# Friendly-index set

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Contents

1

2

3

4

Algebraic structure

1

1.1

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1

1.2

Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1

1.2.1

One set with operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1

1.2.2

Two sets with operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3

1.3

Hybrid structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

1.4

Universal algebra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

1.5

Category theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5

1.6

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5

1.7

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5

1.8

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6

Binary operation

7

2.1

Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7

2.2

Properties and examples

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7

2.3

Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8

2.4

Pair and tuple . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8

2.5

Binary operations as ternary relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9

2.6

External binary operations

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9

2.7

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9

2.8

Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9

2.9

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9

2.10 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9

Complete Boolean algebra

10

3.1

Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

3.2

Properties of complete Boolean algebras . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

3.3

The completion of a Boolean algebra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

3.4

Free κ-complete Boolean algebras . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12

3.5

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12

3.6

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12

Complete Heyting algebra

13

i

ii

5

6

7

8

CONTENTS

4.1

Deﬁnition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13

4.2

Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13

4.3

Frames and locales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13

4.4

Literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15

Constant (mathematics)

16

5.1

Constant function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16

5.2

Context-dependence

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16

5.3

Notable mathematical constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

17

5.4

Constants in calculus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

17

5.4.1

Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

17

5.5

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

17

5.6

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18

Countable set

19

6.1

Deﬁnition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19

6.2

History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19

6.3

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19

6.4

Formal deﬁnition and properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20

6.5

Minimal model of set theory is countable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

25

6.6

Total orders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

25

6.7

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

26

6.8

Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

26

6.9

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

26

6.10 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

26

Enumeration

27

7.1

Enumeration in combinatorics

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

27

7.2

Enumeration in set theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

27

7.2.1

Enumeration as listing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

27

7.2.2

Enumeration in countable vs. uncountable context . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

28

7.2.3

Ordinal enumeration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

29

7.2.4

Enumeration as comparison of cardinalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

29

7.3

Enumeration in computability theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

29

7.4

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

29

7.5

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

30

7.6

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

30

Finitary

31

8.1

Finitary argument . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

31

8.2

History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

31

8.3

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

31

8.4

Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

32

CONTENTS

iii

8.5

32

9

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Friendly-index set

33

9.1

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

33

9.2

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

33

10 Index set

34

10.1 Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

34

10.2 Other uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

34

10.3 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

34

10.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

34

11 Indexed family

35

11.1 Mathematical statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35

11.2 Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35

11.2.1 Index notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35

11.2.2 Matrices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

36

11.3 Functions, sets and families . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

36

11.4 Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

36

11.5 Operations on families . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

37

11.6 Subfamily . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

37

11.7 Usage in category theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

37

11.8 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

37

11.9 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

37

12 Indicator function

38

12.1 Deﬁnition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

38

12.2 Remark on notation and terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

39

12.3 Basic properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

39

12.4 Mean, variance and covariance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

40

12.5 Characteristic function in recursion theory, Gödel’s and Kleene’s representing function

. . . . . . .

40

12.6 Characteristic function in fuzzy set theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

40

12.7 Derivatives of the indicator function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

41

12.8 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

41

12.9 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

42

12.10References

42

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13 Mathematics

43

13.1 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

44

13.1.1 Evolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

44

13.1.2 Etymology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

46

13.2 Deﬁnitions of mathematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

47

13.2.1 Mathematics as science . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

47

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CONTENTS

13.3 Inspiration, pure and applied mathematics, and aesthetics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

50

13.4 Notation, language, and rigor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

51

13.5 Fields of mathematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

51

13.5.1 Foundations and philosophy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

52

13.5.2 Pure mathematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

53

13.5.3 Applied mathematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

55

13.6 Mathematical awards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

55

13.7 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

56

13.8 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

56

13.9 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

58

13.10Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

59

13.11External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

59

14 Operation (mathematics)

61

14.1 Types of operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

61

14.2 General description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

61

14.3 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

62

14.3.1 Special cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

63

14.3.2 Related topics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

63

14.4 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

63

15 Order theory

64

15.1 Background and motivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

64

15.2 Basic deﬁnitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

64

15.2.1 Partially ordered sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

65

15.2.2 Visualizing a poset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

65

15.2.3 Special elements within an order . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

65

15.2.4 Duality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

67

15.2.5 Constructing new orders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

67

15.3 Functions between orders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

67

15.4 Special types of orders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

68

15.5 Subsets of ordered sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

69

15.6 Related mathematical areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

69

15.6.1 Universal algebra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

69

15.6.2 Topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

69

15.6.3 Category theory

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

69

15.7 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

70

15.8 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

70

15.9 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

70

15.10References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

70

15.11External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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CONTENTS

v

**16 Outline of algebraic structures
**

16.1 Study of algebraic structures

72

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

72

16.2 Types of algebraic structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

73

16.2.1 One binary operation on one set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

73

16.2.2 Two binary operations on one set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

73

16.2.3 Two binary operations and two sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

73

16.2.4 Three binary operations and two sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

74

16.3 Algebraic structures with additional non-algebraic structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

74

16.4 Algebraic structures in diﬀerent disciplines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

74

16.5 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

75

16.6 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

75

16.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

75

16.8 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

76

17 Structure (mathematical logic)

77

17.1 Deﬁnition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

77

17.1.1 Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

77

17.1.2 Signature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

77

17.1.3 Interpretation function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

78

17.1.4 Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

78

17.2 Induced substructures and closed subsets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

78

17.2.1 Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

79

17.3 Homomorphisms and embeddings

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

79

17.3.1 Homomorphisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

79

17.3.2 Embeddings

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

80

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

80

17.3.4 Homomorphism problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

80

17.3.3 Example

17.4 Structures and ﬁrst-order logic

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

80

17.4.1 Satisfaction relation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

81

17.4.2 Deﬁnable relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

81

17.5 Many-sorted structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

82

17.6 Other generalizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

82

17.6.1 Partial algebras . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

82

17.6.2 Structures for typed languages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

82

17.6.3 Higher-order languages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

83

17.6.4 Structures that are proper classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

83

17.7 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

83

17.8 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

83

17.9 References

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

83

17.10External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

84

18 Surjective function

85

vi

CONTENTS

18.1 Deﬁnition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

86

18.2 Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

86

18.3 Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

86

18.3.1 Surjections as right invertible functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

87

18.3.2 Surjections as epimorphisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

88

18.3.3 Surjections as binary relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

89

18.3.4 Cardinality of the domain of a surjection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

89

18.3.5 Composition and decomposition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

89

18.3.6 Induced surjection and induced bijection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

89

18.4 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

89

18.5 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

90

18.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

90

19 Unary operation

91

19.1 Unary negative and positive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

91

19.2 Examples from programming languages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

91

19.2.1 C family of languages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

91

19.2.2 Unix Shell (Bash) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

92

19.2.3 Other languages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

92

19.3 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

92

19.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

92

20 Universal algebra

93

20.1 Basic idea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

93

20.1.1 Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

93

20.2 Varieties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

93

20.2.1 Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

94

20.3 Basic constructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

95

20.4 Some basic theorems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

95

20.5 Motivations and applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

95

20.6 Generalizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

96

20.7 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

96

20.8 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

97

20.9 Footnotes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

97

20.10References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

97

20.11External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

98

20.12Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

99

20.12.1 Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

99

**20.12.2 Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
**

20.12.3 Content license . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105

Chapter 1

Algebraic structure

In mathematics, and more speciﬁcally in abstract algebra, the term algebraic structure generally refers to a set (called

carrier set or underlying set) with one or more ﬁnitary operations deﬁned on it.[1]

Examples of algebraic structures include groups, rings, ﬁelds, and lattices. More complex structures can be deﬁned

by introducing multiple operations, diﬀerent underlying sets, or by altering the deﬁning axioms. Examples of more

complex algebraic structures include vector spaces, modules, and algebras.

The properties of speciﬁc algebraic structures are studied in abstract algebra. The general theory of algebraic structures has been formalized in universal algebra. Category theory is used to study the relationships between two or

more classes of algebraic structures, often of diﬀerent kinds. For example, Galois theory studies the connection

between certain ﬁelds and groups, algebraic structures of two diﬀerent kinds.

In a slight abuse of notation, the word “structure” can also refer only to the operations on a structure, and not the

underlying set itself. For example, a phrase “we have deﬁned a ring structure (a structure of ring) on the set A " means

that we have deﬁned ring operations on the set A . For another example, the group (Z, +) can be seen as a set Z that

is equipped with an algebraic structure, namely the operation + .

1.1 Introduction

Addition and multiplication on numbers are the prototypical example of an operation that combines two elements of

a set to produce a third. These operations obey several algebraic laws. For example a+ (b + c) = (a + b) + c and

a(bc) = (ab)c, both examples of the associative law. Also a + b = b + a, and ab = ba, the commutative law. Many

systems studied by mathematicians have operations that obey some, but not necessarily all, of the laws of ordinary

arithmetic. For example, rotations of objects in three-dimensional space can be combined by performing the ﬁrst

rotation and then applying the second rotation to the object in its new orientation. This operation on rotations obeys

the associative law, but can fail the commutative law.

Mathematicians give names to sets with one or more operations that obey a particular collection of laws, and study

them in the abstract as algebraic structures. When a new problem can be shown to follow the laws of one of these

algebraic structures, all the work that has been done on that category in the past can be applied to the new problem.

In full generality, algebraic structures may involve an arbitrary number of sets and operations that can combine more

than two elements (higher arity), but this article focuses on binary operations on one or two sets. The examples

here are by no means a complete list, but they are meant to be a representative list and include the most common

structures. Longer lists of algebraic structures may be found in the external links and within Category:Algebraic

structures. Structures are listed in approximate order of increasing complexity.

1.2 Examples

1.2.1

One set with operations

**Simple structures: No binary operation:
**

1

2

**CHAPTER 1. ALGEBRAIC STRUCTURE
**

• Set: a degenerate algebraic structure having no operations.

• Pointed set: S has one or more distinguished elements, often 0, 1, or both.

• Unary system: S and a single unary operation over S.

• Pointed unary system: a unary system with S a pointed set.

Group-like structures: One binary operation. The binary operation can be indicated by any symbol, or with no

symbol (juxtaposition) as is done for ordinary multiplication of real numbers.

• Magma or groupoid: S and a single binary operation over S.

• Semigroup: an associative magma.

• Monoid: a semigroup with identity.

• Group: a monoid with a unary operation (inverse), giving rise to inverse elements.

• Abelian group: a group whose binary operation is commutative.

• Semilattice: a semigroup whose operation is idempotent and commutative. The binary operation can be called

either meet or join.

• Quasigroup: a magma obeying the latin square property. A quasigroup may also be represented using three

binary operations.[2]

• Loop: a quasigroup with identity.

Ring-like structures or Ringoids: Two binary operations, often called addition and multiplication, with multiplication distributing over addition.

• Semiring: a ringoid such that S is a monoid under each operation. Addition is typically assumed to be commutative and associative, and the monoid product is assumed to distribute over the addition on both sides, and

the additive identity satisﬁes 0 x = 0 for all x.

• Near-ring: a semiring whose additive monoid is a (not necessarily Abelian) group.

• Ring: a semiring whose additive monoid is an Abelian group.

• Lie ring: a ringoid whose additive monoid is an abelian group, but whose multiplicative operation satisﬁes the

Jacobi identity rather than associativity.

• Boolean ring: a commutative ring with idempotent multiplication operation.

• Field: a commutative ring which contains a multiplicative inverse for every nonzero element

• Kleene algebras: a semiring with idempotent addition and a unary operation, the Kleene star, satisfying additional properties.

• *-algebra: a ring with an additional unary operation (*) satisfying additional properties.

Lattice structures: Two or more binary operations, including operations called meet and join, connected by the

absorption law.[3]

• Complete lattice: a lattice in which arbitrary meet and joins exist.

• Bounded lattice: a lattice with a greatest element and least element.

• Complemented lattice: a bounded lattice with a unary operation, complementation, denoted by postﬁx ⊥ . The

join of an element with its complement is the greatest element, and the meet of the two elements is the least

element.

• Modular lattice: a lattice whose elements satisfy the additional modular identity.

1.2. EXAMPLES

3

• Distributive lattice: a lattice in which each of meet and join distributes over the other. Distributive lattices are

modular, but the converse does not hold.

• Boolean algebra: a complemented distributive lattice. Either of meet or join can be deﬁned in terms of the

other and complementation. This can be shown to be equivalent with the ring-like structure of the same name

above.

• Heyting algebra: a bounded distributive lattice with an added binary operation, relative pseudo-complement,

denoted by inﬁx →, and governed by the axioms x → x = 1, x (x → y) = x y, y (x → y) = y, x → (y z) = (x → y)

(x → z).

Arithmetics: Two binary operations, addition and multiplication. S is an inﬁnite set. Arithmetics are pointed unary

systems, whose unary operation is injective successor, and with distinguished element 0.

• Robinson arithmetic. Addition and multiplication are recursively deﬁned by means of successor. 0 is the

identity element for addition, and annihilates multiplication. Robinson arithmetic is listed here even though it

is a variety, because of its closeness to Peano arithmetic.

• Peano arithmetic. Robinson arithmetic with an axiom schema of induction. Most ring and ﬁeld axioms bearing

on the properties of addition and multiplication are theorems of Peano arithmetic or of proper extensions

thereof.

1.2.2

Two sets with operations

Module-like structures: composite systems involving two sets and employing at least two binary operations.

• Group with operators: a group G with a set Ω and a binary operation Ω × G → G satisfying certain axioms.

• Module: an Abelian group M and a ring R acting as operators on M. The members of R are sometimes called

scalars, and the binary operation of scalar multiplication is a function R × M → M, which satisﬁes several

axioms. Counting the ring operations these systems have at least three operations.

• Vector space: a module where the ring R is a division ring or ﬁeld.

• Graded vector space: a vector space with a direct sum decomposition breaking the space into “grades”.

• Quadratic space: a vector space V over a ﬁeld F with a function from V into F satisfying certain properties.

Every quadratic space is also an inner product space (see below).

Algebra-like structures: composite system deﬁned over two sets, a ring R and a R module M equipped with an

operation called multiplication. This can be viewed as a system with ﬁve binary operations: two operations on R, two

on M and one involving both R and M.

• Algebra over a ring (also R-algebra): a module over a commutative ring R, which also carries a multiplication

operation that is compatible with the module structure. This includes distributivity over addition and linearity

with respect to multiplication by elements of R. The theory of an algebra over a ﬁeld is especially well developed.

• Associative algebra: an algebra over a ring such that the multiplication is associative.

• Nonassociative algebra: a module over a commutative ring, equipped with a ring multiplication operation that

is not necessarily associative. Often associativity is replaced with a diﬀerent identity, such as alternation, the

Jacobi identity, or the Jordan identity.

• Coalgebra: a vector space with a “comultiplication” deﬁned dually to that of associative algebras.

• Lie algebra: a special type of nonassociative algebra whose product satisﬁes the Jacobi identity.

• Lie coalgebra: a vector space with a “comultiplication” deﬁned dually to that of Lie algebras.

• Graded algebra: a graded vector space with an algebra structure compatible with the grading. The idea is that

if the grades of two elements a and b are known, then the grade of ab is known, and so the location of the

product ab is determined in the decomposition.

4

**CHAPTER 1. ALGEBRAIC STRUCTURE
**

• Inner product space: an F vector space V with a bilinear binary operation from V × V → F.

**Four or more binary operations:
**

• Bialgebra: an associative algebra with a compatible coalgebra structure.

• Lie bialgebra: a Lie algebra with a compatible bialgebra structure.

• Cliﬀord algebra: a graded associative algebra equipped with an exterior product from which may be derived

several possible inner products. Exterior algebras and geometric algebras are special cases of this construction.

1.3 Hybrid structures

Algebraic structures can also coexist with added structure of non-algebraic nature, such as partial order or a topology.

The added structure must be compatible, in some sense, with the algebraic structure.

• Topological group: a group with a topology compatible with the group operation.

• Lie group: a topological group with a compatible smooth manifold structure.

• Ordered groups, ordered rings and ordered ﬁelds: each type of structure with a compatible partial order.

• Archimedean group: a linearly ordered group for which the Archimedean property holds.

• Topological vector space: a vector space whose M has a compatible topology.

• Normed vector space: a vector space with a compatible norm. If such a space is complete (as a metric space)

then it is called a Banach space.

• Hilbert space: an inner product space over the real or complex numbers whose inner product gives rise to a

Banach space structure.

• Vertex operator algebra

• Von Neumann algebra: a *-algebra of operators on a Hilbert space equipped with the weak operator topology.

1.4 Universal algebra

Algebraic structures are deﬁned through diﬀerent conﬁgurations of axioms. Universal algebra abstractly studies such

objects. One major dichotomy is between structures that are axiomatized entirely by identities and structures that are

not. If all axioms deﬁning a class of algebras are identities, then the class of objects is a variety (not to be confused

with algebraic variety in the sense of algebraic geometry).

Identities are equations formulated using only the operations the structure allows, and variables that are tacitly

universally quantiﬁed over the relevant universe. Identities contain no connectives, existentially quantiﬁed variables,

or relations of any kind other than the allowed operations. The study of varieties is an important part of universal

algebra. An algebraic structure in a variety may be understood as the quotient algebra of term algebra (also called

“absolutely free algebra") divided by the equivalence relations generated by a set of identities. So, a collection of

functions with given signatures generate a free algebra, the term algebra T. Given a set of equational identities (the

axioms), one may consider their symmetric, transitive closure E. The quotient algebra T/E is then the algebraic structure or variety. Thus, for example, groups have a signature containing two operators: the multiplication operator m,

taking two arguments, and the inverse operator i, taking one argument, and the identity element e, a constant, which

may be considered an operator that takes zero arguments. Given a (countable) set of variables x, y, z, etc. the term

algebra is the collection of all possible terms involving m, i, e and the variables; so for example, m(i(x), m(x,m(y,e)))

would be an element of the term algebra. One of the axioms deﬁning a group is the identity m(x, i(x)) = e; another is

m(x,e) = x. The axioms can be represented as trees. These equations induce equivalence classes on the free algebra;

the quotient algebra then has the algebraic structure of a group.

Several non-variety structures fail to be varieties, because either:

1.5. CATEGORY THEORY

5

**1. It is necessary that 0 ≠ 1, 0 being the additive identity element and 1 being a multiplicative identity element,
**

but this is a nonidentity;

2. Structures such as ﬁelds have some axioms that hold only for nonzero members of S. For an algebraic structure

to be a variety, its operations must be deﬁned for all members of S; there can be no partial operations.

Structures whose axioms unavoidably include nonidentities are among the most important ones in mathematics, e.g.,

ﬁelds and hence also vector spaces and algebras. Although structures with nonidentities retain an undoubted algebraic

ﬂavor, they suﬀer from defects varieties do not have. For example, the product of two ﬁelds is not a ﬁeld.

1.5 Category theory

Category theory is another tool for studying algebraic structures (see, for example, Mac Lane 1998). A category is

a collection of objects with associated morphisms. Every algebraic structure has its own notion of homomorphism,

namely any function compatible with the operation(s) deﬁning the structure. In this way, every algebraic structure

gives rise to a category. For example, the category of groups has all groups as objects and all group homomorphisms

as morphisms. This concrete category may be seen as a category of sets with added category-theoretic structure.

Likewise, the category of topological groups (whose morphisms are the continuous group homomorphisms) is a

category of topological spaces with extra structure. A forgetful functor between categories of algebraic structures

“forgets” a part of a structure.

There are various concepts in category theory that try to capture the algebraic character of a context, for instance

• algebraic category

• essentially algebraic category

• presentable category

• locally presentable category

• monadic functors and categories

• universal property.

1.6 See also

• Mathematical structure

• Structure (mathematical logic)

• List of algebraic structures

• Signature (logic)

• Free object

1.7 References

[1] P.M. Cohn. (1981) Universal Algebra, Springer, p. 41.

[2] Jonathan D. H. Smith. An Introduction to Quasigroups and Their Representations. Chapman & Hall. Retrieved 2012-08-02.

[3] Ringoids and lattices can be clearly distinguished despite both having two deﬁning binary operations. In the case of ringoids,

the two operations are linked by the distributive law; in the case of lattices, they are linked by the absorption law. Ringoids

also tend to have numerical models, while lattices tend to have set-theoretic models.

• Mac Lane, Saunders; Birkhoﬀ, Garrett (1999), Algebra (2nd ed.), AMS Chelsea, ISBN 978-0-8218-1646-2

6

**CHAPTER 1. ALGEBRAIC STRUCTURE
**

• Michel, Anthony N.; Herget, Charles J. (1993), Applied Algebra and Functional Analysis, New York: Dover

Publications, ISBN 978-0-486-67598-5

• Burris, Stanley N.; Sankappanavar, H. P. (1981), A Course in Universal Algebra, Berlin, New York: SpringerVerlag, ISBN 978-3-540-90578-3

Category theory

• Mac Lane, Saunders (1998), Categories for the Working Mathematician (2nd ed.), Berlin, New York: SpringerVerlag, ISBN 978-0-387-98403-2

• Taylor, Paul (1999), Practical foundations of mathematics, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-52163107-5

1.8 External links

• Jipsen’s algebra structures. Includes many structures not mentioned here.

• Mathworld page on abstract algebra.

• Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Algebra by Vaughan Pratt.

Chapter 2

Binary operation

Not to be confused with Bitwise operation.

In mathematics, a binary operation on a set is a calculation that combines two elements of the set (called operands) to

produce another element of the set (more formally, an operation whose arity is two, and whose two domains and one

codomain are (subsets of) the same set). Examples include the familiar elementary arithmetic operations of addition,

subtraction, multiplication and division. Other examples are readily found in diﬀerent areas of mathematics, such as

vector addition, matrix multiplication and conjugation in groups.

2.1 Terminology

More precisely, a binary operation on a set S is a map which sends elements of the Cartesian product S × S to S:[1][2][3]

f : S × S → S.

Because the result of performing the operation on a pair of elements of S is again an element of S, the operation

is called a closed binary operation on S (or sometimes expressed as having the property of closure).[4] If f is not

a function, but is instead a partial function, it is called a partial binary operation. For instance, division of real

numbers is a partial binary operation, because one can't divide by zero: a/0 is not deﬁned for any real a. Note

however that both in algebra and model theory the binary operations considered are deﬁned on all of S × S.

Sometimes, especially in computer science, the term is used for any binary function.

Binary operations are the keystone of algebraic structures studied in abstract algebra: they are essential in the deﬁnitions of groups, monoids, semigroups, rings, and more. Most generally, a magma is a set together with some binary

operation deﬁned on it.

**2.2 Properties and examples
**

Typical examples of binary operations are the addition (+) and multiplication (×) of numbers and matrices as well as

composition of functions on a single set. For instance,

• On the set of real numbers R, f(a, b) = a + b is a binary operation since the sum of two real numbers is a real

number.

• On the set of natural numbers N, f(a, b) = a + b is a binary operation since the sum of two natural numbers is

a natural number. This is a diﬀerent binary operation than the previous one since the sets are diﬀerent.

• On the set M(2,2) of 2 × 2 matrices with real entries, f(A, B) = A + B is a binary operation since the sum of

two such matrices is another 2 × 2 matrix.

7

8

**CHAPTER 2. BINARY OPERATION
**

• On the set M(2,2) of 2 × 2 matrices with real entries, f(A, B) = AB is a binary operation since the product of

two such matrices is another 2 × 2 matrix.

• For a given set C, let S be the set of all functions h: C → C. On S, f(g, h) = g ∘ h = g(h(c)), the composition of

the two functions g and h, is a binary operation since the composition of the two functions is another function

on the set C (that is, a member of S).

