol

B.
D.

air patrol
foot patrol

7.
It is originated from the Greek word Politeia meaning
government of a city, and it is applies to civil officers and not
necessarily policeman.
A.
C.

patrol
patroullier

B.
D.

police
constable

8.
It is being used in many countries as a simple and
inexpensive means of patrol because of its mobility and stealth.
A.
C.

bicycle patrol
helicopter patrol

B.
D.

motorcycle patrol
mobile patrol

9.
The patrol officer to be seen alert and constant patrolling
so as to establish a highly visible police presence, hence, to
make his presence psychologically be felt in spite of his
physical absence, and this is called.
A.
B.
C.
D.

atmosphere of omni-presence
enhanced police visibility
extensive crime prevention and control
elimination of the elements of crime

10. The observation of patrol personnel must be keenly aimed at


this, because these are the sources of hazard.
A.
C.

criminal elements
attractive nuisances

B.
D.

patrol hazard
persons and things

11. It is the physical presence of uniformed police personnel


and marked police vehicles in the place where crimes are usually
taking place.
A.
C.

police patrol
omni-presence

B.
D.

police visibility
police operation

12. It is useful for rescue, medical evacuation, and emergency


transportation.
A.
C.

bicycle
helicopter

B.
D.

motorcycle
mobile

194

13. Is the most extensively used, and the most effective means
of police patrol, considering its speed and mobility.
A.
C.

bicycle patrol
helicopter patrol

B.
D.

motorcycle patrol
mobile patrol

14. It is primary used for traffic control and enforcement,


their speed and maneuverability make them indispensable police
vehicle.
A.
C.
15.

B.
D.

motorcycle patrol
mobile patrol

It is the backbone of police organization.


A.
C.

16.

bicycle patrol
helicopter patrol

patrol
investigation

B.
D.

traffic
intelligence

Its history is as old as organized society.


A.
C.

patrol
investigation

B.
D.

traffic
intelligence

17. It usually involved night patrols of soldiers on the town or


city.
A.
C.
18.

police protection
police visibility

B.
D.

crime prevention
all of the above

Police patrol work involves the following, EXCEPT:


A.
C.

crime prevention
traffic enforcement

B.
D.

criminal investigation
omni-presence

19. To be effective, modern patrol officers must perform the


following sphere of activity, often simultaneously, EXCEPT:
A.
C.

calls for service


tactical responses

B.
d.

elimination of opportunity
strategic problem solving

20. It is the only division in the police organization that can


not possibly be eliminated.
A.
C.

patrol
investigation

B.
D.

traffic
intelligence

195

21. It is often the only one that performs twenty-four (24)


hours duty.
A.
C.

patrol
investigation

B.
D.

traffic
intelligence

22. It is important because time is of the essence in most


police work.
A.
C.
23.

rapid response time


first responders

B.
D.

constant availability
patrol officers

It serves as any eyes and ears of the police organization.


A.
C.

patrol officer
B.
beat patrol personnel D.

traffic officer
intelligence operatives

24. In so far as the patrol activities fails to eliminate the


elements of crime, the patrol officer is immediately available
with the hereunder reactive police activities, EXCEPT:
A.
C.

to investigate
maintain visibility

B.
D.

to apprehend suspects
to recover stolen property

25. Patrol officer should be practical __________ and encourage


persons to come to them for assistance and advice.
A.
C.

police officers
government employee

B.
D.

social workers
community leaders

26. This is a patrol activity which consists of driving around


the district, and waiting for something to happen.
A.
C.

proactive
mobile patrol

B.
D.

reactive
beat patrol

27. It is the ultimate in the decentralization of the police


service.
A.
C.

patrol officer
B.
beat patrol personnel D.

traffic officer
intelligence operatives

28. It is the only branch of police service that is practically


without limit in responsibility.
A.
C.

patrol
investigation

B.
D.

traffic
intelligence

196

29. It is able to perform other police task if there is a need


for special units.
A.
C.

patrol
investigation

B.
D.

traffic
intelligence

30. It is indispensable, and the unit which carries this


activity will continue to be the most important single division
of the police organization.
A.
C.

patrol
investigation

B.
D.

traffic
intelligence

31. It is a condition that is dangerous to


because of their inability to appreciate peril.
A.
C.

patrol hazard
crime prone areas

B.
D.

young

children

attractive nuisances
places of ill reputes

32. It is the first and foremost in the preparation of police


officers to patrol duty.
A.
C.

general preparations B.
in-field preparations D.

pre-patrol preparations
orientation tour

33. Prior going out on patrol, the patrol officers should have
knowledge about their task each day, there is usually a fall-in
formation, and this is being called as.
A.
C.

general preparations B.
in-field preparations D.

pre-patrol preparations
orientation tour

34. The police officer who is to go out on patrol should have a


debriefing conference with the out-going police officer, and this
is called.
A.
C.

general preparations B.
in-field preparations D.

pre-patrol preparations
orientation tour

35. Once in the field, the patrol officer should make


familiarization and inspection of his assignment, and this is
called.
A.
C.

general preparations B.
in-field preparations D.

pre-patrol preparations
orientation tour

197

36. This includes the objectives of protecting


properties, and providing all the other services
required or expected from police officers.
A.
C.

serve and protect


repression of crimes

B.
D.

lives
which

and
are

participative enforcement
prevention of crimes

37. It is locally referred to as Community-Oriented Policing


System (COPS) and it is being widely applied by the police
organization in the different places in the country.
A.
C.

serve and protect


repression of crimes

B.
D.

participative enforcement
prevention of crimes

38. It is particularly aimed at ways and means of reducing the


desire to commit crimes, and it is a police responsibility to be
able to identify the would-be offenders.
A.
C.

serve and protect


repression of crimes

B.
D.

participative enforcement
prevention of crimes

39. It is generally accomplished whether having officers present


at specific locations and maintaining a highly visible profile or
by publicizing a highly active undercover operation.
A.
C.

serve and protect


repression of crimes

B.
D.

participative enforcement
prevention of crimes

40. Patrol officers are usually in a position to readily


identify obvious or suspected violation of the laws and to take
enforcement action immediately when possible, and this is:
A.
B.
C.
D.

identification & apprehension of offenders


traffic flow & collision reduction
participative law enforcement
repression & prevention of crimes

41. The objective is to determine the causes


congestion and to relieve it, and this is called.
A.
B.
C.
D.

identification & apprehension of offenders


traffic flow & collision reduction
participative law enforcement
repression & prevention of crimes

of

traffic

198

42. It may result from the


officer to a particular beat.
A.
B.
C.
D.
43.

assignment

of

patrol

quality of patrol service


acquaintance with hazards
pinpointing of responsibility
interfere the continuity of service

These are the principal duties of patrol force, EXCEPT:


A.
C.

44.

permanent

to prevent violations B.
orderly government
D.

to give relief information


ensure public safety

These are the objective of patrol force, EXCEPT:


A.
B.
C.
D.

prevention & suppression of crimes


apprehension of criminals & preservation of peace
regulation of conduct & protection of life & property
guarantee an orderly government

45. This is patrol activities that diminished the potential


offenders belief in the existence of opportunity to successfully
violate the law.
A.
C.

patrol & observation


answering calls

B.
D.

control of gatherings
miscellaneous activity

46. It is the function that most completely described the patrol


officers job.
A.
C.

walking the beat


protect the people

B.
D.

observation
arrest offenders

47. The patrol officer is frequently assigned to public meeting


and assemblies because of this objective.
A.
C.

patrol & observation


answering calls

B.
D.

control of gatherings
miscellaneous activity

48. This means that the patrol officer performs a wide variety
of public services while on duty.
A.
C.

patrol & observation


answering calls

B.
D.

control of gatherings
miscellaneous activity

199

49. This is a police activity wherein the patrol officer is


dispatched to every conceivable type of emergency.
A.
C.

patrol & observation


answering calls

B.
D.

control of gatherings
miscellaneous activity

50. This is an activity of the patrol officer wherein he is


called upon to serve a variety of complaints that are noncriminal in character.
A.

invest. on patrol
B.
C.
arrest of offender

disposing
of
complaints
D.
preservation
of

evidence
51. This is an important patrol activity, and this is not to
allow essential evidence to be altered or carried away.
A.
evidence

inves. on patrol
B.
C.
arrest of offender

disposing
of
complaints
D.
preservation
of

52. It relates to complaints or situation on the beat that


requires the patrol officers attention.
A.

inves. on patrol
B.
C.
arrest of offender

disposing
of
complaints
D.
preservation
of

evidence
53. It is the primary duty of the patrol officers when they are
called to the scene of the crime.
A.
evidence

inves. on patrol
B.
C.
arrest of offender

disposing
of
complaints
D.
preservation
of

54. Through out this volume, the value of accurate and up-todate records and statistical information of police activities has
been stressed.
A.

testifying in court
B.
C.
all of the above

preparation
of
reports
D.
non of the above

55. It is an activity of the patrol officers, wherein sometimes


they are often called as witness in criminal cases.
A.
56.

testifying in court
B.
C.
all of the above

preparation
of
reports
D.
non of the above

It is the most expensive type of police patrol.

200

A.
C.

foot patrol
bicycle patrol

B.
D.

mobile patrol
motorcycle patrol

57. It may be used for certain patrol problems in jurisdictions


that contain large park areas.
A.
C.

bicycle patrol
T.V. patrol

B.
D.

horse patrol
beat patrol

58. This has been used in many countries


inexpensive means of silent transportation.
A.
C.

foot patrol
bicycle patrol

B.
D.

bicycle patrol
bay & river patrol

B.
D.

simple

and

mobile patrol
motorcycle patrol

59. It requires the use of various


especially where smuggling become common.
A.
C.

as

sea

or

water

crafts

horse patrol
beat patrol

60. Although not a means of transportation, it must not be


overlooked as a type of patrol.
A.
C.
61.

bicycle patrol
fixed surveillance

B.
D.

horse patrol
beat patrol

An effective strategy in crime prevention work is:


A.
B.
C.
D.

elimination of actual opportunity


establishing omni-presence
constant and alert patrolling
observation of persons and things

62. In spite of a variety of other useful patrol methods, still


the traditional walking beat method is used because of the
following, EXCEPT:
A.
B.
C.
D.

financial constraints of the police organization


glamorous crime fighting than preventing
lack of interest on the part of police executive
lack of manpower and material resources

63. This is type of patrol pattern wherein its objectives is to


survey the situation and condition of the area of responsibility.
A.
C.

clockwise pattern
criss-cross patters

B.
D.

counter-clockwise pattern
freewheeling pattern

201

64. It is the patrolling the length of a street, and it must


have a purpose and objectives.
A.
C.

clockwise pattern
criss-cross patters

B.
D.

counter-clockwise pattern
freewheeling pattern

65. It is done at the last eight (8) hour tour of duty in order
to
ensure
that
nothing
unusual
happened
in
area
of
responsibility.
A.
C.

clockwise pattern
criss-cross patters

B.
D.

counter-clockwise pattern
freewheeling pattern

66. This type of patrol assignment is particularly effective for


saturation drive coverage on high crime area.
A.
C.

undercover
intelligence

B.
D.

plainclothes
surveillance

67. It is one of the best means of preventive patrol, and it can


be used as barricades in road blocks.
A.
C.

foot patrol
bicycle patrol

B.
D.

mobile patrol
motorcycle patrol

68. It is undoubtedly the best means of locating persons in any


community that is close or part of mountainous area.
A.
C.

foot patrol
bicycle patrol

B.
D.

horse patrol
motorcycle patrol

69. It can improve response time to emergency calls for service,


and it increased apprehension of criminals.
A.
C.

foot patrol
bicycle patrol

B.
D.

air patrol
motorcycle patrol

70. It can cover areas that are not accessible to patrol cars,
or are too widespread to be patrolled by foot.
A.
C.

foot patrol
bicycle patrol

B.
D.

mobile patrol
motorcycle patrol

71. Aside from being highly specialized form of police patrol,


it is likewise expensive to maintain.

202

A.
C.

foot patrol
bicycle patrol

B.
D.

bay & river patrol


motorcycle patrol

72. Even in the presence of mobile


necessity of foot patrol, EXCEPT:
A.
B.
C.
D.

patrol,

these

are

the

inspection may necessitate foot patrol


offender made submissive
supervision is simplified
to enhance police visibility

73. These are the prime considerations in stopping a vehicle,


EXCEPT:
A.
C.
74.

few escapes
squatters area

B.
D.

little traffic
little populated

It is a device to keep a person from using his arms.


A.
C.

plastic handcuffs
restraining device

B.
D.

handcuffs
steel bracelets

75. It is a policeman patrolling the streets or the locality


around the clock by maintaining contact with the community.
A.
C.

beat cop
first responder

B.
D.

patrol officer
patrolman

76. This is the Police Community Precincts (PCPs) center of


command and control of its activities and as the police base.
A.
C.

Block Box
Police Detachment

B.
D.

Barangay Hall
Sub-Station

77. It is an activity of the Police Community Precincts (PCPs)


that provide round the clock patrolling to keep watch over the
assigned area.
A.
C.

standing watch
vertical patrol

B.
D.

patrol
sitting watch

78. It refers to the activity of police officer who visits every


home and work place to offer crime prevention, advised and
organized anti-crime group.
A.
C.

social services
house visitation

B.
D.

standing watch
street questioning

203

79. It is an interview made by the patrol officer within the


bounds of the law as deterrent to persons who intend to commit a
crime.
A.
C.

social services
house visitation

B.
D.

standing watch
street questioning

80. This project concerns a wide variety of activities, such as


sports development, educational and livelihood projects.
A.
C.

social services
house visitation

B.
D.

standing watch
street questioning

81. It is a duty of a policeman who sits at his desk and


entertains complaints.
A.
C.

desk watch
patrolling

B.
D.

sitting watch
standing watch

82. It is a police activity, wherein the policeman will sit


outside of the police box and observe what is going on.
A.
C.
83.

desk watch
patrolling

B.
D.

sitting watch
standing watch

This includes visitation and counseling.


A.
C.

desk watch
patrolling

B.
D.

sitting watch
standing watch

84. This in an activity in the police box wherein the police


officer assists the community centered organizations that provide
helps in the prevention of crimes.
A.
C.

community organizer
patrolling

B.
D.

sitting watch
public advocate

85. It is refers to the process of role model playing undertaken


by the police officer for the community to emulate.
A.
C.

quick response
B.
management of traffic D.

public information
public advocate

204

86. Patrol is also an indispensable service that plays a leading


role in the accomplishment of the police purpose, because of the
following reasons, EXCEPT:
A.
B.
C.
D.

it
it
it
it

directly eliminate actual opportunity


checks the development of desire
favorably influenced individual attitude
purpose is to maintain peace and order

87. By giving assistance, advice and sympathy to those in


distress, the patrol officer accomplished the following, EXCEPT:
A.
C.

prevent wasted lives


cooperation

B.
D.

friendship
community mobilization

88. This is accomplished by making the presence of patrol


officer know in such a way that even they are not in a specific
location, the would-be fellow will refrain from misbehavior.
A.
C.

police patrol
omni-presence

B.
D.

police visibility
police operation

89. It is usually used for traffic, surveillance, parades and


special events.
A.
C.

fixed post
vertical patrol

B.
D.

moving foot patrol


standing watch

90. It is used where there is considerable foot traffic, as in


business and shopping centers, bars, taverns, high crime areas
and special hazard areas, and in places where there are many
multiple family dwellings.
A.
C.

fixed post
vertical patrol

B.
D.

moving foot patrol


standing watch

91. These are the considerations in determining the size of the


patrol beat, EXCEPT:
A.
C.
92.

type of area
frequency of crime

B.
D.

type of criminal activity


type of people & business

These are the advantages of foot patrol, EXCEPT:


A.
B.
C.
D.

can provide immediate traffic control


more person-to-person contact
can develop criminal informants
can establish a set of patterns

205

93. In patrolling, it is advised to walk close to the curb


during day time, and the reason offered for this is:
A.
B.
C.
D.

to be seen by many people as possible


to be seen by few people as possible
not to be exposed from sunlight
not to be exposed from cold weather

94. In patrolling, it is advised to walk close to the building


during night time, and the reason offered for this is:
A.
B.
C.
D.

to be seen by many people as possible


to be seen by few people as possible
not to be exposed from sunlight
not to be exposed from cold weather

95. It can be used as emergency ambulance when disaster occurs,


it can also carry larger pieces of evidence.
A.
C.

mobile patrol
bay & river patrol

B.
D.

helicopter patrol
bicycle patrol

96. The use of __________ installed to mobile patrol car should


be habitual from among patrol officers, not only for personal
safety but also in setting an example to the general public.
A.
C.

safety belt
sirens & blinkers

B.
D.

bullet proof
megaphone

97. It is also being effectively used by plain clothes patrol


officers for surveillance in high crime prone areas.
A.
C.

mobile patrol
bay & river patrol

98. These are the


operations, EXCEPT:
A.
C.

advantages

B.
D.
of

numerical superiority B.
using marked vehicle D.

helicopter patrol
bicycle patrol
police

officer

in

pursuit

interceptions & roadblocks


better knowledge of streets

99. The effectiveness and efficiency of the patrol function can


be enhanced if there is detailed and up-to date information about
crime and criminals, this call for the establishment of:
A.
B.
C.
D.

patrol base headquarters


crime information center
management information center
public information office

206

100. The __________ differs from routine patrol methods in that


patrol
officers
perform
certain
specific,
predetermined
preventive strategies on a regular and systematic basis.
A.
B.
C.
D.

low-visibility patrol
directed deterrent Patrol
split force patrol
apprehension-oriented patrol

207

P A R T IV
POLICE OPERATION PLANNING

208

CHAPTER
15
POLICE PLANNING & PROGRAMMING

The task of preparing a police plan and program can not


be completed without an in-depth study and considerable
preliminary inquiry before the outlining of decision and
program of action for future implementation.
In such cases, the person to whom the responsibility
has been delegated must work out all the details completely.
All the legwork of gathering the pertinent data must be
performed, after the approach to the problem has been
carefully planned, and a line of procedure derived.
Ordinary, concise, brief, and to the point plan and
program of action should be prepared so that the end user
can
conserve
human
and
logistical
requirements
in
implementing the project. Such plans and programs should be
supplemented by a more detailed concept of operation and
appropriate agenda, which may be referred to in the event
further particulars, is desired.
Definition of Police Planning
It is a systematic and continuous process of preparing
a set of decision for action in the future, directed in
achieving goal by optimal means and of learning from the
outcome about the possible new sets of decision and new
goals to be achieved.
Definition of Police Programmoing
It is a plan of what is to be done or a set of
instructions outlining the steps to be performed in a

209

specific
and
operational
undertaking
organization.
Other Definitions of Police Planning

of

police

1.
The process of combining all aspects of the police
organization and the realistic anticipation of future
problems, the analysis of strategy to detail.
2.
The use of rational design or pattern of all police
organization undertakings rather than relying on chance.
3.
The act of determining policies and guidelines for
police activities and operations and providing controls and
safeguards for such activities and operations in the police
organization.
Purposes of Police Planning and Programming
1.
It implements policy and clarifies it by defining
more precisely an immediate objective and purpose and
outlining what is to be done to achieve it.
2.
A plan and program serves as a guide or reference
on both training and performance and simplifies the
direction of group members.
3.
The
planning
and
programming
process
gives
continued attention to the improvement of practices and
procedure.
4.
A
plan
and
program
enables
accomplishment thereby affecting control.

check

on

5.
Wise planning and programming assures the most
effective and economical use of resources in accomplishing
organizational purpose.
Classifications of Police Planning and Programming
1.

Reactive

Almost all police organizations engage at one time or


another in reactive planning and programming, that is they

210

develop a plan in response to crisis or when forced to do so


to implement a decisions made by some other person.
2.

Contingency

Contingency planning and programming envisions the


possibility that some special incident such as riot,
hostage situation, or major transportation disaster may
occur, and is based on the organizations wish to be
prepared when it does occur, the plan and program often
results from the lesson learned by other organizations that
had face similar events and found that their preparation had
been inadequate.
3.

Strategic

Strategic planning requires the organizations to set goals


for at least five years into the future and devise steps
that need to be taken to achieve goals.
4.

Operational Efficiency

In operational efficiency planning and programming, current


processes are reviewed, and recommendations for improvements
are made. Examples of that type of planning and programming
are resource allocation studies, studies of investigative
efficiency, the examination of patrol procedures. This
planning and programming process often consist of shortterm,
one-time
projects,
although
the
planning
and
programming really should be conducted to be use wisely as
condition change.
Sequence of Planning and Programming Process
1.

Setting Planning and Programming Goals

Normally, the first planning and programming question


is what needs to be accomplished? What is the desired
future steps? The obviousness of the answer may depend on
the kind of planning and programming being done.
2.

Preparing for Planning and Programming

211

Successful planning and programming requires that some


ongoing planning assignment be made, someone must do the
planning and programming, although who is this may vary
depending on the level or subject of planning or
programming.
3.

Identifying the Problems

The first step in beginning to identify problems is to


asses the present situation, describing the current state of
affairs that may involve in scanning the environment,
performing
research
both
inside
and
outside
the
organization.
4.

Identifying and Analyzing Alternative Solutions

Once a problem is identified, alternative courses of


action must be build-out for analysis. The planner and
programmer should consider the extent to which the different
courses of action and the criteria for judging the strength
of each course of action. In other words, once the goals are
set, different ways of reaching them must be analyzed and
asses.
Significance and Importance of Planning and Programming
The increasing complexity of police operation demands
the utmost skill and careful planning in order to ensure the
accomplishments of police objectives and missions. Planning
and programming process must be done in all police
organization regardless of size.
People Responsible in Planning and Programming Process
In organization of medium size or larger, there is a
need for a planning unit to assist the police executives in
his administrative duty of planning, and to point out to
operating personnel and to supervisor the need for plans,
and to urge their preparation and development.
In smaller organization, the responsibility for staff
planning may be given to an officer in addition to his
duties.

212

Planning must include the experience of the line


officers, the facts of the statistician, the opinion of the
analysts, the ideas of every member of the force and the
counsel and advised of every divisions and/or offices that
may play a part in the executions of plans.
Responsibility in Planning and Programming
Police planning shall be done both within and without
the organization. The main concern of the police in external
policy planning is to assists the legislature of the city or
municipal council in determining police guidelines through
the passage of appropriate laws and ordinances and
resolutions for the police to enforce.
On the other hand, the police executive shall be
responsible for establishing internal operational policies
to
achieve
the
objectives
and
missions
of
police
organizations.
The police executives shall be responsible for
planning,
reporting,
and
budgeting
for
the
police
organization
within
existing
policies
and
available
resources.
For
police
maximum
effectiveness
he
shall
be
responsible for the technical operation of the police
organization and the management of its personnel.
Steps in Planning and Programming
1.

Frame of Reference

This shall be based on a careful selection on the


matters relating to the situations in which plans are being
developed, and opinions or ideas of persons who may speak
with authority on the subject concerned.
2.

Clarifying the Problems

This calls for the identification of the problem,


understanding both its record and its possible solutions.

213

3.

Collecting all Pertinent Facts

Attempts shall not be made to develop a plan until


facts relating to it have been gathered.
4.

Analyzing the Facts

After all data have been gathered, a careful analysis


and evaluation shall be made.
5.

Developing Alternative Plans

In the initial phases of plan development, several


alternative measures will appear to be logically comparable
to the needs of a situation.
6.

Selecting the Most Appropriate Alternative

A careful consideration of all facts usually leads to


the selection of a best of alternative proposal.
7.

Selling the Plan

A plan to be effectively carried out must be accepted


by persons concerned at the appropriate level of the plans
development.
8.

Arranging for Executions of the Plan

The execution of a plan requires the issuance of orders


and directives to concerned unit or personnel, the
establishment of a schedule, and the provision of manpower
and equipment for carrying out the plans.
9.

Evaluating the Effectiveness of the Plan

The results of the plan shall be determined, and this


is necessary in order to know whether correct alternative
was chosen, whether the plan was correct, which phase was
poorly implemented, and whether additional planning may be
necessary.

214

Three Types of Police Plan According to Range


1.

Short Range

1 year

2.

Medium Range

2 years

3.

Long Range

3 years

Types of Research Useful in Making Police Plan


Fact finding research
Conclusion oriented
Decisions oriented
Action research
Job Description of Police Planner
To assist and advise the police executives in the areas
of plans and programs that are beyond the immediate
operational and tactical range; organizational and force
development,
policies,
doctrines
and
regulations,
legislative, interagency and international affairs; arms and
equipment
research
and
development;
special
studies,
research projects and requirements that are needed for the
effective and efficient administration and operation of
police organization.
Mission Statement and General Functions of Police Planners
1.
Formulates and supervises the executions of plans
and
programs,
to
include
organizational
and
force
development that are beyond the immediate operational and
tactical range.

215

2.
Develops and monitors the implementations of
policies, doctrines and regulations in collaboration with
the other police offices.
3.
Liaisons with the law making body and
position papers on pertinent legislative agenda.

prepare

4.
Liaisons with the government and non-government
agencies and participates in joint planning activities.
5.
Takes staff action on matters pertaining to
research, development, and test arms and equipment of the
police organization
6.
Liaisons with the international foreign body and
staff action on foreign bilateral and multilateral matters
and international commitments.
7.
Undertakes special studies and research projects
and make position papers needed for the effective and
efficient administration and operation of the police
organization.
8.
Prepares
organizations

accomplishments

reports

of

the

police

9.
Maintain and manages the central records system of
the police organization.
10. Provides secretarial services to the police
organizations Weapons System Boards, Rules and Regulations
Boards, and other related bodies.
11. Perform other functions as may be directed by the
proper authorities.
Characteristics of Effective Police Planning
1.

Clearly defined objectives and goals

2.

Simplicity

3.

Flexibility

216

4.

Possibility of attainment

5.

Provisions for Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs)

6.
Economy
implementation

in

7.
Anticipated
operations.

terms
effect

of
or

resources
effects

needed
on

for

future

Objectives in the Execution of Police Plan


1.

Protection of persons and properties.

2.

Preservation of the peace.

3.

Prevention of crime.

4.

Repression or suppression of criminal activities.

5.

Apprehension of criminals.

6.

Enforcement of laws and ordinance.

7.

Safeguarding of public health and morals.

8.
Prompt execution of criminal writs processes of the
courts.
9.
Coordination and cooperation with other law-enforcement
agencies.
Definition of Police Plans
The plans are the results of planning or proposal
design to guide and direct to be performed by the police
organization.
Definition of Police Programs

217

Are general statements of direction which is not


necessary measurable, but nonetheless expressed in an
organizations intent.

Types of Police Plans


1.

Procedural

Are those plans relating to standard operating


procedures (SOPs) and are useful as guides to personnel in
such activity as the serving and processing of search
warrant, recording and processing of crime or incident
reports, and the processing of traffic citation, these
procedural plan must be reviewed from time to time as the
need for changes arises to increase operational efficiency.
2.

Tactical

Are those plans which are prepared to meet exigencies


encountered by police, such as widespread civil disorders,
unusual crime problems, civil defense needs or major
disasters, this plans are prepared considerably in advance
of expected incidents and are largely based on field
intelligence supplied by supervisory personnel and the
expertise they are able to provide in assessing future
needs.
These plans are designed to guide personnel in
controlling unusual happenings and restoring order as
quickly and as efficiently as possible. The method of
control are substantially the same as ordinary police
operations but must be expanded to meet the requirements of
each occurrence, it is necessary that such plans must be
basic, flexible in nature and adaptable to modification as
the need arises.
3.

Operational

Are those designed to give guidance and direction to


personnel
in
the
performance
of
the
normal
police
activities. Those are plans which guide the personnel in
activities as the deployment and distribution of personnel
or the search for the suspects or lost persons.

218

4.

Auxiliary Services

Are those plans, which implement normal operation such


as in the recruitment of personnel, police community
relation activities, and the like.
5.
Fiscal
Are those plans which relates to those matters for
budget preparation and use and control of funds allotted for
personnel, equipment and supplies.
Procedure in Classifying Police Plans
During the preparation, a plan can have a higher
security classification, but later it can be downgraded to
enable more people to have access.
Implementation Process of Police Plans
The implementation process of police operational plan
has been described as a system of pressure and counterpressure akin to political maneuvering in which constant
negotiation goes on and the police executives are exercising
considerable persuasion in their attempt to obtain desire
result.
In other sense, it is simply requires good solid
management. Once a new plan or program has been designed,
attention
must
be
directed
toward
the
following
requirements.
1.
Providing
necessary
resources,
financial, material, personnel and authority.

to

include

2.
Providing direction so that employees know what to
do and why.
3.
Providing control to ensure that the directions
are followed.

219

CHAPTER
16
POLICE OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES
===========================================================
What is Raid
It is a special type of operation and it is an extreme
measure used when all other measures or means failed.
Definition of Police Raid
A raid must be legal, having its basis in lawful
process and conducted in a legal manner. This will be in a
form of a search warrant or warrant of arrest. The raid may
be in pursuit of a person reasonably believed to be guilty
of a felony when it is known that the felony has just been
committed.
Objectives and Purpose of a Police Raid
1.

Apprehend Suspect/s

2.

Secure Evidences

3.

Recover Stolen Property

4.

Confiscate Contraband

5.

Prevent the Commission of the Crime

Factors Affecting Success or Effectiveness of a Raid


1.

Size of Raiding Party

220

2.

Speed

3.

Surprise

4.

Superiority of Firepowers and Equipment

5.

Simplicity of Plan and Operation

Composition of Raiding Party


1.
Raid Commander, Assistant Raid Commander, Covering
or Surrounding Party.
2.

Going-in detail or entering party.

3.
In-charge of rendering inoperative the subjects
vehicle, if any.
4.
Recorder, who should keep accurate logs of the
raid, gathers evidence, make inventories and testify in
court.
5.

In-charge of the raiding vehicle.

6.

Photographer.

Duties of Covering Party


1.

Covers approach of going-in detail or entering party.

2.

Prevents the escape of criminals.

3.

Covers the entire area of the building.

4.

Neutralizing fire of barricaded criminals.

Duties of Going-In Detail or Entering Party


1.

Calls for surrender of criminals.

2.

Effects arrests.

221

3.

Incapacities and dislodges criminals.

4.

Searches for evidence.

Factors to be Considered in Planning a Raid


1.
The terrain and building should be subjected to close
study.
2.
In order to obtain the necessary data for planning, a
reconnaissance/surveillance
of
the
place
should
be
conducted.
3.
The participants should be informed of the nature of
the mission.
4.
The specific assignment and position of each member of
the raiding party, the tactics to be employed, the equipment
and transportation to be used, the evaluation of possible
danger points; and the optimum time to be selected should be
stressed.
Things to be Considered in Planning a Raid
1.

Need for surveillance.

2.
Number of individual to be apprehended. Are they armed?
With what? If uncertain, assumed they are armed.
3.
Are photographs and description of subjects available
for use in the briefing?
3.
Determine the physical structure of the place where the
criminals are located.
4.

Determine all the possible routes.

5.
Need to discreetly photograph the place and immediate
area.
6.

Type of neighborhood where the hideout is located.

222

7.
Volume and kind of activities in the neighborhood at
various times to determine the most desirable time to
conduct the raid.
8.

Street plans of neighborhood for possible roadblocks.

9.
Do the men have confidence in the ability of the raid
leader.
10. Consider
the
5Ss
effectiveness of a raid.
11.

affecting

the

success

or

Consider the composition of the raiding party.

12. Does every member of the raiding groups know the raid
plan
completely,
and
the
identities
and
duties
of
individuals?
13.

What is your move-out plan?

14. What
firearms?

are

the

instructions

15. What are the instructions


handling of traffic?

concerning
concerning

the
the

use

of

possible

16. What are the instruction concerning communications, and


signals, etc?
17. How do you identify each other, armbands, passwords,
and insignia, etc?
18.

Make sure your plan avoid crossfire.

19. Do you have all the equipment you might need, such as
flashlights,
searchlights,
vehicle,
transceivers,
loudspeakers or megaphone, firearms, teargas, etc?
20. Ask each participant to repeat his duties to the raid
leader.

223

Principles of Raid Operation


1.
Coordination of individual
element in the success of raid.
2.

effort

is

an

essential

The raiding party should act as a team.

3.
The members of the team should hold his
position until orders given by the team leader.

assigned

4.
The members of the team should thoroughly understand
the objectives, the plan of actions and the orders.
5.
Before leaving the headquarters to proceed to the
target, the team leader must conduct a final briefing of
personnel.
6.
After assembly of the men at the designated area which
should not too be close to the target area, they should not
assume the appearance of a formal gathering.
7.
The raiders vehicle should be safeguarded to prevent
use by the subject/s and/or targets/s.
8.
Vehicles belonging to the subjects should be rendered
inoperative by the simplest available means.
9.
A cordon should be posted, depending upon
availability of men, to prevent possible escape,
restrain people from wandering.

the
and

10. In the event the suspect/s fails to heed the warning to


surrender, entry must be made through one point so that
raiders will not mistake one another.
11. As soon as the raid is completed, guards should be left
to protect the property and to observe or apprehend
associates of the suspect.
12. The raiders then reassemble at a designated place for
final accounting of all the members of the team.

224

Coordination with Local Police Units


It is imperative that immediately before the service of
a search warrant or warrant of arrest, the team leader
should see to it that proper coordination is made with local
police executive having jurisdiction over the target
premises. The coordinating party is bound merely to relay
that their team is conducting an operation in the area. This
gesture of coordination is not only a manifestation of
courtesy, but also a measure to avoid the possibility of a
mistake encounter.
Donts in a Raid
1.

Dont take unnecessary chances.

2.
Dont
subject/s.
3.

underestimate

the

ability

or

courage

of

the

Dont raid when not properly prepared.

4.
Dont endanger the lives of by-standers and innocent
people.
5.
Dont use raiders who are not well acquainted with each
other.
6.

Dont forget gas masks when employing tear gas.

7.

Dont be unnecessarily rough on the subject/s.

8.

Dont shoot to kill unless very imperative.

9.
Dont touch the evidence unless seen by witness, or by
the owner or occupants of the place.
What are the Things to be Seized at the Scene of the Raid
1.

Weapons which may be used against the raiding party.

2.

Articles that might be used as means of suicide.

3.

Articles that might be used in escaping.

225

4.
Articles that might be used in the commission of a
crime.
5.

Proceeds or fruits of the crime.

Disposition of Money and Valuable Property During Raid


1.
Money should be counted and the serial number of bills
noted.
2.
Valuables should be sealed in a property envelope in
the presence of the owner.
3.
Property envelope should show a complete inventory of
its contents.
4.
The owner should initial the outside of the envelope
showing approval of its contents.
5.
Raiding officers should sign their names on the outer
part of the envelope.
6.
A receipt should be given to the owner of the premises.
However, this is qualified by the decisions of the Supreme
Court declaring as inadmissible in evidence the receipt for
property seized signed by the accused in cases where mere
possession of the items seized is punishable.
Disposition of Articles not Covered with Search Warrant
1.
If the articles are illicit or contraband, the same
must be seized.
2.
Such articles may be used as evidence to prosecute the
person.
3.
Non-contraband articles must be returned to the owners
or must not be seized in the first place.

226

Duty of Arresting Officers


Arresting units shall at all times take the mug-shots,
modus
operandi
through
the
conduct
of
criminal
interrogation, and fingerprints of all arrested persons for
master file and rouges gallery.
Definition of Search
Search is an examination of an individual person, house
or effects, or other buildings and premises to discover
contrabands or some evidence of guilt to be used in the
prosecution of a criminal action.
What are the Things to be Search
1.

Property subject of the offense.

2.
Property stolen
fruits of the crime.

or

embezzled

and

other

proceeds

or

3.
Property used or intended to be used for committing an
offense.
May Things Illegally Seized be Admitted as Evidence
The fruit of an illegal search are inadmissible as
evidence. Any evidence obtained in violation of the rights
of the people against unlawful searches and seizures shall
be inadmissible for any purpose in any proceedings.
May Articles not Mentioned in the Search Warrant be Seized
Generally, articles not included in the search warrant
may not be seized. However, articles prohibited by statutes,
although not included in the search warrant, may be seized.
Thus, during the progress of a bonafide search for other
commodities illegally possesses, whether with search warrant
or not, contrabands or items declared illegal per se are
discovered, the contraband can be seized. The seizure of

227

goods wherein the possession of which is


statutes violates no constitutional rights.

forbidden

by

How to Serve a Search Warrant


A Search Warrant must be served within 10 (ten) days
from its date, and in the following manner:
1.
The police officer concerned must go to the place
indicated in the search warrant and take the things
described therein, in the presence of at least one (1)
competent
witness
who
is
a
resident
of
the
same
neighborhood.
2.
The search
otherwise stated.

must

be

made

at

daytime,

unless

3.
The officer seizing the property must issue a
detailed receipt of the things seized to the persons whose
possessions it was found, or in the absence of such person,
he must, in the presence of at least one (1) witness, leave
such receipt in the place where such things were seized.
4.
As much as possible, during the opening of safes,
drawers, cabinets, tables, etc., the lifting of articles
should be done by the owner of the house or his
representative, or by immediate members of his family to
preclude any suspicion of planting evidence.
5.
Thereafter, the officer must immediately deliver
things or property seized to the judge who issued the search
warrant together with an inventory duly verified under oath.
Lawful Warrantless Search
1.

When there is consent or waiver.

2.

When evidence to be seized is in plain view.

3.
Customs search or searches made at airports and or
seaports in order to collect duties.

228

4.
Search of moving vehicles may be made without warrant
because it would be impracticable to secure a warrant before
engaging in hot pursuit.
5.
Routine searches made at or in the interest of national
security such as boarder checks and/ or checkpoints.
6.
Stop-and-search or stop-and-frisk, where the search
precedes the arrest, and is allowed on grounds of reasonable
suspicion.
7.

Search incidental to lawful arrest

Search of Persons Arrested


1.
Probe, do not pat, a female operatives should be
used to search female suspects.
2.

The need to handcuff the subjects.

3.

Do not stop the search when weapon is found.

4.

Look for prohibited items or evidences.

5.

Look for items which may be used to commit suicides.

6.

Searches should never cross the line of fire.

7.
Do not talk to the suspect while in the course of
search.
8.
Do not grant subjects request to attend
before, during or immediately after the search.

something

9.
In a search by a single officer, have the gun ready
with the gun at a distance from the subject.
10.

Be sure to search every part of the body and clothing.

Types of Search

229

1.

Wall Search

The purpose is to place the subject in an off-balance


position requiring the use of both arms and legs to keep him
from falling to the ground. This is the safest type of
search. It does not necessarily require a wall; any object
that can support the weight of the subject can be used. The
procedures are:
1)
Require the subject to place both hands on the
wall slightly higher than his waist. Spread hands as far as
possible. Palms should be placed against the wall, finger
extended.
2)
Extend the subjects feet back away from the wall.
Spread them as far as possible, toes pointed out. Buttocks
should not be on an arch position.
3)
times.

The subjects head should be down or bowed at all

4)
Follow the hereunder mechanics in executing the
Wall Search.
a.
If there is only one (1) subject, the leader
of the searching team should placed himself at one side,
while his subordinate is on the other side.
b.
To search the other side, the subordinate
should move to the opposite side.
c.
If there are two (2) or three (3) subjects,
move one subject to be search on the wall, but out of reach
of the others.
d.
Search both sides of subject, the leader
conducting the searches and the subordinate guarding the
other subject.
e.

Move one (1) subject at a time.

f.
The subordinate should concentrate on the
actions of the subject and not on the action of the leader.

230

g.
When there are more than three (3) subjects,
additional personnel should be summoned.
h.
In serious apprehensions, the searcher should
hold his weapon in ready position all throughout the search.
i.
The body must be search systematically with
the foot of the researcher place tightly against the
subjects foot, right with right, left with left, anklebone
against anklebone.
g.
Remove any object found, then examine the
palm of the hand, including between the fingers.
2.

Standing Search

1)
Raise subjects hand over his head and spread the
feet as far as possible.
2)
This is not recommended because the subject is an
on balance position.
3.

Kneeling Search

1)
Subject kneels on the ground with hand raised over
his head.
2)
This is also being discouraged for the same reason
as the standing search.
4.

Prone Search

1)
Subject lies on his stomach with arms and legs
outstretched.
2)
Subject has both arms and legs free, and is at all
times in an on-balance position.
3)

Front part of the clothing cannot be searched.

4)
This can be extremely dangerous if the subject has
knowledge of judo.
Arrest Defined

231

Arrest is the taking of person into custody of the law


in order that he may be duty bound to answer for the
commission of an offense.
Who are Exempted from Arrest
1.
Senators or Members of the House of Representatives,
while the Congress is in session in all offenses punishable
by not more than six (6) years imprisonment.
2.

Diplomatic officials and their domestics.

Techniques in Making Arrest


1.

Initial Contact with the Subject

1)
voice.
2)

Police officer identifies in a clear and audible


Show identification.

3)
Inform the subject that he is under arrest, and
immediately narrate the subjects constitutional rights.
4)
Consider the possibility
wanted for other crimes.
2.

that

the

subject

is

Conduct of Arresting Officer

1)
Be
aggressive.

natural

and

pleasant

but

forceful

2)

Dominate the situation.

3)

Voice must have command authority.

4)

Demand prompt and absolute obedience.

5)

Nervousness should be controlled.

6)
Avoid
weakness.

profanity,

this

reflects

and

personality

232

7)
Avoid acting tough as the subject will be the
first to detect it.
8)

Avoid being reticent or apologetic.

9)

Avoid unnecessary conversation.

10)
command.

Officer-in-charge does the talking and gives the

Police Officer Making the Arrest


1.

Use good judgment in connection with the arrest.

2.
Assume that the subject is armed and will take your
life if given an opportunity.
Procedures of Arrest on the Street
1.
This
possible.

should

be

made

from

the

side

or

2.

Subject should be forced toward a building.

3.

Avoid congested areas when possible.

Procedures
of
Establishment

Arrest

at

Home,

rear

when

Office, or Business

1.
Restricts the subjects movement. Do not grant request
for personal privileges before being searched.
2.
Clothing and other things requested should be examined
for weapons or items of evidence before turning them over
the suspects.

Medical Examinations of Arrested Persons

233

Immediately after the arrest of a person ordered


arrested by the court, or a suspect under investigation, he
should be subjected to a medical examination. Prior to his
release or any change of custody, the suspect should also be
medically examine by a medico-legal officer or, in the
absence of such medico-legal officer, by any government
physician in the area.
General Rules in the Conduct of Police Operations
1.
Under all circumstances, the use of force,
including firearms, is justifiable only by virtue of the
Doctrines of Self-Defense and Defense of Strangers. As
stated by the Supreme Court, nobody, including the police
and even the military, is above, but subject to the law.
2.
The use of force, especially firearms, shall be
applied only as last resort, when all other peaceful and
non-violent means have been exhausted.
3.
Whenever
resulted
to,
only
necessary
and
reasonable force sufficient to conduct self-defense, defense
of a stranger and/or subdue/overcome the clear and imminent
danger posse or resistance being put up by a malefactor or
group shall be applied.
4.
In case of actual shoot-out with the suspect,
panic firing shall be avoided. Panic firing is opening fire
and everyone else follows suit. The police officer in-charge
of the operation shall see to it that he exercises control
over his men and that they shall fire only when necessary.
5.
The police officer shall ensure that no innocent
bystanders are hit. Hence, extreme caution shall be observed
when firing in congested areas. Here the practical rules of
shooting only to save life could well be applied.
6.
After shoot-out, the police officer shall check
whether the suspect is still alive or has been neutralized.
In case the suspect has been wounded and disabled, he shall
be brought with adequate security to the nearest hospital
for medical treatment.

234

7.
The police siren and megaphone shall be used to
influence/warn the offenders/suspects to stop and peacefully
give up.
8.
The use of force specially firearms, shall be
tempered with such considerations as keeping foremost in the
law enforcers mind the safety of the hostage, avoiding
crossfire casualties and preventing collateral damages to
third parties. Reasonable force to neutralize the vehicle
and enemy/suspects resistance is sufficient.
9.
In case of an unavoidable engagement with the
criminal elements, immediate removal of the casualties from
the crime scene shall be undertaken after the necessary
sketches, pictures and other investigative requirements are
accomplished. The victim bodies shall always be segregated
from those of the suspects. All SOPs of crime scene
investigation shall be strictly followed.
10. Human Rights
respected at all times.

shall

be

strictly

observed

and

Special Rules in Arrest


1.
All arrest shall be effected pursuant to Rule 113
of the Rules on Criminal Procedures, as amended.
2.
Warrant of Arrest shall remain effective until the
accused/respondent is arrested or the case against him is
terminated. It shall also cease to be effective upon
released of the accused on bail.
3.
If the accused/respondents is not arrested within
ten (10) days from receipt of the warrant of arrest of the
office, unit or station concerned thru the service thereof,
a report shall be submitted to the court of origin within
ten (10) days following the expiration of the original tenday validity. In this case, only a xerox copy of the warrant
shall be attached to the report and the original shall be
retained by the office, unit or station to whom it was
delivered for execution. The unexecuted original copy of the
warrant may be xeroxed and furnished other law enforcement
agencies, in the area where the accused/respondents may be
found.