**Many binary operations of interest in both algebra and formal logic are commutative, satisfying f(a, b) = f(b, a) for
**

all elements a and b in S, or associative, satisfying f(f(a, b), c) = f(a, f(b, c)) for all a, b and c in S. Many also have

identity elements and inverse elements.

The ﬁrst three examples above are commutative and all of the above examples are associative.

On the set of real numbers R, subtraction, that is, f(a, b) = a − b, is a binary operation which is not commutative

since, in general, a − b ≠ b − a. It is also not associative, since, in general, a − (b − c) ≠ (a − b) − c; for instance, 1 −

(2 − 3) = 2 but (1 − 2) − 3 = −4.

On the set of natural numbers N, the binary operation exponentiation, f(a,b) = ab , is not commutative since, in

general, ab ≠ ba and is also not associative since f(f(a, b), c) ≠ f(a, f(b, c)). For instance, with a = 2, b = 3 and c

= 2, f(23 ,2) = f(8,2) = 64, but f(2,32 ) = f(2,9) = 512. By changing the set N to the set of integers Z, this binary

operation becomes a partial binary operation since it is now undeﬁned when a = 0 and b is any negative integer. For

either set, this operation has a right identity (which is 1) since f(a, 1) = a for all a in the set, which is not an identity

(two sided identity) since f(1, b) ≠ b in general.

Division (/), a partial binary operation on the set of real or rational numbers, is not commutative or associative as

well. Tetration (↑↑), as a binary operation on the natural numbers, is not commutative nor associative and has no

identity element.

2.3 Notation

Binary operations are often written using inﬁx notation such as a ∗ b, a + b, a · b or (by juxtaposition with no symbol)

ab rather than by functional notation of the form f(a, b). Powers are usually also written without operator, but with

the second argument as superscript.

Binary operations sometimes use preﬁx or (probably more often) postﬁx notation, both of which dispense with parentheses. They are also called, respectively, Polish notation and reverse Polish notation.

**2.4 Pair and tuple
**

A binary operation, ab, depends on the ordered pair (a, b) and so (ab)c (where the parentheses here mean ﬁrst operate

on the ordered pair (a, b) and then operate on the result of that using the ordered pair ((ab), c)) depends in general

on the ordered pair ((a, b), c). Thus, for the general, non-associative case, binary operations can be represented with

binary trees.

However:

• If the operation is associative, (ab)c = a(bc), then the value of (ab)c depends only on the tuple (a, b, c).

• If the operation is commutative, ab = ba, then the value of (ab)c depends only on { {a, b}, c}, where braces

indicate multisets.

• If the operation is both associative and commutative then the value of (ab)c depends only on the multiset {a,

b, c}.

• If the operation is associative, commutative and idempotent, aa = a, then the value of (ab)c depends only on

the set {a, b, c}.

2.5. BINARY OPERATIONS AS TERNARY RELATIONS

9

**2.5 Binary operations as ternary relations
**

A binary operation f on a set S may be viewed as a ternary relation on S, that is, the set of triples (a, b, f(a,b)) in S ×

S × S for all a and b in S.

**2.6 External binary operations
**

An external binary operation is a binary function from K × S to S. This diﬀers from a binary operation in the strict

sense in that K need not be S; its elements come from outside.

An example of an external binary operation is scalar multiplication in linear algebra. Here K is a ﬁeld and S is a

vector space over that ﬁeld.

An external binary operation may alternatively be viewed as an action; K is acting on S.

Note that the dot product of two vectors is not a binary operation, external or otherwise, as it maps from S× S to K,

where K is a ﬁeld and S is a vector space over K.

2.7 See also

• Binary operator

• Iterated binary operation

• Operator (programming)

• Ternary operation

• Unary operation

2.8 Notes

[1] Rotman 1973, pg. 1

[2] Hardy & Walker 2002, pg. 176, Deﬁnition 67

[3] Fraleigh 1976, pg. 10

[4] Hall 1959, pg. 1

2.9 References

• Fraleigh, John B. (1976), A First Course in Abstract Algebra (2nd ed.), Reading: Addison-Wesley, ISBN 0201-01984-1

• Hall, Jr., Marshall (1959), The Theory of Groups, New York: Macmillan

• Hardy, Darel W.; Walker, Carol L. (2003), Applied Algebra: Codes, Ciphers and Discrete Algorithms, Upper

Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, ISBN 0-13-067464-8

• Rotman, Joseph J. (1973), The Theory of Groups: An Introduction (2nd ed.), Boston: Allyn and Bacon

2.10 External links

• Weisstein, Eric W., “Binary Operation”, MathWorld.

Chapter 3

**Complete Boolean algebra
**

This article is about a type of mathematical structure. For complete sets of Boolean operators, see Functional completeness.

In mathematics, a complete Boolean algebra is a Boolean algebra in which every subset has a supremum (least

upper bound). Complete Boolean algebras are used to construct Boolean-valued models of set theory in the theory

of forcing. Every Boolean algebra A has an essentially unique completion, which is a complete Boolean algebra

containing A such that every element is the supremum of some subset of A. As a partially ordered set, this completion

of A is the Dedekind-MacNeille completion.

More generally, if κ is a cardinal then a Boolean algebra is called κ-complete if every subset of cardinality less than

κ has a supremum.

3.1 Examples

• Every ﬁnite Boolean algebra is complete.

• The algebra of subsets of a given set is a complete Boolean algebra.

• The regular open sets of any topological space form a complete Boolean algebra. This example is of particular

importance because every forcing poset can be considered as a topological space (a base for the topology

consisting of sets that are the set of all elements less than or equal to a given element). The corresponding

regular open algebra can be used to form Boolean-valued models which are then equivalent to generic extensions

by the given forcing poset.

• The algebra of all measurable subsets of a σ-ﬁnite measure space, modulo null sets, is a complete Boolean

algebra. When the measure space is the unit interval with the σ-algebra of Lebesgue measurable sets, the

Boolean algebra is called the random algebra.

• The algebra of all measurable subsets of a measure space is a ℵ1 -complete Boolean algebra, but is not usually

complete.

• The algebra of all subsets of an inﬁnite set that are ﬁnite or have ﬁnite complement is a Boolean algebra but is

not complete.

• The Boolean algebra of all Baire sets modulo meager sets in a topological space with a countable base is

complete; when the topological space is the real numbers the algebra is sometimes called the Cantor algebra.

• Another example of a Boolean algebra that is not complete is the Boolean algebra P(ω) of all sets of natural

numbers, quotiented out by the ideal Fin of ﬁnite subsets. The resulting object, denoted P(ω)/Fin, consists of

all equivalence classes of sets of naturals, where the relevant equivalence relation is that two sets of naturals are

10

3.2. PROPERTIES OF COMPLETE BOOLEAN ALGEBRAS

11

**equivalent if their symmetric diﬀerence is ﬁnite. The Boolean operations are deﬁned analogously, for example,
**

if A and B are two equivalence classes in P(ω)/Fin, we deﬁne A ∧ B to be the equivalence class of a ∩ b , where

a and b are some (any) elements of A and B respectively.

Now let a0 , a1 ,... be pairwise disjoint inﬁnite sets of naturals, and let A0 , A1 ,... be their corresponding

equivalence classes in P(ω)/Fin . Then given any upper bound X of A0 , A1 ,... in P(ω)/Fin, we can ﬁnd

a lesser upper bound, by removing from a representative for X one element of each an. Therefore the

An have no supremum.

• A Boolean algebra is complete if and only if its Stone space of prime ideals is extremally disconnected.

**3.2 Properties of complete Boolean algebras
**

• Sikorski’s extension theorem states that

if A is a subalgebra of a Boolean algebra B, then any homomorphism from A to a complete Boolean algebra C can be

extended to a morphism from B to C.

• Every subset of a complete Boolean algebra has a supremum, by deﬁnition; it follows that every subset also has

an inﬁmum (greatest lower bound).

• For a complete boolean algebra both inﬁnite distributive laws hold.

• For a complete boolean algebra inﬁnite de-Morgan’s laws hold.

**3.3 The completion of a Boolean algebra
**

The completion of a Boolean algebra can be deﬁned in several equivalent ways:

• The completion of A is (up to isomorphism) the unique complete Boolean algebra B containing A such that A

is dense in B; this means that for every nonzero element of B there is a smaller non-zero element of A.

• The completion of A is (up to isomorphism) the unique complete Boolean algebra B containing A such that

every element of B is the supremum of some subset of A.

The completion of a Boolean algebra A can be constructed in several ways:

• The completion is the Boolean algebra of regular open sets in the Stone space of prime ideals of A. Each

element x of A corresponds to the open set of prime ideals not containing x (which open and closed, and

therefore regular).

• The completion is the Boolean algebra of regular cuts of A. Here a cut is a subset U of A+ (the non-zero

elements of A) such that if q is in U and p≤q then p is in U, and is called regular if whenever p is not in U there

is some r ≤ p such that U has no elements ≤r. Each element p of A corresponds to the cut of elements ≤p.

If A is a metric space and B its completion then any isometry from A to a complete metric space C can be extended to

a unique isometry from B to C. The analogous statement for complete Boolean algebras is not true: a homomorphism

from a Boolean algebra A to a complete Boolean algebra C cannot necessarily be extended to a (supremum preserving)

homomorphism of complete Boolean algebras from the completion B of A to C. (By Sikorski’s extension theorem it

can be extended to a homomorphism of Boolean algebras from B to C, but this will not in general be a homomorphism

of complete Boolean algebras; in other words, it need not preserve suprema.)

12

CHAPTER 3. COMPLETE BOOLEAN ALGEBRA

**3.4 Free κ-complete Boolean algebras
**

Unless the Axiom of Choice is relaxed,[1] free complete boolean algebras generated by a set do not exist (unless the set

is ﬁnite). More precisely, for any cardinal κ, there is a complete Boolean algebra of cardinality 2κ greater than κ that

is generated as a complete Boolean algebra by a countable subset; for example the Boolean algebra of regular open

sets in the product space κω , where κ has the discrete topology. A countable generating set consists of all sets am,n

for m, n integers, consisting of the elements x∈κω such that x(m)<x(n). (This boolean algebra is called a collapsing

algebra, because forcing with it collapses the cardinal κ onto ω.)

In particular the forgetful functor from complete Boolean algebras to sets has no left adjoint, even though it is continuous and the category of Boolean algebras is small-complete. This shows that the “solution set condition” in Freyd’s

adjoint functor theorem is necessary.

Given a set X, one can form the free Boolean algebra A generated by this set and then take its completion B. However

B is not a “free” complete Boolean algebra generated by X (unless X is ﬁnite or AC is omitted), because a function

from X to a free Boolean algebra C cannot in general be extended to a (supremum-preserving) morphism of Boolean

algebras from B to C.

On the other hand, for any ﬁxed cardinal κ, there is a free (or universal) κ-complete Boolean algebra generated by

any given set.

3.5 See also

• Complete lattice

• Complete Heyting algebra

3.6 References

[1] Stavi, Jonathan (1974), “A model of ZF with an inﬁnite free complete Boolean algebra” (reprint), Israel Journal of Mathematics 20 (2): 149–163, doi:10.1007/BF02757883.

**• Johnstone, Peter T. (1982), Stone spaces, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-33779-8
**

• Koppelberg, Sabine (1989), Monk, J. Donald; Bonnet, Robert, eds., Handbook of Boolean algebras 1, Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Co., pp. xx+312, ISBN 0-444-70261-X, MR 0991565

• Monk, J. Donald; Bonnet, Robert, eds. (1989), Handbook of Boolean algebras 2, Amsterdam: North-Holland

Publishing Co., ISBN 0-444-87152-7, MR 0991595

• Monk, J. Donald; Bonnet, Robert, eds. (1989), Handbook of Boolean algebras 3, Amsterdam: North-Holland

Publishing Co., ISBN 0-444-87153-5, MR 0991607

• Vladimirov, D.A. (2001), “Boolean algebra”, in Hazewinkel, Michiel, Encyclopedia of Mathematics, Springer,

ISBN 978-1-55608-010-4

Chapter 4

**Complete Heyting algebra
**

In mathematics, especially in order theory, a complete Heyting algebra is a Heyting algebra that is complete as a

lattice. Complete Heyting algebras are the objects of three diﬀerent categories; the category CHey, the category Loc

of locales, and its opposite, the category Frm of frames. Although these three categories contain the same objects,

they diﬀer in their morphisms, and thus get distinct names. Only the morphisms of CHey are homomorphisms of

complete Heyting algebras.

Locales and frames form the foundation of pointless topology, which, instead of building on point-set topology,

recasts the ideas of general topology in categorical terms, as statements on frames and locales.

4.1 Deﬁnition

Consider a partially ordered set (P, ≤) that is a complete lattice. Then P is a complete Heyting algebra if any of the

following equivalent conditions hold:

• P is a Heyting algebra, i.e. the operation ( x ∧ − ) has a right adjoint (also called the lower adjoint of a

(monotone) Galois connection), for each element x of P.

• For all elements x of P and all subsets S of P, the following inﬁnite distributivity law holds:

x∧

∨

s∈S

s=

∨

(x ∧ s).

s∈S

**• P is a distributive lattice, i.e., for all x, y and z in P, we have
**

x ∧ (y ∨ z) = (x ∧ y) ∨ (x ∧ z)

and the meet operations ( x ∧ − ) are Scott continuous for all x in P (i.e., preserve the suprema of directed

sets) .

4.2 Examples

The system of all open sets of a given topological space ordered by inclusion is a complete Heyting algebra.

**4.3 Frames and locales
**

The objects of the category CHey, the category Frm of frames and the category Loc of locales are the complete

lattices satisfying the inﬁnite distributive law. These categories diﬀer in what constitutes a morphism.

13

14

CHAPTER 4. COMPLETE HEYTING ALGEBRA

The morphisms of Frm are (necessarily monotone) functions that preserve ﬁnite meets and arbitrary joins. Such

functions are not homomorphisms of complete Heyting algebras. The deﬁnition of Heyting algebras crucially involves the existence of right adjoints to the binary meet operation, which together deﬁne an additional implication

operation ⇒. Thus, a homomorphism of complete Heyting algebras is a morphism of frames that in addition preserves

implication. The morphisms of Loc are opposite to those of Frm, and they are usually called maps (of locales).

The relation of locales and their maps to topological spaces and continuous functions may be seen as follows. Let

f: X →Y

be any map. The power sets P(X) and P(Y) are complete Boolean algebras, and the map

f −1 : P (Y ) → P (X)

is a homomorphism of complete Boolean algebras. Suppose the spaces X and Y are topological spaces, endowed with

the topology O(X) and O(Y) of open sets on X and Y. Note that O(X) and O(Y) are subframes of P(X) and P(Y). If

ƒ is a continuous function, then

f −1 : O(Y ) → O(X)

preserves ﬁnite meets and arbitrary joins of these subframes. This shows that O is a functor from the category Top

of topological spaces to the category Loc of locales, taking any continuous map

f: X →Y

to the map

O(f ) : O(X) → O(Y )

in Loc that is deﬁned in Frm to be the inverse image frame homomorphism

f −1 : O(Y ) → O(X).

It is common, given a map of locales

f: A→B

in Loc, to write

f∗ : B → A

for the frame homomorphism that deﬁnes it in Frm. Hence, using this notation, O(ƒ) is deﬁned by the equation O(ƒ)*

= ƒ−1 .

Conversely, any locale A has a topological space S(A) that best approximates the locale, called its spectrum. In

addition, any map of locales

f: A→B

determines a continuous map

4.4. LITERATURE

15

S(A) → S(B),

and this assignment is functorial: letting P(1) denote the locale that is obtained as the powerset of the terminal set 1

= { * }, the points of S(A) are the maps

p : P (1) → A

in Loc, i.e., the frame homomorphisms

p∗ : A → P (1).

For each a ∈ A we deﬁne the set Ua ⊆ S(A) that consists of the points p ∈ S(A) such that p*(a) = { * }. It is easy to

verify that this deﬁnes a frame homomorphism A → P(S(A)), whose image is therefore a topology on S(A). Then, if

f: A→B

to each point p ∈ S(A) we assign the point S(ƒ)(q) deﬁned by letting S(ƒ)(p)* be the composition of p* with ƒ*, hence

obtaining a continuous map

S(f ) : S(A) → S(B).

This deﬁnes a functor S from Loc to Top, which is right adjoint to O.

Any locale that is isomorphic to the topology of its spectrum is called spatial, and any topological space that is

homeomorphic to the spectrum of its locale of open sets is called sober. The adjunction between topological spaces

and locales restricts to an equivalence of categories between sober spaces and spatial locales.

Any function that preserves all joins (and hence any frame homomorphism) has a right adjoint, and, conversely, any

function that preserves all meets has a left adjoint. Hence, the category Loc is isomorphic to the category whose

objects are the frames and whose morphisms are the meet preserving functions whose left adjoints preserve ﬁnite

meets. This is often regarded as a representation of Loc, but it should not be confused with Loc itself, whose

morphisms are formally the same as frame homomorphisms in the opposite direction.

4.4 Literature

• P. T. Johnstone, Stone Spaces, Cambridge Studies in Advanced Mathematics 3, Cambridge University Press,

Cambridge, 1982. (ISBN 0-521-23893-5)

Still a great resource on locales and complete Heyting algebras.

• G. Gierz, K. H. Hofmann, K. Keimel, J. D. Lawson, M. Mislove, and D. S. Scott, Continuous Lattices and

Domains, In Encyclopedia of Mathematics and its Applications, Vol. 93, Cambridge University Press, 2003.

ISBN 0-521-80338-1

Includes the characterization in terms of meet continuity.

• Francis Borceux: Handbook of Categorical Algebra III, volume 52 of Encyclopedia of Mathematics and its

Applications. Cambridge University Press, 1994.

Surprisingly extensive resource on locales and Heyting algebras. Takes a more categorical viewpoint.

• Steven Vickers, Topology via logic, Cambridge University Press, 1989, ISBN 0-521-36062-5.

• Pedicchio, Maria Cristina; Tholen, Walter, eds. (2004). Categorical foundations. Special topics in order, topology, algebra, and sheaf theory. Encyclopedia of Mathematics and Its Applications 97. Cambridge: Cambridge

University Press. ISBN 0-521-83414-7. Zbl 1034.18001.

Chapter 5

Constant (mathematics)

In mathematics, the adjective constant means non-varying. The noun constant may have two diﬀerent meanings. It

may refer to a ﬁxed and well deﬁned number or other mathematical object. The term mathematical constant (and also

physical constant) is sometimes used to distinguish this meaning from the other one. A constant may also refer to a

constant function or its value (it is a common usage to identify them). Such a constant is commonly represented by

a variable which does not depend on the main variable(s) of the studied problem. This is the case, for example, for

a constant of integration which is an arbitrary constant function (not depending on the variable of integration) added

to a particular antiderivative to get all the antiderivatives of the given function.

For example, a general quadratic function is commonly written as:

ax2 + bx + c ,

where a, b and c are constants (or parameters), while x is the variable, a placeholder for the argument of the function

being studied. A more explicit way to denote this function is

x 7→ ax2 + bx + c ,

which makes the function-argument status of x clear, and thereby implicitly the constant status of a, b and c. In this

example a, b and c are coeﬃcients of the polynomial. Since c occurs in a term that does not involve x, it is called the

constant term of the polynomial and can be thought of as the coeﬃcient of x0 ; any polynomial term or expression of

degree zero is a constant.[1]:18

5.1 Constant function

Main articles: Constant function and Nullary

A constant may be used to deﬁne a constant function that ignores its arguments and always gives the same value. A

constant function of a single variable, such as f (x) = 5 , has a graph that is a horizontal straight line, parallel to

the x-axis. Such a function always takes the same value (in this case, 5) because its argument does not appear in the

expression deﬁning the function.

5.2 Context-dependence

The context-dependent nature of the concept of “constant” can be seen in this example from elementary calculus:

d x

dx 2

= limh→0 2 h−2

h

= 2x limh→0 2 h−1

x

= 2 · constant,

x+h

x

= limh→0 2x 2 h−1

sincex on depend not does (i.e. constant is h)

where constant on depending not means x.

h

16

5.3. NOTABLE MATHEMATICAL CONSTANTS

17

“Constant” means not depending on some variable; not changing as that variable changes. In the ﬁrst case above, it

means not depending on h; in the second, it means not depending on x.

**5.3 Notable mathematical constants
**

Main article: Mathematical constant

Some values occur frequently in mathematics and are conventionally denoted by a speciﬁc symbol. These standard

symbols and their values are called mathematical constants. Examples include:

• 0 (zero).

• 1 (one), the natural number after zero.

• π (pi), the constant representing the ratio of a circle’s circumference to its diameter, approximately equal to

3.141592653589793238462643...[2]

• e, approximately equal to 2.718281828459045235360287...

**• i, the imaginary unit such that i2 = −1.
**

√

•

2 (square root of 2), the length of the diagonal of a square with unit sides, approximately equal to 1.414213562373095048801688

• φ (golden ratio), approximately equal to 1.618033988749894848204586, or algebraically,

√

1+ 5

2

.

5.4 Constants in calculus

In calculus, constants are treated in several diﬀerent ways depending on the operation. For example, the derivative

of a constant function is zero. This is because the derivative measures the rate of change of a function with respect

to a variable, and since constants, by deﬁnition, do not change, their derivative is therefore zero. Conversely, when

integrating a constant function, the constant is multiplied by the variable of integration. During the evaluation of a

limit, the constant remains the same as it was before and after evaluation.

Integration of a function of one variable often involves a constant of integration. This arises because of the integral

operator’s nature as the inverse of the diﬀerential operator, meaning the aim of integration is to recover the original

function before diﬀerentiation. The diﬀerential of a constant function is zero, as noted above, and the diﬀerential

operator is a linear operator, so functions that only diﬀer by a constant term have the same derivative. To acknowledge

this, a constant of integration is added to an indeﬁnite integral; this ensures that all possible solutions are included.

The constant of integration is generally written as 'c' and represents a constant with a ﬁxed but undeﬁned value.

5.4.1

Examples

f (x) = 72 ⇒ f∫ ′ (x) = 0

f (x) = 72 ⇒ 72 dx = 72x + c

f (x) = 72 ⇒ limx→∞ 72 = 72

5.5 See also

• Expression

• Physical constant

• Constant (disambiguation)

18

CHAPTER 5. CONSTANT (MATHEMATICS)

5.6 References

[1] Foerster, Paul A. (2006). Algebra and Trigonometry: Functions and Applications, Teacher’s Edition (Classics ed.). Upper

Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-165711-9.

[2] Arndt, Jörg; Haenel, Christoph (2001). Pi - Unleashed. Springer. p. 240. ISBN 978-3540665724.

Chapter 6

Countable set

“Countable” redirects here. For the linguistic concept, see Count noun.

Not to be confused with (recursively) enumerable sets.

In mathematics, a countable set is a set with the same cardinality (number of elements) as some subset of the set

of natural numbers. A countable set is either a ﬁnite set or a countably inﬁnite set. Whether ﬁnite or inﬁnite, the

elements of a countable set can always be counted one at a time and, although the counting may never ﬁnish, every

element of the set is associated with a natural number.

Some authors use countable set to mean inﬁnitely countable alone.[1] To avoid this ambiguity, the term at most

countable may be used when ﬁnite sets are included and countably inﬁnite, enumerable, or denumerable[2] otherwise.

The term countable set was originated by Georg Cantor who contrasted sets which are countable with those which are

uncountable (a.k.a. nonenumerable and nondenumerable[3] ). Today, countable sets are researched by a branch of

mathematics called discrete mathematics.

6.1 Deﬁnition

A set S is called countable if there exists an injective function f from S to the natural numbers N = {0, 1, 2, 3, ...}.[4]

If such an f can be found which is also surjective (and therefore bijective), then S is called countably inﬁnite.

In other words, a set is called “countably inﬁnite” if it has one-to-one correspondence with the natural number set, N.