235

4.
A peace officer or a private person may arrest a
person without warrant when in his presence the person to be
arrested has committed, is actually committing, or is about
to commit an offense; or he has personal knowledge of the
facts indicating that the person to be arrested is the one
who has committed the offense, or is a prisoner who has
escaped from penal establishment or place where he is
serving final judgement or temporarily confined while his
case is pending or has escaped while being transferred from
one confinement or another. In all these instances, the
person making the arrest shall observe strict compliance
with the rules of arrest; and with due regards to the
dignity and rights of the individual to be arrested. The
said arrest of any person without warrant shall be disclosed
to a barangay officials or persons of known probity and
integrity in the community before he is taken into the
custody. The person arrested without warrant shall be
forthwith delivered to the nearest police station or jail,
and he shall be proceeded against in accordance with law.
5.
In all instances of arrest, the arresting peace
officer or private person shall inform the person to be
arrested of the intention to arrest him, and the cause for
the arrest, unless the person to be arrested is then engaged
in the commission of an offense or is pursued immediately
after its commission or after an escape or flees or forcibly
resists before the officer or the person making the arrest
has opportunity to inform him, or when the giving of such
information will imperil the arrest.
6.
In the case of motorized suspect to be arrested,
the siren and megaphone shall be used to warn the occupants
to park their vehicle and give-up peacefully. The arresting
officer shall approach the person on foot with proper backup from his companions. The driver and other suspects shall
be requested to get out of the car with both hands visible
to the apprehending officer. If the situation warrants the
arrest, the apprehended suspects shall be brought to the
police station for further investigation.
Rules on Search and Seizures
1.
The general rule is that a search and seizure must
be carried through with a judicial warrant, otherwise such

236

search and seizure become unreasonable and things seized in


violation of this rule, shall be inadmissible for any
purpose in any proceeding.
2.
Where the arrest of the accused is lawful, having
been caught in flagrante delicto, there is no need for a
warrant for the seizure of the fruit of the crime as well as
for the body search upon him, the same being incidental to
lawful arrest.
3.
The
warrantless
search
and
seizure
as
an
incidental to a suspects lawful arrest may extend beyond
the person arrested, to include the premises or surroundings
under his immediate control.
Rules on Check/Choke Points
1.
Only mobile checkpoints are authorized and they
shall be established only in conjunction with on-going
operations/situations, or when there is a need to arrest a
criminal or fugitive from justice. The conduct of searches
and arrest in said checkpoints shall be done with civility
and with due regard to the innocent passersby and commuters.
The area where the checkpoints are established shall
properly lighted, eligible and clear signs shall be
exhibited to show that the searches are being conducted.
Enforcement officers shall at all times in uniform with
their identification cards and nameplates on. The unit
manning checkpoint shall always be led by an officer with
the rank of at least inspector. Strictly there shall be no
mulcting, extortion or harassment of drivers, passengers,
traders, etc.
2.
In the event checkpoints/roadblocks are ignored
and the motorist/suspects bumped the roadblocks in an
attempt to elude arrest or avoid inspections, the team
leader shall automatically contact the adjacent units to
inform them of the incident, and request them to set
roadblocks, if necessary and conduct pursuit operation of
the fleeing motorist. Warning shot is not encourage due to
the confusion it can create to the driver/passengers of the
vehicles. Megaphone or police siren shall be used instead of
warning shots. Notation of the plate number is a must

237

because the occupants of the vehicles may possibly elude the


pursuit operation.
3.
In the event the occupants of the vehicle fire
towards the personnel manning the checkpoints, overkill
tendencies shall be avoided to avoid tragic and embarrassing
situations
which
may
adversely
affect
the
police
organization and the government, and in the process, reduced
the peoples trust and confidence. Reasonable force to
immobilize the vehicle and-or neutralize the suspects
resistance shall be sufficient
Planning Unlawful Assembly/Civil Disturbance Operations
Civil unrest seems to be indigenous to civilization,
although there are times when it is apparent in isolated
situations or among small numbers of people. Laborers,
students, and cause-oriented groups have been most prominent
and dramatic in their efforts to effect immediate changes in
the
social
practices
and
standards.
They
conduct
demonstration, sit-ins, teaching, and non-violent civil
disobedience, which usually begins as non-destructive
incidents but sometimes end in violence and bitter combat.
Some movements include mass criminal conspiracies for the
purpose of interfering with lawful processes. Other produce
spontaneous riotous outburst arising out of ostensibly
peaceful assembly.
The continually recurring conditions of civil unrest
and lawlessness throughout the country make it appears that
it is possible for a major disturbance to occur and at any
time and when there are enough people for a quorum. Given
the right combination of factors, any situation involving
large numbers of people may evolve or explode into an
unlawful assembly. Without immediate decisive police action,
the situation could quickly evolve into a full-scale riot.

Indicators of Unlawful Assembly


1.
An increase in the recurrence of the same rumor,
or the sensationalism of rumors of similar design, such as

238

alleged police abuse, and lost of trust and confidence on


the government.
2.
An increase in threatening or insulting signs or
pamphlets in commercial or other public places.
3.
An increase in number of incidents of violence or
threats of violence.
4.
Disturbances at various locations that appear to
be a similar nature as if designed to test the capabilities
of the police organization or the decisiveness of the
officer-in-charge of an institution such as school, as a
prelude to more serious action later.
5.
More than the usual number of
places of entertainment or sporting events.

disturbance

at

6.
Factional gang fighting or warfare or a series of
raids on parties and places of peaceful congregation.
7.

Threats and attacks on private property.

8.
An increasing need for the use of force in
effecting the arrest, as though there were a planned effort
to bait the police.
9.
An accompanying increase in the number of
complaints about abusive practices of the police and/or the
government, and the continuing claim that such complaint is
receiving no satisfactory action.
10. Public name-calling and a general
contempt and disrespect to police officers.

attitude

Police Purpose and Objectives During Unlawful Assembly


1.

Containment

2.

Arrest of Violators

3.

Dispersal

4.

Re-entry Must be Prevented

of

239

5.

Established Priorities

Stages in the Formation of Unlawful Assembly


1.

Stage 1-First Stage

At this stage the crowd is still functioning as a


conglomeration of individuals.
2.

Stage 2-Second Stage

In the second stage, the crowd members lose


individuality and begin to function as a single unit.
3.

their

Stage 3-Third Stage

By now the mob is functioning as a single unit and its


leaders are in control, any event is likely to precipitate
to violent action or the riot is just waiting to happen.
Procedures in Handling Unlawful Assembly
1.

Assess the Situation

2.

Communicate

3.

Establish a Command Center

4.

Take Immediate Action

5.

Give the Dispersal Order

Procedures During Dispersal


1.
Assign witness at strategic locations who can
testify that they heard the issuance of dispersal order.
2.

Order the crowd to disperse.

3.
Order all the members of the Civil Disturbance
Management (CDM) contingent to stand ready, guarding the

240

perimeter, but making it possible for the people to leave as


directed.
4.
Expedite the
commanded to disperse.

departure

of

the

people

who

are

5.
Repeat the order at least three (3) times so that
many people as possible can hear the giving of dispersal
order.
6.

Wait until the expiration of the time limit.

7.
At
offenders.

the

end

of

the

time

limit,

arrest

the

Duties of Police Officers During Strikes and Lock-Outs


1.
The key to effective police action at the scene of
a labor management dispute is to be completely fair and
objective.
2.
It is not the police role to assume that either
side is right or wrong.
3.
The police responsibility is to establish contact
with both the company being struck and the leader of the
strikers and to point out that the police role is to enforce
the law and to protect life and property.
4.
Ask for the cooperation of all the parties of both
sides of the dispute.
5.
The police concern is compliance with the laws and
protection of the people from personal injury or property
damage.
6.
When working at the scene of a strike, provide for
the free flow of pedestrian and vehicle traffic on the
streets, the driveways, and the sidewalks.
7.
Handle the matter in such a way that it does not
indicate any alliance or sympathy with either side of the
dispute.

241

8.

Arrest should be made to flagrant violators.

9.
Take all
complete report.

necessary

information

and

prepare

10. Worked out for a more appropriate course of action


to resolve matters away of the picket line.
Rules on Unlawful Assembly/Civil Disturbance Management
1.
The pertinent provisions of the Public Assembly
Act of 1985, Batas Pambansa Blg. 880, the Labor Code of the
Philippines, as amended, and other applicable laws, shall be
observed during rallies, strikes, demonstration or other
public assemblies.
2.
Accordingly, law enforcement agents shall at all
times exercise maximum tolerance.
3.
Police officers must be in full uniform with their
identification cards and nameplates on.
4.
No excessive reasonable force shall be employed on
such occasions as to maim or wound individuals.
5.
Only such forces as may be necessary to prevent or
repel an aggression may be used and only as last resort.
6.
Employment of teargas, smoke grenades and water
cannon shall be made under proper advisement and command of
a responsible or superior officer, and must be resorted only
when there is a clear imminent danger to loss of lives and
deliberate destructions of properties.
7.
No arrest of any leader, organizer or participants
shall be made during public assemblies unless he violates
any of the above mentioned laws, the Revised Penal Code or
any Special Laws.
8.
Police assistance
to protection of lives and
the law enforcer contingent
be equipped only with riot
with visor and boots.

when requested must be limited


properties, and the members of
must bear no firearm, they must
sticks, shields, crash helmets

242

9.
No public assembly with permit shall be dispersed
except when it becomes violent. At first sign of impending
violence, the Ground Commander shall call the leader/s for
dialogue to prevent possible disturbance.
10. During actual violence, audible warning for
dispersal by the ranking officer must be made, and if after
allowing reasonable lapse of time, operations must be
pursued using such force as may be necessary and reasonable
to prevent or repel an aggression.
Basic
Formations
Operation
1.

During

Civil

Disturbance

Management

Box Formation
It is being used in providing VIP security coverage.

2.

U Formation
Also being used for VIP security coverage.

3.

Line Formation

Basic formation during actual confrontation with the


crowd.
4.

Double Line Formation


Formation used during defensive dispersal of the crowd.

5.

Arrow Formation
Formation during aggressive dispersal of the crowd.

6.

Wedge Formation

Formation during the dispersal of a large number of


crowd.
7.

T Formation

243

Also a basic formation in providing VIP security during


negotiations with unruly crowd.
Disaster Identification Problems
When disaster occurs, a tremendous responsibility is
immediately vested on the law enforcement officer to perform
many tasks. A disaster is usually a situation that strikes
suddenly and is totally unexpected. It consists of a single
events or a series of events that may be brought
by the
work of the elements of nature or through some man-made
accident.
Disaster Defined
A great natural catastrophe or an extraordinary
accident which plunges scores of people into helpless and
suffering, and it will cause for unusual and superhuman
police activity.
Types of Disasters
1.

Fires

2.

Explosions

3.

Floods

4.

Volcanic Eruptions

5.

Transportation Accidents

Organization of Disaster Identification Team


1.
Who is in charge? When several agencies agree to
work together they may also agree to these questions.

244

2.
Expert assistance is required. Other helps will be
needed, the number and type of persons depending on the
magnitude of each problem. Expert assistance may be required
in a number of fields, including morticians, doctors,
dentists, pathologist, and identification specialists who
shall be able to employ special fingerprint techniques.
Important During Recovery of Body
1.
Special equipment. In the rescue process, special
equipment, such as bulldozers, cranes, etc. may be needed to
recover the dead.
2.
Record the location of the body. When a victim is
found, the exact place of recovery should be indicated and
the body tagged and numbered.
3.
Body Tag Number. Fingerprint card must correspond
to the tag number of the body from which the prints are
taken.
4.
Personal effects should be placed in a container
and properly identified as to place of recovery and body
number, and kept it with the body. If there is any question
concerning them, they should be handled as a separate item.
Considerations in a Centralized Morgue
1.
Litters and body covers, cadaver bag, blanket or a
sheet needed.
2.
Location and size of morgue. The morgue should be
readily accessible to the scene of the disaster and be able
to accommodate a large number of persons who will later
require access.
3.
The master numerical log should be established
upon arrival of the body at the morgue.
Procedures During Preliminary Body Examination

245

1.
Physical Characteristics. Teeth for dental works,
operation and other scars, deformed legs, arms or fingers,
amputations, color of hair and eyes, race, approximate
height and weight, age, tattoos and any other identifying
characteristics. Jewelry and pocketbooks contents are most
important.
2.
Fingerprinting.
infallible
means
of
fingerprinting.

The most positive reliable and


identification
is
through

3.
Jewelry
and
pocket
identification of victims.
4.
victims.

Clothing

also

helps

contents
in

the

help

in

identification

the
of

Procedures During Morgue Administration


1.

Preservation of remains.

2.

Body segregation.

3.
Body Case File. It involves description of body
and clothing, fingerprint cards, list of personal effects,
photographs taken, dental chart and detailed results of
medico-legal or autopsy examination.
4.
Missing Person Case File. Compare this with the
body case file.
Establishing Positive Identity
1.
Comparison of missing person date with recorded
body observations.
2.
Death certificate and release of body. Authorities
should be most reluctant to issue death certificates until
all doubts have been resolved.
Disaster Control Procedures

246

1.

Identify the nature and extent of the problem.

2.

Communicate your information by radio immediately

3.
Administer urgently needed first aid and other rescue
activities.
4.

Establish command post with communication.

5.

Contain the area.

6.

Maintain open emergency lane.

7.
Evacuate survivors and other persons in the area whose
lives are in jeopardy.
8.

Provide public information services

9.

Provide for coordination with other agencies.

10. Arrange for access into the area by authorized people


only.
11.

Records the event.

Police VIP Protection Activities


It is a police activity of providing overt and covert
security coverage out of ensuring the security of the lives
and limbs of a person authorized by the law to be protected.

Definition of VIP
It is a person who, because of his sensitive position
is accorded with special protection for his personal safety.
What is Buffer Security

247

They are security personnel who are deployed between


the subject and the audience.
What is a Buffer Zone
It is an area which separate the VIP from the attacking
audience.
What is an Advance Party
A group of protective personnel to conduct necessary
survey inspections and coordination prior to the arrival of
the VIP.
Modus Operandi of Assassins
1.

Close range attack with the use of knife or gun.

2.

Use of explosives.

3.

Use of a weapon from a distance.

4.
Use of automatic weapons, warfare materials and poison
gas.
5.

Kidnapping.

6.

Crossing thru with the use of vehicle.

Rings of VIP Physical Security


1.

1st Ring

Foot and Mobile Patrol

2.

2nd Ring

Fixed Post

3.

3rd Ring

Close-in Security

Protective Security Procedures

248

1.
The formation regardless of number provides 360
degrees of coverage.
2.
The formations always move with principal when he
is outside secured area.
3.
As
formation.

general

rule,

agent

must

be

in

walking

4.
The type of formation employed will be dependent
on the manpower availability and threats to the detail.
5.
The aid remain closest to the principal as his
primary duty is to provide body cover should an attack
occur.
6.
Because formation must be flexible, agents must be
prepared to assume vacant position in the formation or
change of formation to maintain 360 degrees concept.
7.
When walking in crowds, agents should keep on mind
the expose parts of the principals body, the protection of
their weapons, and the importance of watching the hands of
persons in the crowd.
8.
When walking with the principal, agents should not
be looking directly with the principal, but looking outward
to watch the crowd and nearby surrounding for possible
attack.
Reactions to Hostile Crowd
1.
Do not
protective task.

let

the

crowd

deter

you

from

your

2.
Thrown objects should be batted down and put in
the place away from the principal.
3.
If a suspicious person is seen in the crowd but no
firm indication of intent to harm the principal, the agent
should stand between the individual and the principal until
the principal has pass safely.

249

4.
If the crowd is too large and surrounds the
principal, the formation can go into defensive circle to
move the principal safely through it.
5.
Provide close-in security to the principal and
evacuate to safe haven if necessary.

250

CHAPTER
17
TACTICS OF THE TERRORISTS
===========================================================
Definition of Terrorism
Violence for effect...not...primarily, and sometimes
not all for the physical effect on the actual target, but
rather for its dramatic impact in an audience.
The calculated use of violence or the threat of
violence to attain goals, often political or ideological in
nature, through instilling fear, intimidation or coercion.
Is violent criminal behavior designed to generate fear
in the community, or substantial segments of it, for
political purpose.
Three Broad Categories of Terrorists
1.

Crazies

Mentally ill people who will commit


during a period of psychiatric disturbance.
2.

terrorist

acts

Criminals

People who commit terrorist acts for personal rather


than ideological gain.
3.

Crusaders

Ideologically inspired
political terrorists.

individuals

or

groups...the

251

Common Tactics of the Terrorists


1.

Bombing

The tactic common to most terror groups-the bomb is a


popular weapon it is cheap to produce, easy to make, has
variable uses, and is difficult to detect and trace after
the event.
2.

Hoaxes

Whatever the type IED, the terrorist will often use it


merely to establish credibility, and to show that they mean
business. Once their credibility has been established they
continue to disrupt, though not to destroy by using well
made and placed hoax bombs. The right proportions of hoaxes
with live IED can keep security forces tied up guessing for
a long time.
3.

Arson

Although not popular tactic among terrorists, arson has


been used to destroy and disrupt such targets as public
utilities, political headquarters, and more commonly;
economic industrial targets such as shops, factories and
hotels.
4.

Hijacking

In any kind of continuing terrorist activity, the


hijacking of vehicles can and should be associated with, and
often
gives
indications
of
some
future
atrocities.
Additionally, hijacked legitimate vehicles give the
terrorist an easy means to approach or gain to a closed
government facility.
5.

Ambush

It is the fact that the terrorist can choose his own


time and place of operation and, if his intended victim
continually uses the same route, the terrorist can conduct
countless dry rehearsals before actually moving in for the
kill.

252

6.

Kidnapping

Kidnap for Ransom accounts about 8% of the terrorist


incidents, and must still be viewed as a serious option open
to terrorist groups.
7.

Hostage Taking

The difference between the kidnapping and hostage


taking is extremely fine in the world of terrorism. However,
the kidnapper would normally regarded as someone who
confines his victim in secret hideaway and makes material
demands, whereas the hostage taker will confront authorities
and openly hold their victim for ransom or some other
reasons.
8.

Assassination

It is perhaps the oldest of all terrorist tactics in


the book, and still widely used today.
Description of IEDs
The appearance of IED is up to the imagination of the
bomber. First and foremost, it is an object, regardless its
disguise, that isnt suppose to be. The kicker to this
statement is how do I know what is or isnt supposes to be
where it is?. There is no grand or perfect answer to this
one.
However, the best man and most effective mechanism is
you and your alertness. Who else would be a better idea of
what is or isnt a suspicious item or situation in your
area. Through a constant sense of awareness, you and the
people who live and work in your particular areas are the
only true defense that exists. The point is if you think it
doesnt belong in your area, it probably doesnt, and if it
is suspicious-do something about it.

253

External Appearances of an IEDs


1.

Pipe Bomb

Steel or PVC pipe section with end caps in just about


any
configuration
external
fusing
as
a
wick
or
clock/battery.
2.

Briefcase/Boxes

Any style, color, size including what appears to be


discarded quick food containers. Some may even be as small
as a cigarette package.
3.

Postal Service Mail

Especially if the address is screwed up or the return


address/postmark is strange, unexpected or missing. Rigged
envelopes can be a clue to explosive contents.
4.

Automobiles/Trucks

By far the most devastating and probably one of the


easiest to plant. Indicator may include strange license
tags, inappropriate decals, or just an unfamiliar car parked
in your area. The bomb can be implanted anywhere in the
vehicle including behind the seats, in the trunk or gasoline
tank.
5.

Existing Objects

Those items which seem to have a purpose but could be


substituted or used as a bomb container.
Sub-Classifications of IEDs
1.

Delivery

The method of getting the bomb to its


include, but are not limited to the following.

objectives

254

1)

Vehicle Bombs

These are vehicles filled with explosive which


made by booby-trapped, or remotely detonated.
2)

Laid Charges

These are devices that are put into place by the


terrorist hands.
3)

Projected Bombs

These are bombs thrown by hand or some type of


projection device such as Mortar.
4)

Postal Bombs

These are
letters or packages.
2.

devices

sent

through

the

mails

as

Activation
There are essentially three (3) ways to activate IED:
1)

Command Activation

This is done by radio signals, electric leads,


pull wires and/or strikers to name a few.
2)

Target Action

These can be activated by the target tripping a


wire, stepping on a pressure device, turning on light, etc.
3)

Time Delay

Such activators are clock mechanisms,


fuses, chemical delays, atmosphere pressures, etc.
3.

burning

Usage
There are two (2) broad categories pertaining to usage:

255

1)

Tactical IEDs

These are normally regarded as being those used


against an individual and can include mail bombs, clamor
devices, culvert bombs, in fact any IEDs can be categorized
as a tactical IEDs.
2)

Strategic IEDs

These
are
considered
to
be
those
used
indiscriminately to gain world attention; for example, in
crowded airports, shopping centers, on aircraft and so on.

256

CHAPTER
18
CRIME STATISTICS
===========================================================
Crime Statistics
It is a science, which deals with the collection,
interpretation, analysis and presentation of quantitative
crime data useful in police operational activities.
Definition of Index Crimes
Are those serious crimes that are readily reported and
that occur with sufficient regularity and frequency so as to
be used as an index of the actual level of criminality,
i.e., murder, homicide, rape, physical injuries, parricide,
robbery, and theft.
Definition of Non-Index Crimes
Are those crimes not falling under the index crimes.
Indictable Crimes
All cases that are defined and penalized under the
Revised Penal Code and Special Laws.
Non-Indictable Crimes
Cases not defined and penalized under the Revised Penal
Code and Special Laws.

257

Total Crime Volume


Number of crimes committed in a given area over a
period of time. If refers to the total number of crime
incidents reported or brought to the attention of law
enforcement agencies.
Population Density (PD)
The number of inhabitants per unit geographical area.
Formula:

PD

Where

=
:
=

PD

No. of Inhabitants
100,000
240,100 inhabitants as example
240,100
100,000
24.01

Crime Density (CD)


The number of crimes for every 100,000 population in a
given period of time.
It is obtained by dividing the Total Crime Volume (TCV)
by the population density.
Formula:

CD

TCV
PD

Where:

TCV

404

PD

24.01

404
24.01

16.83

CD
Note:

This means that 16.83 incidents transpired for every


100,000 population in a given period.

258

Weekly Crime Rate


Is the frequency of crime occurrence by weekly for
every 100,000 population during a given period of time. It
is obtained by dividing Crime Density (CD) by the number of
weeks in a given period.
Formula:
Where

WCR

CD

16.83

PT

12 weeks

Crime Density (CD)


Period of Time

16.83
12
WCR

1.40

Note:
This means that 1.40 incidents transpired for every
100,000 population in a week.
Crime Solution Efficiency
Is the batting average of a law enforcement agency in
the solution of crime. It is obtained by dividing the Number
of Crimes Solved by the Number of Crimes Reported (NCR) for
a given period multiplying the dividend by 100.
Formula CSE

NCS
____ X 100
NCR

Where

NSC

NCR

10
9
___ X 100
10

259

0.9 x 100

CSE

90%

Note:
The crime is considered solved if the case has already
been filed in court.
Frequency of Crime
Is the frequency of occurrence of a particular crime
incident committed in a given area over a period of time, it
is also similarly known as Crime Clock.
Formula:
Example:

FC

Total No. of Days


Total No. of Incident

Period Covered: 01 Jan-15 Nov 99

1.

No. of Days

318

2.

No. of Murder Case

107

318
107

2.97

Note:
Two represents the days, to get the number of hours, .
97 will be multiplied by 24 hours, hence .97 x 24 = 23.28,
now 23 represent the number of hours.
Then .28 will be multiplied by 60 minutes, .28 x 60 =
16.8, now 16 represent the number of minutes, then .8 will
be multiplied by 60 (seconds), .8 x 60 = 48, then 48
represents the number of seconds.
The frequency of Murder or the Crime Clock for the
crime of Murder is every 2 days, 23 hours, 16 minutes, and

260

48 seconds, or one Murder case is committed every 71 hours,


16 minutes, and 48 seconds in a given area.
Arrest Rate
Is the batting average of a law enforcement agency in
the accounting of persons with warrant of arrest. It is
obtained by dividing the total number of Wanted Persons
Arrested (WPA) by the total number of Warrant of Arrest
Received (WAR) in a given period multiplying the dividend by
100.
Formula:

AR

WPA
____ x 100

WAR
Where

WPA

WAR

10
_9_ x 100
100

AR

0.9 x 100

90%

261

REVIEW QUESTIONS

POLICE OPERATION PLANNING


==================================================================
INSTRUCTIONS: Select the correct answer for each of the following
questions.
1.
It is a systematic and continuous process of acquiring a set
of decisions for action in the future, directed in achieving
goals by optimal means and of learning from the outcome about
possible new sets of decisions and new goals to be achieved.
A.
C.

police planning
police plan

B.
D.

police program
police programming

2.
It is a plan of what is to be done or s set of instructions
outlining the steps to be performed in a specific operational
undertaking of police organization.
A.
C.

police planning
police plan

B.
D.

police program
police programming

3.
Almost all police organization engaged at one time or
another in the preparation of this plans and programs in response
to crisis or when forced to do so to implement decisions made by
some other body.
A.
C.

reactive
contingency

B.
D.

operational efficiency
strategic

4.
It is a plan and programs that often results from the lesson
learned by other police organizations that had face special
incident, and is based on the organizations wish to be prepared
when does it occur.
A.
C.

reactive
contingency

b.
D.

operational efficiency
strategic

5.
It requires the organization to set goals of at least five
years into the future and devise steps that need to be taken to
achieve goals.
A.
C.

reactive
contingency

B.
D.

operational efficiency
strategic

262

6.
In this classification of plans and programs, current
processes are reviewed and recommendations for improvement are
made.
A.
C.

reactive
contingency

B.
D.

operational
strategic

7.
It is the sequence of planning and programming process
wherein the questions, What need to be accomplished? and What
is the desired future steps? are being asked.
A.
B.
C.
D.

identifying the problems


analyzing alternative solutions
preparing plans & programs
setting-up of goals & objectives

8.
It requires that on-going planning assignment is to be made,
although who is this may vary depending on the level or subject
of planning or programming.
A.
B.
C.
D.

identifying the problems


analyzing alternative solutions
preparing plans & programs
setting-up of goals & objectives

9.
It may involve scanning the environment, performing research
and gathering information, and assessment of the present
situation and current state of affair.
A.
B.
C.
D.

identifying the problems


analyzing alternative solutions
preparing plans & programs
setting-up of goals & objectives

10. The extent to which the different courses of action and the
criteria for judging the strength of each course of action should
be consider once a problem is identified.
A.
B.
C.
D.

identifying the problems


analyzing alternative solutions
preparing plans & programs
setting of goals & objectives

11. This shall be based on a careful selection of the matters


relating to the situation for which plans are being developed.
A.
C.

frame of reference
analyzing the facts

B.
D.

clarifying the problems


collecting pertinent facts

263

12. This calls of the identification of the problem


understanding both its records and its possible solutions.
A.
C.

frame of reference
analyzing the facts

B.
D.

by

clarifying the problems


collecting pertinent facts

13. Developing a plan shall not be attempted until all facts


relating thereto have been gathered, and it is refers to:
A.
C.

frame of reference
analyzing the facts

B.
D.

clarifying the problems


collecting pertinent facts

14. It is being done after all data have been gathered for
careful evaluation.
A.
C.

frame of reference
analyzing the facts

B.
D.

clarifying the problems


developing alternative

15. In the initial phase of plans development, several


alternatives measures will appear to be logically comparable to
the needs of the situation, and it is:
A.
C.

selling the plan


analyzing the facts

B.
D.

arranging for execution


collecting pertinent facts

16. It is the careful consideration of all facts that usually


leads to the selection of a best alternative proposal.
A.
C.

frame of reference
analyzing the facts

B.
D.

clarifying the problems


selecting alternatives

17. A plan to be effectively carried out must be accepted by


persons concerned at the appropriate level of plans development.
A.
C.

selling the plan


analyzing the facts

B.
D.

clarifying the problems


collecting pertinent facts

18. It requires the issuance of orders and directives to unit


personnel concerned, and the provision of manpower and equipment
for carrying out the plans.
A.
C.

executive of the plan B.


analyzing the facts
D.

clarifying the problems


collecting pertinent facts

19. These are the three types of plans according to range,


EXCEPT:
A.
C.

short range
mid-term range

B.
D.

medium range
long range

264

20. Information or material that needs to be provided with cover


sheet with one-half inch green border.
A.
C.

top secret
confidential

B.
D.

secret
restricted

21. Information or material that needs to be provided with cover


sheet with one-half inch red border.
A.
C.

top secret
confidential

B.
D.

secret
restricted

22. Information or material that needs to be provided with cover


sheet with one-half inch blue border.
A.
C.

top secret
confidential

B.
D.

secret
restricted

23. It is the results of planning or proposal design to guide


and direct to be performed by the police organization.
A.
C.

police plan
police planning

B.
D.

police program
police programming

24. Are those plans relating to the standard operating


procedures and are useful as guide to personnel purposely to
increase operational efficiency.
A.
C.

operational
tactical

B.
D.

fiscal
procedural

25. Are those plans which are prepared to meet exigencies


encountered by the police organization, and are prepared
considerably in advance of expected incidents.
A.
C.

operational
tactical

B.
D.

auxiliary
procedural

26. Are those plans designed to give guidance and direction to


personnel in the performance of normal police activities.
A.
C.
27.

operational
tactical

B.
D.

auxiliary
procedural

Information or material which requires special protection.


A.
C.

top secret
confidential

B.
D.

secret
restricted

265

28. Are those plan which implement recruitment of personnel and


other normal operations involving organizational activities.
A.
C.

operational
tactical

B.
D.

auxiliary
procedural

29. Are those plans that relate to such matters for budget and
funds preparations.
A.
C.

fiscal plan
all of the above

B.
D.

budget plan
non of the above

30. It is a special type of operations, and it is an extreme


measure used when all other means failed.
A.
C.

raid
search

B.
D.

arrest
seizure

31. These are the factors affecting the success or effectiveness


of a raid, EXCEPT:
A.
C.
32. The
EXCEPT:
A.
C.
33.

size & speed


simplicity of plans
following

are

the

apprehend suspect
search & seizure

B.
D.

search & seizure


surprise & superiority

objectives
B.
D.

and

purpose

of

raid,

confiscate contraband
recover stolen property

These are considerations in preparing police plans, EXCEPT:


A.
C.

applicability
timing

B.
D.

practicability
feasibility

34. The following are the qualifications of the raiding party,


EXCEPT:
A.
C.

steady nerves
good judgment

B.
D.

leadership
nervousness

35. The following are the composition of the raiding party,


EXCEPT:
A.
C.

raid commander
raiding team

B.
D.

recorder & photographer


entering & covering party

266

36. The following are the duties of the covering party. i.e.,
covers approach, cover the entire area, neutralizing fire of
barricaded criminals and __________.
A.
C.
37.

search & seizures


arrest of criminals

B.
D.

confiscate contrabands
prevent escape of criminals

The elements of a successful raid are as follows, EXCEPT:


A.
C.

plans & orders


leadership & control

B.
D.

mission & reconnaissance


instructions & executions

38. One of the factors to be considered in planning a raid is


that the terrain must be subjected to __________.
A.
C.

surveillance
observation

B.
D.

casing
close study

39. It is important to be conducted to the participants, and it


is informing them about the nature of the mission in conducting
police raid.
A.
C.

briefing
ask individual role

B.
D.

de-briefing
informing the mission

40. It is imperative before the service of search warrant or


warrant of arrest in given jurisdiction.
A.
C.

reconnaissance
close study

41. It is an examination
discover contraband.
A.
C.

seizure
search

B.
D.
of

an
B.
D.

casing & surveillance


proper coordination
individual

or

premises

to

body search
stop & frisk

42. A Search Warrant must be served within how many days from
the dated of its issuance.
A.
C.

5 days
15 days

B.
D.

10 days
20 days

43. What is the purpose why the arresting officer conducts


criminal interrogation, take mug shots, and fingerprints of the
arrested suspect?
A.
C.

master file
all of the above

B.
D.

rogues gallery
non of the above

267

44. Any evidence obtained in violation of the rights of the


persons against unlawful searches is inadmissible as evidence,
and are considered.
A.
C.

warrantless search
all of these

B.
D.

fruits of poisonous tree


fruit of illegal search

45. The search must always be made during this particular moment
of time, unless otherwise stated.
A.
C.

day time
all of the above

B.
D.

night time
non of the above

46. What is the purpose why there is a need of requesting the


owner of the premises to do the opening of drawers and lifting of
evidence during valid searches.
A.
C.

stealing
taking of property

B.
D.

avoid planting of evidence


recovery of evidence

47. What is required to the police officer after the service of


Search Warrant?
A.
C.

submit an inventory
all of the above

B.
D.

deliver the property


non of the above

48. During the service of Search Warrant, the presence of at


least how many witness are required.
A.
C.

3 witnesses
1 witness

B.
D.

2 witnesses
nothing at all

49. It is the science which deals with the collection,


interpretation, analysis and presentation of quantitative crime
date useful in planning police operational activities.
A.
C.

statistics
crime statistics

B.
D.

crime
all of the above

50. Are those serious crimes that are readily reported and that
occur with sufficient regularity and frequency so as to be used
as a parameter of the actual level of criminality.
A.
C.

index crimes
indictable crimes

B.
D.

non-index crimes
non-indictable crimes

268

51.

Are those crimes not falling under index crimes.


A.
C.

index crimes
indictable crimes

B.
D.

non-index crimes
non-indictable crimes

52. Are those cases that are not defined and penalized under
Revised Penal Code and Special Laws.
A.
C.

index crimes
indictable crimes

B.
D.

non-index crimes
non-indictable crimes

53. It is the number of crime committed in a given area over a


period of time, and it is also refers to the total number of
crime incidents reported to the attention of the police station.
A.
C.

crime density
crime rate

54. It is refers
geographical area.
A.
C.

to

crime density
crime rate

B.
D.
the

number
B.
D.

total crime volume


population density
of

inhabitants

per

unit

total crime volume


population density

55. The number of crimes for every 100,000 population in a given


period of time.
A.
C.

crime density
crime rate

B.
D.

total crime volume


population density

56. It is the frequency of crime occurrence by month for every


100,000 population during a given period of time.
A.
C.

crime density
crime rate

B.
D.

total crime volume


population density

57. It is the batting average of the law enforcement agency in


the solution of crimes.
A.
C.

arrest rate
crime rate

B.
D.

crime solution efficiency


frequency of crime

58. It is the frequency of occurrence of a particular crime


incident committed in a given area over a period of time, it is
also commonly known as Crime Clock.
A.
C.

arrest rate
crime rate

B.
D.

crime solution efficiency


frequency of crime

269

59. It is the batting average of the law enforcement agency in


the accounting of persons with warrant of arrest.
A.
C.

arrest rate
crime rate

B.
D.

crime solution efficiency


frequency of crime

60. The municipality X is having a total population of


24,404,000. What is the population density of the municipality X?
A.
C.

2.44
4.24

B.
D.

4.22
2.42

61. The municipality X which has a population of 244,500


received a total crime volume of 401 for the 1st Qtr., CY: 2005.
What is the crime density during the period covered?
A.
C.

164.34
164.43

B.
D.

146.34
146.43

62. Police Station X recorded a crime density of 164.34 and a


crime volume of 401 for the 1st Quarter, Calendar Year: 2005.
What is the average crime rate?
A.
C.

54.78
78.45

B.
D.

78.54
45.78

63. Out of the 50 total crime volume received by Police Station


X for the month of March 2005, it was able to solve 40 cases.
What is the crime solution efficiency?
A.
C.

90%
70%

B.
D.

80%
60%

64. Out of 100 Warrant of Arrest received by Police Station X,


it was able to arrest 75 wanted persons. What is the arrest rate?
A.
C.

57%
100%

B.
D.

75%
50%

65. It is a police activities of providing overt and covert


security coverage out of ensuring the security of the lives and
limbs of a persons authorized by the law to be protected.
A.
C.

covert security
overt security

B.
D.

VIP protection activities


all of the above

66. It is a typical reaction of security personnel in case an


attack unto the VIP that are provided with security coverage,
EXCEPT:

270

A.
C.

sound-off
evacuate the VIP

B.
D.

cover the VIP


leave the VIP

67. In the rings of the VIP security, the 3rd ring is classified
as __________.
A.
C.

fixed post
foot & mobile

B.
D.

close-in
buffer security

68. It is a group of protective personnel tasked to conduct


necessary survey, inspections and coordination prior to the
arrival of the VIP.
A.
C.

buffer security
advance party

B.
D.

buffer zone
covert & overt security

69. They are security personnel who are deployed between the VIP
and the audience.
A.
C.

buffer security
advance party

B.
D.

buffer zone
covert & overt security

70. It is a person who, because of his or her sensitive position


is accorded with special protection for his or her personal
safety.
A.
C.

VIP
elected officials

B.
D.

government officials
all of the above

71. A great natural catastrophe or an extra ordinary accident


which plunges scores of people into helplessness.
A.
C.

disaster
conflagration

B.
D.

fire
accident

72. It is a basic formation in civil disturbance management that


is being used during defensive dispersal of unruly crowd.
A.
C.

U Formation
line formation

B.
D.

double line formation


arrow formation

73. It is a basic formation in civil disturbance management that


is being used during actual confrontation with the crowd.
A.
C.

U Formation
line formation

B.
D.

double line formation


arrow formation

271

74. The following must be used in requesting the driver to park


his vehicles.
A.
C.

siren
all of the above

B.
D.

megaphone
non of the above

75. It is a must before the conduct of pursuit operation, since


the subject vehicles may elude arrest.
A.
C.

inform adjacent units B.


all of the above
D.

notation of plate number


non of the above

76. Warrant of Arrest shall remain effective until the following


are met, EXCEPT:
A.
C.

accused is arrested
released on bail

B.
D.

cases is terminated
release on custody

77. It must be avoided to avoid tragic and embarrassing


situation which adversely affect the police organizations and the
government.
A.
C.

panic firing
extortion

B.
D.

mulcting
overkill tendencies

78. At this stage of unlawful assembly, the crowd is still


functioning as a conglomeration of individuals.
A.
C.

stage one
stage three

B.
D.

stage two
stage four

79. At this stage of unlawful assembly, the crowd lost their


individuality and begins to function as a single unit.
A.
C.

stage one
stage three

B.
D.

stage two
stage four

80. At this stage of unlawful assembly, the crowd is functioning


as a single unit, any event is likely to precipitate to violent
action or the riot is just waiting to happen.

81.

A.
stage one
B.
stage two
C.
stage three
D.
stage four
The following are the types of disasters, EXCEPT:
A.
C.

fires & explosions


conflagrations

B.
D.

transportation accidents
floods & volcanic eruptions

272

82. Perhaps it is the oldest of all the terrorist tactics in the


book and still widely used today.
A.
C.

assassination
kidnapping

B.
D.

hostage taking
ambush

83. This is particular tactics, wherein the terrorist confront


the authorities and openly hold their victims for ransom or some
other reasons.
A.
C.

assassination
kidnapping

B.
D.

hostage taking
ambush

84. It is eight percent of all the terrorist incidents, and must


still be viewed as a serious option open to terrorist groups.
A.
C.

assassination
kidnapping

B.
D.

hostage taking
ambush

85. It is any kind of continuing terrorist activity, it is


associated with, and often gives indications of some future
atrocity.
A.
C.

bombing
hoaxes

B.
D.

arson
hijacking

86. Although not a popular tactic among terrorist, it is being


uses to destroy and disrupt targets.
A.
C.

bombing
hoaxes

B.
D.

arson
hijacking

87. The tactic common to most terror groups, it is popular


weapon because it is cheap to produce, easy to make, has variable
uses, and it is difficult to detect and trace after the event.
A.
C.

bombing
hoaxes

B.
D.

arson
hijacking

88. There are ideologically inspired individual or groups, and


they are tagged as the political terrorist.
A.
C.

crazies
crusaders

B.
D.

criminals
all of the above

273

89. It is violence for effect, not primarily, and sometimes not


all for the physical effect of the actual target, but rather for
its dramatic impact on an audience.
A.
C.

violence
atrocities

B.
D.

criminal acts
terrorism

90. It is the fact that the terrorist can choose his own time
and place of operation if his intended victim continually uses
the same route.
A.
C.

assassination
kidnapping

91. In Explosive Ordnance


regardless of its disguise.
A.
C.

B.
D.
Disposal

hoax bombs
explosives

B.
D.

hostage taking
ambush
(EOD),

it

is

an

object,

improvised explosive device


culvert bombs

92. The external appearance of this type of IED is with steel or


PVC pipe section with end caps.
A.
C.

pipe bomb
postal service bomb

B.
D.

brief case bomb


automobile bomb

93. It is an IED that appears in any style, color, size,


including what easily discarded food containers, some may be even
small as a cigarette package.
A.
C.

pipe bomb
postal service bomb

B.
D.

94. These are vehicles filed with


booby-trapped or remotely detonated.
A.
C.

vehicle bombs
postal bombs

B.
D.

brief case bomb


automobile bomb
explosives

which

made

of

laid charges
projected bombs

95. These are devices which are put into place by the terrorist
hands.
A.
C.

vehicle bombs
postal bombs

B.
D.

laid charges
projected bombs

274

96. It is a sub-classification of IED, and it is method of


getting the bomb to its objectives.
A.
C.

delivery
activation

B.
D.

usage
non of the above

97. These bombs are thrown by hand or some type of projection


device such as mortar.
A.
vehicle bomb
B.
laid charges
C.
projected bombs
D.
postal bomb
98. A terrorist who operates and aspires to win political power
primarily within a single nation.
A.
C.

national terrorist
local terrorist

B.
D.

international terrorist
transnational terrorist

99. It is a factor that influenced contemporary terrorism,


wherein their main objectives is to publicize their cause to the
widest audience.
A.
C.

media
communication

B.
D.

potential for violence


non of the above

100. This is a type of IED that is considered


indiscriminately to gain world attention.
A.
C.

tactical IED
all of the above

B.
D.

to

strategic IED
non of the above

be

used

275

PAR TV
SECURITY & SAFETY MANAGEMENT

276

CHAPTER
19
INTRODUCTION TO SECURITY AND SAFETY
===========================================================
Security from a laymans point of view refers to the
security guards whose main function is to protect an office,
building, installation or equipment against trespass, theft,
arson, and other inimical acts. As a security officer, the
job includes the implementation of a viable security
education program which will sell security measures to the
customer-clientele of the private policing activities.
It
is also a must to improve the knowledge, and adopt an open
mind regarding the many faceted problems involved in
industrial security management.
What is a Security
Is the state of quality of being secure; freedom from fear
or danger; assurance of certainty. To secure is to make safe
or be protected.
Types of Security
1.

Physical Security

Is the broadest branch of security which is concerned


with the physical measures adopted to prevent unauthorized
access to equipment, facilities, materials and document and
to safeguard it from espionage, sabotage, damage and theft.
Physical security does not only cover types of security to
protect equipment, document, facilities and materials
against damage, sabotage or espionage. It also encompasses
protection of personnel from criminal act.

277

2.

Communications Security

Is the protection resulting from the application of various


measures which prevent or delay the enemy or unauthorized
persons in gaining information through the communication
system. This includes:
1)

Transmission Security

A component of communications security which


results from all measures designed to protect transmission
from interception, traffic analysis and imitative deception.
2)

Cryptographic Security

Results from the provisions of technically sound


crypto-system and their proper use.
3)

Physical Security

Providing a safeguards to equipment and material


from access by unauthorized persons.
3.

Hotel Security

The protection of assets, guests, personal effect and


other properties in a hotel.
4.

Bank Security

A specialized type of physical security in protecting


the assets, personnel and operation of a bank, with special
emphasis on the precaution and measures to safeguard the
cash and assets while in storage; in transit, and during
transactions.
5.

Document Security

Is a physical security involving the protection of


documents and classified matters from loss or access by
unauthorized persons, damages, theft and compromise through
disclosure.

278

6.

Personal Security

It is the protection of personnel, especially the


ranking officials of the company from any harm, kidnapping
and other criminal acts.
VIP security is also a type of
personal security.
7.

Crises Security

A part of VIP security involving hostage taking and


kidnapping of VIPs.
8.

Industrial Security

It is a physical security applied to business groups


engaged in industries like manufacturing, assembling,
research and development, processing, warehousing and even
agriculture.
It is a form of physical security involving
industrial plant and business enterprises where the
personnel,
processes,
properties
and
operations
are
safeguarded.
Use of protective barriers, and security
lighting, personnel movement control, locks and key
management, guard forces, communications and electronic
hardware are essential, aside from fire prevention and
control programs, emergency plans, industrial safety and
security education programs.
9.

Operational Security

It is part of physical security that deals primarily


with the protection of processes, formulas, patents, and
other
industrial
and
manufacturing
activities
from
espionage, infiltration, loss, compromise, or photocopying.
10.

Other Special Types


1)

Air Cargo Security

2)

School Security

3)

Supermarket Security

4)

Personnel Security

279

What is a Security Hazard


Is an act or conditions which results in a situation
conducive to a breach of the protection system and the
subsequent loss or compromise of defense information,
company secrets, or damage to personnel, property or
facilities.
Kinds of Security Hazards
1.

Human Hazard

Are the acts or conditions affecting the safe operation


of the facility caused by human action, accidental or
intentional. It includes sabotage, espionage, pilferage and
theft, disloyalty, disaffection and subversive activity.
2.

Natural Hazards

Are those caused by natural phenomena which cause


damage, disturbance and problems of the normal functioning
of human activities, including security. It includes floods,
typhoons, earthquakes, lighting storms, volcanic eruptions,
high-velocity winds, tidal waves, etc. It should be noted
that the real problems actually in industrial plants are the
human or man-made hazards, the most common of which are
pilferage, theft, arson, accidents through carelessness, and
sabotage.
Extent and Degree of Risks to Security will be Dependent on
the Following
1.

Relative Criticality

It is the importance of the firm with reference to the


national economy and security.
2.

Relative Vulnerability

It is the susceptibility of the plant or establishment


to damage, loss or disruption of operation due to various
hazards.

280

Types of Pilferers
1.

Casual Pilferer

One who steals due to his inability to resist the


unexpected opportunity and has little fear of detection.
2.

Systematic Pilferer

One who steals with preconceived plans and takes away


any of all types of items or supplies for economic gain.
Some Common Measures Against Pilferage
1.

Package Inspection

2.

Body Search

3.

Garbage and Trash Checks Before Disposal

4.

Personnel ID and Management Control

5.

Locks and Key Management

6.

Property Audits

7.

Inspections

8.

Asset Inventories

9.

Use of Alarm

10.

Security Education

281

CHAPTER
20
PHYSICAL SECURITY MANAGEMENT
===========================================================
What is a Perimeter Barrier
A medium or structure which defines the physical limits
of an installations or area to restrict or impede access
thereto. It is any physical barrier used to supplement the
protection of an inside or outside perimeter.
Basically,
following:
1.
secured;

barriers

Outline

of

the

are

designed

perimeter

2.
Create a physical
unauthorized entry;

and

of

to

accomplish

the

area

psychological

the

to

be

impact

to

3.
Delay intrusion, thus facilitating apprehension of
intruders;
4.
Assist in a more efficient, economical employment
of guards; and
5.
Facilitate and impose the control of pedestrian
and vehicular traffic.
Two General Types of Physical Barriers
1.

Natural Barrier

Include mountains, cliffs, canyons, rivers,


marshes, deserts or terrain difficult to traverse.

seas,

282

2.

Man-Made Barrier

Are structural constructions like fences, walls,


floors, roofs, grills, bars, road blocks, or other physical
means to deter or impede penetration.
Types of Perimeter Barriers
1.

Wire Fences

Is a type of perimeter barrier made of chain link


design with mesh openings not larger than two inches square,
and made of #9 gauge wire or heavier, minimum height of
which is 8 feet.
2.

Building Wall

Masonry wall should have the same height as the chain


link and surmounted by the barbed wire top guards; if the
height is less than the prescribed, additional chain-link as
topping
is
placed
to
attain
the
minimum
height
requirement.
3.

Bodies of Water

It is an additional security measures, surrounding the


establishment.
Kinds of Perimeter Barrier Openings
1.

Gates and doors, it must be guarded and locked.

2.
Sidewalk elevators, it provides access to areas
within the perimeter barriers and should be locked or
guarded.
3.
Utility openings, it may be composed of sewers,
air intakes, exhaust tunnels which penetrate the barriers
and which have cross-sectioned area of 96 sq. in. or more
should be protected by bar grills, etc.
4.
Clear Zones, it is an unobstructed area maintained
on both sides of the perimeter barrier. A clear zone of 20

283

ft. or more is desirable between the barrier and extension


structures and natural covers which may provide concealment
or assistance to a person seeking unauthorized entry. Where
it is impossible to have clear zones because of property
lines or natural features, an increment in the height of the
fencing, increased guard coverage, more security lighting,
or the use of intrusion devices in that portion of the
perimeter barrier should be done.
Additional Protective Measures
1.

Top Guard

It is an additional overhang or barbed wire placed on


vertical perimeter fences facing upward and outward with a
45 degrees angle with three to four strands of barbed wires
spaced 6 apart. This will increase the protective height
and prevent easy access.
2.