As noted above, this terminology is not universal: Some authors use countable to mean what is here called “countably

inﬁnite,” and to not include ﬁnite sets.

For alternative (equivalent) formulations of the deﬁnition in terms of a bijective function or a surjective function, see

the section Formal deﬁnition and properties below.

6.2 History

In the western world, diﬀerent inﬁnities were ﬁrst classiﬁed by Georg Cantor around 1874.[5]

6.3 Introduction

A set is a collection of elements, and may be described in many ways. One way is simply to list all of its elements;

for example, the set consisting of the integers 3, 4, and 5 may be denoted {3, 4, 5}. This is only eﬀective for small

sets, however; for larger sets, this would be time-consuming and error-prone. Instead of listing every single element,

sometimes an ellipsis ("...”) is used, if the writer believes that the reader can easily guess what is missing; for example,

19

20

CHAPTER 6. COUNTABLE SET

{1, 2, 3, ..., 100} presumably denotes the set of integers from 1 to 100. Even in this case, however, it is still possible

to list all the elements, because the set is ﬁnite.

Some sets are inﬁnite; these sets have more than n elements for any integer n. For example, the set of natural numbers,

denotable by {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, ...}, has inﬁnitely many elements, and we cannot use any normal number to give its

size. Nonetheless, it turns out that inﬁnite sets do have a well-deﬁned notion of size (or more properly, of cardinality,

which is the technical term for the number of elements in a set), and not all inﬁnite sets have the same cardinality.

X

1

2

3

.

x

.

Y

2

4

6

.

2x

.

Bijective mapping from integer to even numbers

To understand what this means, we ﬁrst examine what it does not mean. For example, there are inﬁnitely many odd

integers, inﬁnitely many even integers, and (hence) inﬁnitely many integers overall. However, it turns out that the

number of even integers, which is the same as the number of odd integers, is also the same as the number of integers

overall. This is because we arrange things such that for every integer, there is a distinct even integer: ... −2→−4,

−1→−2, 0→0, 1→2, 2→4, ...; or, more generally, n→2n, see picture. What we have done here is arranged the integers

and the even integers into a one-to-one correspondence (or bijection), which is a function that maps between two sets

such that each element of each set corresponds to a single element in the other set.

However, not all inﬁnite sets have the same cardinality. For example, Georg Cantor (who introduced this concept)

demonstrated that the real numbers cannot be put into one-to-one correspondence with the natural numbers (nonnegative integers), and therefore that the set of real numbers has a greater cardinality than the set of natural numbers.

A set is countable if: (1) it is ﬁnite, or (2) it has the same cardinality (size) as the set of natural numbers. Equivalently, a

set is countable if it has the same cardinality as some subset of the set of natural numbers. Otherwise, it is uncountable.

**6.4 Formal deﬁnition and properties
**

By deﬁnition a set S is countable if there exists an injective function f : S → N from S to the natural numbers N =

{0, 1, 2, 3, ...}.

6.4. FORMAL DEFINITION AND PROPERTIES

21

It might seem natural to divide the sets into diﬀerent classes: put all the sets containing one element together; all the

sets containing two elements together; ...; ﬁnally, put together all inﬁnite sets and consider them as having the same

size. This view is not tenable, however, under the natural deﬁnition of size.

To elaborate this we need the concept of a bijection. Although a “bijection” seems a more advanced concept than a

number, the usual development of mathematics in terms of set theory deﬁnes functions before numbers, as they are

based on much simpler sets. This is where the concept of a bijection comes in: deﬁne the correspondence

a ↔ 1, b ↔ 2, c ↔ 3

Since every element of {a, b, c} is paired with precisely one element of {1, 2, 3}, and vice versa, this deﬁnes a

bijection.

We now generalize this situation and deﬁne two sets to be of the same size if (and only if) there is a bijection between

them. For all ﬁnite sets this gives us the usual deﬁnition of “the same size”. What does it tell us about the size of

inﬁnite sets?

Consider the sets A = {1, 2, 3, ... }, the set of positive integers and B = {2, 4, 6, ... }, the set of even positive integers.

We claim that, under our deﬁnition, these sets have the same size, and that therefore B is countably inﬁnite. Recall

that to prove this we need to exhibit a bijection between them. But this is easy, using n ↔ 2n, so that

1 ↔ 2, 2 ↔ 4, 3 ↔ 6, 4 ↔ 8, ....

As in the earlier example, every element of A has been paired oﬀ with precisely one element of B, and vice versa.

Hence they have the same size. This gives an example of a set which is of the same size as one of its proper subsets,

a situation which is impossible for ﬁnite sets.

Likewise, the set of all ordered pairs of natural numbers is countably inﬁnite, as can be seen by following a path like

the one in the picture:

The resulting mapping is like this:

0 ↔ (0,0), 1 ↔ (1,0), 2 ↔ (0,1), 3 ↔ (2,0), 4 ↔ (1,1), 5 ↔ (0,2), 6 ↔ (3,0) ....

It is evident that this mapping will cover all such ordered pairs.

Interestingly: if you treat each pair as being the numerator and denominator of a vulgar fraction, then for every

positive fraction, we can come up with a distinct number corresponding to it. This representation includes also the

natural numbers, since every natural number is also a fraction N/1. So we can conclude that there are exactly as many

positive rational numbers as there are positive integers. This is true also for all rational numbers, as can be seen below

(a more complex presentation is needed to deal with negative numbers).

Theorem: The Cartesian product of ﬁnitely many countable sets is countable.

This form of triangular mapping recursively generalizes to vectors of ﬁnitely many natural numbers by repeatedly

mapping the ﬁrst two elements to a natural number. For example, (0,2,3) maps to (5,3) which maps to 39.

Sometimes more than one mapping is useful. This is where you map the set which you want to show countably inﬁnite,

onto another set; and then map this other set to the natural numbers. For example, the positive rational numbers can

easily be mapped to (a subset of) the pairs of natural numbers because p/q maps to (p, q).

What about inﬁnite subsets of countably inﬁnite sets? Do these have fewer elements than N?

Theorem: Every subset of a countable set is countable. In particular, every inﬁnite subset of a countably inﬁnite set

is countably inﬁnite.

For example, the set of prime numbers is countable, by mapping the n-th prime number to n:

• 2 maps to 1

• 3 maps to 2

• 5 maps to 3

• 7 maps to 4

22

CHAPTER 6. COUNTABLE SET

9

13

18

24

5

8

12

17

2

4

7

11

0

1

3

6

3

2

1

0

0

1

2

3

The Cantor pairing function assigns one natural number to each pair of natural numbers

• 11 maps to 5

• 13 maps to 6

• 17 maps to 7

• 19 maps to 8

• 23 maps to 9

• ...

What about sets being “larger than” N? An obvious place to look would be Q, the set of all rational numbers, which

intuitively may seem much bigger than N. But looks can be deceiving, for we assert:

Theorem: Q (the set of all rational numbers) is countable.

Q can be deﬁned as the set of all fractions a/b where a and b are integers and b > 0. This can be mapped onto the

subset of ordered triples of natural numbers (a, b, c) such that a ≥ 0, b > 0, a and b are coprime, and c ∈ {0, 1} such

that c = 0 if a/b ≥ 0 and c = 1 otherwise.

• 0 maps to (0,1,0)

**6.4. FORMAL DEFINITION AND PROPERTIES
**

• 1 maps to (1,1,0)

• −1 maps to (1,1,1)

• 1/2 maps to (1,2,0)

• −1/2 maps to (1,2,1)

• 2 maps to (2,1,0)

• −2 maps to (2,1,1)

• 1/3 maps to (1,3,0)

• −1/3 maps to (1,3,1)

• 3 maps to (3,1,0)

• −3 maps to (3,1,1)

• 1/4 maps to (1,4,0)

• −1/4 maps to (1,4,1)

• 2/3 maps to (2,3,0)

• −2/3 maps to (2,3,1)

• 3/2 maps to (3,2,0)

• −3/2 maps to (3,2,1)

• 4 maps to (4,1,0)

• −4 maps to (4,1,1)

• ...

By a similar development, the set of algebraic numbers is countable, and so is the set of deﬁnable numbers.

Theorem: (Assuming the axiom of countable choice) The union of countably many countable sets is countable.

For example, given countable sets a, b, c ...

Using a variant of the triangular enumeration we saw above:

• a0 maps to 0

• a1 maps to 1

• b0 maps to 2

• a2 maps to 3

• b1 maps to 4

• c0 maps to 5

• a3 maps to 6

• b2 maps to 7

• c1 maps to 8

• d0 maps to 9

• a4 maps to 10

• ...

23

24

CHAPTER 6. COUNTABLE SET

Note that this only works if the sets a, b, c,... are disjoint. If not, then the union is even smaller and is therefore also

countable by a previous theorem.

Also note that the axiom of countable choice is needed in order to index all of the sets a, b, c,...

Theorem: The set of all ﬁnite-length sequences of natural numbers is countable.

This set is the union of the length-1 sequences, the length-2 sequences, the length-3 sequences, each of which is

a countable set (ﬁnite Cartesian product). So we are talking about a countable union of countable sets, which is

countable by the previous theorem.

Theorem: The set of all ﬁnite subsets of the natural numbers is countable.

If you have a ﬁnite subset, you can order the elements into a ﬁnite sequence. There are only countably many ﬁnite

sequences, so also there are only countably many ﬁnite subsets.

The following theorem gives equivalent formulations in terms of a bijective function or a surjective function. A proof

of this result can be found in Lang’s text.[2]

Theorem: Let S be a set. The following statements are equivalent:

1. S is countable, i.e. there exists an injective function f : S → N.

2. Either S is empty or there exists a surjective function g : N → S.

3. Either S is ﬁnite or there exists a bijection h : N → S.

Several standard properties follow easily from this theorem. We present them here tersely. For a gentler presentation

see the sections above. Observe that N in the theorem can be replaced with any countably inﬁnite set. In particular

we have the following Corollary.

Corollary: Let S and T be sets.

1. If the function f : S → T is injective and T is countable then S is countable.

2. If the function g : S → T is surjective and S is countable then T is countable.

Proof: For (1) observe that if T is countable there is an injective function h : T → N. Then if f : S → T is injective

the composition h o f : S → N is injective, so S is countable.

For (2) observe that if S is countable there is a surjective function h : N → S. Then if g : S → T is surjective the

composition g o h : N → T is surjective, so T is countable.

Proposition: Any subset of a countable set is countable.

Proof: The restriction of an injective function to a subset of its domain is still injective.

Proposition: The Cartesian product of two countable sets A and B is countable.

Proof: Note that N × N is countable as a consequence of the deﬁnition because the function f : N × N → N given

by f(m, n) = 2m 3n is injective. It then follows from the Basic Theorem and the Corollary that the Cartesian product

of any two countable sets is countable. This follows because if A and B are countable there are surjections f : N →

A and g : N → B. So

f×g: N×N→A×B

is a surjection from the countable set N × N to the set A × B and the Corollary implies A × B is countable. This result

generalizes to the Cartesian product of any ﬁnite collection of countable sets and the proof follows by induction on

the number of sets in the collection.

Proposition: The integers Z are countable and the rational numbers Q are countable.

Proof: The integers Z are countable because the function f : Z → N given by f(n) = 2n if n is non-negative and f(n)

= 3|n| if n is negative is an injective function. The rational numbers Q are countable because the function g : Z × N

→ Q given by g(m, n) = m/(n + 1) is a surjection from the countable set Z × N to the rationals Q.

Proposition: If An is a countable set for each n in N then the union of all An is also countable.

6.5. MINIMAL MODEL OF SET THEORY IS COUNTABLE

25

Proof: This is a consequence of the fact that for each n there is a surjective function gn : N → An and hence the

function

G:N×N→

∪

An

n∈N

**given by G(n, m) = gn(m) is a surjection. Since N × N is countable, the Corollary implies that the union is countable.
**

We are using the axiom of countable choice in this proof in order to pick for each n in N a surjection gn from the

non-empty collection of surjections from N to An.

Cantor’s Theorem asserts that if A is a set and P(A) is its power set, i.e. the set of all subsets of A, then there is no

surjective function from A to P(A). A proof is given in the article Cantor’s Theorem. As an immediate consequence

of this and the Basic Theorem above we have:

Proposition: The set P(N) is not countable; i.e. it is uncountable.

For an elaboration of this result see Cantor’s diagonal argument.

The set of real numbers is uncountable (see Cantor’s ﬁrst uncountability proof), and so is the set of all inﬁnite

sequences of natural numbers. A topological proof for the uncountability of the real numbers is described at ﬁnite

intersection property.

**6.5 Minimal model of set theory is countable
**

If there is a set that is a standard model (see inner model) of ZFC set theory, then there is a minimal standard

model (see Constructible universe). The Löwenheim-Skolem theorem can be used to show that this minimal model

is countable. The fact that the notion of “uncountability” makes sense even in this model, and in particular that this

model M contains elements which are

• subsets of M, hence countable,

• but uncountable from the point of view of M,

was seen as paradoxical in the early days of set theory, see Skolem’s paradox.

The minimal standard model includes all the algebraic numbers and all eﬀectively computable transcendental numbers, as well as many other kinds of numbers.

6.6 Total orders

Countable sets can be totally ordered in various ways, e.g.:

• Well orders (see also ordinal number):

• The usual order of natural numbers (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, ...)

• The integers in the order (0, 1, 2, 3, ...; −1, −2, −3, ...)

• Other (not well orders):

• The usual order of integers (..., −3, −2, −1, 0, 1, 2, 3, ...)

• The usual order of rational numbers (Cannot be explicitly written as a list!)

Note that in both examples of well orders here, any subset has a least element; and in both examples of non-well

orders, some subsets do not have a least element. This is the key deﬁnition that determines whether a total order is

also a well order.

26

CHAPTER 6. COUNTABLE SET

6.7 See also

• Aleph number

• Counting

• Hilbert’s paradox of the Grand Hotel

• Uncountable set

6.8 Notes

[1] For an example of this usage see (Rudin 1976, Chapter 2).

[2] See (Lang 1993, §2 of Chapter I).

[3] See (Apostol 1969, Chapter 13.19).

[4] Since there is an obvious bijection between N and N* = {1, 2, 3, ...}, it makes no diﬀerence whether one considers 0 to

be a natural number or not. In any case, this article follows ISO 31-11 and the standard convention in mathematical logic,

which make 0 a natural number.

[5] Stillwell, John C. (2010), Roads to Inﬁnity: The Mathematics of Truth and Proof, CRC Press, p. 10, ISBN 9781439865507,

Cantor’s discovery of uncountable sets in 1874 was one of the most unexpected events in the history of mathematics. Before

1874, inﬁnity was not even considered a legitimate mathematical subject by most people, so the need to distinguish between

countable and uncountable inﬁnities could not have been imagined.

6.9 References

• Lang, Serge (1993), Real and Functional Analysis, Berlin, New York: Springer-Verlag, ISBN 0-387-94001-4

• Rudin, Walter (1976), Principles of Mathematical Analysis, New York: McGraw-Hill, ISBN 0-07-054235-X

• Apostol, Tom M. (June 1969), Multi-Variable Calculus and Linear Algebra with Applications, Calculus 2 (2nd

ed.), New York: John Wiley + Sons, ISBN 978-0-471-00007-5

6.10 External links

• Weisstein, Eric W., “Countable Set”, MathWorld.

Chapter 7

Enumeration

For enumeration types in programming languages, see enumerated type.

An enumeration is a complete, ordered listing of all the items in a collection. The term is commonly used in

mathematics and theoretical computer science (as well as applied computer science) to refer to a listing of all of the

elements of a set. In statistics the term categorical variable is used rather than enumeration. The precise requirements

for an enumeration (for example, whether the set must be ﬁnite, or whether the list is allowed to contain repetitions)

depend on the branch of mathematics and the context one is working in.

Some sets can be enumerated by means of a natural ordering (such as 1, 2, 3, 4, ... for the set of positive integers),

but in other cases it may be necessary to impose a (perhaps arbitrary) ordering. In some contexts, such as enumerative

combinatorics, the term enumeration is used more in the sense of counting – with emphasis on determination of the

number of elements that a set contains, rather than the production of an explicit listing of those elements.

7.1 Enumeration in combinatorics

Main article: Enumerative combinatorics

In combinatorics, enumeration means counting, i.e., determining the exact number of elements of ﬁnite sets, usually

grouped into inﬁnite families, such as the family of sets each consisting of all permutations of some ﬁnite set. There

are ﬂourishing subareas in many branches of mathematics concerned with enumerating in this sense objects of special

kinds. For instance, in partition enumeration and graph enumeration the objective is to count partitions or graphs that

meet certain conditions.

**7.2 Enumeration in set theory
**

In set theory, the notion of enumeration has a broader sense, and does not require the set being enumerated to be

ﬁnite.

7.2.1

Enumeration as listing

**When an enumeration is used in an ordered list context, we impose some sort of ordering structure requirement on
**

the index set. While we can make the requirements on the ordering quite lax in order to allow for great generality,

the most natural and common prerequisite is that the index set be well-ordered. According to this characterization,

an ordered enumeration is deﬁned to be a surjection (a many-to-one relationship) with a well-ordered domain. This

deﬁnition is natural in the sense that a given well-ordering on the index set provides a unique way to list the next

element given a partial enumeration.

27

28

CHAPTER 7. ENUMERATION

7.2.2

Enumeration in countable vs. uncountable context

The most common use of enumeration in set theory occurs in the context where inﬁnite sets are separated into those

that are countable and those that are not. In this case, an enumeration is merely an enumeration with domain ω, the

ordinal of the natural numbers. This deﬁnition can also be stated as follows:

• As a surjective mapping from N (the natural numbers) to S (i.e., every element of S is the image of at least one

natural number). This deﬁnition is especially suitable to questions of computability and elementary set theory.

We may also deﬁne it diﬀerently when working with ﬁnite sets. In this case an enumeration may be deﬁned as follows:

• As a bijective mapping from S to an initial segment of the natural numbers. This deﬁnition is especially

suitable to combinatorial questions and ﬁnite sets; then the initial segment is {1,2,...,n} for some n which is the

cardinality of S.

In the ﬁrst deﬁnition it varies whether the mapping is also required to be injective (i.e., every element of S is the

image of exactly one natural number), and/or allowed to be partial (i.e., the mapping is deﬁned only for some natural

numbers). In some applications (especially those concerned with computability of the set S), these diﬀerences are of

little importance, because one is concerned only with the mere existence of some enumeration, and an enumeration

according to a liberal deﬁnition will generally imply that enumerations satisfying stricter requirements also exist.

Enumeration of ﬁnite sets obviously requires that either non-injectivity or partiality is accepted, and in contexts where

ﬁnite sets may appear one or both of these are inevitably present.

Examples

• The natural numbers are enumerable by the function f(x) = x. In this case f : N → N is simply the identity

function.

• Z , the set of integers is enumerable by

{

f (x) :=

−(x + 1)/2, if x is odd

x/2,

if x is even.

**f : N → Z is a bijection since every natural number corresponds to exactly one integer. The following table gives
**

the ﬁrst few values of this enumeration:

• All (non empty) ﬁnite sets are enumerable. Let S be a ﬁnite set with n > 0 elements and let K = {1,2,...,n}.

Select any element s in S and assign ƒ(n) = s. Now set S' = S − {s} (where − denotes set diﬀerence). Select any

element s’ ∈ S' and assign ƒ(n − 1) = s’ . Continue this process until all elements of the set have been assigned

a natural number. Then f : {1, 2, . . . , n} → S is an enumeration of S.

• The real numbers have no countable enumeration as proved by Cantor’s diagonal argument and Cantor’s ﬁrst

uncountability proof.

Properties

• There exists an enumeration for a set (in this sense) if and only if the set is countable.

• If a set is enumerable it will have an uncountable inﬁnity of diﬀerent enumerations, except in the degenerate

cases of the empty set or (depending on the precise deﬁnition) sets with one element. However, if one requires

enumerations to be injective and allows only a limited form of partiality such that if ƒ(n) is deﬁned then ƒ(m)

must be deﬁned for all m < n, then a ﬁnite set of N elements has exactly N! enumerations.

• An enumeration e of a set S with domain N induces a well-order ≤ on that set deﬁned by s ≤ t if and only if min

e−1 (s) ≤ min e−1 (t). Although the order may have little to do with the underlying set, it is useful when some

order of the set is necessary.

7.3. ENUMERATION IN COMPUTABILITY THEORY

7.2.3

29

Ordinal enumeration

In set theory, there is a more general notion of an enumeration than the characterization requiring the domain of

the listing function to be an initial segment of the Natural numbers where the domain of the enumerating function

can assume any ordinal. Under this deﬁnition, an enumeration of a set S is any surjection from an ordinal α onto S.

The more restrictive version of enumeration mentioned before is the special case where α is a ﬁnite ordinal or the

ﬁrst limit ordinal ω. This more generalized version extends the aforementioned deﬁnition to encompass transﬁnite

listings.

Under this deﬁnition, the ﬁrst uncountable ordinal ω1 can be enumerated by the identity function on ω1 so that these

two notions do not coincide. More generally, it is a theorem of ZF that any well-ordered set can be enumerated under

this characterization so that it coincides up to relabeling with the generalized listing enumeration. If one also assumes

the Axiom of Choice, then all sets can be enumerated so that it coincides up to relabeling with the most general form

of enumerations.

Since set theorists work with inﬁnite sets of arbitrarily large cardinalities, the default deﬁnition among this group of

mathematicians of an enumeration of a set tends to be any arbitrary α-sequence exactly listing all of its elements.

Indeed, in Jech’s book, which is a common reference for set theorists, an enumeration is deﬁned to be exactly this.

Therefore, in order to avoid ambiguity, one may use the term ﬁnitely enumerable or denumerable to denote one of

the corresponding types of distinguished countable enumerations.

7.2.4

Enumeration as comparison of cardinalities

**Formally, the most inclusive deﬁnition of an enumeration of a set S is any surjection from an arbitrary index set I
**

onto S. In this broad context, every set S can be trivially enumerated by the identity function from S onto itself. If

one does not assume the axiom of choice or one of its variants, S need not have any well-ordering. Even if one does

assume the axiom of choice, S need not have any natural well-ordering.

This general deﬁnition therefore lends itself to a counting notion where we are interested in “how many” rather

than “in what order.” In practice, this broad meaning of enumeration is often used to compare the relative sizes or

cardinalities of diﬀerent sets. If one works in Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory without the axiom of choice, one may

want to impose the additional restriction that an enumeration must also be injective (without repetition) since in this

theory, the existence of a surjection from I onto S need not imply the existence of an injection from S into I.

**7.3 Enumeration in computability theory
**

In computability theory one often considers countable enumerations with the added requirement that the mapping

from N to the enumerated set must be computable. The set being enumerated is then called recursively enumerable (or

computably enumerable in more contemporary language), referring to the use of recursion theory in formalizations

of what it means for the map to be computable.

In this sense, a subset of the natural numbers is computably enumerable if it is the range of a computable function.

In this context, enumerable may be used to mean computably enumerable. However, these deﬁnitions characterize

distinct classes since there are uncountably many subsets of the natural numbers that can be enumerated by an arbitrary function with domain ω and only countably many computable functions. A speciﬁc example of a set with an

enumeration but not a computable enumeration is the complement of the halting set.

Furthermore, this characterization illustrates a place where the ordering of the listing is important. There exists a

computable enumeration of the halting set, but not one that lists the elements in an increasing ordering. If there were

one, then the halting set would be decidable, which is provably false. In general, being recursively enumerable is a

weaker condition than being a decidable set.

7.4 See also

• Ordinal number

• Enumerative deﬁnition

• Sequence

30

CHAPTER 7. ENUMERATION

7.5 References

• Jech, Thomas (2002). Set theory, third millennium edition (revised and expanded). Springer. ISBN 3-54044085-2.