Sentry Stations

Normally provided at the main perimeter entrances to


secure areas located out of doors, and manned by guards on a
full time basis.
Sentry Stations should be near at the
perimeter for surveillance at the entrance.
3.

Guard Towers

Are house-like structure above the perimeter barriers.


It gives a psychological effect to violators.
4.

Protection in Depth

In large open areas or ground where fencing or walling


is impracticable and expensive, warning signs should be
conspicuously placed.
The dept itself is protection.
Reduction of access roads and sufficient notices to warn
intruders should be done.
Use of animal guards and
intrusion devices can also be done.

284

5.

Signs and Notices

Control signs should be erected where necessary in the


management of unauthorized ingress, and preclude accidental
entry, ID, prohibition, and exclusive areas signs.
Specifications for Using Chain-Link Fences
1.
It must be
excluding top guard.
2.

constructed

in

8-foot

material

It must be 9 gauge or heavier.

3.
Mesh openings are not to be larger than 2 inches
per side.
4.
bottom.

It should be twisted and barbed salvage at top and

5.
It should be securely fastened to rigid metal or
reinforced concrete.
6.
paving.

It must reach within 2 inches of hard ground or

7.
It must reach below surface deep enough on soft
grounds to compensate for shifting soil or sand.
Specifications for Using Barbed Wire
1.
Standard barbed wire is twisted, double-strand, 12
gauge wire, with 4 point barbs spaced on equal distance
apart.
2.
Barbed wire fencing must
posts high excluding top guard.

be

firmly

affixed

to

3.
Barbed wire fencing should not be less than 8 feet
high excluding top guard.
4.
The distance between strands will not exceed 6
inches and midway between parts.

285

Specifications on Clear Zones


1.
A clear zone of 20 feet or more should exist
between the perimeter barriers and exterior structures,
parking areas, natural or man-made features.
2.
A clear zone 50 feet or more should exist between
the perimeter barrier and structures within the protected
areas except when a building wall constitutes part of the
perimeter barrier.
Security Specifications for Windows Openings
Windows of openings less than 18 feet above the ground,
roofs, ledges, etc., or less than 14 feet directly or
diagonally opposite uncontrolled windows in other walls,
fire escapes, or other openings of 96 sq. in. or larger
should be grilled or have steel bar protections.
Security Lightings
Security Lighting provides sufficient illumination to
areas during hours of darkness.
Among its other purpose
are:
1.
It improves visibility so that intruders can be
seen, identified or apprehended.
2.
It gives psychological fear which serves as a
deterrent to thieves, pilferers, trespassers, and saboteurs.
3.
It makes the routine work of guard easier
identifying employees, vehicles, etc. during nighttime.

of

4.
If placed in certain areas, may even reduce the
number of stationary guards, and instead, may require roving
patrol only at night.

Security Lightings Techniques

286

1.
Security lighting should enable a guard to observe
clearly the activities around, and inside the premises
within his jurisdictions.
2.
In planning, high contrast between intruder and
background should be provided.
When contrast is poor,
increase intensity will improve guards ability to see.
3.
Lighting boundaries and approaches, as well as the
area and structure is useful to discourage unauthorized
entries and reveal identity of persons.
Good lighting
should reveal well boundaring areas, glaring to intruders
and adequate for the guard to observe his positions.
4.
Effective lighting should: 1) discourage attempts
to enter the premise; and 2) detection were likely if entry
is attempted.
5.
If lighting at night cannot be provided due to
impracticability, other means of protection have to be made
like additional guard posts, roving patrols and animal
guards.
Types of Security Lightings
1.

Stationary Luminary

Most common type, consisting of series of fixed


luminous to light a given area continuously with overlap.
These two types are used on the entry gate of employees and
vehicles. It may either be:
1)

Glare Protection Type

The intensity is focused to the intruder while the


observer or guard remains in the comparative darkness. The
lighting is toward the approach of an entrance to an
installation. Lights with reflectors increase glare.
2)

Controlled Lighting

The width of the lighted-atop can be controlled


and adjusted to suit the security needs.
The lighting is

287

focused sag
background.
2.

on

pile

of

items

rather

than

on

the

Stand-by Lighting

Similar to continuous lighting, in can be turned on


manually or by special devices or other automatic means,
when there is suspicion of entry.
3.

Movable Lighting

Consist of stationary or portable, manually operated


search lights which may be lighted continuously during hours
of darkness or only as needed, and usually supplementary to
either of the first two types.
4.

Emergency Lighting

A stand-by lighting which can be utilized in the event


of electrical failure, either due to local equipment or
commercial power failure.
Types of Light Lamps
1.

Incandescent Lamps

Common light bulbs in which light is produced by the


resistance of a filament to electric current.
For better
concentration of light, metal reflectors are used, and
directed on areas to be lighted.
2.

Gaseous Discharge Lamps

Economical to use but take two or five minutes to light


which may be a disadvantage in industrial security lighting.
Examples are as follows:
1)
Mercury-Vapor Lamps blue green color light due
to the presence of mercury vapor.
2)
Sodium-Vapor Lamps emits yellow light, placed
usually in areas to connote special concern, like bridges
and streets.

288

3)

Quarts Lamps very bright light.

Protective Alarms
Alarm, aural or visual signal given by the annunciator
to security when intruder actuates device in a protected
area.
An annunciator is a visual or audible signaling
device which initiates conditions of associated circuits.
Basically, alarm system was designed to alert security
personnel to consummated or attempted intrusions into an
area, building or compound. Each type of alarm is activated
in the event that an intruder tampers with the circuitry, a
beam, or radiated waves; intrusion alarm can be electrical,
mechanical, or electronic. Alarms are also used for fire,
smoke or other emergencies and presence of other hazards.
Types of Protective Alarm Systems
1.

Central Station System

Several separate compounds tie their alarm system to a


central station so that in case of need, the central station
calls for assistance to the police, fire department,
hospital or with other government assisting units.
2.

Proprietory System

Similar to the central station type except that the


proprietory console is located inside the subscribers
installation who owns or base the system.
3.

Auxillary System

An installation owned system which is a direct


extension of the local enforcement agency and/or fire
department by special arrangement.

4.

Local Alarm System

289

Consist of ringing up of visual or audible alarm near


the object to be protected. In case of alarm, response will
be made by the local guards and other personnel within sight
or hearing.
Desirable Characteristics of Intrusion Alarm System
Intrusion alarm devices are designed to detect and
not to prevent criminal acts and should be used normally as
an adjunct and not a replacement of the human guard forces.
The primary considerations on the choice of a
particular alarm system include stability, durability and
reliability. Desirable characteristics, furthermore, should
include:
1.
A detection unit should initiate the alarm upon
intrusion of a human being in the area or vicinity of the
protected object.
2.
Panel board central annunciator or operating
console monitoring activities should be removed at all
times. Transmission can be by physical wires or by radio.
3.
An annunciator console indicating the audible
and/or aural signal and the specific location of incident so
that proper action can be made by security and other units.
4.
Fail-safe features give alarms in the annunciator
when something is wrong with the system.
5.
System should be difficult to tamper or render
ineffective by outsiders, competitors or saboteurs.
Operation of Intrusion Alarm System
Intrusion
devices
emit
certain
signals
to
annunciator and operate on the following principles:
1.

Breaking an Electric Circuit

the

290

In a building or compound, all possible points of entry


can be wired by using electrically charged strips of tinfoil
or wire. Any action that will move the foil or wire breaks
the circuit and activate an alarm. The alarm can be local,
or near the area where circuit is broken, or can be
monitored in a distant annunciator or both.
2.

Interruption of a Light Beam

This system uses a photo-electric cell or the electric


eye which operates on the principles of light rays.
In
this system, an invisible light beam is transmitted to a
special receiver. An infrared filter over the light source
makes the beam invisible to intruders. The source of beam
is hidden, and the rays criss-cross a room by the use of
reflecting mirrors until they contact sensitive cells in the
receiver.
This device terminates by wire to a console in
the security control room.
When an intruder breaks the
beam, an alarm is activated.
The disadvantages of photo-cell include: the beam can
be bypassed by crawling underneath or climbing over it; its
requirements of a rigid or outdoor installations are not so
effective because of fog, smoke, dust, rain and other
obstructions to vision when defuse enough can interrupt the
light and trigger false alarms.
3.

Detection of Sound and Vibration

This can be utilized effectively to safeguard enclosed


areas vaults, safes, storage bins, file rooms, warehouses,
and similar enclosures. Supersensitive tiny microphones are
embedded in the walls, ceilings and floors of the enclosure
to be protected by sound or vibrations. These microphones
distributed evenly can detect sound or vibrations of sound
caused by attempts to force entry into the protected area.
The main advantage of this detector device is its
relatively low cost and easy installation.
The amplifier
which monitors the sound from the microphone can be adjusted
to suit the sensitivity level requirements.
The obvious
disadvantage is its limited application to enclosed vaults,
and depositories where minimum external sound exists. It is
not satisfactory where minimum external sound exists. It is
not satisfactory where high ambient noise level are

291

encountered because of the proximity to construction sites,


aircraft traffic, and vehicular movements.
4.

Space, Motion and Vibration

These systems usually derive their operating principle


from a physical phenomenon known as Doppler Effect.
Constant sound waves in a cubicle disturbed by an object
will cause change of frequency and wave motion thereby
causing an alarm to trigger.
5.

Electromagnetic Fence

Is an electronic fence consisting of 3 to 5 strands of


wire spaced from 9 to 24 inches above one another which
serves as an antenna, a monitor panel, and an electric
circuitry. When power is put on, an electro-magnetic field
is set among the wires from the top to the ground.
An
intruder about two feet from this field will trigger an
alarm. The fence is zoned to pinpoint areas of intrusion to
a monitor located in the operation room of security. This
system is suggested to be located inside the chain-link
fencing to minimize nuisance alarms caused by animals,
debris blown by the wind, and harmless trespassers.
Security Communication System
In any plant or industrial complex, inter and intra
communications is indispensable not only in security work,
but also in the plant operation itself.
It is a good
management policy that security should have its own
communication line officers within the installations and to
the outside.
The security force needs a communication landline to
call local law enforcement agencies, the fire department,
ambulance, mobile patrol and other governmental agencies.
Telephone is also needed to contact the agencys main office
or security force outposts. The following are some means of
communication that can be a useful part of the protective
system:
1.

Local telephone exchange

292

2.

Commercial telephone service

3.

Inter-communication

4.
Two-way radios for security, i.e., base, portable,
and mobile.
5.

Security supervising system and beep-beep.

6.

Paging and recall system

7.

Bull-horns or megaphones

8.

Amplifier or loud speaker system

Identification and Control


Identification and control objective include precluding
unauthorized entry and facilitating authorized personnel to
enter specific areas, as well as preventing the introduction
of
material
components
of
harmful
materials,
misappropriation, pilferage of installation properties and
recorded classified information.
Identification and control objectives are achieved by:
1.
areas;

Initially determining who has valid right in the

2.
Limiting access to those persons who have a right
and need to be there;
3.
Establishing
procedures
for
positive
identification of persons authorized access into areas;
4.
Issuing passes or badges to those authorized to
enter restricted areas;
5.
By using access list, identification codes, and
duress code.
What is a Pass System

293

A pass or badge is issued by security for personnel to


be admitted in the installation. This system precludes those
visitors with escorts and personnel in the access list. The
pass system is for general use and not for restricted areas
like exclusive, limited and controlled areas. The following
are systems recommended:
1.

Single Pass or Badge System

Pass is issued for permission to enter different


specific areas by letters, numerals, or colors. For example,
green backgrounds of current passes in the general area, or
white pass with overprinted blue symbols for a certain
specific areas.
2.

Pass of Badge Exchange System

Multiple copies of passes are issued to an individual


with the same photograph. The individual exchange his badge
for another color or numeral at the gate. Once inside, if he
needs to enter a restricted area, he exchanges it for one of
another color acceptable in that area.
Visitor, Property, Movement and Vehicle Control
A visitor is any person not regularly employed in a
plant or firm. Strict precautions are taken with visitor
against pilferage, sabotage and other crimes. Plant visitors
can
be
suppliers,
promoters,
collectors,
customers,
government inspectors, contractors, job-seekers, group
visitors, guided tours, and others.
Passes or badge may be issued to visitors indicating
area to be visited and escorts requirements. Likewise,
movement
of
packages
should
be
controlled,
closely
inspecting all incoming and outgoing packages, with
inspection to all the vehicles. Trucks entering and leaving
the area should be inspected. Trucks have been found to have
special components, items placed inside the spare tire, tool
boxes, and even in fake gasoline tanks.
What is a Protective Lock

294

A protective lock is defined as a mechanical,


electrical, hydraulic, or electronic devised designed to
prevent entry to a building, room, container or hiding
place.
Four General Groups of Key Locks
1.

The Warded Lock

The underlying principle is the incorporation of wards


or obstructions inside the lock to prohibit a key from
operating the bolt unless the key has corresponding notches
cut in it so that it will pass the wards.
2.

The Lever Tumbler Lock

Each lever hinges on a fixed point and is held down


against a stop by the pressure of a flat spring. Each lever
has a cut in tilt, and all the gates can be located at
different places. When the proper key is inserted and
turned, notches of various depths raise all the lever
whatever distance is required to line up all the gates
exactly opposite the fence on the bolt. When the key is
turned, a portion of the key catches the bolt and slides it
back. Because there is no resistance to the post entering
the gate, the lock is opened. If the key is not the correct
one and if even one gate does not line up to let the post
slide into it, the lock cannot be opened.
3.

The Disc Tumbler Lock

Also known as the woofer tumbler type, has flat metal


tumblers with open center fitted into slots in a plug which
is in turn fitted into a lock case. When the plug is turned,
it activates a cam. The key is removable at 90 to 180
degrees and may be rotated either right or left. The disks
are under spring tension forcing them partially out of the
plug into recesses in the case thereby preventing the
cylinder from turning. Rectangular openings in the disk
tumblers are out into various longitudinal dimensions
requiring corresponding cuts in the key to position the
tumblers. Proper unlocking positioning of the tumblers is
accomplished when they are withdrawn from the recesses in
the body of the lock to position flush with the plug,

295

allowing the plug to


withdrawal of the bolt.
4.

turn

the

cam

which

causes

the

Pin Tumbler Lock

The pin tumbler mechanism depends for its security, on


a number of round pin or tumblers operating on a cylinder.
Each tumbler or pin is divided into two parts: the upper,
which is flat on both, is called the driver; the bottom part
called the pin is rounded or slightly pointed on the lower
end to fit the grooves or cuts in the key. A coil spring
above each driver constantly forces it downward. When the
right key is inserted, the various depths of the cuts in the
key compensate for the different lengths in the pins. The
dividing points between each of the two pins segment are
brought into line with the top of the plug, and allowing it
to rotate in the cylinder. When the plug turns, it carries
with its cam which activates the bolt and other lock
mechanism.
What is a Padlock
A portable and detachable lock having a pivoted or
sliding hasp which
posses through a staple ring, or the
like and is then made fast to secured.
What is a Combination Locks
Is a lock that requires manipulation of parts according
to a predetermined combination code of numbers of letters.

What is Key Control


The management of keys in a plant or business
organization to prevent unauthorized individual access to
the keys.

296

What is a Master Key


It is a special key capable of opening stories of
locks. This key is capable of opening less number of locks
than the grand master.
What is a Master Keying System
A system used in big installations whereby keys can
open a group or groups of locks. This is possible by the use
of interchangeable cylinder cores in the locks. Using locks
with the same key in a facility is not master keying or the
use of a pass key. It is used to operate an inexpensive lock
by moving it in the key hole until it catches a locking belt
and unlocks the mechanism.
Master keying is when a lock operates on a master key
plus an individual or changes key. Master keying is made
possible due to the development of interchangeable cylinder
cores. In matters of seconds, keys and lock combination can
be changed, and this is done by the use of a control key.
With this key, all the cores in a locking system can be
changed rendering the existing keys not usable.
Levels of Control in the Master Keying Plan
1.

One-LevelChange Key

All locks operated by the change key only and the keys
are different or alike or required. Each key operates its
own lock only. Examples are the houses, stores, cars,
warehouses.
2.

Two-LevelsMaster Key

All levels operated by change keys and master key.


Master key operates all locks generally of one building.
Example: small school, apartment.
3.

Three-LevelsGrand Master Key

grand

All locks operated by change key, master keys, and


master keys. Grand master key operates all locks

297

generally used in large buildings or a facility with several


buildings. Example: office buildings, hospitals.
4.

Four-LevelsGreat Grand Master Key

All locks operated by change key. Grand master keys and


great grand master keys. Used in great or large complex
system and similar to three levels.
5.

Five-LevelsGreat-Great Grand Master Key

All locks operated by change key, master key, grand


master key and great grand master key , and great great
grand master key. Example: big universities, complexes,
large industrial complexes.
Pointers for Effective Locks and Key Control
1.
Records of all keys issued and names of holders
must be meticulously made regardless of the size of the
establishment.
2.
Storage key is important. Duplicate or spare keys
should be stored in a securely locked cabinet in a secure
area.
3.
Master key should be ensued on an absolute minimum
number, and must be kept by an individual responsible for
locks and keys.
4.
Regular checks should be made in employees with
keys issued.
5.
Issuance of keys and locks should be carefully
controlled, and issuance should be on a real-need basis.
6.
Periodic
re-keying
should
be
considered
as
essential security safeguard just as combination of safes
are changed from time to time.
7.
A key depository should be provided in a big
plant. Supervisors taking keys should register in registry
book.

298

What is Maison Keying


The issue of key to open the main entrance and the
office.
What is a Coded Lock
This is a type of lock that can be opened by inserting
a coded card in a slot in the lock, or by pushing the
correct buttons on the surface of the lock.
What is Electronic Lock
It is a type of lock that can be closed and opened
remotely by electronics means.
Types of Fire Protection
1.

Automatic Sprinkling System

It is a type of
increase of room
operates to put out
the ceilings of the
action once a fire
those directly above
where it is needed.
1)

built-in sprinklers which works by the


temperature and which automatically
the fire. Attached and distributed in
rooms, these sprinklers will go into
starts, and those that will open are
the fire and water is delivered right

Wet Pipe System

The piping has water with pressure, and the water


sprinkler will operate when head is open and water will
continue to flow until shut off.
2)

Dry Pipe System

The pipes are filled with air under pressure which


holds the water at the valve located in a room. When
sprinklers head goes into operation, air is released,
trapping the dry pipe valve and allowing water to flow
through the system.

299

2.

Fire Pump

It is a mechanical device of supplying water which can


be manual or motor-driven. These pumps are ideal when
natural supplies of water are readily available like a
rivers, lakes or streams.
3.

Stand Pipe

Are G.I steel or plastic pipes located inside a


building from the lowest to the top floor with water under
pressure for use in case of fire. Located near the standpipe
is a fire hose usually enclosed in a glass box handy for
use. In case of fire, the hose is screwed into the standpipe
outlet and a valve is opened to release the water. The water
for standpipe can come from a storage tank at the roof or
from a series of water pumps.
4.

Fire Hydrant

A mechanical device strategically located in an


installation or street where a fire hose is connected so
that water with pressure will be available to extinguished a
fire.
5.

Portable Hand Extinguishers

It is a fire fighting equipment which can be portable


or in a cart that is used to put out fire depending on the
contents to extinguish certain types of fires as class A to
D. This is the most important and useful piece of fire
fighting equipment in a plant, building, or facility.

Classes of Fires
1.

Class A Fires

These fires results from the burning of wood, paper,


textiles and other carbonaceous materials.
Extinguishment
of this type is by quenching and cooling.
Extinguishers
which have water, sand, acid, foam and the special solution

300

of alkali methyl dust, as found in the load-stream


extinguisher, should be used for this type of fire.
2.

Class B Fires

Are those caused by flammable liquids like kerosene,


gasoline,
benzene,
oil
products,
alcohol
and
other
hydrocarbon derivations.
This type is put out and
controlled by foam, loaded-stream, carbon dioxide, drychemical and vaporizing liquid. If water is used here, it
might even spread the flame, or explosion may ensue.
3.

Class C Fires

Are those which start in live electrical wires,


equipment, motors, electrical appliances and telephone
switchboards. The extinguisher that should be used for such
fires are carbon dioxide, dry-chemical
and vaporizing
liquid,
as
the
soda-type
can
even
electrocute
the
extinguisher holder. In case of class C fires, source of
electricity should be shut off.
It becomes mandatory and
good practice to put fuses in the circuit so that in case of
ground or short, the power will be put off by the blowing of
the fuse, or if circuit breaker is used, it will trip an
open circuit.
4.

Class D Fires

This fire is the result of the combustion of certain


metals in finely divided forms.
These metals can be
magnesium, potassium, powdered aluminum, zinc, sodium,
titanium, lithium and zirconium. This type of fire can be
put-out by GI type, meth LX, Lith X, meth L KY, dry sand and
dry talc.

Recognizing Fire Hazards


1.
Cigarette buts or any other evidence of smoking in
a no-smoking area.
2.
Oily rags. Rags which are used around motors are
particularly dangerous. The heat from the motor can easily
set them afire.

301

3.
All heating equipment.
produces heat can also produce fire.
4.
Flammable boxes and
to heating equipment.

Any

equipment

which

papers stacked or left next

5.
Open cans of gasoline, paint,
alcohol and other flammable material.

paint

thinner,

Principles of Extinguishing Fires


1.

Cooling or Quenching

Using water or water solution, the temperature of the


substance is lowered below the burning point.
2.

Smothering or Blankering

Oxygen content of air is reduced below 15%-from normal


of 21% in volume by using chemicals, fog, sand blankets,
etc.
3.

Starving or Cutting-Off
Supply of fuel or material is cut off, as in gas jet.

Types of Fire Extinguishers


1.

Dry Chemical Extinguisher

2.

Foam Extinguisher

3.

Loaded Stream Extinguisher

Types of Business Records


1.

Class 1 Vital Records

Includes the records that are irreplaceable; records


wherein reproduction of which does not have the same value
as the original; records needed to recover cash to replace
buildings, equipments, raw materials, finished products and

302

records needed to avoid delay in restoration of production,


sales and services.
2.

Class II Useful Records

Includes records which loss might cause inconvenience


but could be readily replaced and which would not in the
meantime present an insurmountable obstacle to the prompt
restoration of the business.
3.

Class III Important Records

Include records, the reproduction of which will involve


considerable expense and labor, or considerable delays.
Operating and statistical records belong to this class as
well as those to maintain check on efficiencies, operating
costs, etc. Also included are contracts, customer credit
files, sales records, design in process development, records
of experiments in progress, etc.
4.

Class IV Non-Essential Records

Are the daily files, and routine in nature so that even


if lost or destroyed, will not affect operation and
administration of the plants or firms.
Categories of Storage Containers
1.

Class 1
Commercial record safes designed for fire protection.

2.

Class 2

Commercial money
burglary protection.
3.

safes

designed

for

robbery

and

Class 3

Security cabinets designed to meet specifications for


safeguarding classified materials.
Some Tests for Safes Fire Resistance

303

1.

Fire Endurance Test

A safe should not have any one time a temperature above


350 degrees Fahrenheit.
2.

Explain Hazard Test

Test to determine if the sudden rise in temperature


will not cause the safe to rupture. If the safe can
withstand 2000 Degrees Fahrenheit for 30 minutes and will
not crack or open, then it has passed the explosion test.
3.

Fire and Impact Test

Aimed at determining the strength of a safe


withstand the collapse of a building during a fire.

to

What is a Safe
A metallic container used for the safekeeping of
documents or small items in an office or installation. Safes
can be classified as either robbery and/or burglary
resistant depending upon the use and need. Many safes are
required to be installed in steel-clad concrete blocks to
prevent being carted away by the thieves and robbers.
What is a Vault
A heavily constructed fire and burglarresistant
container usually a part of the building structure used to
keep
and
protect
cash,
documents,
and
negotiable
instruments. Vaults are bigger than safes but smaller than
security file rooms.
What is a File Room
A cubicle in a building constructed a lighter than a
vault but of bigger size to accommodate limited people to
work on the records inside.