7.6 External links

• The dictionary deﬁnition of enumeration at Wiktionary

Chapter 8

Finitary

In mathematics or logic, a ﬁnitary operation is an operation that takes a ﬁnite number of input values to produce an

output, like those of arithmetic. Operations on inﬁnite numbers of input values are called inﬁnitary.

8.1 Finitary argument

A ﬁnitary argument is one which can be translated into a ﬁnite set of symbolic propositions starting from a ﬁnite[1]

set of axioms. In other words, it is a proof (including all assumptions) that can be written on a large enough sheet of

paper.

By contrast, inﬁnitary logic studies logics that allow inﬁnitely long statements and proofs. In such a logic, one can

regard the existential quantiﬁer, for instance, as derived from an inﬁnitary disjunction.

8.2 History

The emphasis on ﬁnitary methods has historical roots.

In the early 20th century, logicians aimed to solve the problem of foundations; that is, answer the question: “What

is the true base of mathematics?" The program was to be able to rewrite all mathematics starting using an entirely

syntactical language without semantics. In the words of David Hilbert (referring to geometry), “it does not matter if

we call the things chairs, tables and beer mugs or points, lines and planes.”

The stress on ﬁniteness came from the idea that human mathematical thought is based on a ﬁnite number of principles

and all the reasonings follow essentially one rule: the modus ponens. The project was to ﬁx a ﬁnite number of symbols

(essentially the numerals 1, 2, 3, ... the letters of alphabet and some special symbols like "+", "->", "(", ")", etc.), give

a ﬁnite number of propositions expressed in those symbols, which were to be taken as “foundations” (the axioms), and

some rules of inference which would model the way humans make conclusions. From these, regardless of the semantic

interpretation of the symbols the remaining theorems should follow formally using only the stated rules (which make

mathematics look like a game with symbols more than a science) without the need to rely on ingenuity. The hope was

to prove that from these axioms and rules all the theorems of mathematics could be deduced. That aim is known as

logicism.

Kurt Gödel's incompleteness theorem is sometimes alleged to undermine logicism because it shows that no particular

axiomatization of mathematics can decide all statements, although such theorem itself is based in logic.

8.3 See also

• Garbage in, garbage out

31

32

CHAPTER 8. FINITARY

8.4 Notes

[1] The number of axioms referenced in the argument will necessarily be ﬁnite since the proof is ﬁnite, but the number of

axioms from which these are chosen is inﬁnite when the system has axiom schemes, as for example the axiom schemes of

propositional calculus.

8.5 External links

• Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy entry on Inﬁnitary Logic

Chapter 9

**Friendly-index set
**

In graph theory, a friendly-index set is a ﬁnite set of integers associated with a given undirected graph and generated

by a type of graph labeling called a friendly labeling.

A friendly labeling of an n-vertex undirected graph {{{1}}} is deﬁned to be an assignment of the values 0 and 1 to the

vertices of G with the property that the number of vertices labeled 0 is as close as possible to the number of vertices

labeled 1: they should either be equal (for graphs with an even number of vertices) or diﬀer by one (for graphs with

an odd number of vertices).

Given a friendly labeling of the vertices of G, one may also label the edges: a given edge uv is labeled with a 0 if

its endpoints u and v have equal labels, and it is labeled with a 1 if its endpoints have diﬀerent labels. The friendly

index of the labeling is the absolute value of the diﬀerence between the number of edges labeled 0 and the number

of edges labeled 1.

The friendly index set of G, denoted FI(G), is the set of numbers that can arise as friendly indexes of friendly

labelings of G.[1]

The Dynamic Survey of Graph Labeling contains a list of papers that examines the friendly indices of various

graphs.[2]

9.1 References

[1] Kwong, Harris; Lee, Sin-Min; Ng, Ho (2008). “On friendly index sets of 2-regular graphs”. Discr. Math. 308 (23):

5522–5532. doi:10.1016/j.disc.2007.10.018. MR 2459372.

[2] Callan, Joseph A (2009). “A dynamic survey of graph labelling”. El. J. Combinat 16 (#DS6).

9.2 External links

33

Chapter 10

Index set

Not to be confused with Indexed set.

In mathematics, an index set is a set whose members label (or index) members of another set.[1][2] For instance, if

the elements of a set A may be indexed or labeled by means of a set J, then J is an index set. The indexing consists

of a surjective function from J onto A and the indexed collection is typically called an (indexed) family, often written

as (Aj)j∈J.

10.1 Examples

• An enumeration of a set S gives an index set J ⊂ N , where f : J → S is the particular enumeration of S.

• Any countably inﬁnite set can be indexed by N .

• For r ∈ R , the indicator function on r is the function 1r : R → {0, 1} given by

{

0, if x ̸= r

1r (x) :=

1, if x = r.

The set of all the 1r functions is an uncountable set indexed by R .

**10.2 Other uses
**

In computational complexity theory and cryptography, an index set is a set for which there exists an algorithm I that

can sample the set eﬃciently; i.e., on input 1n , I can eﬃciently select a poly(n)-bit long element from the set.[3]

**10.3 See also
**

• Friendly-index set

• Indexed family

10.4 References

[1] Weisstein, Eric. “Index Set”. Wolfram MathWorld. Wolfram Research. Retrieved 30 December 2013.

[2] Munkres, James R. Topology. Vol. 2. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 2000.

[3] Goldreich, Oded (2001). Foundations of Cryptography: Volume 1, Basic Tools. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-52179172-3.

34

Chapter 11

Indexed family

In mathematics, an indexed family is a collection of values associated with indices. For example, a family of real

numbers, indexed by the integers is a collection of real numbers, where each integer is associated with one of the real

numbers.

Formally, an indexed family is the same thing as a mathematical function; a function with domain J and codomain

X is equivalent to a family of elements of X indexed by elements of J. The diﬀerence is conceptual; indexed families

are interpreted as collections instead of as functions. Every element of the image of the family’s underlying function

is an element of the family.

When a function f : J → X is treated as a family, J is called the index set of the family, the function image f(j) for j

∈ J is denoted xj, and the mapping f is denoted {xj}j∈J or simply {xj}.

Next, if the set X is the power set of a set U, then the family {xj}j∈J is called a family of sets indexed by J .

**11.1 Mathematical statement
**

Deﬁnition. Let I and X be sets. The function

x: I → X

i 7→ xi = x(i)

is called a family of elements in X indexed by I .

An indexed family can be turned into a set by considering the set X := {xi : i ∈ I} , that is, the range of x. However,

the mapping x does not need to be injective, that is, there may exist i, j ∈ I with i ̸= j but xi = xj . Thus, | X | <=

| {xi }i∈I | where |A| denotes the cardinality of the set.

Deﬁnition. Let I and S be sets. An indexed family of sets {Ci }i∈I with Ci ⊂ S is an indexed family that maps

elements of the index set I to elements of the power set of S.

Hence, an indexed family of sets is conceptually diﬀerent from a family of sets (which is just a synonym for “set of

sets”), but in practice the distinction is sometimes fuzzy and the indexed family is identiﬁed with its range and treated

like an ordinary family.

11.2 Examples

11.2.1

Index notation

Whenever index notation is used the indexed objects form a family. For example, consider the following sentence.

• The vectors v1 , …, vn are linearly independent.

35

36

CHAPTER 11. INDEXED FAMILY

**Here (vi)i ∈ {₁, …, n} denotes a family of vectors. The i-th vector vi only makes sense with respect to this family,
**

as sets are unordered and there is no i-th vector of a set. Furthermore, linear independence is only deﬁned as the

property of a collection; it therefore is important if those vectors are linearly independent as a set or as a family.

If we consider n = 2 and v1 = v2 = (1, 0), the set of them consists of only one element and is linearly independent,

but the family contains the same element twice and is linearly dependent.

11.2.2

Matrices

**Suppose a text states the following:
**

• A square matrix A is invertible, if and only if the rows of A are linearly independent.

As in the previous example it is important that the rows of A are linearly independent as a family, not as a set. For

Example, consider the matrix

[

1

A=

1

]

1

.

1

The set of rows only consists of a single element (1, 1) and is linearly independent, but the matrix is not invertible. The

family of rows contains two elements and is linearly dependent. The statement is therefore correct if it refers to the

family of rows, but wrong if it refers to the set of rows. (The statement is also correct when “the rows” is interpreted

as referring to a multiset, in which the elements are also kept distinct but which lacks some of the structure of an

indexed family.)

**11.3 Functions, sets and families
**

Surjective functions and families are formally equivalent, as any function f with domain I induces a family (f(i))i∈I.

In practice, however, a family is viewed as a collection, not as a function: being an element of a family is equivalent

with being in the range of the corresponding function. A family contains any element exactly once, if and only if the

corresponding function is injective.

Like a set, a family is a container and any set X gives rise to a family (xx)x∈X. Thus any set naturally becomes a

family. For any family (Ai)i∈I there is the set of all elements {Ai | i∈I}, but this does not carry any information on

multiple containment or the structure given by I. Hence, by using a set instead of the family, some information might

be lost.

11.4 Examples

Let n be the ﬁnite set {1, 2, …, n}, where n is a positive integer.

• An ordered pair is a family indexed by the two element set 2 = {1, 2}.

• An n-tuple is a family indexed by n.

• An inﬁnite sequence is a family indexed by the natural numbers.

• A list is an n-tuple for an unspeciﬁed n, or an inﬁnite sequence.

• An n×m matrix is a family indexed by the cartesian product n×m.

• A net is a family indexed by a directed set.

11.5. OPERATIONS ON FAMILIES

37

**11.5 Operations on families
**

Index sets are often used in sums and other similar operations. For example, if (ai)i∈I is a family of numbers, the

sum of all those numbers is denoted by

∑

ai .

i∈I

**When (Ai)i∈I is a family of sets, the union of all those sets is denoted by
**

∪

Ai .

i∈I

Likewise for intersections and cartesian products.

11.6 Subfamily

A family (Bi)i∈J is a subfamily of a family (Ai)i∈I, if and only if J is a subset of I and for all i in J

Bi = Ai

**11.7 Usage in category theory
**

Main article: Diagram (category theory)

The analogous concept in category theory is called a diagram. A diagram is a functor giving rise to an indexed family

of objects in a category C, indexed by another category J, and related by morphisms depending on two indices.

**11.8 See also
**

• Coproduct

• Disjoint union

• Tagged union

• Index notation

• Array data type

• Net (mathematics)

• Diagram (category theory)

• Parametric family

11.9 References

• Mathematical Society of Japan, Encyclopedic Dictionary of Mathematics, 2nd edition, 2 vols., Kiyosi Itô (ed.),

MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1993. Cited as EDM (volume).

Chapter 12

Indicator function

The graph of the indicator function of a two-dimensional subset of a square.

**In mathematics, an indicator function or a characteristic function is a function deﬁned on a set X that indicates
**

membership of an element in a subset A of X, having the value 1 for all elements of A and the value 0 for all elements

of X not in A. It is usually denoted by a bold or blackboard bold 1 symbol with a subscript describing the event of

inclusion.

12.1 Deﬁnition

The indicator function of a subset A of a set X is a function

1A : X → {0, 1}

deﬁned as

38

12.2. REMARK ON NOTATION AND TERMINOLOGY

{

1A (x) :=

1

0

39

ifx ∈ A,

ifx ∈

/ A.

**The Iverson bracket allows the equivalent notation, [x ∈ A] , to be used instead of 1A (x) .
**

The function 1A is sometimes denoted IA , χA or even just A . (The Greek letter χ appears because it is the initial

letter of the Greek word characteristic.)

**12.2 Remark on notation and terminology
**

• The notation 1A is also used to denote the identity function of A.

• The notation χA is also used to denote the characteristic function in convex analysis.

A related concept in statistics is that of a dummy variable. (This must not be confused with “dummy variables” as

that term is usually used in mathematics, also called a bound variable.)

The term "characteristic function" has an unrelated meaning in probability theory. For this reason, probabilists use

the term indicator function for the function deﬁned here almost exclusively, while mathematicians in other ﬁelds are

more likely to use the term characteristic function to describe the function that indicates membership in a set.

**12.3 Basic properties
**

The indicator or characteristic function of a subset A of some set X, maps elements of X to the range {0,1}.

This mapping is surjective only when A is a non-empty proper subset of X. If A ≡ X, then 1A = 1. By a similar

argument, if A ≡ Ø then 1A = 0.

In the following, the dot represents multiplication, 1·1 = 1, 1·0 = 0 etc. "+" and "−" represent addition and subtraction.

" ∩ " and " ∪ " is intersection and union, respectively.

If A and B are two subsets of X , then

1A∩B = min{1A , 1B } = 1A · 1B ,

1A∪B = max{1A , 1B } = 1A + 1B − 1A · 1B ,

and the indicator function of the complement of A i.e. AC is:

1A∁ = 1 − 1A

More generally, suppose A1 , . . . , An is a collection of subsets of X. For any x ∈ X:

∏

(1 − 1Ak (x))

k∈I

is clearly a product of 0s and 1s. This product has the value 1 at precisely those x ∈ X that belong to none of the sets

Ak and is 0 otherwise. That is

∏

(1 − 1Ak ) = 1X−∪k Ak = 1 − 1∪k Ak .

k∈I

Expanding the product on the left hand side,

40

CHAPTER 12. INDICATOR FUNCTION

1∪k Ak = 1 −

∑

(−1)|F | 1∩F Ak =

∑

(−1)|F |+1 1∩F Ak

∅̸=F ⊆{1,2,...,n}

F ⊆{1,2,...,n}

**where |F| is the cardinality of F. This is one form of the principle of inclusion-exclusion.
**

As suggested by the previous example, the indicator function is a useful notational device in combinatorics. The

notation is used in other places as well, for instance in probability theory: if X is a probability space with probability

measure P and A is a measurable set, then 1A becomes a random variable whose expected value is equal to the

probability of A :

∫

∫

E(1A ) =

1A (x) dP =

X

dP = P(A)

A

**This identity is used in a simple proof of Markov’s inequality.
**

In many cases, such as order theory, the inverse of the indicator function may be deﬁned. This is commonly called

the generalized Möbius function, as a generalization of the inverse of the indicator function in elementary number

theory, the Möbius function. (See paragraph below about the use of the inverse in classical recursion theory.)

**12.4 Mean, variance and covariance
**

Given a probability space (Ω, F, P) with A ∈ F , the indicator random variable 1A : Ω → R is deﬁned by 1A (ω) = 1

if ω ∈ A, otherwise 1A (ω) = 0.

Mean E(1A (ω)) = P(A)

Variance Var(1A (ω)) = P(A)(1 − P(A))

Covariance Cov(1A (ω), 1B (ω)) = P(A ∩ B) − P(A) P(B)

**12.5 Characteristic function in recursion theory, Gödel’s and Kleene’s representing function
**

Kurt Gödel described the representing function in his 1934 paper “On Undecidable Propositions of Formal Mathematical Systems”. (The paper appears on pp. 41–74 in Martin Davis ed. The Undecidable):

“There shall correspond to each class or relation R a representing function φ(x1 , . . ., x ) = 0 if R(x1 , .

. ., x ) and φ(x1 , . . ., x ) = 1 if ~R(x1 , . . ., x ).” (p. 42; the "~" indicates logical inversion i.e. “NOT”)

Stephen Kleene (1952) (p. 227) oﬀers up the same deﬁnition in the context of the primitive recursive functions as a

function φ of a predicate P takes on values 0 if the predicate is true and 1 if the predicate is false.

For example, because the product of characteristic functions φ1 *φ2 * . . . *φ = 0 whenever any one of the functions

equals 0, it plays the role of logical OR: IF φ1 = 0 OR φ2 = 0 OR . . . OR φ = 0 THEN their product is 0. What

appears to the modern reader as the representing function’s logical inversion, i.e. the representing function is 0 when

the function R is “true” or satisﬁed”, plays a useful role in Kleene’s deﬁnition of the logical functions OR, AND, and

IMPLY (p. 228), the bounded- (p. 228) and unbounded- (p. 279ﬀ) mu operators (Kleene (1952)) and the CASE

function (p. 229).

**12.6 Characteristic function in fuzzy set theory
**

In classical mathematics, characteristic functions of sets only take values 1 (members) or 0 (non-members). In fuzzy

set theory, characteristic functions are generalized to take value in the real unit interval [0, 1], or more generally, in

12.7. DERIVATIVES OF THE INDICATOR FUNCTION

41

**some algebra or structure (usually required to be at least a poset or lattice). Such generalized characteristic functions
**

are more usually called membership functions, and the corresponding “sets” are called fuzzy sets. Fuzzy sets model

the gradual change in the membership degree seen in many real-world predicates like “tall”, “warm”, etc.

**12.7 Derivatives of the indicator function
**

A particular indicator function, which is very well known, is the Heaviside step function. The Heaviside step function

is the indicator function of the one-dimensional positive half-line, i.e. the domain [0, ∞). It is well known that the

distributional derivative of the Heaviside step function, indicated by H(x), is equal to the Dirac delta function, i.e.

δ(x) =

dH(x)

dx ,

**with the following property:
**

∫

∞

f (x) δ(x)dx = f (0).

−∞

The derivative of the Heaviside step function can be seen as the 'inward normal derivative' at the 'boundary' of the

domain given by the positive half-line. In higher dimensions, the derivative naturally generalises to the inward normal

derivative, while the Heaviside step function naturally generalises to the indicator function of some domain D. The

surface of D will be denoted by S. Proceeding, it can be derived that the inward normal derivative of the indicator

gives rise to a 'surface delta function', which can be indicated by δS(x):

**δS (x) = −nx · ∇x 1x∈D
**

where n is the outward normal of the surface S. This 'surface delta function' has the following property:[1]

∫

−

I

f (x) nx · ∇x 1x∈D dn x =

Rn

f (β) dn−1 β.

S

By setting the function f equal to one, it follows that the inward normal derivative of the indicator integrates to the

numerical value of the surface area S.

**12.8 See also
**

• Dirac measure

• Laplacian of the indicator

• Dirac delta

• Extension (predicate logic)

• Free variables and bound variables

• Heaviside step function

• Iverson bracket

• Kronecker delta, a function that can be viewed as an indicator for the identity relation

• Macaulay brackets

• Multiset

• Membership function

42

**CHAPTER 12. INDICATOR FUNCTION
**

• Simple function

• Dummy variable (statistics)

• Statistical classiﬁcation

• Zero-one loss function

12.9 Notes

[1] Lange, Rutger-Jan (2012), “Potential theory, path integrals and the Laplacian of the indicator”, Journal of High Energy

Physics (Springer) 2012 (11): 29–30, arXiv:1302.0864, Bibcode:2012JHEP...11..032L, doi:10.1007/JHEP11(2012)032

12.10 References

• Folland, G.B. (1999). Real Analysis: Modern Techniques and Their Applications (Second ed.). John Wiley &

Sons, Inc.

• Cormen, Thomas H.; Leiserson, Charles E.; Rivest, Ronald L.; Stein, Cliﬀord (2001). “Section 5.2: Indicator

random variables”. Introduction to Algorithms (Second Edition ed.). MIT Press and McGraw-Hill. pp. 94–99.

ISBN 0-262-03293-7.

• Davis, Martin, ed. (1965). The Undecidable. New York: Raven Press Books, Ltd.

• Kleene, Stephen (1971) [1952]. Introduction to Metamathematics (Sixth Reprint with corrections). Netherlands: Wolters-Noordhoﬀ Publishing and North Holland Publishing Company.

• Boolos, George; Burgess, John P.; Jeﬀrey, Richard C. (2002). Computability and Logic. Cambridge UK:

Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-00758-5.

• Zadeh, Lotﬁ A. (June 1965). “Fuzzy sets” (PDF). Information and Control 8 (3): 338–353. doi:10.1016/S00199958(65)90241-X.

• Goguen, Joseph (1967). "L-fuzzy sets”. Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications 18 (1): 145–174.

doi:10.1016/0022-247X(67)90189-8.

Chapter 13

Mathematics

This article is about the study of topics such as quantity and structure. For other uses, see Mathematics (disambiguation).

“Math” redirects here. For other uses, see Math (disambiguation).

Euclid (holding calipers), Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, as imagined by Raphael in this detail from The School of Athens.[1]

**Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, “knowledge, study, learning”) is the study of topics such as quantity
**

(numbers),[2] structure,[3] space,[2] and change.[4][5][6] There is a range of views among mathematicians and philosophers as to the exact scope and deﬁnition of mathematics.[7][8]

Mathematicians seek out patterns[9][10] and use them to formulate new conjectures. Mathematicians resolve the truth

43

44

CHAPTER 13. MATHEMATICS

**or falsity of conjectures by mathematical proof. When mathematical structures are good models of real phenomena,
**

then mathematical reasoning can provide insight or predictions about nature. Through the use of abstraction and

logic, mathematics developed from counting, calculation, measurement, and the systematic study of the shapes and

motions of physical objects. Practical mathematics has been a human activity for as far back as written records exist.

The research required to solve mathematical problems can take years or even centuries of sustained inquiry.

Rigorous arguments ﬁrst appeared in Greek mathematics, most notably in Euclid's Elements. Since the pioneering

work of Giuseppe Peano (1858–1932), David Hilbert (1862–1943), and others on axiomatic systems in the late 19th

century, it has become customary to view mathematical research as establishing truth by rigorous deduction from

appropriately chosen axioms and deﬁnitions. Mathematics developed at a relatively slow pace until the Renaissance,

when mathematical innovations interacting with new scientiﬁc discoveries led to a rapid increase in the rate of mathematical discovery that has continued to the present day.[11]

Galileo Galilei (1564–1642) said, “The universe cannot be read until we have learned the language and become

familiar with the characters in which it is written. It is written in mathematical language, and the letters are triangles, circles and other geometrical ﬁgures, without which means it is humanly impossible to comprehend a single

word. Without these, one is wandering about in a dark labyrinth.”[12] Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777–1855) referred to

mathematics as “the Queen of the Sciences”.[13] Benjamin Peirce (1809–1880) called mathematics “the science that

draws necessary conclusions”.[14] David Hilbert said of mathematics: “We are not speaking here of arbitrariness in

any sense. Mathematics is not like a game whose tasks are determined by arbitrarily stipulated rules. Rather, it is a

conceptual system possessing internal necessity that can only be so and by no means otherwise.”[15] Albert Einstein

(1879–1955) stated that “as far as the laws of mathematics refer to reality, they are not certain; and as far as they

are certain, they do not refer to reality.”[16] French mathematician Claire Voisin states “There is creative drive in

mathematics, it’s all about movement trying to express itself.” [17]

Mathematics is used throughout the world as an essential tool in many ﬁelds, including natural science, engineering,

medicine, ﬁnance and the social sciences. Applied mathematics, the branch of mathematics concerned with application of mathematical knowledge to other ﬁelds, inspires and makes use of new mathematical discoveries, which has

led to the development of entirely new mathematical disciplines, such as statistics and game theory. Mathematicians

also engage in pure mathematics, or mathematics for its own sake, without having any application in mind. There is

no clear line separating pure and applied mathematics, and practical applications for what began as pure mathematics

are often discovered.[18]

13.1 History

13.1.1

Evolution

**Main article: History of mathematics
**

The evolution of mathematics can be seen as an ever-increasing series of abstractions. The ﬁrst abstraction, which

is shared by many animals,[19] was probably that of numbers: the realization that a collection of two apples and a

collection of two oranges (for example) have something in common, namely quantity of their members.

As evidenced by tallies found on bone, in addition to recognizing how to count physical objects, prehistoric peoples

may have also recognized how to count abstract quantities, like time – days, seasons, years.[20]

More complex mathematics did not appear until around 3000 BC, when the Babylonians and Egyptians began using

arithmetic, algebra and geometry for taxation and other ﬁnancial calculations, for building and construction, and for

astronomy.[21] The earliest uses of mathematics were in trading, land measurement, painting and weaving patterns

and the recording of time.

In Babylonian mathematics elementary arithmetic (addition, subtraction, multiplication and division) ﬁrst appears in

the archaeological record. Numeracy pre-dated writing and numeral systems have been many and diverse, with the

ﬁrst known written numerals created by Egyptians in Middle Kingdom texts such as the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus.

Between 600 and 300 BC the Ancient Greeks began a systematic study of mathematics in its own right with Greek

mathematics.[22]

Mathematics has since been greatly extended, and there has been a fruitful interaction between mathematics and

science, to the beneﬁt of both. Mathematical discoveries continue to be made today. According to Mikhail B.

Sevryuk, in the January 2006 issue of the Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society, “The number of papers and

13.1. HISTORY

45

Greek mathematician Pythagoras (c. 570 – c. 495 BC), commonly credited with discovering the Pythagorean theorem

books included in the Mathematical Reviews database since 1940 (the ﬁrst year of operation of MR) is now more

than 1.9 million, and more than 75 thousand items are added to the database each year. The overwhelming majority

of works in this ocean contain new mathematical theorems and their proofs.”[23]

46

CHAPTER 13. MATHEMATICS

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11 12 13 14

15 16 17 18 19

Mayan numerals

13.1.2

Etymology

The word mathematics comes from the Greek μάθημα (máthēma), which, in the ancient Greek language, means “that

which is learnt”,[24] “what one gets to know”, hence also “study” and “science”, and in modern Greek just “lesson”. The

word máthēma is derived from μανθάνω (manthano), while the modern Greek equivalent is μαθαίνω (mathaino),

both of which mean “to learn”. In Greece, the word for “mathematics” came to have the narrower and more technical

meaning “mathematical study” even in Classical times.[25] Its adjective is μαθηματικός (mathēmatikós), meaning

“related to learning” or “studious”, which likewise further came to mean “mathematical”. In particular, μαθηματικὴ

τέχνη (mathēmatikḗ tékhnē), Latin: ars mathematica, meant “the mathematical art”.

In Latin, and in English until around 1700, the term mathematics more commonly meant “astrology” (or sometimes

“astronomy”) rather than “mathematics"; the meaning gradually changed to its present one from about 1500 to 1800.

This has resulted in several mistranslations: a particularly notorious one is Saint Augustine's warning that Christians should beware of mathematici meaning astrologers, which is sometimes mistranslated as a condemnation of

13.2. DEFINITIONS OF MATHEMATICS

47

mathematicians.[26]

The apparent plural form in English, like the French plural form les mathématiques (and the less commonly used

singular derivative la mathématique), goes back to the Latin neuter plural mathematica (Cicero), based on the Greek

plural τα μαθηματικά (ta mathēmatiká), used by Aristotle (384–322 BC), and meaning roughly “all things mathematical"; although it is plausible that English borrowed only the adjective mathematic(al) and formed the noun

mathematics anew, after the pattern of physics and metaphysics, which were inherited from the Greek.[27] In English,

the noun mathematics takes singular verb forms. It is often shortened to maths or, in English-speaking North America,

math.[28]

**13.2 Deﬁnitions of mathematics
**

Main article: Deﬁnitions of mathematics

Aristotle deﬁned mathematics as “the science of quantity”, and this deﬁnition prevailed until the 18th century.[29]

Starting in the 19th century, when the study of mathematics increased in rigor and began to address abstract topics

such as group theory and projective geometry, which have no clear-cut relation to quantity and measurement, mathematicians and philosophers began to propose a variety of new deﬁnitions.[30] Some of these deﬁnitions emphasize the

deductive character of much of mathematics, some emphasize its abstractness, some emphasize certain topics within

mathematics. Today, no consensus on the deﬁnition of mathematics prevails, even among professionals.[7] There

is not even consensus on whether mathematics is an art or a science.[8] A great many professional mathematicians

take no interest in a deﬁnition of mathematics, or consider it undeﬁnable.[7] Some just say, “Mathematics is what

mathematicians do.”[7]

Three leading types of deﬁnition of mathematics are called logicist, intuitionist, and formalist, each reﬂecting a

diﬀerent philosophical school of thought.[31] All have severe problems, none has widespread acceptance, and no

reconciliation seems possible.[31]

An early deﬁnition of mathematics in terms of logic was Benjamin Peirce's “the science that draws necessary conclusions” (1870).[32] In the Principia Mathematica, Bertrand Russell and Alfred North Whitehead advanced the philosophical program known as logicism, and attempted to prove that all mathematical concepts, statements, and principles can be deﬁned and proven entirely in terms of symbolic logic. A logicist deﬁnition of mathematics is Russell’s

“All Mathematics is Symbolic Logic” (1903).[33]

Intuitionist deﬁnitions, developing from the philosophy of mathematician L.E.J. Brouwer, identify mathematics with

certain mental phenomena. An example of an intuitionist deﬁnition is “Mathematics is the mental activity which

consists in carrying out constructs one after the other.”[31] A peculiarity of intuitionism is that it rejects some mathematical ideas considered valid according to other deﬁnitions. In particular, while other philosophies of mathematics

allow objects that can be proven to exist even though they cannot be constructed, intuitionism allows only mathematical objects that one can actually construct.

Formalist deﬁnitions identify mathematics with its symbols and the rules for operating on them. Haskell Curry deﬁned

mathematics simply as “the science of formal systems”.[34] A formal system is a set of symbols, or tokens, and some

rules telling how the tokens may be combined into formulas. In formal systems, the word axiom has a special meaning,

diﬀerent from the ordinary meaning of “a self-evident truth”. In formal systems, an axiom is a combination of tokens

that is included in a given formal system without needing to be derived using the rules of the system.

13.2.1

Mathematics as science

**Gauss referred to mathematics as “the Queen of the Sciences”.[13] In the original Latin Regina Scientiarum, as well
**

as in German Königin der Wissenschaften, the word corresponding to science means a “ﬁeld of knowledge”, and

this was the original meaning of “science” in English, also; mathematics is in this sense a ﬁeld of knowledge. The

specialization restricting the meaning of “science” to natural science follows the rise of Baconian science, which

contrasted “natural science” to scholasticism, the Aristotelean method of inquiring from ﬁrst principles. The role

of empirical experimentation and observation is negligible in mathematics, compared to natural sciences such as

psychology, biology, or physics. Albert Einstein stated that “as far as the laws of mathematics refer to reality, they

are not certain; and as far as they are certain, they do not refer to reality.”[16] More recently, Marcus du Sautoy has

called mathematics “the Queen of Science ... the main driving force behind scientiﬁc discovery”.[35]

Many philosophers believe that mathematics is not experimentally falsiﬁable, and thus not a science according to the

48

CHAPTER 13. MATHEMATICS

Leonardo Fibonacci, the Italian mathematician who established the Hindu–Arabic numeral system to the Western World

deﬁnition of Karl Popper.[36] However, in the 1930s Gödel’s incompleteness theorems convinced many mathematicians that mathematics cannot be reduced to logic alone, and Karl Popper concluded that “most mathematical theories

are, like those of physics and biology, hypothetico-deductive: pure mathematics therefore turns out to be much closer

to the natural sciences whose hypotheses are conjectures, than it seemed even recently.”[37] Other thinkers, notably

Imre Lakatos, have applied a version of falsiﬁcationism to mathematics itself.

An alternative view is that certain scientiﬁc ﬁelds (such as theoretical physics) are mathematics with axioms that are

13.2. DEFINITIONS OF MATHEMATICS

49

Carl Friedrich Gauss, known as the prince of mathematicians

**intended to correspond to reality. The theoretical physicist J.M. Ziman proposed that science is public knowledge,
**

and thus includes mathematics.[38] Mathematics shares much in common with many ﬁelds in the physical sciences,

notably the exploration of the logical consequences of assumptions. Intuition and experimentation also play a role in

the formulation of conjectures in both mathematics and the (other) sciences. Experimental mathematics continues to

grow in importance within mathematics, and computation and simulation are playing an increasing role in both the

sciences and mathematics.

The opinions of mathematicians on this matter are varied. Many mathematicians feel that to call their area a science

is to downplay the importance of its aesthetic side, and its history in the traditional seven liberal arts; others feel that

50

CHAPTER 13. MATHEMATICS

to ignore its connection to the sciences is to turn a blind eye to the fact that the interface between mathematics and

its applications in science and engineering has driven much development in mathematics. One way this diﬀerence of

viewpoint plays out is in the philosophical debate as to whether mathematics is created (as in art) or discovered (as

in science). It is common to see universities divided into sections that include a division of Science and Mathematics,

indicating that the ﬁelds are seen as being allied but that they do not coincide. In practice, mathematicians are typically

grouped with scientists at the gross level but separated at ﬁner levels. This is one of many issues considered in the

philosophy of mathematics.

**13.3 Inspiration, pure and applied mathematics, and aesthetics
**

Main article: Mathematical beauty

**Isaac Newton (left) and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (right), developers of inﬁnitesimal calculus
**

Mathematics arises from many diﬀerent kinds of problems. At ﬁrst these were found in commerce, land measurement,

architecture and later astronomy; today, all sciences suggest problems studied by mathematicians, and many problems

arise within mathematics itself. For example, the physicist Richard Feynman invented the path integral formulation

of quantum mechanics using a combination of mathematical reasoning and physical insight, and today’s string theory,

a still-developing scientiﬁc theory which attempts to unify the four fundamental forces of nature, continues to inspire

new mathematics.[39]

Some mathematics is relevant only in the area that inspired it, and is applied to solve further problems in that area.

But often mathematics inspired by one area proves useful in many areas, and joins the general stock of mathematical

concepts. A distinction is often made between pure mathematics and applied mathematics. However pure mathematics topics often turn out to have applications, e.g. number theory in cryptography. This remarkable fact, that even the

“purest” mathematics often turns out to have practical applications, is what Eugene Wigner has called "the unreason-

13.4. NOTATION, LANGUAGE, AND RIGOR

51

**able eﬀectiveness of mathematics".[40] As in most areas of study, the explosion of knowledge in the scientiﬁc age has
**

led to specialization: there are now hundreds of specialized areas in mathematics and the latest Mathematics Subject

Classiﬁcation runs to 46 pages.[41] Several areas of applied mathematics have merged with related traditions outside

of mathematics and become disciplines in their own right, including statistics, operations research, and computer

science.

For those who are mathematically inclined, there is often a deﬁnite aesthetic aspect to much of mathematics. Many

mathematicians talk about the elegance of mathematics, its intrinsic aesthetics and inner beauty. Simplicity and

generality are valued. There is beauty in a simple and elegant proof, such as Euclid's proof that there are inﬁnitely

many prime numbers, and in an elegant numerical method that speeds calculation, such as the fast Fourier transform.

G.H. Hardy in A Mathematician’s Apology expressed the belief that these aesthetic considerations are, in themselves,

suﬃcient to justify the study of pure mathematics. He identiﬁed criteria such as signiﬁcance, unexpectedness, inevitability, and economy as factors that contribute to a mathematical aesthetic.[42] Mathematicians often strive to ﬁnd

proofs that are particularly elegant, proofs from “The Book” of God according to Paul Erdős.[43][44] The popularity

of recreational mathematics is another sign of the pleasure many ﬁnd in solving mathematical questions.

**13.4 Notation, language, and rigor
**

Main article: Mathematical notation

Most of the mathematical notation in use today was not invented until the 16th century.[45] Before that, mathematics was written out in words, a painstaking process that limited mathematical discovery.[46] Euler (1707–1783)

was responsible for many of the notations in use today. Modern notation makes mathematics much easier for the

professional, but beginners often ﬁnd it daunting. It is extremely compressed: a few symbols contain a great deal

of information. Like musical notation, modern mathematical notation has a strict syntax (which to a limited extent

varies from author to author and from discipline to discipline) and encodes information that would be diﬃcult to

write in any other way.

Mathematical language can be diﬃcult to understand for beginners. Words such as or and only have more precise

meanings than in everyday speech. Moreover, words such as open and ﬁeld have been given specialized mathematical

meanings. Technical terms such as homeomorphism and integrable have precise meanings in mathematics. Additionally, shorthand phrases such as iﬀ for "if and only if" belong to mathematical jargon. There is a reason for special

notation and technical vocabulary: mathematics requires more precision than everyday speech. Mathematicians refer

to this precision of language and logic as “rigor”.

Mathematical proof is fundamentally a matter of rigor. Mathematicians want their theorems to follow from axioms

by means of systematic reasoning. This is to avoid mistaken "theorems", based on fallible intuitions, of which many

instances have occurred in the history of the subject.[47] The level of rigor expected in mathematics has varied over

time: the Greeks expected detailed arguments, but at the time of Isaac Newton the methods employed were less

rigorous. Problems inherent in the deﬁnitions used by Newton would lead to a resurgence of careful analysis and

formal proof in the 19th century. Misunderstanding the rigor is a cause for some of the common misconceptions

of mathematics. Today, mathematicians continue to argue among themselves about computer-assisted proofs. Since

large computations are hard to verify, such proofs may not be suﬃciently rigorous.[48]

Axioms in traditional thought were “self-evident truths”, but that conception is problematic.[49] At a formal level,

an axiom is just a string of symbols, which has an intrinsic meaning only in the context of all derivable formulas

of an axiomatic system. It was the goal of Hilbert’s program to put all of mathematics on a ﬁrm axiomatic basis,

but according to Gödel’s incompleteness theorem every (suﬃciently powerful) axiomatic system has undecidable

formulas; and so a ﬁnal axiomatization of mathematics is impossible. Nonetheless mathematics is often imagined to

be (as far as its formal content) nothing but set theory in some axiomatization, in the sense that every mathematical

statement or proof could be cast into formulas within set theory.[50]

**13.5 Fields of mathematics
**

See also: Areas of mathematics and Glossary of areas of mathematics

Mathematics can, broadly speaking, be subdivided into the study of quantity, structure, space, and change (i.e.

arithmetic, algebra, geometry, and analysis). In addition to these main concerns, there are also subdivisions dedicated

to exploring links from the heart of mathematics to other ﬁelds: to logic, to set theory (foundations), to the empirical

mathematics of the various sciences (applied mathematics), and more recently to the rigorous study of uncertainty.

52

CHAPTER 13. MATHEMATICS

Leonhard Euler, who created and popularized much of the mathematical notation used today

13.5.1

Foundations and philosophy

In order to clarify the foundations of mathematics, the ﬁelds of mathematical logic and set theory were developed.

Mathematical logic includes the mathematical study of logic and the applications of formal logic to other areas of

mathematics; set theory is the branch of mathematics that studies sets or collections of objects. Category theory,

which deals in an abstract way with mathematical structures and relationships between them, is still in development.

The phrase “crisis of foundations” describes the search for a rigorous foundation for mathematics that took place from

approximately 1900 to 1930.[51] Some disagreement about the foundations of mathematics continues to the present

day. The crisis of foundations was stimulated by a number of controversies at the time, including the controversy

over Cantor’s set theory and the Brouwer–Hilbert controversy.

13.5. FIELDS OF MATHEMATICS

53

An abacus, a simple calculating tool used since ancient times

**Mathematical logic is concerned with setting mathematics within a rigorous axiomatic framework, and studying the
**

implications of such a framework. As such, it is home to Gödel’s incompleteness theorems which (informally) imply

that any eﬀective formal system that contains basic arithmetic, if sound (meaning that all theorems that can be proven

are true), is necessarily incomplete (meaning that there are true theorems which cannot be proved in that system).

Whatever ﬁnite collection of number-theoretical axioms is taken as a foundation, Gödel showed how to construct a

formal statement that is a true number-theoretical fact, but which does not follow from those axioms. Therefore, no

formal system is a complete axiomatization of full number theory. Modern logic is divided into recursion theory,

model theory, and proof theory, and is closely linked to theoretical computer science, as well as to category theory.

Theoretical computer science includes computability theory, computational complexity theory, and information theory. Computability theory examines the limitations of various theoretical models of the computer, including the most

well-known model – the Turing machine. Complexity theory is the study of tractability by computer; some problems,

although theoretically solvable by computer, are so expensive in terms of time or space that solving them is likely to

remain practically unfeasible, even with the rapid advancement of computer hardware. A famous problem is the "P =

NP?" problem, one of the Millennium Prize Problems.[52] Finally, information theory is concerned with the amount

of data that can be stored on a given medium, and hence deals with concepts such as compression and entropy.

13.5.2

Pure mathematics

Quantity

The study of quantity starts with numbers, ﬁrst the familiar natural numbers and integers (“whole numbers”) and

arithmetical operations on them, which are characterized in arithmetic. The deeper properties of integers are studied

in number theory, from which come such popular results as Fermat’s Last Theorem. The twin prime conjecture and

Goldbach’s conjecture are two unsolved problems in number theory.

As the number system is further developed, the integers are recognized as a subset of the rational numbers ("fractions").

These, in turn, are contained within the real numbers, which are used to represent continuous quantities. Real numbers are generalized to complex numbers. These are the ﬁrst steps of a hierarchy of numbers that goes on to include

quaternions and octonions. Consideration of the natural numbers also leads to the transﬁnite numbers, which formalize the concept of "inﬁnity". Another area of study is size, which leads to the cardinal numbers and then to another

conception of inﬁnity: the aleph numbers, which allow meaningful comparison of the size of inﬁnitely large sets.

54

CHAPTER 13. MATHEMATICS

Structure

Many mathematical objects, such as sets of numbers and functions, exhibit internal structure as a consequence of

operations or relations that are deﬁned on the set. Mathematics then studies properties of those sets that can be

expressed in terms of that structure; for instance number theory studies properties of the set of integers that can be

expressed in terms of arithmetic operations. Moreover, it frequently happens that diﬀerent such structured sets (or

structures) exhibit similar properties, which makes it possible, by a further step of abstraction, to state axioms for a

class of structures, and then study at once the whole class of structures satisfying these axioms. Thus one can study

groups, rings, ﬁelds and other abstract systems; together such studies (for structures deﬁned by algebraic operations)

constitute the domain of abstract algebra.

By its great generality, abstract algebra can often be applied to seemingly unrelated problems; for instance a number of ancient problems concerning compass and straightedge constructions were ﬁnally solved using Galois theory,

which involves ﬁeld theory and group theory. Another example of an algebraic theory is linear algebra, which is

the general study of vector spaces, whose elements called vectors have both quantity and direction, and can be used

to model (relations between) points in space. This is one example of the phenomenon that the originally unrelated

areas of geometry and algebra have very strong interactions in modern mathematics. Combinatorics studies ways of

enumerating the number of objects that ﬁt a given structure.

Space

The study of space originates with geometry – in particular, Euclidean geometry. Trigonometry is the branch of

mathematics that deals with relationships between the sides and the angles of triangles and with the trigonometric

functions; it combines space and numbers, and encompasses the well-known Pythagorean theorem. The modern

study of space generalizes these ideas to include higher-dimensional geometry, non-Euclidean geometries (which

play a central role in general relativity) and topology. Quantity and space both play a role in analytic geometry,

diﬀerential geometry, and algebraic geometry. Convex and discrete geometry were developed to solve problems in

number theory and functional analysis but now are pursued with an eye on applications in optimization and computer

science. Within diﬀerential geometry are the concepts of ﬁber bundles and calculus on manifolds, in particular,

vector and tensor calculus. Within algebraic geometry is the description of geometric objects as solution sets of

polynomial equations, combining the concepts of quantity and space, and also the study of topological groups, which

combine structure and space. Lie groups are used to study space, structure, and change. Topology in all its many

ramiﬁcations may have been the greatest growth area in 20th-century mathematics; it includes point-set topology,

set-theoretic topology, algebraic topology and diﬀerential topology. In particular, instances of modern day topology

are metrizability theory, axiomatic set theory, homotopy theory, and Morse theory. Topology also includes the now

solved Poincaré conjecture, and the still unsolved areas of the Hodge conjecture. Other results in geometry and

topology, including the four color theorem and Kepler conjecture, have been proved only with the help of computers.

Change

Understanding and describing change is a common theme in the natural sciences, and calculus was developed as a

powerful tool to investigate it. Functions arise here, as a central concept describing a changing quantity. The rigorous

study of real numbers and functions of a real variable is known as real analysis, with complex analysis the equivalent

ﬁeld for the complex numbers. Functional analysis focuses attention on (typically inﬁnite-dimensional) spaces of

functions. One of many applications of functional analysis is quantum mechanics. Many problems lead naturally

to relationships between a quantity and its rate of change, and these are studied as diﬀerential equations. Many

phenomena in nature can be described by dynamical systems; chaos theory makes precise the ways in which many of

these systems exhibit unpredictable yet still deterministic behavior.

13.6. MATHEMATICAL AWARDS

13.5.3

55

Applied mathematics

Applied mathematics concerns itself with mathematical methods that are typically used in science, engineering, business, and industry. Thus, “applied mathematics” is a mathematical science with specialized knowledge. The term

applied mathematics also describes the professional specialty in which mathematicians work on practical problems;

as a profession focused on practical problems, applied mathematics focuses on the “formulation, study, and use of

mathematical models” in science, engineering, and other areas of mathematical practice.

In the past, practical applications have motivated the development of mathematical theories, which then became the

subject of study in pure mathematics, where mathematics is developed primarily for its own sake. Thus, the activity

of applied mathematics is vitally connected with research in pure mathematics.

**Statistics and other decision sciences
**

Applied mathematics has signiﬁcant overlap with the discipline of statistics, whose theory is formulated mathematically, especially with probability theory. Statisticians (working as part of a research project) “create data that makes

sense” with random sampling and with randomized experiments;[53] the design of a statistical sample or experiment

speciﬁes the analysis of the data (before the data be available). When reconsidering data from experiments and

samples or when analyzing data from observational studies, statisticians “make sense of the data” using the art of

modelling and the theory of inference – with model selection and estimation; the estimated models and consequential

predictions should be tested on new data.[54]

Statistical theory studies decision problems such as minimizing the risk (expected loss) of a statistical action, such as

using a procedure in, for example, parameter estimation, hypothesis testing, and selecting the best. In these traditional

areas of mathematical statistics, a statistical-decision problem is formulated by minimizing an objective function, like

expected loss or cost, under speciﬁc constraints: For example, designing a survey often involves minimizing the

cost of estimating a population mean with a given level of conﬁdence.[55] Because of its use of optimization, the

mathematical theory of statistics shares concerns with other decision sciences, such as operations research, control

theory, and mathematical economics.[56]

Computational mathematics

Computational mathematics proposes and studies methods for solving mathematical problems that are typically too

large for human numerical capacity. Numerical analysis studies methods for problems in analysis using functional

analysis and approximation theory; numerical analysis includes the study of approximation and discretization broadly

with special concern for rounding errors. Numerical analysis and, more broadly, scientiﬁc computing also study nonanalytic topics of mathematical science, especially algorithmic matrix and graph theory. Other areas of computational

mathematics include computer algebra and symbolic computation.

**13.6 Mathematical awards
**

Arguably the most prestigious award in mathematics is the Fields Medal,[57][58] established in 1936 and now awarded

every four years. The Fields Medal is often considered a mathematical equivalent to the Nobel Prize.

The Wolf Prize in Mathematics, instituted in 1978, recognizes lifetime achievement, and another major international

award, the Abel Prize, was introduced in 2003. The Chern Medal was introduced in 2010 to recognize lifetime

achievement. These accolades are awarded in recognition of a particular body of work, which may be innovational,

or provide a solution to an outstanding problem in an established ﬁeld.

A famous list of 23 open problems, called "Hilbert’s problems", was compiled in 1900 by German mathematician

David Hilbert. This list achieved great celebrity among mathematicians, and at least nine of the problems have now

been solved. A new list of seven important problems, titled the "Millennium Prize Problems", was published in 2000.