304

CHAPTER
20
SECURITY SURVEY AND INSPECTION
===========================================================
What is a Security Survey and Inspection
A fact-finding probe to determine the plants adequacy
and deficiency in all aspects of security, with the
corresponding recommendations.
What is a Survey
The term applied
conducted by a team.

to

the

first

detailed

look-see

What is Inspection or Follow-up Survey


The term used for succeeding surveys after the initial
survey.
What is a Supplemental Survey
Conducted when there is business reorganization with
corresponding changes in objectives and physical lay-outs of
the complex.
What is a Special Survey
Directed by the management, if the initial survey
appears to have left certain portions or aspects involving
security due to change in policy or operations that will
greatly affect the total security picture.

305

What is Entrance Conference


A conference or dialogue between the survey team and
the management, and officials of a plant before security
survey is conducted.
What is Exit Conference
A conference similar to entrance conference and it is
done after the completion of the security survey.
Who Performs Security Survey & Inspection
Security survey is performed by qualified security
experts who can be from the organization or outsiders
contracted to do the job. Recommendation will fall into
three categories:
1.

human guard;

2.

equipment;

3.

procedures.

and

What is a Security Education Program


The exposure and teaching of employees on security and
its relevance to their work.
What are the Objectives of Security Education Program
1.
Guidance for all supervisory and executive levels
of the organization;
2.
A mandatory indoctrination on security for all new
personnel before their assignment to their respective jobs;
3.
Development
of
high-degree
of
security
consciousness among the selected supervisors and other key

306

personnel in a program that


supported by top management;

should

be

containing

and

4.
A
down-the-line
security
program
aimed
at
installing
consciousness
and
dedication
through
demonstration, lectures, motivations, and suggestion.
5.
To let all the employees informed that they all
belong to the organization and that non-awareness and nonconcern to the security program is tantamount to disloyalty.
6.

To develop discipline, loyalty and belongingness.


These
attributes
when
fully
imbued
will
result
in
effectiveness and efficiency.
Requisites of Effective Security Education Program
Security education program to be effective must have
the support and sanction of top management, the main thrust
being to acquaint all personnel on the reasons for the
security measures. This program should be given to all
personnel from the work group that has no access to
classified endeavors, to the supervisors and executives
handling sensitive plans and policies of the industrial
firm. The program is given a follow-through which will be
continuing and tailored to the specific group levels
depending on their access to restricted work and activity.
Definition of Terms
1.

Access List

An authenticated list of personnel given to security


allowing entry to a compound or installation or part
thereof.
2.

Audit

An official verification and examinations of accounts


and records.
3.

Badge System

307

A system for personnel movement and control whereby


badges or identification are issued to personnel upon
entering an installation. Visitors are also issued temporary
badges when entering the installations.
4.

Background Investigation

A check made on an individual usually seeking


employment through subjects records in the police files,
educational institutions, places of residence and former
employers.
6.

Complete Background Investigation

Same as B.I but more comprehensive to include places of


residence since birth.
7.

Controlling

The regulation of many different aspects of business


activity. Controls are needed to standardize quality and
performance, protect assets, measure performance, balance
plans and programs, and motivate individuals.
8.

Controlled Area

An area near or adjacent to limited or exclusive areas


where entry is restricted.
9.

Coverage Factor

The minimum number of directions from which each point


in the area should be lighted depending upon the use of the
area.
10.

Doppler Effect

A physical phenomenon that causes frequency shift if an


object moves in an area permeated by radio frequency
signals. This change in certain types of alarms activates a
signaling unit.
11.

Dry-run

308

Practical test or exercise of a plan or any activity to


test its validity; it is also an operational readiness
exercise.
12.

Duress Code

A type of code system so that security personnel when


forced by armed men to enter an installation can give alarm
by the use of certain words in casual conversation with
other personnel in the installation.
13.

Exclusion Area

A restricted area containing materials or operation of


security interest.
14.

Fail-Safe

A term applied to a device or system that in the event


of failure of a componentthe incapacity will be signaled.
15.

Peterman

A term used in England for lock pickers, safecrackers,


and penetrators of restricted rooms or areas.
16.

Program of Instruction

A list of subjects, number of hours, name


instructors, venue of training for a certain course.
17.

of

Automated Records

Records accumulated by electronic data processing


system (EDPS) like tapes, memory devices, reels, and storage
cases.
19.

Restricted Area

Any area, access


restriction control.
20.

Victimology

to

which

is

subject

to

special

309

A special study concerned with what makes an individual


a victim of crime.
Important Factors on Security Survey
1.

Surveys must be exhaustive and complete.

2.
Hazards
must
be
identified
with
specific
recommendations
for
elimination,
neutralization
or
reduction.
3.
Deficiencies found should be described in detail,
and if possible with photos, sketches, diagrams, maps and
other explanatory notes.
4.
Early surveys should be reviewed so that the
current survey will determine the improvement in the former
deficiencies.
5.
Recommendations should be consistent with the
current situations, facilities, resources available, and
most of all concomitant with the organizations objectives
and goals.
Time-phasing of the recommendations should be
also recommended especially on execution.

310

CHAPTER
21
HUMAN RESOURCES IN SECURITY
AND SAFETY INDUSTRY
===========================================================
The Security Guard
The key element in the security survey system of a
plant or installations is the human guard.
Without this
human
element,
all
the
mechanical,
electrical,
and
electronic protective aids, as well as security techniques
would be worthless. It is the human guard, as a part of the
security enforcement medium, who contributes the thought
processes and all the human senses to the security system.
The electronic device may sound the alarm, the television
camera may spot the culprit, and the mini-computer may
trigger the red button, but it is the guard responds and
initiates the necessary action.
Procedures in the Selection of Guards
The selection of the guards must be done with care and
meticulousness. The guard occupies an important slot in the
whole security system.
Such a guard, to be effective and
useful, must be physically able, mentally alert, morally
responsible, reliable, and must be stable under pressure.
Above all, he must be responsive to his work to a point of
dedication.
The Company and the Contract Guards
There are two different ways in which security guards
are hired or employed. Those who are hired directly under
the payroll of an employer to protect the employers
property are called company guard, or in-house guards, and

311

they are considered employees of that company. Government


guards are included in this category.
Other individuals or entities prefer to avail the
services of an outside firm providing security guards on
contract basis.
These firms are the private security
agencies, specializing in providing trained security guards.
The security guards employed under contract are employees of
the agency.
In the local setting, there are more contract agency
guards than company or government guards.
Their jobs are
all basically the same, the only difference are their
employers.
There are more contract guards from private security
agencies hired by government entities and privately owned
companies or corporations for the reasons that it is more
practical,
less
expensive,
and
with
better
trained
personnel.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Agency and Company Guards
1.

Advantages of Agency Guard Force


1)

More economical;

2)

Security administrative problems are reduced;

3)
Problems related to recruitment,
investigation and training are eliminated;

pre-employment

4)

Absenteeism and vacation leaves are eliminated;

5)

Security personnel are separated from co-employee;

6)
In case of accidents or deaths, the agency takes
care of the cumbersome details;
7)
In case of emergencies, extra guards are easily
available, and
8)
In case of company strikes, the agency guards will
be on duty to carry out their assigned duties.

312

2.

3.

Disadvantages of Agency Guard Force


1)

Lack of training;

2)

Low-caliber employees;

3)

No company loyalty;

4)

Project poor image;

5)

Large turn-over, and

6)

Not familiar with plans.

Advantages of Company Guard Force

1)
wages;
2)

Generally

high

caliber

as

they

receive

higher

Generally, they provide better services;

3)
Can be trained to handle some of the more complex
security duties;
4)

Less turn over;

5)
They are more familiar with facilities that they
protect, and
6)
They tend to be loyal to the company of which they
are a part.
4.

Disadvantages of Company Guard Force


1)

Cost more;

2)

May be required to join a guard union, and

3)
Problem
personnel.

of

ensuring

availability

of

back-up

313

Importance of Training to Security Guards


Security organization which does not have an adequate
and continuing training program for its personnel will not
be able to offer efficient and reliable security services.
It is not only dangerous but a criminal act to assign a
guard who has not been properly indoctrinated and trained.
Although the extent and type of training for guard forces
will vary according to the importance, type, vulnerability,
size, and other factors affecting a particular plant or
industrial complex, yet, there are basic subjects and skills
that guards must learn before performing their assigned
duties.
The untrained security guard may do unnecessary harm to
employees in the performance of his job.
He may use his
firearm while a simple knowledge in martial arts will
suffice. It will require more untrained guards to perform
certain tasks, to meet the same situation than utilizing
trained ones.
Efficient and continuing training is the
effective means in improving the proficiency of guard
personnel.
Regardless of how careful the recruitment of
guards is made, seldom will they qualify for immediate guard
duty.
Besides, a trained guard may require re-orientation, if
not training, due to new or revised job requirements can be
gapped by proper training.
Saving by limiting is poor
investment and a form of criminal negligence.
Benefits Derived from the Training of Security Guards
1.
Good training helps provide for more flexibility
and better physical protection.
Fewer personnel and less
time may be required for trained men to perform guard
requirements. Training also helps establish systematic and
uniform work habits. An effective program will help create
attitudes and improve morale.
2.
Training in whatever form benefits the guard to
the extent that skills are upgraded which provides increased
opportunities for promotion, improves better understanding
of his relationship to management. Training also increases

314

self-confidence,
reliability.

and

an

ingredient

needed

for

work

3.
Training gives the supervisor better tools to do
his tasks efficiently among his guards.
Due to increased
supervisory skills, less time is wasted and fewer mistakes
made. Resulting economies are to benefit the organization.
There will be smoother relations with other agencies.
A
good program instills confidence which is an important asset
of the guard force.
The Security Officer
A security officer is charged with directing the work
and observing the behavior performance of the men under his
unit.
The effective supervisor must posses the necessary
leadership, human understanding, and job knowledge to do his
work.
The principal task of leadership within an
organization is to ensure that the efforts of all members
are estimated to capacity and effectively directed toward
the primary objectives of the organization.
The quality of leadership reflected in the appearance,
spirit, bearing, demeanor, words, action and work of
subordinates.
Members
of
a
unit
under
effective
supervisorship enjoys
doing their work, hence, they are
proud of their organization, carry out instructions, and
request cheerfully and willingly, and work indefatigably for
long hours under comfortable conditions without question or
complaint.
In contrast, subordinates under inferior leadership are
frequently dissatisfied with their jobs, dislike their
duties,
resent
instructions
and
request
from
their
superiors, and avoid accepting new responsibilities.
Good
leadership transforms indifferent, dissatisfied, disloyal,
and
inefficient
personnel
into
loyal,
agreeable,
hardworking, interested, and efficient men who derived great
satisfaction in the accomplishment of their assigned tasks.

Goals of Security Officer

315

The most important role that a security officer can do


is to create in each individual a sense of vigilance,
alertness, careful thinking, and the ability to recognize
and
report
all
security
infractions
to
the
proper
authorities and make spot corrections of minor security
violations in order that remedial measures can be instituted
right away.
Security is an all-of-the-time job both for the
individual and the security officer. The security officer
must keep every member of his unit alerted to possible
dangers to security.
He must stimulate interest in a
security program and generate the willingness on the part of
every man and woman to be more careful in talking about his
or her job, handling classified information, or guarding
restricted areas. The individual must at all times careful,
alert and ready to act. And it is the goal of a security
officer.

316

CHAPTER
22
REPUBLIC ACT NO. 5487
===========================================================
What is Republic Act No. 5487
This is an Act to Regulate the Organization and
Operation of Private Detective, Watchman or Security Guards
Agencies or the Private Security Agency Law, approved and
took effect on 13 June 1969, as amended by PD No. 11, dated
03 October 1972, PD No. 100, dated 17 January 1973, PD No.
1919, and EO No. 393, dated 10 May 1972.
Who is In-Charge with the Implementation of RA No. 5487
The Chief, Philippine National Police (C,
the SAGSD, CSG or the former Supervisory Office
and Investigative Agencies, Civil Security Unit
as provided by Sec. 35, RA No. 6975, in close
with PADPAO, Inc.

PNP) through
for Security
(SOSIA, CSU)
coordination

SAGSD is an administrative support unit of the PNP


which is in charge with the supervision, direction and
control of all Private Security Agencies (PSA) and Private
Detective Agencies in the country. The Group Director (CG,
CSG) acts in the name of the C, PNP on matters, duties, and
powers delegated by him to the latter.
Definition of a Person, as Provided by RA No. 5487
As used in RA 5487, a person shall include not
only natural persons but also a juridical person such as
corporation, partnership, company or association duly
registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission
(SEC).

317

Who are the Watchmen or Security Guards


They are any persons who offers or renders personal
service to watch or secure either residential or business
establishment, or both, or any building, compound, or area,
including, but not limited to, logging concessions,
agricultural
mining
or
pasture
lands,
for
hire
or
compensation, or as an employee thereof, including any
employee of the national or local government or any agency
or instrumentality thereof and of government-owned or
controlled firms or corporations, who is employed to watch
or secure government buildings, compounds, premises and
other properties other than members of the Armed Forces of
the Philippines, guards of the Bureau of Prisons, Provincial
and City Jail Guards, and members of city and municipal
police forces.
Who are the Private Detectives
A private detectives are any persons who are not a
member of a regular police agency or the Armed Forces of the
Philippines who does detective work for hire, reward, or
commission.
What is a Private Detective Agency
A PDA is any person who for hire or reward or on
commission, conducts or carries on or holds himself out as
conducting or carrying on a detective agency or detective
service.
What is a Private Security Agency
Any person, association, partnership, firm or private
corporation, who/which recruit, trains, furnishes, or
employs any watchman or security guard, or solicits
individual, business firm, private, public or governmentowned or controlled corporation to engage his/its watchmen
or security guards.

318

License to Exercise Security and Detective Profession


License or certificate to exercise profession is any
document issued by the C, PNP or his duly authorized
representative recognizing a person to be qualified to
perform his duties as security guard or detective.
License to Operate a Security and Detective Agency
It is a document issued by the C, PNP or his duly
authorized representative authorizing a person to engage in
the occupation, calling or employment as security guard or
detective, or a juridical person to establish, engage,
direct, manage or operate an individual or a private
detective agency, private security agency or company
security force after payment of the prescribed dues or fees.
What is a Company Security Force
It is a security force maintained and operated by any
private
company/corporation
for
its
own
security
requirements.
What is a Government Security Unit
It is a security unit maintained and operated by any
government entity other than military and/or police, which
is established and maintained for the purpose of securing
the office or compound and/or extension of the government
entity.
What do you mean by the term PADPAO, Inc.
The term PADPAO, Inc., means Philippine Association of
Detectives and Private Agencies, Incorporated, the umbrella
organization for PSA and PDA.

319

What do your mean by the term SAGSD, CSG, PNP


The term SAGSD, CSG, PNP, means Security Agency and
Guards
Supervisory
Division,
Civil
Security
Group,
Philippine National Police, a government agency involved in
the personal supervision of the affairs of the PSA and PDA.
What are the Branches of SAGSD, CSG, PNP
The branches of the SAGSD, CSG, PNP are as follows: 1)
Administrative Branch; 2) Operations Branch; 3) Research,
Records & Statistics Branch; AND 4) Special Action Branch.
Who May Organize and Maintain PSA and PDA
Any Filipino citizen or a corporation, partnership, or
association, one hundred percent of which is owned and
controlled by Filipino citizens may organize and maintain a
private security agency or private detective agency.
Basic Requirements of Operator or Manager of PSA and PDA
The operator or manager of an agency including managers
of branch offices, must be a Filipino citizen, shall not be
less than 25 years of age, a college graduate and/or a
commissioned officer in the inactive service or retired from
the Armed Forces of the Philippines or the Philippine
National Police, or graduated/taken a course in concepts and
methods in Industrial Security and Security Management
and/or must have adequate training or experience in security
business, of good moral character, not having been convicted
of any crime involving moral turpitude and
not suffering
from any of the following disqualifications:
1.
Dishonorably discharged or separated from the
Armed Forces of the Philippines or Philippine National
Police or separated for cause from any government entity or
government-owned or controlled corporations;
2.

Being mentally incompetent;

3.

Being physically unfit;

320

4.
Addicted to the use of narcotic and/or prohibited
drugs and/or substances;
5.

Habitual drunkard or alcoholic

6.
Elective or appointive government employees who
may be called upon on account of the functions of their
respective offices in the implementation and enforcement of
the provisions of RA 5487, and any person related to such
government employees by affinity or consanguinity in the
third civil degree shall not hold any interest, directly or
indirectly in any security guard or watchman agency on
account of the functions of their respective offices in the
implementation and enforcement of the provisions of RA 5487
as amended, and the rules and regulations implementing the
Private Security Agency Law.
Typical Organizational Structure of PSA, PDA, CSF and GSU
1.
Private security agencies shall conform with the
organizational structure, personnel, equipment, training and
clothing as provided for in RA 5487, as amended and its
implementing rules and regulations. The initial; requirement
of 100 guards shall be contracted during the 1 st year of
operation until the 200 guards minimum requirement shall
have been complied with for the succeeding year of
operation.
2.
Company security forces shall be organized to
conform substantially with the organizational structure
prescribed for private security agencies.
3.
Government security unit shall be organized to
conform with the organizational structure of the government
firm but not contrary to the organizational structure as
prescribed for private security agencies.
Where are the Main/Branch Offices of PSA, PDA, CSF and GSU
All agencies shall maintain a main office in their
registered addresses.
Branch offices shall be established
and maintained in other provinces/cities where they have at

321

least an initial employment of 10 guards during the 1st year


until the 30 minimum guard requirement shall have been
complied in the 3rd year operation.
Branch offices
established in region outside NCR shall be required to
register their presence at SAGS District Office and Regional
PADPAO.
What is a Security Service Contract
Private
security
agencies
shall
render
security
services to their clients only after a service contract duly
notarized shall have been executed between them.
Such
contract must stipulate among other things; the money
consideration to be paid by the client to the agency; the
number of hours of security service per guard per day which
the guard himself shall render to the client, and the salary
each individual security guard shall received from agency.
What is the Tenure of Security Personnel
The tenure of security personnel shall be co-terminus
with the service contract between the PSA and the client.
However, the services of any security personnel shall be
terminated on the following grounds:
1.

Expiration of contracts;

2.

Revocation of license to exercise profession;

3.

Conviction of crime involving moral turpitude;

4.

Loss of trust and confidence;

5.

Physical and mental disability, and

6.
Any other violation of the pertinent rules and
regulations.

The Term Payrolls as Provided by RA No. 5487

322

Private security agencies shall prepare payroll with


the name of security guards arranged alphabetically and
numbered consecutively. These payrolls shall be personally
signed by the payees only after receipt of the amounts shown
therein.
Separate payrolls for distant detachments/posts
shall be prepared and similarly signed by the payees or his
duly authorized representatives as the case maybe. Payrolls
shall be filed with the main office within 15 days after pay
day.
The use of the payroll form shall be in accordance
with the standard format as prescribed by law.
Qualifications of a Watchmen or Security Guards
No person shall be licensed as Security Guard unless he
possesses the following qualifications:
1.

Filipino citizen;

2.

High school graduate;

3.

Physically and mentally fit;

4.
At least eighteen (18) years of age but not more
than fifty (50) years old;
5.

Has undergone pre-licensing training course, and

6.

Must not possess any disqualification

Foreigner or any another person who was already


employed as security guard or private detective prior to the
approval of
RA 5487, as amended, shall not be subject to
the above qualifications.
The qualifications of a government security guard who
shall apply for license to exercise his/her profession shall
be as prescribed by the implementing rules and regulations.

Person Exempted from the Pre-licensing Training

323

1.
Veterans and retired military/police personnel or
honorably discharged military/police personnel possessing
all the qualifications mentioned shall be exempted from prelicensing seminar which is a requirement for the issuance of
license to exercise profession as a security guard;
2.
Graduates of ROTC advance/basic, and/or its
equivalent in the AFP, CAFGU/CHDF, or its equivalent in the
PNP. Training graduates shall be exempted from the required
basic licensing seminar.
What are the Qualifications of a Private Detective
No person shall be licensed as a private detective,
unless, in addition to the initial qualifications, shall
possesses the following:
1.
Law, or

Holder of a baccalaureate degree of Bachelor of

2.
Holder
Criminology, or

of

degree

of

Bachelor

of

Science

in

3.
Graduate of a Criminal Investigation Course
offered by the then PC/INP or the NBI or any police training
school or detective training with authorized/recognized
training center for security guard.
4)

Advance ROTC/CMT graduates.

What is the General Scope of Detective Work


A Private Detective shall operate on a covert type of
mission on a specific confidential order issued by his
agency.
The nature of his mission may defend on the
contract between the client and the detective agency.
It
shall include:
1.
Personal
Security
Investigation/Background
Investigation;
2.
Locating missing persons;
3.

Surveillance work, and

324

4.
Such other detective work as may become the
subject of contract between the agency and its clients
provided it is not contrary to law, public order, public
policy, morale and good custom.
What is the Territorial Power of the Security Guard
A security guard shall watch and secure the property of
the person, firm or establishment with whom he is or his
agency has a contract for security services. Such services
shall not however, extend beyond the property or compound of
said person, firm or establishment except when required by
the latter in accordance with the terms of their contract to
escort big sums of money or valuables or in some cases, in
hot pursuit of criminal offenders.
What are the Qualifications of Security Officers
No person shall be licensed as a security
unless he has the following qualifications:
1.

Filipino citizen,

2.

Holder of baccalaureate degree;

3.

Physically and mentally fit;

4.
course;

Has

graduated

from

security

officer

5.

Retired personnel of the PNP or AFP; and

6.

Must not possess any disqualifications;

officer

training

What are the Basic Requisites in Applying for License


1.
Any person possessing all the qualifications and
none of the disqualifications, may apply for a license or
license certificate to engage in the occupation, calling or
employment as certified guard or private detective.

325

2.
Any person qualified under the rule to engage in
business of private security agency or private detective
agency may file a license to operate.
3.
Applicants for Private Security Agency license to
operate
shall
be
required
to
present
a
minimum
capitalization of one million pesos (P1,000,000.00) and a
minimum bank deposit of five hundred thousand pesos
(P500,000.00) in order to start its business operation.
Where an Application for License to Exercise Profession or
Permit to Operate a PSA, PDA, CSF and GSU can be Filed
The
application
to
operate
a
private
security
agency/company guard force shall be filed with the office of
the C, PNP thru the C, SAGSD using SAGSD Form No. 01-94 and
SAGSD Form No. 02-94, respectively.
What is the Graduated Scale of License for PSA and PDA
The issuance of license to operate a private security
agency and private detective agency shall conform with the
following graduated scale which shall be approved by the C,
PNP or his duly authorized representatives.
1.
PSAs with temporary license to operate having 200
guards or more but not exceeding 1,000 shall be issued a
regular license to operate good for 2 years.
2.
New PSAs shall be issued a temporary license to
operate good for 1 year.
3.
PSAs with temporary license to operate having
posted 100 guards or more but less than 200 guards shall
upon expiration of such license be issued an extension
period to operate good for 6 months period. No additional
extension of license shall be granted unless the PSAs
concerned shall submit a certification for the posting of at
least an additional 50 guards thereby making a total of 150
or more guards.
4.
PSAs with extended temporary license to operate
shall upon expiration of such license but still fail to
comply the 200 guards requirement, shall be granted

326

additional extension of another 6 month period in order to


complete the 200 guards requirement for the issuance of a
regular license. Otherwise, failure to comply with the 200
guards requirement, shall serve as a basis for the issuance
of cease operation order.
5.
License of PSAs which less than 100 guards shall
not be renewed after 1 year of operation.
6.
PSAs with cancelled/revoked licenses shall cease
to operate, and within 7 days after having been duly
notified of such cease operation order, shall immediately
deposit all its firearms with the Firearms and Explosive
Division or the ROPD. Thereafter, the C, ROPD shall conduct
an inventory of surrendered firearms which shall receipted,
copy furnished C, SAGSD.
Failure of the PSA concerned to
comply shall be liable under PD 1866.
What are the
5487

Penalties for

Violation of the

IRR of RA No.