A solution to each of these problems carries a $1 million reward, and only one (the Riemann hypothesis) is duplicated

in Hilbert’s problems.

56

CHAPTER 13. MATHEMATICS

**13.7 See also
**

Main article: Lists of mathematics topics

**• Mathematics and art
**

• Mathematics education

• Relationship between mathematics and physics

• STEM ﬁelds

13.8 Notes

[1] No likeness or description of Euclid’s physical appearance made during his lifetime survived antiquity. Therefore, Euclid’s

depiction in works of art depends on the artist’s imagination (see Euclid).

[2] “mathematics, n.". Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. 2012. Retrieved June 16, 2012. The science

of space, number, quantity, and arrangement, whose methods involve logical reasoning and usually the use of symbolic

notation, and which includes geometry, arithmetic, algebra, and analysis.

[3] Kneebone, G.T. (1963). Mathematical Logic and the Foundations of Mathematics: An Introductory Survey. Dover. pp. 4.

ISBN 0-486-41712-3. Mathematics ... is simply the study of abstract structures, or formal patterns of connectedness.

[4] LaTorre, Donald R., John W. Kenelly, Iris B. Reed, Laurel R. Carpenter, and Cynthia R Harris (2011). Calculus Concepts:

An Informal Approach to the Mathematics of Change. Cengage Learning. pp. 2. ISBN 1-4390-4957-2. Calculus is the

study of change—how things change, and how quickly they change.

[5] Ramana (2007). Applied Mathematics. Tata McGraw–Hill Education. p. 2.10. ISBN 0-07-066753-5. The mathematical

study of change, motion, growth or decay is calculus.

[6] Ziegler, Günter M. (2011). “What Is Mathematics?". An Invitation to Mathematics: From Competitions to Research.

Springer. pp. 7. ISBN 3-642-19532-6.

[7] Mura, Roberta (Dec 1993). “Images of Mathematics Held by University Teachers of Mathematical Sciences”. Educational

Studies in Mathematics 25 (4): 375–385.

[8] Tobies, Renate and Helmut Neunzert (2012). Iris Runge: A Life at the Crossroads of Mathematics, Science, and Industry.

Springer. pp. 9. ISBN 3-0348-0229-3. It is ﬁrst necessary to ask what is meant by mathematics in general. Illustrious

scholars have debated this matter until they were blue in the face, and yet no consensus has been reached about whether

mathematics is a natural science, a branch of the humanities, or an art form.

[9] Steen, L.A. (April 29, 1988). The Science of Patterns Science, 240: 611–616. And summarized at Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, www.ascd.org.

[10] Devlin, Keith, Mathematics: The Science of Patterns: The Search for Order in Life, Mind and the Universe (Scientiﬁc

American Paperback Library) 1996, ISBN 978-0-7167-5047-5

[11] Eves

[12] Marcus du Sautoy, A Brief History of Mathematics: 1. Newton and Leibniz, BBC Radio 4, September 27, 2010.

[13] Waltershausen

[14] Peirce, p. 97.

[15] Hilbert, D. (1919–20), Natur und Mathematisches Erkennen: Vorlesungen, gehalten 1919–1920 in Göttingen. Nach der

Ausarbeitung von Paul Bernays (Edited and with an English introduction by David E. Rowe), Basel, Birkhäuser (1992).

[16] Einstein, p. 28. The quote is Einstein’s answer to the question: “how can it be that mathematics, being after all a product

of human thought which is independent of experience, is so admirably appropriate to the objects of reality?" He, too, is

concerned with The Unreasonable Eﬀectiveness of Mathematics in the Natural Sciences.

[17] “Claire Voisin, Artist of the Abstract”. .cnrs.fr. Retrieved October 13, 2013.

13.8. NOTES

57

[18] Peterson

[19] Dehaene, Stanislas; Dehaene-Lambertz, Ghislaine; Cohen, Laurent (Aug 1998). “Abstract representations of numbers in

the animal and human brain”. Trends in Neuroscience 21 (8): 355–361. doi:10.1016/S0166-2236(98)01263-6. PMID

9720604.

[20] See, for example, Raymond L. Wilder, Evolution of Mathematical Concepts; an Elementary Study, passim

[21] Kline 1990, Chapter 1.

[22] "A History of Greek Mathematics: From Thales to Euclid". Thomas Little Heath (1981). ISBN 0-486-24073-8

[23] Sevryuk

[24] “mathematic”. Online Etymology Dictionary.

[25] Both senses can be found in Plato. μαθηματική. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the

Perseus Project

[26] Cipra, Barry (1982). “St. Augustine v. The Mathematicians”. osu.edu. Ohio State University Mathematics department.

Retrieved July 14, 2014.

[27] The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology, Oxford English Dictionary, sub “mathematics”, “mathematic”, “mathematics”

[28] “maths, n." and “math, n.3". Oxford English Dictionary, on-line version (2012).

[29] James Franklin, “Aristotelian Realism” in Philosophy of Mathematics”, ed. A.D. Irvine, p. 104. Elsevier (2009).

[30] Cajori, Florian (1893). A History of Mathematics. American Mathematical Society (1991 reprint). pp. 285–6. ISBN

0-8218-2102-4.

[31] Snapper, Ernst (September 1979). “The Three Crises in Mathematics: Logicism, Intuitionism, and Formalism”. Mathematics Magazine 52 (4): 207–16. doi:10.2307/2689412. JSTOR 2689412.

[32] Peirce, Benjamin (1882). Linear Associative Algebra. p. 1.

[33] Bertrand Russell, The Principles of Mathematics, p. 5. University Press, Cambridge (1903)

[34] Curry, Haskell (1951). Outlines of a Formalist Philosophy of Mathematics. Elsevier. pp. 56. ISBN 0-444-53368-0.

[35] Marcus du Sautoy, A Brief History of Mathematics: 10. Nicolas Bourbaki, BBC Radio 4, October 1, 2010.

[36] Shasha, Dennis Elliot; Lazere, Cathy A. (1998). Out of Their Minds: The Lives and Discoveries of 15 Great Computer

Scientists. Springer. p. 228.

[37] Popper 1995, p. 56

[38] Ziman

[39] Johnson, Gerald W.; Lapidus, Michel L. (2002). The Feynman Integral and Feynman’s Operational Calculus. Oxford

University Press. ISBN 0-8218-2413-9.

[40] Wigner, Eugene (1960). “The Unreasonable Eﬀectiveness of Mathematics in the Natural Sciences”. Communications on

Pure and Applied Mathematics 13 (1): 1–14. doi:10.1002/cpa.3160130102.

[41] “Mathematics Subject Classiﬁcation 2010” (PDF). Retrieved November 9, 2010.

[42] Hardy, G.H. (1940). A Mathematician’s Apology. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-42706-1.

[43] Gold, Bonnie; Simons, Rogers A. (2008). Proof and Other Dilemmas: Mathematics and Philosophy. MAA.

[44] Aigner, Martin; Ziegler, Günter M. (2001). Proofs from The Book. Springer. ISBN 3-540-40460-0.

[45] “Earliest Uses of Various Mathematical Symbols”. Retrieved September 14, 2014.

[46] Kline, p. 140, on Diophantus; p. 261, on Vieta.

[47] See false proof for simple examples of what can go wrong in a formal proof.

[48] Ivars Peterson, The Mathematical Tourist, Freeman, 1988, ISBN 0-7167-1953-3. p. 4 “A few complain that the computer

program can't be veriﬁed properly”, (in reference to the Haken–Apple proof of the Four Color Theorem).

58

CHAPTER 13. MATHEMATICS

[49] " The method of “postulating” what we want has many advantages; they are the same as the advantages of theft over honest

toil.” Bertrand Russell (1919), Introduction to Mathematical Philosophy, New York and London, p 71.

[50] Patrick Suppes, Axiomatic Set Theory, Dover, 1972, ISBN 0-486-61630-4. p. 1, “Among the many branches of modern

mathematics set theory occupies a unique place: with a few rare exceptions the entities which are studied and analyzed in

mathematics may be regarded as certain particular sets or classes of objects.”

[51] Luke Howard Hodgkin & Luke Hodgkin, A History of Mathematics, Oxford University Press, 2005.

[52] Clay Mathematics Institute, P=NP, claymath.org

[53] Rao, C.R. (1997) Statistics and Truth: Putting Chance to Work, World Scientiﬁc. ISBN 981-02-3111-3

[54] Like other mathematical sciences such as physics and computer science, statistics is an autonomous discipline rather than

a branch of applied mathematics. Like research physicists and computer scientists, research statisticians are mathematical

scientists. Many statisticians have a degree in mathematics, and some statisticians are also mathematicians.

[55] Rao, C.R. (1981). “Foreword”. In Arthanari, T.S.; Dodge, Yadolah. Mathematical programming in statistics. Wiley Series

in Probability and Mathematical Statistics. New York: Wiley. pp. vii–viii. ISBN 0-471-08073-X. MR 607328.

[56] Whittle (1994, pp. 10–11 and 14–18): Whittle, Peter (1994). “Almost home”. In Kelly, F.P. Probability, statistics and

optimisation: A Tribute to Peter Whittle (previously “A realised path: The Cambridge Statistical Laboratory upto 1993

(revised 2002)" ed.). Chichester: John Wiley. pp. 1–28. ISBN 0-471-94829-2.

[57] "The Fields Medal is now indisputably the best known and most inﬂuential award in mathematics." Monastyrsky

[58] Riehm

13.9 References

• Courant, Richard and H. Robbins, What Is Mathematics? : An Elementary Approach to Ideas and Methods,

Oxford University Press, USA; 2 edition (July 18, 1996). ISBN 0-19-510519-2.

• Einstein, Albert (1923). Sidelights on Relativity: I. Ether and relativity. II. Geometry and experience (translated

by G.B. Jeﬀery, D.Sc., and W. Perrett, Ph.D). E.P. Dutton & Co., New York.

• du Sautoy, Marcus, A Brief History of Mathematics, BBC Radio 4 (2010).

• Eves, Howard, An Introduction to the History of Mathematics, Sixth Edition, Saunders, 1990, ISBN 0-03029558-0.

• Kline, Morris, Mathematical Thought from Ancient to Modern Times, Oxford University Press, USA; Paperback

edition (March 1, 1990). ISBN 0-19-506135-7.

• Monastyrsky, Michael (2001). “Some Trends in Modern Mathematics and the Fields Medal” (PDF). Canadian

Mathematical Society. Retrieved July 28, 2006.

• Oxford English Dictionary, second edition, ed. John Simpson and Edmund Weiner, Clarendon Press, 1989,

ISBN 0-19-861186-2.

• The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology, 1983 reprint. ISBN 0-19-861112-9.

• Pappas, Theoni, The Joy Of Mathematics, Wide World Publishing; Revised edition (June 1989). ISBN 0933174-65-9.

• Peirce, Benjamin (1881). Peirce, Charles Sanders, ed. “Linear associative algebra”. American Journal of

Mathematics (Corrected, expanded, and annotated revision with an 1875 paper by B. Peirce and annotations by his son, C.S. Peirce, of the 1872 lithograph ed.) (Johns Hopkins University) 4 (1–4): 97–229.

doi:10.2307/2369153. JSTOR 2369153. Corrected, expanded, and annotated revision with an 1875 paper

by B. Peirce and annotations by his son, C. S. Peirce, of the 1872 lithograph ed. Google Eprint and as an

extract, D. Van Nostrand, 1882, Google Eprint..

• Peterson, Ivars, Mathematical Tourist, New and Updated Snapshots of Modern Mathematics, Owl Books, 2001,

ISBN 0-8050-7159-8.

13.10. FURTHER READING

59

• Popper, Karl R. (1995). “On knowledge”. In Search of a Better World: Lectures and Essays from Thirty Years.

Routledge. ISBN 0-415-13548-6.

• Riehm, Carl (August 2002). “The Early History of the Fields Medal” (PDF). Notices of the AMS (AMS) 49

(7): 778–782.

• Sevryuk, Mikhail B. (January 2006). “Book Reviews” (PDF). Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society

43 (1): 101–109. doi:10.1090/S0273-0979-05-01069-4. Retrieved June 24, 2006.

• Waltershausen, Wolfgang Sartorius von (1965) [ﬁrst published 1856]. Gauss zum Gedächtniss. Sändig Reprint

Verlag H. R. Wohlwend. ASIN B0000BN5SQ. ISBN 3-253-01702-8. ASIN 3253017028.

**13.10 Further reading
**

• Benson, Donald C., The Moment of Proof: Mathematical Epiphanies, Oxford University Press, USA; New Ed

edition (December 14, 2000). ISBN 0-19-513919-4.

• Boyer, Carl B., A History of Mathematics, Wiley; 2nd edition, revised by Uta C. Merzbach, (March 6, 1991).

ISBN 0-471-54397-7.—A concise history of mathematics from the Concept of Number to contemporary

Mathematics.

• Davis, Philip J. and Hersh, Reuben, The Mathematical Experience. Mariner Books; Reprint edition (January

14, 1999). ISBN 0-395-92968-7.

• Gullberg, Jan, Mathematics – From the Birth of Numbers. W. W. Norton & Company; 1st edition (October

1997). ISBN 0-393-04002-X.

• Hazewinkel, Michiel (ed.), Encyclopaedia of Mathematics. Kluwer Academic Publishers 2000. – A translated

and expanded version of a Soviet mathematics encyclopedia, in ten (expensive) volumes, the most complete

and authoritative work available. Also in paperback and on CD-ROM, and online.

• Jourdain, Philip E. B., The Nature of Mathematics, in The World of Mathematics, James R. Newman, editor,

Dover Publications, 2003, ISBN 0-486-43268-8.

• Maier, Annaliese, At the Threshold of Exact Science: Selected Writings of Annaliese Maier on Late Medieval

Natural Philosophy, edited by Steven Sargent, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1982.

**13.11 External links
**

• Mathematics at Encyclopædia Britannica

• Mathematics on In Our Time at the BBC. (listen now)

• Free Mathematics books Free Mathematics books collection.

• Encyclopaedia of Mathematics online encyclopaedia from Springer, Graduate-level reference work with over

8,000 entries, illuminating nearly 50,000 notions in mathematics.

• HyperMath site at Georgia State University

• FreeScience Library The mathematics section of FreeScience library

• Rusin, Dave: The Mathematical Atlas. A guided tour through the various branches of modern mathematics.

(Can also be found at NIU.edu.)

• Polyanin, Andrei: EqWorld: The World of Mathematical Equations. An online resource focusing on algebraic,

ordinary diﬀerential, partial diﬀerential (mathematical physics), integral, and other mathematical equations.

• Cain, George: Online Mathematics Textbooks available free online.

• Tricki, Wiki-style site that is intended to develop into a large store of useful mathematical problem-solving

techniques.

60

CHAPTER 13. MATHEMATICS

• Mathematical Structures, list information about classes of mathematical structures.

• Mathematician Biographies. The MacTutor History of Mathematics archive Extensive history and quotes from

all famous mathematicians.

• Metamath. A site and a language, that formalize mathematics from its foundations.

• Nrich, a prize-winning site for students from age ﬁve from Cambridge University

• Open Problem Garden, a wiki of open problems in mathematics

• Planet Math. An online mathematics encyclopedia under construction, focusing on modern mathematics. Uses

the Attribution-ShareAlike license, allowing article exchange with Wikipedia. Uses TeX markup.

• Some mathematics applets, at MIT

• Weisstein, Eric et al.: MathWorld: World of Mathematics. An online encyclopedia of mathematics.

• Patrick Jones’ Video Tutorials on Mathematics

• Citizendium: Theory (mathematics).

• du Sautoy, Marcus, A Brief History of Mathematics, BBC Radio 4 (2010).

• MathOverﬂow A Q&A site for research-level mathematics

• Math – Khan Academy

• National Museum of Mathematics, located in New York City

Chapter 14

Operation (mathematics)

The general operation as explained on this page should not be confused with the more speciﬁc operators on vector

spaces. For a notion in elementary mathematics, see arithmetic operation.

In its simplest meaning in mathematics and logic, an operation is an action or procedure which produces a new value

from zero or more input values, called "operands".

**14.1 Types of operation
**

There are two common types of operations: unary and binary. Unary operations involve only one value, such as

negation and trigonometric functions. Binary operations, on the other hand, take two values, and include addition,

subtraction, multiplication, division, and exponentiation.

Operations can involve mathematical objects other than numbers. The logical values true and false can be combined

using logic operations, such as and, or, and not. Vectors can be added and subtracted. Rotations can be combined

using the function composition operation, performing the ﬁrst rotation and then the second. Operations on sets include

the binary operations union and intersection and the unary operation of complementation. Operations on functions

include composition and convolution.

Operations may not be deﬁned for every possible value. For example, in the real numbers one cannot divide by

zero or take square roots of negative numbers. The values for which an operation is deﬁned form a set called its

domain. The set which contains the values produced is called the codomain, but the set of actual values attained

by the operation is its range. For example, in the real numbers, the squaring operation only produces non-negative

numbers; the codomain is the set of real numbers but the range is the non-negative numbers.

Operations can involve dissimilar objects. A vector can be multiplied by a scalar to form another vector. And the

inner product operation on two vectors produces a scalar. An operation may or may not have certain properties, for

example it may be associative, commutative, anticommutative, idempotent, and so on.

The values combined are called operands, arguments, or inputs, and the value produced is called the value, result, or

output. Operations can have fewer or more than two inputs.

An operation is like an operator, but the point of view is diﬀerent. For instance, one often speaks of “the operation of

addition” or “addition operation” when focusing on the operands and result, but one says “addition operator” (rarely

“operator of addition”) when focusing on the process, or from the more abstract viewpoint, the function +: S×S → S.

**14.2 General description
**

An operation ω is a function of the form ω : V → Y, where V ⊂ X1 × … × Xk. The sets Xk are called the domains

of the operation, the set Y is called the codomain of the operation, and the ﬁxed non-negative integer k (the number

of arguments) is called the type or arity of the operation. Thus a unary operation has arity one, and a binary operation

has arity two. An operation of arity zero, called a nullary operation, is simply an element of the codomain Y. An

operation of arity k is called a k-ary operation. Thus a k-ary operation is a (k+1)-ary relation that is functional on its

ﬁrst k domains.

61

62

CHAPTER 14. OPERATION (MATHEMATICS)

**Elementary arithmetic operators:
**

+ – plus (addition)

− – minus (subtraction)

× – times (multiplication)

÷ – obelus (division)

The above describes what is usually called a ﬁnitary operation, referring to the ﬁnite number of arguments (the value

k). There are obvious extensions where the arity is taken to be an inﬁnite ordinal or cardinal, or even an arbitrary set

indexing the arguments.

Often, use of the term operation implies that the domain of the function is a power of the codomain (i.e. the Cartesian

product of one or more copies of the codomain),[1] although this is by no means universal, as in the example of

multiplying a vector by a scalar.

**14.3 See also
**

• Algebra

• Unicode mathematical operators

14.4. NOTES

14.3.1

63

Special cases

• Unary operation

• Binary operation

14.3.2

Related topics

14.4 Notes

[1] See e.g. Chapter II, Deﬁnition 1.1 in: S. N. Burris and H. P. Sankappanavar, A Course in Universal Algebra, Springer,

1981.

Chapter 15

Order theory

For a topical guide to this subject, see Outline of order theory.

Order theory is a branch of mathematics which investigates our intuitive notion of order using binary relations. It

provides a formal framework for describing statements such as “this is less than that” or “this precedes that”. This

article introduces the ﬁeld and provides basic deﬁnitions. A list of order-theoretic terms can be found in the order

theory glossary.

**15.1 Background and motivation
**

Orders are everywhere in mathematics and related ﬁelds like computer science. The ﬁrst order often discussed in

primary school is the standard order on the natural numbers e.g. “2 is less than 3”, “10 is greater than 5”, or “Does

Tom have fewer cookies than Sally?". This intuitive concept can be extended to orders on other sets of numbers,

such as the integers and the reals. The idea of being greater than or less than another number is one of the basic

intuitions of number systems (compare with numeral systems) in general (although one usually is also interested in

the actual diﬀerence of two numbers, which is not given by the order). Another familiar example of an ordering is

the lexicographic order of words in a dictionary.

The above types of orders have a special property: each element can be compared to any other element, i.e. it is

greater, smaller, or equal. However, this is not always a desired requirement. For example, consider the subset

ordering of sets. If a set A contains all the elements of a set B, then B is said to be smaller than or equal to A. Yet

there are some sets that cannot be related in this fashion. Whenever both contain some elements that are not in the

other, the two sets are not related by subset-inclusion. Hence, subset-inclusion is only a partial order, as opposed to

the total orders given before.

Order theory captures the intuition of orders that arises from such examples in a general setting. This is achieved

by specifying properties that a relation ≤ must have to be a mathematical order. This more abstract approach makes

much sense, because one can derive numerous theorems in the general setting, without focusing on the details of any

particular order. These insights can then be readily transferred to many less abstract applications.

Driven by the wide practical usage of orders, numerous special kinds of ordered sets have been deﬁned, some of

which have grown into mathematical ﬁelds of their own. In addition, order theory does not restrict itself to the

various classes of ordering relations, but also considers appropriate functions between them. A simple example of an

order theoretic property for functions comes from analysis where monotone functions are frequently found.

**15.2 Basic deﬁnitions
**

This section introduces ordered sets by building upon the concepts of set theory, arithmetic, and binary relations.

64

15.2. BASIC DEFINITIONS

15.2.1

65

Partially ordered sets

Orders are special binary relations. Suppose that P is a set and that ≤ is a relation on P. Then ≤ is a partial order if

it is reﬂexive, antisymmetric, and transitive, i.e., for all a, b and c in P, we have that:

a ≤ a (reﬂexivity)

if a ≤ b and b ≤ a then a = b (antisymmetry)

if a ≤ b and b ≤ c then a ≤ c (transitivity).

A set with a partial order on it is called a partially ordered set, poset, or just an ordered set if the intended meaning

is clear. By checking these properties, one immediately sees that the well-known orders on natural numbers, integers,

rational numbers and reals are all orders in the above sense. However, they have the additional property of being

total, i.e., for all a and b in P, we have that:

a ≤ b or b ≤ a (totality).

These orders can also be called linear orders or chains. While many classical orders are linear, the subset order on

sets provides an example where this is not the case. Another example is given by the divisibility relation "|". For two

natural numbers n and m, we write n|m if n divides m without remainder. One easily sees that this yields a partial

order. The identity relation = on any set is also a partial order in which every two distinct elements are incomparable.

It is also the only relation that is both a partial order and an equivalence relation. Many advanced properties of posets

are interesting mainly for non-linear orders.

15.2.2

Visualizing a poset

Hasse diagrams can visually represent the elements and relations of a partial ordering. These are graph drawings

where the vertices are the elements of the poset and the ordering relation is indicated by both the edges and the

relative positioning of the vertices. Orders are drawn bottom-up: if an element x is smaller than (precedes) y then

there exists a path from x to y that is directed upwards. It is often necessary for the edges connecting elements to

cross each other, but elements must never be located within an edge. An instructive exercise is to draw the Hasse

diagram for the set of natural numbers that are smaller than or equal to 13, ordered by | (the divides relation).

Even some inﬁnite sets can be diagrammed by superimposing an ellipsis (...) on a ﬁnite sub-order. This works well

for the natural numbers, but it fails for the reals, where there is no immediate successor above 0; however, quite often

one can obtain an intuition related to diagrams of a similar kind.

15.2.3

Special elements within an order

In a partially ordered set there may be some elements that play a special role. The most basic example is given by the

least element of a poset. For example, 1 is the least element of the positive integers and the empty set is the least set

under the subset order. Formally, an element m is a least element if:

m ≤ a, for all elements a of the order.