Without prejudice in the filing of the appropriate


criminal action, the following penalties shall be imposed
after investigation of any guard or detective, private
security guard agency or company security service and
thereafter found guilty of committing any of these offenses
enumerated:
1.

For Light Offense

One (1) to thirty (30) days suspension or a fine


ranging from one hundred pesos minimum to five hundred pesos
maximum (P100.00 P500.00) or both..
2.

For Less Grave Offense

One (1) month and one (1) day to six (6) months
suspension or a fine ranging from five hundred pesos minimum
to one thousand pesos maximum (P500.00 P1,000.00) or both,
and
3.

For Grave Offenses

327

Six (6) months and one (1) day to one


(1) year
suspension or a fine ranging from ten thousand pesos minimum
to fifty thousand pesos maximum (P10,000.00 P50,000.00),or
both or cancellation of license permit.
Summary Power of the Chief, PNP as Provided by RA No. 5487
The Chief, PNP may at any time suspend or cancel the
licenses/permits of private watchman/detective or security
guard agency found violating any of the provisions of RA
5487, as amended, and the Rules and Regulations promulgated
by the Chief, PNP pursuant thereto.
The Chief, PNP upon
prior recommendation of PADPAO as concurred by the Director
CSG through SAGSD, may refuse issuance or renewal of
license/permit to operate to any security agency and/or
security guard summarily found to have violated the
provision of RA 5487 and its implementing rules and
regulations.

328

REVIEW QUESTIONS

SECURITY & SAFETY MANAGEMENT


==================================================================
INSTRUCTIONS: Select the correct answer for each of the following
questions.
1.
It is a physical security applied to business groups engaged
in industries, like manufacturing, assembling, research and
development, processing, warehousing and even agriculture.
A.
C.

operational security
physical security

B.
D.

industrial security
special types

2.
It is the broadest branch of security which is concerned
with the physical measures to prevent unauthorized access.
A.
C.

operational security
physical security

B.
D.

industrial security
special types

3.
Are the acts or conditions affecting the safe operation of
the facility caused by human action, accidental or intentional.
A.
C.

security hazards
natural hazard

B.
D.

man-made hazard
all of the above

4.
Are those caused by natural phenomena which caused damage,
disturbance and problems of the normal functioning of human
activities, including security.
A.
C.

security hazards
natural hazard

B.
D.

man-made hazard
all of the above

5.
It is the importance of the firm with reference to the
national economy and security.
A.
C.

relative criticality
all of the above

B.
D.

relative vulnerability
non of the above

6.
One who steals with pre-conceived plans and takes away any
of all types of items or supplies for economic gain.
A.
C.

pilferer
systematic pilferer

B.
D.

casual pilferer
intruder

329

7.
A medium of structure which defines the physical limits of
an installations to restrict or impede access thereto.
A.
C.

natural barrier
perimeter barrier

B.
D.

man-made barrier
physical security

8.
It is a type of perimeter barrier made of chain link with
mesh openings not larger that two inches square, and made or #9
gauge wire or heavier.
A.
C.

clear zone
building wall

B.
D.

bodies of water
wire fence

9.
It surmounted by the barbed wire top guards, and if the
height is less than the prescribed, additional topping is placed
to attain the minimum height requirement.
A.
C.

clear zone
building wall

10. An unobstructed
perimeter barrier.
A.
C.
11.

area

B.
D.

bodies of water
wire fence

maintained

clear zone
building wall

B.
D.

on

both

sides

of

the

bodies of water
wire fence

He may issue or revoke licenses issued to security guards.


A.
C.

Chief, PNP
Governor

B.
D.

Mayor
Secretary, DILG

12. It is an additional overhang barbed wire placed on vertical


perimeter fences facing upward and outward with a 45 degree angle
with three to four strand of barbed wire.
A.
C.

topping
all of the above

B.
D.

top guard
non of the above

13. Are house like structure above the perimeter barriers, it


give psychological effect to violators.
A.
C.

guard towers
guard house

B.
D.

sentry
guard post

14. A conference or dialogue between the survey team


management officials before security survey is conducted.
A.
C.

security survey
entrance conference

B.
D.

special survey
exit conference

and

330

15. It is a fact finding probe to determine a plants adequacy


and deficiency in all aspects of security.
A.
C.

security inspections
special survey

B.
D.

security survey
supplemental survey

16. It is the exposure and teaching of employees on security and


its relevance to their work.
A.
C.

security education
security training

B.
D.

security indoctrination
security awareness

17. It is an authenticated list of personnel given to security


allowing entry to a compound or installation thereof.
A.
C.

controlling
exclusion area

B.
D.

access list
controlled area

18. Any area, access to which is subject to special restriction


control.
A.
C.

restricted area
controlled area

19. A restricted
security interest.
A.
C.

area

restricted area
controlled area

B.
D.
containing
B.
D.

exclusion area
coverage factor
materials

or

operation

of

exclusion area
coverage factor

20. It is the key elements in the security survey system of a


plant or installation.
A.
C.

security guard
company guard

B.
D.

human guard
agency guard

21. It is a term used in England for lock pickers, safecrackers,


and penetrators of restricted rooms or areas.
A.
C.

doppler effect
Peterman

B.
D.

duress code
fail safe

22. A term applied to a device or system that in the event of


failure or a component, the incapacity will be signaled.
A.
C.

doppler effect
Peterman

B.
D.

duress code
fail safe

331

23. It is a practical test of a plan or any activity to test its


validity, it is also an operational readiness exercise.
A.
C.

dry run
controlling

B.
D.

run through
fire drill

24. A system of personnel movement and control whereby badges or


identification are issued to personnel upon entering an
installations.
A.
C.

badge system
pass system

B.
D.

identification system
badge and pass system

25. It is the susceptibility of the plant or establishment to


damage, loss or disruption of operation due to various hazard.
A.
C.

relative criticality
all of the above

B.
D.

relative vulnerability
non of the above

26. It includes records that are irreplaceable, reproduction of


which does not have the same value as the original records.
A.
C.

useful records
important records

B.
D.

vital records
non-essential records

27. How is one classified if he steals primarily because of


irresistible urge due to unexpected opportunity?
A.
C.

casual pilferer
systematic

B. ordinary pilferer
D. unusual pilferer

28. The extinguishment of fire by using water solution, and the


temperature is lowered below the burning point.
A.
C.

smothering
cooling

B.
D.

starving
all of the above

29. It is a type of built-in sprinklers which works by the


increase of room temperature, and which automatically operates
the system to put out the fire.
A.
C.

wet pipe system


dry pipe system

B.
D.

automatic sprinklers
stand pipe system

30. These fire results from the burning of wood, paper, textiles
and other carbonaceous materials.
A.
C.

Class A Fires
Class C Fires

B.
D

Class B Fires
Class D Fires

332

31. Private Security


government agency.
A.
C.

DTI
SEC

Agencies
B.
D.

must

be

registered

at

what

PNP
LGU

32. It is the minimum guard requirements for the issuance of


temporary license.
A.
C.
33.

B.
D.

1,000
200

The regular license is good for how many years?


A.
C.

34.

100
50

1 year
6 months

B.
D.

2 years
1 year & 6 months

It is the minimum capitalization for PSA.


A.
C.

P1,000,000.00
P100,000.00

B.
D.

P500,000.00
non of the above

35. It is the required minimum number of guards to operate


company security forces.
A.
C.

30
50

B.
D.

200
100

36. A PSA with 200 to 499 guards shall pay how much amount of
surety bond to a reputable insurance company.
A.
C.

P50,000.00
P150,000.00

B.
D.

P100,000.00
P200,000.00

37. PSAs with 100 guards must initially procure at least how
many firearms for use of its security guards.
A.
C.

10
30

B.
D.

20
70

38. PSAs who have been applying for regular license to operate
must have at least ___ pieces of licensed firearms.
A.
C.

10
30

B.
D.

20
70

333

39. The stock of ammunitions of the PSAs shall not exceed a


basic load of how many rounds per unit of duly licensed firearms.
A.
C.

20
50

B.
D.

12
25

40. This is quantity of ammunitions to be issued to individual


security guards.
A.
C.

20
50

B.
D.

12
25

41. It is the only instances wherein PDAs & PSAs may be allowed
to use high powered firearms.
A.
B.
C.
D.

upsurge of lawlessness and criminality


upsurge of bank and armored bank robbery
transporting big amount of money
providing security to VIPs

42. The prescribed high-powered firearms not exceed how many


percent of the total number of guards employed.
A.
C.

5%
15%

B.
D.

43. These are the qualifications


security guard, EXCEPT:
A.
B.
C.
D.

10%
20%
of

licensed

watchman

or

high school graduate


physically & mentally fit
18 to 50 years of age
without pre-licensing training

44. It is the key element in the security survey system of a


plant or installation.
A.
C.

security guard
security equipment

B.
D.

human guard
security system

45. There are two different ways in which security guards are
hired or employed, the company guard and the other one is:
A.
C.

government guards
propriety guards

B.
D.

private security agency


in-house guards

334

46. This is an Act to Regulate the Organization and Operation of


PDAs/PSAs/CSFs/GSUs.
A.
C.

PD 1919
RA 5487

B.
D.

EO 393
PD 100

47. They are any person who offers or renders personal service
to watch or secure either residential or business establishment
or both.
A.
C.

private detective
propriety guards

B.
D.

security guards
company guards

48. Are any person who is not a member of the AFP or PNP, but
involved in detective work.
A.
C.

private detective
propriety guards

B.
D.

security guards
company guards

49. It is any person who for hire or reward or on commission,


conducts or carries on or holds himself out in carrying detective
works.
A.
C.

PDA
GSU

B.
D.

PSA
CSF

50. It is any person, association, partnership, firm or private


corporation that employs any watchman or guards.
A.
C.

PDA
GSU

B.
D.

PSA
CSF

51. It is a security force maintained and operated by the


private company/corporation for its own protection and security
requirements.
A.
C.

PDA
GSU

B.
D.

PSA
CSF

52. It is a security unit maintained and operated


government entity other than military or police.
A.
C.
53.

PDA
GSU

B.
D.

PSA
CSF

It is the umbrella organization for PDA and PSA.


A.
C.

PADPAO, Inc.
SEC

B.
D.

SAGSD
PNP

by

any

335

54. It is a government agency involved in the supervision of the


internal affairs of the PSAs, PDAs, CSFs and GSUs.
A.
C.

PADPAO, Inc.
SEC

B.
D.

SAGSD
PNP

55. It is the age requirement for the operator or manager of


PSA, PDA, CSF, and GSU.
A.
C.

25 years
35 years

B.
D.

30 years
20 years

56. It is the initial number of guard requirements that must be


contracted for the 1st year of operation of PSA.
A.
C.

100
1,000

B.
D.

200
50

57. What is the minimum number of guard requirements in the


operation of branch offices of PSA.
A.
C.
58.

20
10

B.
D.

30
40

__________ are included in the category of in-house guards.


A.
C.

government guards
propriety guards

B.
D.

private security agency


all of the above

59. It is charge with the directing the work and observing the
behavior performance of the men under his unit.
A.
C.

security guard
watchman

60. The following items


service contract, EXCEPT:
A.
B.
C.
D.

B.
D.
must

be

security supervisor
security officer
stipulated

in

the

security

money consideration
number of hours of security service
salary of the security guard
commission of the operator

61. It is the effectivity date of the Implementing Rules an


Regulations of R.A. 5487.
A.
C.

August 18, 1994


August 28, 1984

B.
D.

October 8, 1994
August 8, 1984

336

62. It is administrative sanctions that can be imposed to any


applicant who failed to submit the complete requirements in the
renewal of license.
A.
C.

cancellation
nullification

B.
D.

revocation
suspension

63. It shall apply to all PDAs/PSAs/CSFs/GSUs throughout the


Philippines.
A.
C.

Private Scty. Law


IRR of RA 5487

B.
D.

RA 5487
all of the above

64. It refers to the Summary Power of the Chief, PNP as provided


by R.A. 5487.
A.
C.

suspension of license B.
all of the above
D.

cancellation of license
non of the above

65. It is the established rules and regulations in the operation


of GSUs, EXCEPT:
A.
C.

registration at SAGSD B.
both A & B
D.

registration at CSG
registration at SEC

66. Any member of the GSUs shall be required


__________ to exercise profession at SAGSD.
A.
C.

permit
registration

B.
D.

to

secure

authority
license

67. How many days prior expiry month of license shall require
PSL holders to undergo NP examinations.
A.
C.

60 days
45 days

B.
D.

30 days
15 days

68. Neuro-Psychiatric
Clearance
shall
be
issued
by
the
accredited testing centers within how many days after the date of
examination.
A.
C.
69.

60 days
45 days

B.
D.

30 days
15 days

Moribund but previously licensed security agency, means:


A.
C.

dying PSA
new PSA

B.
D.

viable PSA
renewing PSA

337

70. It refers to the requirements for application for licenses


as security officers, guards, and operators.
A.
B.
C.
D.

physical & mental examination


medical & dental examination
physical agility test examination
drug test examination

71. It is an administrative fine to be imposed PSAs/CSFs that


committed for the third offense of posting security personnel not
in uniform.
A.
C.

P500.00/guard
P250.00/guard

B.
D.

P100.00/guard
cancellation of license

72. It is an administrative penalty to be imposed to security


guards found drunk while on duty.
A.
C.

P500.00/guard
P250.00/guard

B.
D.

P100.00/guard
cancellation of license

73. It is an administrative penalty to be imposed to security


guards displaying discourteous or rude manner in the performance
of duty.
A.
C.

5 days suspension
30 days suspension

B.
D.

15 days suspension
cancellation of license

74. It is an administrative penalty to be imposed to security


guards who are assisting criminals.
A.
C.

5 days suspension
30 days suspension

B.
D.

15 days suspension
cancellation of license

75. It is an administrative penalty to be imposed to security


guards providing confidential information to unauthorized person.
A.
C.

5 days suspension
30 days suspension

B.
D.

15 days suspension
cancellation of license

76. It is an administrative penalty to be imposed to security


guards apprehended for alarm and scandal.
A.
C.

5 days suspension
30 days suspension

B.
D.

15 days suspension
cancellation of license

338

77. It is an administrative penalty to be imposed to security


guards firing his issued firearms indiscriminately.
A.
C.

5 days suspension
30 days suspension

B.
D.

15 days suspension
cancellation of license

78. It is an administrative penalty to be imposed to security


guards leaving his post without being properly relived.
A.
C.

5 days suspension
30 days suspension

B.
D.

15 days suspension
cancellation of license

79. It is an administrative penalty to be imposed to security


guards who are exposing the lives and properties he is supposed
to protect in danger.
A.
C.

5 days suspension
30 days suspension

B.
D.

15 days suspension
cancellation of license

80. It is an administrative penalty to be imposed to security


guards who failure to notify the proper authority on any sign of
impeding disorders.
A.
C.

5 days suspension
30 days suspension

B.
D.

15 days suspension
cancellation of license

81. It is an administrative fine to be imposed PSAs/CSFs that


committed for the second offense of posting security
personnel
not carrying the ID, PSL, FALs and DDO.
A.
C.

P500.00/guard
P250.00/guard

B.
D.

P100.00/guard
cancellation of license

82. It is an administrative fine to be imposed PSAs/CSFs that


committed for the first offense of posting security personnel not
covered by written contract.
A.
C.

P500.00/guard
P250.00/guard

B.
D.

P100.00/guard
cancellation of license

83. It is an administrative fine to be imposed PSAs/CSFs that


committed for the third offense that are imposing and collecting
unauthorized deductions.
A.
C.

P500.00/guard
P250.00/guard

B.
D.

P100.00/guard
cancellation of license

339

84. It is an administrative fine to be imposed PSAs/CSFs that


failed to submit application and requirements for renewal for
license.
A.
C.
85.

B.
D.

P100.00/guard
P250.00 plus P50.00/day

Blue Guard Medal Valor is awarded by whom?


A.
C.

86.

P500.00/guard
P250.00/guard

SILG
PD, PPO

B.
D.

C, PNP
RD, PRO 3

Letter of Commendation to PSGs is awarded by whom?


A.
C.

PSAs Operators
all of the above

B.
D.

CSF Managers
non of the above

87. It shall be submitted immediately after graduation to the C,


PNP.
A.
C.
88.

closing reports
participants

B.
D.

opening reports
name of course

It is required to the License to Operate PSAs/CSFs.


A.
C.

displayed
registered

B.
D.

carried
all of the above

89. Merger of PSAs/PDAs is commonly known as ______ in the


industrial security management.
A.
C.

Kabit System
Merger of Security

B.
D.

Illegal Operation
Moribund Security

90. It is no anymore required to PSAs/PDAs securing temporary


license to operate.
A.
C.

pre-inspection
inspection

B.
D.

post-inspection
continuing inspection

91. It shall not be issued unless prior inspection is conducted


to the applicant agency.
A.
C.

regular license
license to operate

B.
D.

temporary license
permit to operate

340

92. These are the classifications of offenses as prescribed by


the IRR of R.A. 5487, EXCEPT:
A.
C.

serious offense
grave offense

B.
D.

light offense
less grave offense

93. It is the impossible penalty for light offenses in violation


of IRR of R.A. 5487.
A.
B.
C.
D.

1 day- 30 days susp. or P100.00 P500.00 fine


1 mo.- 6 mos. susp. or P500.00 - P1,000.00 fine
6 mos. 1 yr. susp. or P10,000.00-P50,000.00
non of the above

94. It is the impossible penalty for less grave offenses in


violation of IRR of R.A. 5487.
A.
B.
C.
D.

1 day- 30 days susp. or P100.00 P500.00 fine


1 mo.- 6 mos. susp. or P500.00 - P1,000.00 fine
6 mos. 1 yr. susp. or P10,000.00-P50,000.00
non of the above

95. It is the impossible penalty for grave offenses in violation


of IRR of R.A. 5487.
A.
B.
C.
D.

1 day- 30 days susp. or P100.00 P500.00 fine


1 mo.- 6 mos. susp. or P500.00 - P1,000.00 fine
6 mos. 1 yr. susp. or P10,000.00-P50,000.00
non of the above

96. They
have
the
authority
PSAs/PDAs/CSFs/GSUs, EXECPT:
A.
C.

C, SAGSD
PD, PPO

B.
D.

to

conduct

inspection

to

C, ROPD
SAGSD Officer

97. The administrative penalty is prescribed by what particular


provision of the Private Security Law.
A.
C.

Sec. 8, RA 5487
Sec. 28, RA 5487

B.
D.

Sec. 38, RA 5487


Sec. 48, RA 5487

98. These are authorized to conduct investigation on


complaints against securities of PSAs or detective of PDAs.
A.
C.

C, ROPD
all of the above

B.
D.

Inves. Comm., CSG


non of the above

all

341

99. It must be avoided by the private security personnel, either


physically or otherwise with the strikers.
A.
C.

direct contact
confrontation

B.
D.

indirect contact
carrying of firearms

100. The City or Municipal Mayors has the power to muster or


_________ the members of the agency in case of emergency or in
times of disasters or calamity.
A.
C.

organize
utilize

B.
D.

incorporate
deputize

342

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343

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344

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James
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Commandments
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347

APPENDIX A
AUGUST 2003 BOARD EXAMINATION
Republic of the Philippines
PROFESSIONAL REGULATIONS COMMISSION
Manila
BOARD OF CRIMINOLOGY
CRIMINOLIGISTS Licensure Examination
Tuesday, August 5, 2003
01:30 p.m. 04:00 p.m.
----------------------------------------------------------------LAW ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION
SET B
INSTRUCTION: Select the correct answer for each of the following
question. Mark only one answer for each item by shading the box
corresponding to the letter of your choice on the answer sheet
provided. STRICTLY NO ERASURE ALLOWED. Use pencil no. 1 only.
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1.
The importance of the firm or installation with reference to
the national economy or security:
A.
C.

relative security
relative criticality

B.
D.

relative necessity
relative vulnerability

2.
These are the major courses of action that the organization
plans to take in order to achieve its objectives.
A.
C.

procedures
plans

B.
D.

strategies
objectives

3.
In this form of authority, personnel do not give orders but
they offer advice. Frequently this advice is based on the high
level of expertise, but the advice carries no formal requirement
of acceptance.
A.
C.

democracy
line authority

B.
D.

functional authority
staff authority

4.
The __________ means controlling the direction and flow of
decisions thorough unity of command from top to bottom
organization.
A.
C.

audit
monitoring

B. coordination
D. authority

348

5.
PO III Peter P. Factor PNP is assigned to collect available
information concerning the activities of the Red Scorpion Group
(RSG). He is with what unit of the police?
A.
B.
C.
D.
6.

anti-juvenile delinquency
criminal investigation
intelligence operations
patrol activities

Intelligence can and should do nothing more than.


A.
B.
C.
D.

promote better policecitizen interaction


enhance the probability of accuracy in report writing
improve administrative efficiency particularly in
recruitment and selection
increase the number of arrests of criminal syndicate
members

7.
PO III Juan D. Tupaz PNP submitted an intelligence report
evaluated as B-5. What does that mean?
A.
B.
C.
D.

information is usually
possibly true
information is usually
improbable
information is usually
probably true
information is usually
doubtfully true

from a reliable source and is


from a reliable source and is
from a reliable source and is
from a reliable source and is

8. The Neighborhood Team Policing


organizational features, EXCEPT:
A.
B.
C.
D.

exhibit

the

following

unified delivery of services


low-level flexibility in decision making
combined investigation and patrol functions
unity of direction

9.
Who may be automatically granted height waiver, as provided
under Section 15 of Republic Act No. 8551?
A.
B.
C.
D.

police retirables requesting for extension of service


member of the cultural minorities duly certified by
the appropriate government agency
government employees wishing to transfer to the PNP
graduates of Criminology

349

10. These are plans which require action or assistance from


persons or agencies outside the police organization.
A.
C.

management plans
tactical plans

B.
D.

operational plans
extra-departmental plan

11. Protection
of
classified
document
concerning
their
preparation,
classification,
reproduction,
handling,
transmission, disposal and destruction.
A.
C.

document security
physical security

B.
D.

operational security
organizational security

12. What is the system of natural or man-made barriers placed


between the potential intruder and the objects, persons and
matters being protected?
A.
C.

document security
physical security

B.
D.

communications security
personnel security

13. Intelligence on the enemy and the characteristics of


operation used in the planning and conduct of tactical
operations.
A.
C.

military intelligence B. strategic intelligence


combat intelligence
D. counter-intelligence

14. The effectiveness and efficiency of the pattern function can


be enhanced if there is detailed and up-to date information about
crime and criminals. This calls for the establishment of:
A.
B.
C.
D.

patrol base headquarters


crime information center
management information center
public information office

15. Planning cannot be undertaken without referring to _______


on the entire police organization, community, crime, equipment
inventories, personal data, etc.
A.
C.

costs
plans

B.
D.

data
statement

16. New employees should be briefed on security rules and


regulations of the organization and the importance of observing
them. This process is called:
A.
C.

security information
security orientation

B.
D.

security reminders
security investigation

350

17. What plans require action or assistance from persons or


agencies outside the police organization?
A.
C.

tactical plan
management plan

B.
D.

extra department plan


all of these

18. This is a patrol program designed to ensure law abiding


citizens feeling of security but the reaction of fear for the
would be violators.
A.
C.

double-officer patrol B.
low visibility patrol D.

single-officer patrol
high visibility patrol

19. The transfer of heat from one material to another by direct


contact is called __________.
A.
C.

oxidation
conduction

B.
D.

convection
radiation

20. Developing security consciousness among policemen forms part


of enhancing __________.
A.
C.

line intelligence
counter intelligence

B.
D.

strategic intelligence
artificial intelligence

21. The National Police Commission is attached to the Department


of the Interior and Local Government (DILG) for __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.

administrative control
operational supervision
administration and control
policy and program coordination

22. How is one classified if he steals primarily because of


irresistible urge due to unexpected opportunity and little chance
of detection?
A.
C.

systematic pilferer
casual pilferer

B. ordinary pilferer
D. unusual pilferer

23. An appeal filed with the Napolcom Regional Appellate Board


(NAB) shall be decided within _____ days from receipt of the
notion of appeal.
A.
C.

fifty (50)
thirty (30)

24. In the intelligence


__________ forces.

B.
D.
functions,

twenty (20)
sixty (60)
the

black

list

includes

351

A.
C.

unwanted
neutral

B.
D.

friendly
unfriendly

25. The first step in the planning process is to recognize the


need to plan. Which of the following is NOT a way to discovering
the need to plan?
A.
C.

conduct of research
B.
conduct of inspection D.

conduct of training
conduct of management audit

26. The special formations used in crowd control include the


wedge, diagonal and deployed line. When a crowd is small enough
not to require a squad, then the formation is:
A.
C.

diagonal
deployed line

B. wedge
D. clockwise

27. Under this principle, the chief executive directly controls


two to ten subordinates, who then control two to ten subordinates
each and so on until the bottom of the organization is reached
A.
C.
28.

scalar principle
unity of command

B. exception principle
D. span of control

What is meant by an evaluation of C-1?