The notation 0 is frequently found for the least element, even when no numbers are concerned. However, in orders

on sets of numbers, this notation might be inappropriate or ambiguous, since the number 0 is not always least. An

example is given by the above divisibility order |, where 1 is the least element since it divides all other numbers. In

contrast, 0 is the number that is divided by all other numbers. Hence it is the greatest element of the order. Other

frequent terms for the least and greatest elements is bottom and top or zero and unit.

Least and greatest elements may fail to exist, as the example of the real numbers shows. But if they exist, they are

always unique. In contrast, consider the divisibility relation | on the set {2,3,4,5,6}. Although this set has neither top

nor bottom, the elements 2, 3, and 5 have no elements below them, while 4, 5, and 6 have none above. Such elements

are called minimal and maximal, respectively. Formally, an element m is minimal if:

a ≤ m implies a = m, for all elements a of the order.

66

CHAPTER 15. ORDER THEORY

60

15

30

20

10

6

3

2

5

12

4

1

Hasse diagram of the set of all divisors of 60, partially ordered by divisibility

Exchanging ≤ with ≥ yields the deﬁnition of maximality. As the example shows, there can be many maximal elements

and some elements may be both maximal and minimal (e.g. 5 above). However, if there is a least element, then it

is the only minimal element of the order. Again, in inﬁnite posets maximal elements do not always exist - the set

of all ﬁnite subsets of a given inﬁnite set, ordered by subset inclusion, provides one of many counterexamples. An

important tool to ensure the existence of maximal elements under certain conditions is Zorn’s Lemma.

Subsets of partially ordered sets inherit the order. We already applied this by considering the subset {2,3,4,5,6} of

the natural numbers with the induced divisibility ordering. Now there are also elements of a poset that are special

with respect to some subset of the order. This leads to the deﬁnition of upper bounds. Given a subset S of some

poset P, an upper bound of S is an element b of P that is above all elements of S. Formally, this means that

s ≤ b, for all s in S.

Lower bounds again are deﬁned by inverting the order. For example, −5 is a lower bound of the natural numbers

as a subset of the integers. Given a set of sets, an upper bound for these sets under the subset ordering is given by

their union. In fact, this upper bound is quite special: it is the smallest set that contains all of the sets. Hence, we

have found the least upper bound of a set of sets. This concept is also called supremum or join, and for a set S

one writes sup(S) or vS for its least upper bound. Conversely, the greatest lower bound is known as inﬁmum or

meet and denoted inf(S) or ^S. These concepts play an important role in many applications of order theory. For two

elements x and y, one also writes x v y and x ^ y for sup({x,y}) and inf({x,y}), respectively.

For another example, consider again the relation | on natural numbers. The least upper bound of two numbers is the

smallest number that is divided by both of them, i.e. the least common multiple of the numbers. Greatest lower

bounds in turn are given by the greatest common divisor.

15.3. FUNCTIONS BETWEEN ORDERS

15.2.4

67

Duality

In the previous deﬁnitions, we often noted that a concept can be deﬁned by just inverting the ordering in a former

deﬁnition. This is the case for “least” and “greatest”, for “minimal” and “maximal”, for “upper bound” and “lower

bound”, and so on. This is a general situation in order theory: A given order can be inverted by just exchanging

its direction, pictorially ﬂipping the Hasse diagram top-down. This yields the so-called dual, inverse, or opposite

order.

Every order theoretic deﬁnition has its dual: it is the notion one obtains by applying the deﬁnition to the inverse order.

Since all concepts are symmetric, this operation preserves the theorems of partial orders. For a given mathematical

result, one can just invert the order and replace all deﬁnitions by their duals and one obtains another valid theorem.

This is important and useful, since one obtains two theorems for the price of one. Some more details and examples

can be found in the article on duality in order theory.

15.2.5

Constructing new orders

There are many ways to construct orders out of given orders. The dual order is one example. Another important

construction is the cartesian product of two partially ordered sets, taken together with the product order on pairs of

elements. The ordering is deﬁned by (a, x) ≤ (b, y) if (and only if) a ≤ b and x ≤ y. (Notice carefully that there

are three distinct meanings for the relation symbol ≤ in this deﬁnition.) The disjoint union of two posets is another

typical example of order construction, where the order is just the (disjoint) union of the original orders.

Every partial order ≤ gives rise to a so-called strict order <, by deﬁning a < b if a ≤ b and not b ≤ a. This transformation

can be inverted by setting a ≤ b if a < b or a = b. The two concepts are equivalent although in some circumstances

one can be more convenient to work with than the other.

**15.3 Functions between orders
**

It is reasonable to consider functions between partially ordered sets having certain additional properties that are related

to the ordering relations of the two sets. The most fundamental condition that occurs in this context is monotonicity.

A function f from a poset P to a poset Q is monotone, or order-preserving, if a ≤ b in P implies f(a) ≤ f(b) in

Q (Noting that, strictly, the two relations here are diﬀerent since they apply to diﬀerent sets.). The converse of this

implication leads to functions that are order-reﬂecting, i.e. functions f as above for which f(a) ≤ f(b) implies a ≤

b. On the other hand, a function may also be order-reversing or antitone, if a ≤ b implies f(b) ≤ f(a).

An order-embedding is a function f between orders that is both order-preserving and order-reﬂecting. Examples

for these deﬁnitions are found easily. For instance, the function that maps a natural number to its successor is clearly

monotone with respect to the natural order. Any function from a discrete order, i.e. from a set ordered by the identity

order "=", is also monotone. Mapping each natural number to the corresponding real number gives an example for

an order embedding. The set complement on a powerset is an example of an antitone function.

An important question is when two orders are “essentially equal”, i.e. when they are the same up to renaming of

elements. Order isomorphisms are functions that deﬁne such a renaming. An order-isomorphism is a monotone

bijective function that has a monotone inverse. This is equivalent to being a surjective order-embedding. Hence, the

image f(P) of an order-embedding is always isomorphic to P, which justiﬁes the term “embedding”.

A more elaborate type of functions is given by so-called Galois connections. Monotone Galois connections can

be viewed as a generalization of order-isomorphisms, since they constitute of a pair of two functions in converse

directions, which are “not quite” inverse to each other, but that still have close relationships.

Another special type of self-maps on a poset are closure operators, which are not only monotonic, but also idempotent,

i.e. f(x) = f(f(x)), and extensive (or inﬂationary), i.e. x ≤ f(x). These have many applications in all kinds of “closures” that appear in mathematics.

Besides being compatible with the mere order relations, functions between posets may also behave well with respect

to special elements and constructions. For example, when talking about posets with least element, it may seem

reasonable to consider only monotonic functions that preserve this element, i.e. which map least elements to least

elements. If binary inﬁma ^ exist, then a reasonable property might be to require that f(x^y) = f(x)^f(y), for all x and

y. All of these properties, and indeed many more, may be compiled under the label of limit-preserving functions.

Finally, one can invert the view, switching from functions of orders to orders of functions. Indeed, the functions

68

CHAPTER 15. ORDER THEORY

between two posets P and Q can be ordered via the pointwise order. For two functions f and g, we have f ≤ g if f(x)

≤ g(x) for all elements x of P. This occurs for example in domain theory, where function spaces play an important

role.

**15.4 Special types of orders
**

Many of the structures that are studied in order theory employ order relations with further properties. In fact, even

some relations that are not partial orders are of special interest. Mainly the concept of a preorder has to be mentioned.

A preorder is a relation that is reﬂexive and transitive, but not necessarily antisymmetric. Each preorder induces an

equivalence relation between elements, where a is equivalent to b, if a ≤ b and b ≤ a. Preorders can be turned into

orders by identifying all elements that are equivalent with respect to this relation.

Several types of orders can be deﬁned from numerical data on the items of the order: a total order results from

attaching distinct real numbers to each item and using the numerical comparisons to order the items; instead, if

distinct items are allowed to have equal numerical scores, one obtains a strict weak ordering. Requiring two scores to

be separated by a ﬁxed threshold before they may be compared leads to the concept of a semiorder, while allowing

the threshold to vary on a per-item basis produces an interval order.

An additional simple but useful property leads to so-called well-orders, for which all non-empty subsets have a

minimal element. Generalizing well-orders from linear to partial orders, a set is well partially ordered if all its

non-empty subsets have a ﬁnite number of minimal elements.

Many other types of orders arise when the existence of inﬁma and suprema of certain sets is guaranteed. Focusing

on this aspect, usually referred to as completeness of orders, one obtains:

• Bounded posets, i.e. posets with a least and greatest element (which are just the supremum and inﬁmum of

the empty subset),

• Lattices, in which every non-empty ﬁnite set has a supremum and inﬁmum,

• Complete lattices, where every set has a supremum and inﬁmum, and

• Directed complete partial orders (dcpos), that guarantee the existence of suprema of all directed subsets and

that are studied in domain theory.

• Partial orders with complements, or poc sets,[1] are posets S having a unique bottom element 0∈S, along with

an order-reversing involution, such that a ≤ a∗ ⇒ a = 0 .

However, one can go even further: if all ﬁnite non-empty inﬁma exist, then ∧ can be viewed as a total binary operation

in the sense of universal algebra. Hence, in a lattice, two operations ∧ and ∨ are available, and one can deﬁne new

properties by giving identities, such as

x ∧ (y ∨ z) = (x ∧ y) ∨ (x ∧ z), for all x, y, and z.

This condition is called distributivity and gives rise to distributive lattices. There are some other important distributivity laws which are discussed in the article on distributivity in order theory. Some additional order structures that

are often speciﬁed via algebraic operations and deﬁning identities are

• Heyting algebras and

• Boolean algebras,

which both introduce a new operation ~ called negation. Both structures play a role in mathematical logic and

especially Boolean algebras have major applications in computer science. Finally, various structures in mathematics

combine orders with even more algebraic operations, as in the case of quantales, that allow for the deﬁnition of an

addition operation.

Many other important properties of posets exist. For example, a poset is locally ﬁnite if every closed interval [a,

b] in it is ﬁnite. Locally ﬁnite posets give rise to incidence algebras which in turn can be used to deﬁne the Euler

characteristic of ﬁnite bounded posets.

15.5. SUBSETS OF ORDERED SETS

69

**15.5 Subsets of ordered sets
**

In an ordered set, one can deﬁne many types of special subsets based on the given order. A simple example are upper

sets; i.e. sets that contain all elements that are above them in the order. Formally, the upper closure of a set S in a

poset P is given by the set {x in P | there is some y in S with y ≤ x}. A set that is equal to its upper closure is called

an upper set. Lower sets are deﬁned dually.

More complicated lower subsets are ideals, which have the additional property that each two of their elements have

an upper bound within the ideal. Their duals are given by ﬁlters. A related concept is that of a directed subset, which

like an ideal contains upper bounds of ﬁnite subsets, but does not have to be a lower set. Furthermore it is often

generalized to preordered sets.

A subset which is - as a sub-poset - linearly ordered, is called a chain. The opposite notion, the antichain, is a subset

that contains no two comparable elements; i.e. that is a discrete order.

**15.6 Related mathematical areas
**

Although most mathematical areas use orders in one or the other way, there are also a few theories that have relationships which go far beyond mere application. Together with their major points of contact with order theory, some of

these are to be presented below.

15.6.1

Universal algebra

As already mentioned, the methods and formalisms of universal algebra are an important tool for many order theoretic

considerations. Beside formalizing orders in terms of algebraic structures that satisfy certain identities, one can also

establish other connections to algebra. An example is given by the correspondence between Boolean algebras and

Boolean rings. Other issues are concerned with the existence of free constructions, such as free lattices based on a

given set of generators. Furthermore, closure operators are important in the study of universal algebra.

15.6.2

Topology

In topology orders play a very prominent role. In fact, the set of open sets provides a classical example of a complete

lattice, more precisely a complete Heyting algebra (or "frame" or "locale"). Filters and nets are notions closely related

to order theory and the closure operator of sets can be used to deﬁne topology. Beyond these relations, topology can

be looked at solely in terms of the open set lattices, which leads to the study of pointless topology. Furthermore, a

natural preorder of elements of the underlying set of a topology is given by the so-called specialization order, that is

actually a partial order if the topology is T0 .

Conversely, in order theory, one often makes use of topological results. There are various ways to deﬁne subsets of

an order which can be considered as open sets of a topology. Especially, it is interesting to consider topologies on a

poset (X, ≤) that in turn induce ≤ as their specialization order. The ﬁnest such topology is the Alexandrov topology,

given by taking all upper sets as opens. Conversely, the coarsest topology that induces the specialization order is the

upper topology, having the complements of principal ideals (i.e. sets of the form {y in X | y ≤ x} for some x) as a

subbase. Additionally, a topology with specialization order ≤ may be order consistent, meaning that their open sets

are “inaccessible by directed suprema” (with respect to ≤). The ﬁnest order consistent topology is the Scott topology,

which is coarser than the Alexandrov topology. A third important topology in this spirit is the Lawson topology.

There are close connections between these topologies and the concepts of order theory. For example, a function

preserves directed suprema iﬀ it is continuous with respect to the Scott topology (for this reason this order theoretic

property is also called Scott-continuity).

15.6.3

Category theory

**The visualization of orders with Hasse diagrams has a straightforward generalization: instead of displaying lesser
**

elements below greater ones, the direction of the order can also be depicted by giving directions to the edges of a

graph. In this way, each order is seen to be equivalent to a directed acyclic graph, where the nodes are the elements

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CHAPTER 15. ORDER THEORY

of the poset and there is a directed path from a to b if and only if a ≤ b. Dropping the requirement of being acyclic,

one can also obtain all preorders.

When equipped with all transitive edges, these graphs in turn are just special categories, where elements are objects

and each set of morphisms between two elements is at most singleton. Functions between orders become functors

between categories. Interestingly, many ideas of order theory are just concepts of category theory in small. For

example, an inﬁmum is just a categorical product. More generally, one can capture inﬁma and suprema under the

abstract notion of a categorical limit (or colimit, respectively). Another place where categorical ideas occur is the

concept of a (monotone) Galois connection, which is just the same as a pair of adjoint functors.

But category theory also has its impact on order theory on a larger scale. Classes of posets with appropriate functions

as discussed above form interesting categories. Often one can also state constructions of orders, like the product

order, in terms of categories. Further insights result when categories of orders are found categorically equivalent to

other categories, for example of topological spaces. This line of research leads to various representation theorems,

often collected under the label of Stone duality.

15.7 History

As explained before, orders are ubiquitous in mathematics. However, earliest explicit mentionings of partial orders are

probably to be found not before the 19th century. In this context the works of George Boole are of great importance.

Moreover, works of Charles Sanders Peirce, Richard Dedekind, and Ernst Schröder also consider concepts of order

theory. Certainly, there are others to be named in this context and surely there exists more detailed material on the

history of order theory.

The term poset as an abbreviation for partially ordered set was coined by Garrett Birkhoﬀ in the second edition of

his inﬂuential book Lattice Theory.[2][3]

**15.8 See also
**

• Cyclic order

• Hierarchy

• Incidence algebra

• Important publications in order theory

• Causal Sets

15.9 Notes

[1] Roller, Martin A. (1998), Poc sets, median algebras and group actions. An extended study of Dunwoody’s construction and

Sageev’s theorem (PDF), Southampton Preprint Archive

[2] Birkhoﬀ 1948, p.1

[3] Earliest Known Uses of Some of the Words of Mathematics

15.10 References

• Birkhoﬀ, Garrett (1940). Lattice Theory 25 (3rd Revised ed.). American Mathematical Society. ISBN 9780-8218-1025-5.

• Burris, S. N.; Sankappanavar, H. P. (1981). A Course in Universal Algebra. Springer. ISBN 978-0-387-905785.

• Davey, B. A.; Priestley, H. A. (2002). Introduction to Lattices and Order (2nd ed.). Cambridge University

Press. ISBN 0-521-78451-4.

15.11. EXTERNAL LINKS

71

**• Gierz, G.; Hofmann, K. H.; Keimel, K.; Mislove, M.; Scott, D. S. (2003). Continuous Lattices and Domains.
**

Encyclopedia of Mathematics and its Applications 93. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-803380.

**15.11 External links
**

• Orders at ProvenMath partial order, linear order, well order, initial segment; formal deﬁnitions and proofs

within the axioms of set theory.

• Nagel, Felix (2013). Set Theory and Topology. An Introduction to the Foundations of Analysis

Chapter 16

**Outline of algebraic structures
**

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to algebraic structures:

In mathematics, there are many types of algebraic structures which are studied. Abstract algebra is primarily the study

of speciﬁc algebraic structures and their properties. Algebraic structures may be viewed in diﬀerent ways, however

the common starting point of algebra texts is that an algebraic object incorporates one or more sets with one or more

binary operations or unary operations satisfying a collection of axioms.

Another branch of mathematics known as universal algebra studies algebraic structures in general. From the universal algebra viewpoint, most structures can be divided into varieties and quasivarieties depending on the axioms

used. Some axiomatic formal systems that are neither varieties nor quasivarieties, called nonvarieties, are sometimes

included among the algebraic structures by tradition.

Concrete examples of each structure will be found in the linked Wikipedia article.

Algebraic structures are so numerous today that this article will inevitably be incomplete. In addition to this, there

are sometimes multiple names for the same structure, and sometimes one name will be deﬁned by disagreeing axioms

by diﬀerent authors. Most structures appearing on this page will be common ones which most authors agree on.

Other web lists of algebraic structures, organized more or less alphabetically, include Jipsen and PlanetMath. These

lists mention many structures not included below, and may present more information about some structures than is

presented here.

**16.1 Study of algebraic structures
**

Algebraic structures appear in most branches of mathematics, and students can encounter them in many diﬀerent

ways.

• Beginning study: In American universities, groups, vector spaces and ﬁelds are generally the ﬁrst structures

encountered in subjects such as linear algebra. They are usually introduced as sets with certain axioms.

• Advanced study:

• Abstract algebra studies properties of speciﬁc algebraic structures.

• Universal algebra studies algebraic structures abstractly, rather than speciﬁc types of structures.

• Varieties

• Category theory studies interrelationships between diﬀerent structures, algebraic and non-algebraic. To

study a non-algebraic object, it is often useful to use category theory to relate the object to an algebraic

structure.

• Example: The fundamental group of a topological space gives information about the topological

space.

72

16.2. TYPES OF ALGEBRAIC STRUCTURES

73

**16.2 Types of algebraic structures
**

In full generality, an algebraic structure may use any number of sets and any number of axioms in its deﬁnition.

The most commonly studied structures, however, usually involve only one or two sets and one or two binary operations. The structures below are organized by how many sets are involved, and how many binary operations are used.

Increased indentation is meant to indicated a more exotic structure, and the least indented levels are the most basic.

16.2.1

One binary operation on one set

The following structures consist of a set with a binary operation. The most common structure is that of a group. Other

structures involve weakening or strengthening the axioms for groups, and may additionally use unary operations.

• Groups are key structures. Abelian groups are an important special type of group.

• semigroups and monoids: These are like groups, except the operation need not have inverse elements.

• quasigroups and loops: These are like groups, except the operation need not be associative.

• Magmas: These are like groups, except the operation need not be associative or have inverse elements.

• Semilattice: This is basically “half” of a lattice structure (see below).

16.2.2

Two binary operations on one set

The main types of structures with one set having two binary operations are rings and lattices. The axioms deﬁning

many of the other structures are modiﬁcations of the axioms for rings and lattices. One major diﬀerence between

rings and lattices is that their two operations are related to each other in diﬀerent ways. In ring-like structures, the

two operations are linked by the distributive law; in lattice-like structures, the operations are linked by the absorption

law.

• Rings: The two operations are usually called addition and multiplication. Commutative rings are an especially

important type of ring where the multiplication operation is commutative. Integral domains and ﬁelds are

especially important types of commutative rings.

• Nonassociative rings: These are like rings, but the multiplication operation need not be associative.

• Lie rings and Jordan rings are special examples of nonassociative rings.

• semirings: These are like rings, but the addition operation need not have inverses.

• nearrings: These are like rings, but the addition operation need not be commutative.

• *-rings: These are rings with an additional unary operation known as an involution.

• Lattices: The two operations are usually called meet and join.

• Latticoid: meet and join commute but need not associate.

• Skew lattice: meet and join associate but need not commute.

16.2.3

Two binary operations and two sets

The following structures have the common feature of having two sets, A and B, so that there is a binary operation

from A×A into A and another operation from A×B into A.

• Vector spaces: The set A is an Abelian group, and the set B is a ﬁeld.

• Graded vector spaces: Vector spaces which are equipped with a direct sum decomposition into subspaces.

• Modules: The set A is an Abelian group, but the B is only a general ring and not necessarily a ﬁeld.

• Special types of modules, including free modules, projective modules, injective modules and ﬂat modules

are studied in abstract algebra.

• Group with operators: In this case, the set A is a group, and the set B is just a set.

74

CHAPTER 16. OUTLINE OF ALGEBRAIC STRUCTURES

16.2.4

Three binary operations and two sets

**Many structures here are actually hybrid structures of the previously mentioned ones.
**

• Algebra over a ﬁeld: This is a ring which is also a vector space over a ﬁeld. There are axioms governing the

interaction of the two structures. Multiplication is usually assumed to be associative.

• Algebra over a ring: These are deﬁned the same way as algebras over ﬁelds, except that the ﬁeld may now

be any commutative ring.

• Graded algebra: These algebras are equipped with a decomposition into grades.

• Non-associative algebras: These are algebras for which the associativity of ring multiplication is relaxed.

• Lie algebras and Jordan algebras are special examples of non-associative algebras.

• Coalgebra: This structure has axioms which make its multiplication dual to those of an associative algebra.

• Bialgebra: These structures are simultaneously algebras and coalgebras whose operations are compatible.

There are actually four operations for this structure.

**16.3 Algebraic structures with additional non-algebraic structure
**

There are many examples of mathematical structures where algebraic structure exists alongside non-algebraic structure.

• Topological vector spaces are vector spaces with a compatible topology.

• Lie groups: These are topological manifolds that also carry a compatible group structure.

• Ordered groups, ordered rings and ordered ﬁelds have algebraic structure compatible with an order on the set.

• Von Neumann algebras: these are *-algebras on a Hilbert space which are equipped with the weak operator

topology.

**16.4 Algebraic structures in diﬀerent disciplines
**

Some algebraic structures ﬁnd uses in disciplines outside of abstract algebra. The following is meant to demonstrate

some speciﬁc applications in other ﬁelds.

In Physics:

• Lie groups are used extensively in physics. A few well-known ones include the orthogonal groups and the

unitary groups.

• Lie algebras

• Inner product spaces

• Kac–Moody algebra

• The quaternions and more generally geometric algebras

In Mathematical logic:

• Boolean algebras are both rings and lattices, under their two operations.

• Heyting algebras are a special example of boolean algebras.

• Peano arithmetic

16.5. SEE ALSO

75

• Boundary algebra

• MV-algebra

In Computer science:

• Max-plus algebra

• Syntactic monoid

• Transition monoid

**16.5 See also
**

• Abstract algebra

• Outline of abstract algebra

• Universal algebra

• Variety (universal algebra)

• Linear algebra

• Outline of linear algebra

• Arity

• Category theory

• Free object

• Operation (mathematics)

• Signature (logic)

• First-order theories

• Mathematical lists

16.6 Notes

16.7 References

• Garrett Birkhoﬀ, 1967. Lattice Theory, 3rd ed, AMS Colloquium Publications Vol. 25. American Mathematical Society.

• --------, and Saunders MacLane, 1999 (1967). Algebra, 2nd ed. New York: Chelsea.

• George Boolos and Richard Jeﬀrey, 1980. Computability and Logic, 2nd ed. Cambridge Univ. Press.

• Dummit, David S., and Foote, Richard M., 2004. Abstract Algebra, 3rd ed. John Wiley and Sons.

• Grätzer, George, 1978. Universal Algebra, 2nd ed. Springer.