A.
B.
C.
D.

information comes from an unreliable source and is


probably true
information comes from a fairly reliable source and is
confirmed from other sources
information come an unreliable source and is
improbable
information comes from fairly reliable source and is
doubtfully true

29. Under physical security, what should be placed between the


prospective intruder and target installation?
A.
C.

Hazard
Risk

B.
D.

Net
Barrier

30. Mr. Jun de las Alas was born on June 1, 1975. Does he meet
the age requirement for entry to the police service in June 1999?

352

A.
B.
C.
D.

No, but he can apply for age waiver


Yes, he is only 24 years old and is within the age
requirement
Yes, he meets the maximum education requirement
No, he has exceeded the maximum age requirement

31. A police officer who manages a police station must use all
of the following skills, EXCEPT
A.
C.

conceptual
interpersonal

B.
D.

technical
communication

32. The planning process generally consists of five (5) steps in


sequential order. Which is the first step?
A.
B.
C.
D.

formulation of details of the plan


recognition of the need to plan
setting up planning objectives
gathering and analysis of data

33. The __________ shift is usually the busiest of all patrol


shifts, often accounting for 40% to 50% of all calls for
service.
A.
C.

morning shift
midday shift

B.
D.

afternoon shift
night shift

34. These are barbed wires placed above a vertical fence in order
to
increase
physical
protection
of
establishments
or
installations
A.
C.

top tower
cellar guard

B.
D.

top guard
tower guard house

35. What is the next planning step after the need to plan is
recognized?
A.
C.

evaluate alternatives B.
execute the plan
D.

formulate the objective


analyze the data

36. This type of patrol performs certain specific, predetermined


preventive strategies in a regular and systematic basis.
A.
B.

apprehension-oriented patrol
low visibility patrol

353

C.
D.

split-force patrol
directed deterrent patrol

37. Among the following applicants for appointment to the police


service, who may be automatically granted height waiver?
A.
B.
C.
D.

government employees wishing to transfer to the PNP


members of cultural minorities duly certified by the
appropriate government agency
police retirables requesting for extension of service
graduates of criminology

38. The following changes must be made in police operating


procedures if the investigative skills of patrol personnel are to
be employed to their fullest advantage, EXCEPT
A.

patrol supervisor should insist that patrol officers


simply make a
brief
report
and
return
to
patrol
duties
rather
than
complete
their
investigations
B.
patrol officers should be better trained and equipped
to conduct routine investigations
C.
patrol officers should be encouraged to devote more
time to the investigation of crimes to which
they
respond
D.
the patrol supervision should be able to provide the
patrol officer with assistance in determining
whether
a case has sufficient merit to warrant
immediate
follow-up investigation by the patrol
officer
39. The more complex the organization, the more highly
specialized the division of work, the greater the need for:
A.
B.
C.
D.

clearer delineation of functions


coordinating authority
strictly line discipline
finer division of supervision

40. The __________ differs from routine patrol methods in that


patrol
officers
perform
certain
specific,
predetermined
preventive strategies on a regular and systematic basis.
A.

low-visibility patrol

354

b.
C.
D.

directed Deterrent Patrol


split Force Patrol
apprehension-oriented Patrol

41. PO II Carlo Y. Alba and PO I Angelo S. Suba report only to


one (1) supervisor. This is the principle of ________________.
A.
C.

unity of command
span of control

B.
D.

delegation of authority
chain of command

42. PO III Serafin B. Alta frequents clubs, places of amusement


and entertainment known to be habitually visited by his subject
and his subjects associates. PO III Altas undercover assignment
is called.
A.
C.
43.

multiple assignment
work assignment

B.
D.

social assignment
dwelling assignment

Which of the following statements is FALSE?


A.
B.
C.
D.

classified information must not be discussed by one


friends and members of the family
classified information should be known only by one
person
cabinets with classified documents must be secured
with padlocks and security measures at all times.
all classified documents must be safeguarded

44. Assessing organizational strengths and witnesses is usually


known as:
A.
C.

force field analysis


simulation model

B.
D.

delphi techniques
forecasting

45. These regulations establish the specifications of uniform


and the manner in which they are to be worn:
A.
B.
C.
D.

personnel transaction regulations


firearms regulations
uniform regulations
equipment regulations

46. Police visibility in strategic and crime prone areas


projects __________ thus, an effective crime prevention strategy.
A.
B.

police omnipresence
police discretion

B.
D.

police effectiveness
police authority

355

47. Which of the following trait or ability is most important


for a police officer?
A.
B.
C.
D.

personal integrity and honesty


physical stamina and bearing
courageous
high intelligence

48. In 2001, there were 200,450 crimes reported to the Police


Station of Municipality A. If the population of Municipality A is
5 Million, what is the crime rate?
A.
C.

3509
4250

D.
D.

4010
4009

49. If a complaint or incident is NOT fully disposed of as a


result of the first investigation, a __________ report should be
submitted
A.
B.

investigation report
follow-up report

B.
D.

case disposition report


crime report

50. The advantages of a strong patrol are more than make up for
slightly inferior performance. More patrolmen are then made
available for emergency and the more active and widespread the
patrol, the more apparent is their presence, thus, promoting the
impression of __________.
A.
C.

suspenseness
omnipresence

B.
D.

effectiveness
efficiency

51. What is the importance of a firm or installation in relation


to national security referred to?
A.
C.

relative security
relative criticality

B.
D.

relative necessity
relative vulnerability

52. When heat is transmitted by a circulating medium, the method


is called ________________.
A.
radiation
B. oxidation
C.
convection
D. conduction
53. The ____________ list includes and citizens who are cleared
to attend meeting in Malacaang.
A.
C.

white list
target list

B.
D.

black list
access list

356

54. The attestation function over police appointment is vested


in the:
A.
B.
C.
D.

Civil Service Commission


National Police Commission
Professional Regulations Commission
Department of Interior and Local Government

55. Selling security within the organization sets and maintains


a climate of __________ and appreciation of the departments
objectives.
A.
C.

participation
understanding

B.
D.

clear
collaboration

56. Mr. Jaime del S. Rio was born on May 1, 1975. Does he meet
the age requirement for entry to the police service in June 2002?
A.
B.
C.
D.

No, he has exceeded the minimum age requirement


Yes, he is only 27 years old and is within the age
requirement
No, but he can apply for age waiver
Yes, he meets the maximum education requirement

57. What is the evaluation of an intelligence report which is


the information comes from a completely reliable source and is
probably true?
A.
C.

B-2
A-3

B.
D.

A-2
B 1

58. In 2001, physical injuries numbered 12,500 out of a total


crime volume of 60,500. What percent of the total crime volume is
attributed to physical injuries?
A.
C.

18.7%
25.7%

B.
D.

20.7%
4.8%

59. Patrol officers are useful in crime solution if they are


properly trained in criminal investigation. Which of the
following cannot be undertaken by them?
A.
B.

He can locate and question the suspect if he


apprehends
He can identify available evidences

357

C.
D.

He can take note of statements of the suspect


He can issue the treasury checks to fellow policemen

60. SPO I Edna E. Castro PNP evaluated the information gathered


as completely reliable, source probably true. What is the type
of evaluation?
A.
C.

A-5
A-4

B.
D.

A-1
A-2

61. It is ongoing process which ensures that new risks are


recognized and that established deterrents remain necessary and
cost effective.
A.
C.

inspection
risk analysis

B.
D.

interrogation
evaluation

62. What type of patrol performs certain specific, predetermined


preventive strategies on a regular and systematic basis?
A.
C.
63.

split-force patrol
B.
apprehension-oriented D.

low visibility patrol


directed deterrent patrol

A patrol beat refers to a:


A.
B.
C.
D.

number of crimes to be solved


number of residents to be protected
location of police headquarters
geographical area to be patrolled

64. It is the importance or installation in relation to national


security.
A.
C.

relative criticality
relative security

B.
D.

relative indispensability
relative vulnerability

65. It is the formal process of choosing the organizational


mission and overall objective both the short and long term as
well as the divisional and individual objectives based on the
organizational objectives.
A.
C.

planning
directing

B.
D.

organizing
managerial decision-making

358

66. A __________ is usually for the purpose of waiting for the


anticipated arrival of a suspect who is either wanted for
investigation or who is expected to commit a crime at a certain
location.
A.
C.

stake out
follow up

B.
D.

cops and robbers game


surveillance

67. How is the crew complement of a Mobile Patrol Division


organized into shifts for each turn of duty?
A.
C.

daily four-shift
one-shift daily

B.
D.

daily five-shift
daily three-shift

68. The formulation of conclusions from the theory developed,


tested and considered valid as a result of interpretation is
called.
A.
C.

collection
evaluation

B.
D.

integration
deduction

69. In 2001, murder accounted for 10% of all index crimes. If


the total index crimes were 25,000, how many were murder
incidents?
A.
C.

250
500

B.
D.

2,500
5,000

70. As much as possible, the preparation of the overall


development
plan
of
the
police
organization
should
be
participated in by the heads of all staff service, operational
and administrative support units. This policy is:
A.
B.

desirable; offices can be properly trained in planning


undesirable; the presence of too many officers will
create confusion
C.
undesirable;
there
will be problems of credits
grabbing after plan is formulated
D.
desirable; the officers will know the organization
better and a sense of ownership of the plan is
promoted
71.
The
following
questions
are
tests
for
accuracy
of
information, EXCEPT:
A.
B.
C.

Does the report agree or disagree with available and


related intelligence?
Is the reported fact or event known in advance
Is it the same or consistent with known modus
operandi?

359

D.

Is the information about the target or area of the


operation?

72. Natural hazards such as storms, earthquakes, floods or lahar


cannot be prevented from occurring. To minimize the disastrous
effects of these phenomena, the security officer must prepare a:
A.
C.

guard deployment plan B.


civil defense plan
D.

security education plan


disaster or emergency plan

73. It involves segregation or deviants into isolated geographic


areas so that they can easily be controlled.
A.
C.

coercion
conversion

B.
D.

quarantine
containment

74. What management principle provides that only one officer be


in direct command or supervision of each officer.
A.
C.

span of control
chain of command

75. What is referred to


assigned to patrol duties?
A.
C.

B.
D.
as

effective strength
actual strength

total
B.
D.

unity of command
line of authority
number

of

police

officers

mandatory strength
authorized strength

76. When police patrols are increased beyond normal levels, this
is called __________?
A.
C.

reactive patrol
citizen patrol

B.
D.

directed deterrent patrol


proactive patrol

77. What is the method of collection information wherein the


investigator tails or shadows the persons or vehicles?
A.
C.

research
casing

B.
D.

surveillance
photography

78. Before a security expert can recommend what type of security


will be needed by an industrial establishment, there is a need
for him to undertake a:
A.
C.

security training
security survey

B.
D.

security check
security education

79. When one procures information about subject secretly; he is


performing _________ collection method.

360

A.
C.

routine
active

B.
D.

overt
covert

80. Under this principle, each group reports to an individual


who is part of a supervisory group that answers to a higher
supervisor and so on until a group of administrators report to
the chief executive.
A.
C.
81.

unity of command
scalar principle

B. span of control
D. aggregation principle

Which of the following is NOT patrol pattern?


A.
C.

clockwise
criss-cross

B.
D.

zigzag
stationary

82. To what unit do policeman in plainclothes belong when they


infiltrate and gather information about criminal syndicates?
A.
C.
83.

budget
Intelligence

B.
D.

planning
Patrol

Which of the following statement is TRUE?.


A.
B.
C.
D.

Performance evaluation measures credibility of the


police personnel.
Performance evaluation is not
a basis for
salary
increases of promotion.
Performance evaluation
is done once a
year among
police personnel.
Performance evaluation is implemented to determine
the quality of work performance or personnel.

84. Line units such as the patrol section or investigation


section in police stations prepare their work programs in which
areas are called.
A.
budget
B. management
C.
operational plans
D. tactical plan
85. What is referred to as the knowledge pertaining to
capabilities, vulnerabilities and probable course of actions of
foreign nations?
A.
C.

combat intelligence
police intelligence

B.
D.

national intelligence
strategic intelligence

86. How are coded messages converted to intelligible language?

361

A.
C.

encoding
labeling

B.
D.

processing
decoding

87. The type of undercover operation wherein techniques are


applied for a longer time and is considered as the most different
investigative activity, yet the most rewarding.
A.
C.

casing
penetration

B.
D.

undercover operation
surveillance

88. As Security Director of Company B, you should know how many


beds, are normally available in a multiple injury situation and
how many __________ patients can be processed at a single time.
A.
C.

wounded
female

B.
D.

emergency
male

89. A persons suitability to be given a security clearance is


determined through a process called __________.
A.
C.

security training
security promotion

B.
D.

security education
security investigation

90. This patrol method utilizes disguise deception and lying in


wait rather than upon high visibility patrol techniques?
A.

decoy patrol

B.

high

visibility

C.

directed patrol

D.

low visibility patrol

patrol

91. What police plans refer to actions to be taken


designated location and under specific circumstances?
A.
C.

management plans
operating plans

B.
D.

at

tactical plans
procedural plans

92. What type of organization consciously coordinates


activities of two or more persons towards a given objective?

the

A.
flexible organization B.
formal organization
B.
C.
informal organization D.
non-flexible organization
93. Who among the following meets the age qualification for
appointment to the police service?
A.
B.
C.
D.

Rey who is 20 years old


Dennis who is 17 years old
John who is 22 years old
Santi who is 35 years old

362

94. The cover observation of an area, a building or stationary


object in order to gAin information is called:
A.
C.

undercover works
casing

B.
D.

penetration
surveillance

95. If a fire in a warehouse is about to involve barrels of


bleaching powder, the greatest danger would be from:
A.
B.
C.
D.
96. Which
function?
A.
B.
C.
D.

fast-burning flare-up that could not be controlled


an explosion
the impossibility of using water on the fire
a toxic and irritant gas
of

the

following

is

not

included

in

the

patrol

Response to citizen calls


Investigation of crimes
Routine preventive patrol
Inspection of identified hazards

97. Disaster preparedness and control plans should include


__________ so that people who are directly involved should know
the extent of the incident.
A.
C.
98.

evacuation services
counseling services

B.
D.

identification services
public information services

An intelligence report classified as A-2 means __________.


A.
B.
C.
D.

the information comes from a completely reliable


source and is doubtfully true
the information comes from a completely reliable
source and is probably true
the information comes from a usually reliable source
and is probably true
the information comes from a usually reliable source
and is possibly true

99. It ensures the question what is to be accomplished by the


plan?
A.
C.

objectives
problem

B.
D.

planning assumptions
planning environment

100. P/C Insp. Pedro D. Gayco was assigned to prepare the work
program of his division which must be analyzed from the point of

363

view of the nature, time and place of the tasks, and measured in
terms of resource requirements?
A.
C.

Tactical plan
Procedural plan

B.
D.

Management plan
Operational plan

364

APPENDIX B
ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS IN POLICE
ORGANIZATION & ADMINISTRATION
===========================================================
1.

26.

51.

76. B

2.

27.

52.

77. A

3.

28.

53.

78. B

4.

29.

54.

79. A

5.

30.

55.

80. B

6.

31.

56.

81. A

7.

32.

57.

82. D

8.

33.

58.

83. A

9.

34.

59.

84. A

10.

35.

60.

85. B

11.

36.

61.

86. B

12.

37.

62.

87. B

13.

38.

63.

88. C

14.

39.

64.

89. A

15.

40.

65.

90. B

16.

41.

66.

91. D

17.

42.

67.

92. D

18.

43.

68.

93. A

19.

44.

69.

94. A

20.

45.

70.

95. C

21.

46.

71.

96. B

22.

47.

72.

97. A

23.

48.

73.

98. D

24.

49.

74.

99. D

25.

50.

75.

100. B

365

APPENDIX C
ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS ON POLICE
INTELLIGENCE & SECRET SERVICE
===========================================================
1.

26.

51.

76. A

2.

27.

52.

77. B

3.

28.

53.

78. D

4.

29.

54.

79. B

5.

30.

55.

80. D

6.

31.

56.

81. C

7.

32.

57.

82. A

8.

33.

58.

83. D

9.

34.

59.

84. C

10.

35.

60.

85. A

11.

36.

61.

86. D

12.

37.

62.

87. A

13.

38.

63.

88. C

14.

39.

64.

89. B

15.

40.

65.

90. D

16.

41.

66.

91. D

17.

42.

67.

92. A

18.

43.

68.

93. B

19.

44.

69.

94. C

20.

45.

70.

95. D

21.

46.

71.

96. D

22.

47.

72.

97. C

23.

48.

73.

98. B

24.

49.

74.

99. D

25.

50.

75.

100. C

366

APPENDIX D
ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS IN PATROL
ORGANIZATION & OPERATIONS
===========================================================
1.

26.

51.

76. A

2.

27.

52.

77. B

3.

28.

53.

78. C

4.

29.

54.

79. D

5.

30.

55.

80. A

6.

31.

56.

81. A

7.

32.

57.

82. B

8.

33.

58.

83. C

9.

34.

59.

84. A

10.

35.

60.

85. D

11.

36.

61.

86. D

12.

37.

62.

87. D

13.

38.

63.

88. C

14.

39.

64.

89. A

15.

40.

65.

90. B

16.

41.

66.

91. C

17.

42.

67.

92. D

18.

43.

68.

93. A

19.

44.

69.

94. B

20.

45.

70.

95. A

21.

46.

71.

96. A

22.

47.

72.

97. D

23.

48.

73.

98. C

24.

49.

74.

99. B

25.

50.

75.

100. B

367

APPENDIX E
ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS IN
POLICE OPERATION PLANNING
===========================================================
1.

26.

51.

76. D

2.

27.

52.

77. D

3.

28.

53.

78. A

4.

29.

54.

79. B

5.

30.

55.

80. C

6.

31.

56.

81. C

7.

32.

57.

82. A

8.

33.

58.

83. B

9.

34.

59.

84. C

10.

35.

60.

85. D

11.

36.

61.

86. B

12.

37.

62.

87. A

13.

38.

63.

88. C

14.

39.

64.

89. D

15.

40.

65.

90. D

16.

41.

66.

91. B

17.

42.

67.

92. A

18.

43.

68.

93. B

19.

44.

69.

94. A

20.

45.

70.

95. B

21.

46.

71.

96. A

22.

47.

72.

97. C

23.

48.

73.

98. A

24.

49.

74.

99. A

25.

50.

75.

100. B

368

APPENDIX F
ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS IN
SECURITY & SAFETY MANAGEMENT
===========================================================
1.

26.

51.

76. C

2.

27.

52.

77. C

3.

28.

53.

78. C

4.

29.

54.

79. C

5.

30.

55.

80. B

6.

31.

56.

81. C

7.

32.

57.

82. B

8.

33.

58.

83. A

9.

34.

59.

84. D

10.

35.

60.

85. A

11.

36.

61.

86. C

12.

37.

62.

87. A

13.

38.

63.

88. A

14.

39.

64.

89. A

15.

40.

65.

90. A

16.

41.

66.

91. A

17.

42.

67.

92. A

18.

43.

68.

93. A

19.

44.

69.

94. B

20.

45.

70.

95. C

21.

46.

71.

96. C

22.

47.

72.

97. A

23.

48.

73.

98. C

24.

49.

74.

99. A

25.

50.

75.

100. B

369

APPENDIX G
ANSWERS TO AUGUST 2003 BOARD EXAMINATION
===========================================================
1.

26.

51.

76. A

2.

27.

52.

77. C

3.

28.

53.

78. B

4.

29.

54.

79. D

5.

30.

55.

80. A

6.

31.

56.

81. D

7.

32.

57.

82. B

8.

33.

58.

83. D

9.

34.

59.

84. B

10.

35.

60.

85. D

11.

36.

61.

86. D

12.

37.

62.

87. B

13.

38.

63.

88. A

14.

39.

64.

89. D

15.

40.

65.

90. B

16.

41.

66.

91. B

17.

42.

67.

92. B

18.

43.

68.

93. C

19.

44.

69.

94. B

20.

45.

70.

95. B

21.

46.

71.

96. B

22.

47.

72.

97. C

23.

48.

73.

98. B

24.

49.

74.

99. A

25.

50.

75.

100. D

370

ABOUT THE AUTHOR


DR. OSCAR GATCHALIAN SORIANO is actively involved in
the academe, more particularly in the field of Criminology
education.
He earned his Bachelor of Science in Criminology
(BSCrim) and Master of Science in Business Administration
(MSBA) from Araullo University, Cabanatuan City. His Master
of Arts in Criminology (MACrim) and Doctor of Philosophy in
Criminology
(PhDCrim)
from
Philippine
College
of
Criminology, Sta. Cruz, Manila.
Dr. Soriano is also a resource person on review classes
in the Licensure Examination for Criminologist (LEC), and
one of most sought-after lecturer and speaker on anti-drug
seminars and symposia, and reviewers in the different review
centers for the Licensure Examination for Criminologists
(LCE) in the country.
He is adjudged as Outstanding Criminologist for
Calendar Year 2003 on the search spearheaded by the
Professional Criminologists Association of the Philippines
(PCAP), and a recipient of the much coveted award for the
Most Outstanding Alumni in the Field of Criminology for
Calendar
Year
2003,
awarded
by
Araullo
University,
Cabanatuan City.
Dr. Soriano is also a member of the Regional Quality
Assessment Team of the Commission on Higher Education III
(RQAT, CHEDRO III)for Criminology Education, and appointed
Board of Director for Region III by the PCAP. He is also an
active member of the Philippine Educators Association in
Criminology Education (PEACE) and Philippine Association of
Graduate Educators (PAGE).
His first book, Comprehensive Drug Education Manual, is
complemented by the publication of his three (3) other
books, entitled Human Behavior and Crisis Management Manual,
Handbook on Police Intelligence, and Basic Police Report
Writing, and is now being followed by his recently published
work,
entitled
Compendium
in
Law
Enforcement
Administration: Review Materials for Board Examination.