• David K. Lewis, 1991. Part of Classes. Blackwell.

• Michel, Anthony N., and Herget, Charles J., 1993 (1981). Applied Algebra and Functional Analysis. Dover.

• Potter, Michael, 2004. Set Theory and its Philosophy, 2nd ed. Oxford Univ. Press.

• Smorynski, Craig, 1991. Logical Number Theory I. Springer-Verlag.

A monograph available free online:

• Burris, Stanley N., and H.P. Sankappanavar, H. P., 1981. A Course in Universal Algebra. Springer-Verlag.

ISBN 3-540-90578-2.

76

CHAPTER 16. OUTLINE OF ALGEBRAIC STRUCTURES

**16.8 External links
**

• Jipsen:

• Alphabetical list of algebra structures; includes many not mentioned here.

• Online books and lecture notes.

• Map containing about 50 structures, some of which do not appear above. Likewise, most of the structures

above are absent from this map.

• PlanetMath topic index.

• Hazewinkel, Michiel (2001) Encyclopaedia of Mathematics. Springer-Verlag.

• Mathworld page on abstract algebra.

• Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Algebra by Vaughan Pratt.

Chapter 17

**Structure (mathematical logic)
**

In universal algebra and in model theory, a structure consists of a set along with a collection of ﬁnitary operations,

and relations that are deﬁned on it.

Universal algebra studies structures that generalize the algebraic structures such as groups, rings, ﬁelds and vector

spaces. The term universal algebra is used for structures with no relation symbols.[1]

Model theory has a diﬀerent scope that encompasses more arbitrary theories, including foundational structures such as

models of set theory. From the model-theoretic point of view, structures are the objects used to deﬁne the semantics

of ﬁrst-order logic. For a given theory in model theory, a structure is called a model, if it satisﬁes the deﬁning axioms

of that theory, although it is sometimes disambiguated as a semantic model when one discusses the notion in the more

general setting of mathematical models. Logicians sometimes refer to structures as interpretations.[2]

In database theory, structures with no functions are studied as models for relational databases, in the form of relational

models.

17.1 Deﬁnition

See also: Model theory § Universal algebra and Universal algebra § Basic idea

Formally, a structure can be deﬁned as a triple A = (A, σ, I) consisting of a domain A, a signature σ, and an

interpretation function I that indicates how the signature is to be interpreted on the domain. To indicate that a

structure has a particular signature σ one can refer to it as a σ-structure.

17.1.1

Domain

The domain of a structure is an arbitrary set; it is also called the underlying set of the structure, its carrier (especially

in universal algebra), or its universe (especially in model theory). In classical ﬁrst-order logic, the deﬁnition of a

structure prohibits the empty domain.[3]

Sometimes the notation dom(A) or |A| is used for the domain of A , but often no notational distinction is made

between a structure and its domain. (I.e. the same symbol A refers both to the structure and its domain.)[4]

17.1.2

Signature

**Main article: Signature (logic)
**

The signature of a structure consists of a set of function symbols and relation symbols along with a function that

ascribes to each symbol s a natural number n = ar(s) which is called the arity of s because it is the arity of the

interpretation of s.

Since the signatures that arise in algebra often contain only function symbols, a signature with no relation symbols is

77

78

CHAPTER 17. STRUCTURE (MATHEMATICAL LOGIC)

called an algebraic signature. A structure with such a signature is also called an algebra; this should not be confused

with the notion of an algebra over a ﬁeld.

17.1.3

Interpretation function

**Main article: Interpretation (model theory)
**

The interpretation function I of A assigns functions and relations to the symbols of the signature. Each function

symbol f of arity n is assigned an n-ary function f A = I(f ) on the domain. Each relation symbol R of arity n is

assigned an n-ary relation RA = I(R) ⊆ Aar(R) on the domain. A nullary function symbol c is called a constant

symbol, because its interpretation I(c) can be identiﬁed with a constant element of the domain.

When a structure (and hence an interpretation function) is given by context, no notational distinction is made between a

symbol s and its interpretation I(s). For example if f is a binary function symbol of A , one simply writes f : A2 → A

rather than f A : |A|2 → |A| .

17.1.4

Examples

The standard signature σf for ﬁelds consists of two binary function symbols + and ×, a unary function symbol −, and

the two constant symbols 0 and 1. Thus a structure (algebra) for this signature consists of a set of elements A together

with two binary functions, a unary function, and two distinguished elements; but there is no requirement that it satisfy

any of the ﬁeld axioms. The rational numbers Q, the real numbers R and the complex numbers C, like any other ﬁeld,

can be regarded as σ-structures in an obvious way:

Q = (Q, σf , IQ )

R = (R, σf , IR )

C = (C, σf , IC )

where

IQ (+) : Q × Q → Q is addition of rational numbers,

IQ (×) : Q × Q → Q is multiplication of rational numbers,

IQ (−) : Q → Q is the function that takes each rational number x to -x, and

IQ (0) ∈ Q is the number 0 and

IQ (1) ∈ Q is the number 1;

and IR and IC are similarly deﬁned.

But the ring Z of integers, which is not a ﬁeld, is also a σf-structure in the same way. In fact, there is no requirement

that any of the ﬁeld axioms hold in a σf-structure.

A signature for ordered ﬁelds needs an additional binary relation such as < or ≤, and therefore structures for such a

signature are not algebras, even though they are of course algebraic structures in the usual, loose sense of the word.

The ordinary signature for set theory includes a single binary relation ∈. A structure for this signature consists of a

set of elements and an interpretation of the ∈ relation as a binary relation on these elements.

**17.2 Induced substructures and closed subsets
**

A is called an (induced) substructure of B if

• A and B have the same signature σ(A) = σ(B) ;

17.3. HOMOMORPHISMS AND EMBEDDINGS

79

**• the domain of A is contained in the domain of B : |A| ⊆ |B| ; and
**

• the interpretations of all function and relation symbols agree on |B| .

The usual notation for this relation is A ⊆ B .

A subset B ⊆ |A| of the domain of a structure A is called closed if it is closed under the functions of A , i.e. if

the following condition is satisﬁed: for every natural number n, every n-ary function symbol f (in the signature of A

) and all elements b1 , b2 , . . . , bn ∈ B , the result of applying f to the n-tuple b1 b2 . . . bn is again an element of B:

f (b1 , b2 , . . . , bn ) ∈ B .

For every subset B ⊆ |A| there is a smallest closed subset of |A| that contains B. It is called the closed subset

generated by B, or the hull of B, and denoted by ⟨B⟩ or ⟨B⟩A . The operator ⟨⟩ is a ﬁnitary closure operator on the

set of subsets of |A| .

If A = (A, σ, I) and B ⊆ A is a closed subset, then (B, σ, I ′ ) is an induced substructure of A , where I ′ assigns to

every symbol of σ the restriction to B of its interpretation in A . Conversely, the domain of an induced substructure

is a closed subset.

The closed subsets (or induced substructures) of a structure form a lattice. The meet of two subsets is their intersection. The join of two subsets is the closed subset generated by their union. Universal algebra studies the lattice of

substructures of a structure in detail.

17.2.1

Examples

Let σ = {+, ×, −, 0, 1} be again the standard signature for ﬁelds. When regarded as σ-structures in the natural way, the

rational numbers form a substructure of the real numbers, and the real numbers form a substructure of the complex

numbers. The rational numbers are the smallest substructure of the real (or complex) numbers that also satisﬁes the

ﬁeld axioms.

The set of integers gives an even smaller substructure of the real numbers which is not a ﬁeld. Indeed, the integers are

the substructure of the real numbers generated by the empty set, using this signature. The notion in abstract algebra

that corresponds to a substructure of a ﬁeld, in this signature, is that of a subring, rather than that of a subﬁeld.

The most obvious way to deﬁne a graph is a structure with a signature σ consisting of a single binary relation symbol

E. The vertices of the graph form the domain of the structure, and for two vertices a and b, (a, b) ∈ E means that

a and b are connected by an edge. In this encoding, the notion of induced substructure is more restrictive than the

notion of subgraph. For example, let G be a graph consisting of two vertices connected by an edge, and let H be the

graph consisting of the same vertices but no edges. H is a subgraph of G, but not an induced substructure. The notion

in graph theory that corresponds to induced substructures is that of induced subgraphs.

**17.3 Homomorphisms and embeddings
**

See also: Universal algebra § Basic constructions

17.3.1

Homomorphisms

**Given two structures A and B of the same signature σ, a (σ-)homomorphism from A to B is a map h : |A| → |B|
**

that preserves the functions and relations. More precisely:

• For every n-ary function symbol f of σ and any elements a1 , a2 , . . . , an ∈ |A| , the following equation holds:

h(f (a1 , a2 , . . . , an )) = f (h(a1 ), h(a2 ), . . . , h(an ))

• For every n-ary relation symbol R of σ and any elements a1 , a2 , . . . , an ∈ |A| , the following implication

holds:

80

CHAPTER 17. STRUCTURE (MATHEMATICAL LOGIC)

(a1 , a2 , . . . , an ) ∈ R =⇒ (h(a1 ), h(a2 ), . . . , h(an )) ∈ R

The notation for a homomorphism h from A to B is h : A → B .

For every signature σ there is a concrete category σ-Hom which has σ-structures as objects and σ-homomorphisms

as morphisms.

A homomorphism h : A → B is sometimes called strong if for every n-ary relation symbol R and any elements

b1 , b2 , . . . , bn ∈ |B| such that (b1 , b2 , . . . , bn ) ∈ R , there are a1 , a2 , . . . , an ∈ |A| such that (a1 , a2 , . . . , an ) ∈ R

and b1 = h(a1 ), b2 = h(a2 ), . . . , bn = h(an ). The strong homomorphisms give rise to a subcategory of σ-Hom.

17.3.2

Embeddings

**A (σ-)homomorphism h : A → B is called a (σ-)embedding if it is one-to-one and
**

• for every n-ary relation symbol R of σ and any elements a1 , a2 , . . . , an , the following equivalence holds:

(a1 , a2 , . . . , an ) ∈ R ⇐⇒ (h(a1 ), h(a2 ), . . . , h(an )) ∈ R

Thus an embedding is the same thing as a strong homomorphism which is one-to-one. The category σ-Emb of

σ-structures and σ-embeddings is a concrete subcategory of σ-Hom.

Induced substructures correspond to subobjects in σ-Emb. If σ has only function symbols, σ-Emb is the subcategory

of monomorphisms of σ-Hom. In this case induced substructures also correspond to subobjects in σ-Hom.

17.3.3

Example

As seen above, in the standard encoding of graphs as structures the induced substructures are precisely the induced

subgraphs. However, a homomorphism between graphs is the same thing as a homomorphism between the two

structures coding the graph. In the example of the previous section, even though the subgraph H of G is not induced,

the identity map id: H → G is a homomorphism. This map is in fact a monomorphism in the category σ-Hom, and

therefore H is a subobject of G which is not an induced substructure.

17.3.4

Homomorphism problem

**The following problem is known as the homomorphism problem:
**

Given two ﬁnite structures A and B of a ﬁnite relational signature, ﬁnd a homomorphism h : A → B or

show that no such homomorphism exists.

Every constraint satisfaction problem (CSP) has a translation into the homomorphism problem.[5] Therefore the

complexity of CSP can be studied using the methods of ﬁnite model theory.

Another application is in database theory, where a relational model of a database is essentially the same thing as a

relational structure. It turns out that a conjunctive query on a database can be described by another structure in the

same signature as the database model. A homomorphism from the relational model to the structure representing the

query is the same thing as a solution to the query. This shows that the conjunctive query problem is also equivalent

to the homomorphism problem.

**17.4 Structures and ﬁrst-order logic
**

See also: Model theory § First-order logic and Model theory § Axiomatizability, elimination of quantiﬁers, and

model-completeness

17.4. STRUCTURES AND FIRST-ORDER LOGIC

81

**Structures are sometimes referred to as “ﬁrst-order structures”. This is misleading, as nothing in their deﬁnition ties
**

them to any speciﬁc logic, and in fact they are suitable as semantic objects both for very restricted fragments of ﬁrstorder logic such as that used in universal algebra, and for second-order logic. In connection with ﬁrst-order logic and

model theory, structures are often called models, even when the question “models of what?" has no obvious answer.

17.4.1

Satisfaction relation

Each ﬁrst-order structure M has a satisfaction relation M ⊨ ϕ deﬁned for all formulas ϕ in the language consisting

of the language of M together with a constant symbol for each element of M, which is interpreted as that element.

This relation is deﬁned inductively using Tarski’s T-schema.

A structure M is said to be a model of a theory T if the language of M is the same as the language of T and every

sentence in T is satisﬁed by M . Thus, for example, a “ring” is a structure for the language of rings that satisﬁes each

of the ring axioms, and a model of ZFC set theory is a structure in the language of set theory that satisﬁes each of

the ZFC axioms.

17.4.2

Deﬁnable relations

An n-ary relation R on the universe M of a structure M is said to be deﬁnable (or explicitly deﬁnable, or ∅ deﬁnable) if there is a formula φ(x1 ,...,xn) such that

R = {(a1 , . . . , an ) ∈ M n : M ⊨ ϕ(a1 , . . . , an )}.

In other words, R is deﬁnable if and only if there is a formula φ such that

(a1 , . . . , an ) ∈ R ⇔ M ⊨ ϕ(a1 , . . . , an )

is correct.

An important special case is the deﬁnability of speciﬁc elements. An element m of M is deﬁnable in M if and only

if there is a formula φ(x) such that

M ⊨ ∀x(x = m ↔ ϕ(x)).

Deﬁnability with parameters

A relation R is said to be deﬁnable with parameters (or |M| -deﬁnable) if there is a formula φ with parameters

from M such that R is deﬁnable using φ. Every element of a structure is deﬁnable using the element itself as a

parameter.

It should be noted that some authors use deﬁnable to mean deﬁnable without parameters, while other authors mean

deﬁnable with parameters. Broadly speaking, the convention that deﬁnable means deﬁnable without parameters is

more common amongst set theorists, while the opposite convention is more common amongst model theorists.

Implicit deﬁnability

Recall from above that an n-ary relation R on the universe M of a structure M is explicitly deﬁnable if there is a

formula φ(x1 ,...,xn) such that

R = {(a1 , . . . , an ) ∈ M n : M ⊨ ϕ(a1 , . . . , an )}

Here the formula φ used to deﬁne a relation R must be over the signature of M and so φ may not mention R itself,

since R is not in the signature of M . If there is a formula φ in the extended language containing the language of M

82

CHAPTER 17. STRUCTURE (MATHEMATICAL LOGIC)

and a new symbol R, and the relation R is the only relation on M such that M ⊨ ϕ , then R is said to be implicitly

deﬁnable over M .

By Beth’s theorem, every implicitly deﬁnable relation is explicitly deﬁnable.

**17.5 Many-sorted structures
**

Structures as deﬁned above are sometimes called one-sorted structures to distinguish them from the more general

many-sorted structures. A many-sorted structure can have an arbitrary number of domains. The sorts are part

of the signature, and they play the role of names for the diﬀerent domains. Many-sorted signatures also prescribe

on which sorts the functions and relations of a many-sorted structure are deﬁned. Therefore the arities of function

symbols or relation symbols must be more complicated objects such as tuples of sorts rather than natural numbers.

Vector spaces, for example, can be regarded as two-sorted structures in the following way. The two-sorted signature

of vector spaces consists of two sorts V (for vectors) and S (for scalars) and the following function symbols:

If V is a vector space over a ﬁeld F, the corresponding two-sorted structure V consists of the vector domain |V|V = V

, the scalar domain |V|S = F , and the obvious functions, such as the vector zero 0V

V = 0 ∈ |V|V , the scalar zero

V

=

0

∈

|V|

,

or

scalar

multiplication

×

:

|V|

×

|V|

→

|V|

.

0V

S

S

V

V

S

Many-sorted structures are often used as a convenient tool even when they could be avoided with a little eﬀort. But

they are rarely deﬁned in a rigorous way, because it is straightforward and tedious (hence unrewarding) to carry out

the generalization explicitly.

In most mathematical endeavours, not much attention is paid to the sorts. A many-sorted logic however naturally leads

to a type theory. As Bart Jacobs puts it: “A logic is always a logic over a type theory.” This emphasis in turn leads to

categorical logic because a logic over a type theory categorically corresponds to one (“total”) category, capturing the

logic, being ﬁbred over another (“base”) category, capturing the type theory.[6]

**17.6 Other generalizations
**

17.6.1

Partial algebras

Both universal algebra and model theory study classes of (structures or) algebras that are deﬁned by a signature and

a set of axioms. In the case of model theory these axioms have the form of ﬁrst-order sentences. The formalism

of universal algebra is much more restrictive; essentially it only allows ﬁrst-order sentences that have the form of

universally quantiﬁed equations between terms, e.g. x y (x + y = y + x). One consequence is that the choice of a

signature is more signiﬁcant in universal algebra than it is in model theory. For example the class of groups, in the

signature consisting of the binary function symbol × and the constant symbol 1, is an elementary class, but it is not a

variety. Universal algebra solves this problem by adding a unary function symbol −1 .

In the case of ﬁelds this strategy works only for addition. For multiplication it fails because 0 does not have a

multiplicative inverse. An ad hoc attempt to deal with this would be to deﬁne 0−1 = 0. (This attempt fails, essentially

because with this deﬁnition 0 × 0−1 = 1 is not true.) Therefore one is naturally led to allow partial functions, i.e.,

functions that are deﬁned only on a subset of their domain. However, there are several obvious ways to generalize

notions such as substructure, homomorphism and identity.

17.6.2

Structures for typed languages

In type theory, there are many sorts of variables, each of which has a type. Types are inductively deﬁned; given two

types δ and σ there is also a type σ → δ that represents functions from objects of type σ to objects of type δ. A

structure for a typed language (in the ordinary ﬁrst-order semantics) must include a separate set of objects of each

type, and for a function type the structure must have complete information about the function represented by each

object of that type.

17.7. SEE ALSO

17.6.3

83

Higher-order languages

**Main article: Second-order logic
**

There is more than one possible semantics for higher-order logic, as discussed in the article on second-order logic.

When using full higher-order semantics, a structure need only have a universe for objects of type 0, and the T-schema

is extended so that a quantiﬁer over a higher-order type is satisﬁed by the model if and only if it is disquotationally

true. When using ﬁrst-order semantics, an additional sort is added for each higher-order type, as in the case of a

many sorted ﬁrst order language.

17.6.4

Structures that are proper classes

In the study of set theory and category theory, it is sometimes useful to consider structures in which the domain of

discourse is a proper class instead of a set. These structures are sometimes called class models to distinguish them

from the “set models” discussed above. When the domain is a proper class, each function and relation symbol may

also be represented by a proper class.

In Bertrand Russell's Principia Mathematica, structures were also allowed to have a proper class as their domain.

**17.7 See also
**

• Mathematical structure

• Algebraic structure

17.8 Notes

[1] Some authors refer to structures as “algebras” when generalizing universal algebra to allow relations as well as functions.

[2] Wilfrid Hodges (2009). “Functional Modelling and Mathematical Models”. In Anthonie Meijers. Philosophy of technology

and engineering sciences. Handbook of the Philosophy of Science 9. Elsevier. ISBN 978-0-444-51667-1.

[3] This is similar to the deﬁnition of a prime number in elementary number theory, which has been carefully chosen so that

the irreducible number 1 is not considered prime. The convention that the domain of a structure may not be empty is

particularly important in logic, because several common inference rules, notably, universal instantiation, are not sound

when empty structures are permitted. A logical system that allows the empty domain is known as an inclusive logic.

[4] As a consequence of these conventions, the notation |A| may also be used to refer to the cardinality of the domain of A .

In practice this never leads to confusion.

[5] Jeavons, Peter; David Cohen; Justin Pearson (1998), “Constraints and universal algebra”, Annals of Mathematics and

Artiﬁcial Intelligence 24: 51–67, doi:10.1023/A:1018941030227.

[6] Jacobs, Bart (1999), Categorical Logic and Type Theory, Elsevier, pp. 1–4

17.9 References

• Burris, Stanley N.; Sankappanavar, H. P. (1981), A Course in Universal Algebra, Berlin, New York: SpringerVerlag

• Chang, Chen Chung; Keisler, H. Jerome (1989) [1973], Model Theory, Elsevier, ISBN 978-0-7204-0692-4

• Diestel, Reinhard (2005) [1997], Graph Theory, Graduate Texts in Mathematics 173 (3rd ed.), Berlin, New

York: Springer-Verlag, ISBN 978-3-540-26183-4

• Ebbinghaus, Heinz-Dieter; Flum, Jörg; Thomas, Wolfgang (1994), Mathematical Logic (2nd ed.), New York:

Springer, ISBN 978-0-387-94258-2

84

**CHAPTER 17. STRUCTURE (MATHEMATICAL LOGIC)
**

• Hinman, P. (2005), Fundamentals of Mathematical Logic, A K Peters, ISBN 978-1-56881-262-5

• Hodges, Wilfrid (1993), Model theory, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-30442-9

• Hodges, Wilfrid (1997), A shorter model theory, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-52158713-6

• Marker, David (2002), Model Theory: An Introduction, Berlin, New York: Springer-Verlag, ISBN 978-0-38798760-6

• Poizat, Bruno (2000), A Course in Model Theory: An Introduction to Contemporary Mathematical Logic, Berlin,

New York: Springer-Verlag, ISBN 978-0-387-98655-5

• Rautenberg, Wolfgang (2010), A Concise Introduction to Mathematical Logic (3rd ed.), New York: Springer

Science+Business Media, doi:10.1007/978-1-4419-1221-3, ISBN 978-1-4419-1220-6

• Rothmaler, Philipp (2000), Introduction to Model Theory, London: CRC Press, ISBN 978-90-5699-313-9

**17.10 External links
**

• Semantics section in Classical Logic (an entry of Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Chapter 18

Surjective function

“Onto” redirects here. For other uses, see wikt:onto.

In mathematics, a function f from a set X to a set Y is surjective (or onto), or a surjection, if every element y in Y

X

Y

1

D

2

B

3

C

4

A surjective function from domain X to codomain Y. The function is surjective because every point in the codomain is the value of

f(x) for at least one point x in the domain.

85

86

CHAPTER 18. SURJECTIVE FUNCTION

has a corresponding element x in X such that f(x) = y. The function f may map more than one element of X to the

same element of Y.

The term surjective and the related terms injective and bijective were introduced by Nicolas Bourbaki,[1] the pseudonym

for a group of mainly French 20th-century mathematicians who wrote a series of books presenting an exposition of

modern advanced mathematics, beginning in 1935. The French preﬁx sur means over or above and relates to the fact

that the image of the domain of a surjective function completely covers the function’s codomain.

18.1 Deﬁnition

For more details on notation, see Function (mathematics) § Notation.

A surjective function is a function whose image is equal to its codomain. Equivalently, a function f with domain

X and codomain Y is surjective if for every y in Y there exists at least one x in X with f (x) = y . Surjections are

sometimes denoted by a two-headed rightwards arrow (U+21A0 ↠ rightwards two headed arrow),[2] as in f : X ↠

Y.

Symbolically,

If f : X → Y , then f is said to be surjective if

∀y ∈ Y, ∃x ∈ X, f (x) = y

18.2 Examples

For any set X, the identity function idX on X is surjective.

The function f : Z → {0,1} deﬁned by f(n) = n mod 2 (that is, even integers are mapped to 0 and odd integers to 1)

is surjective.

The function f : R → R deﬁned by f(x) = 2x + 1 is surjective (and even bijective), because for every real number y

we have an x such that f(x) = y: an appropriate x is (y − 1)/2.

The function f : R → R deﬁned by f(x) = x3 − 3x is surjective, because the pre-image of any real number y is the

solution set of the cubic polynomial equation x3 − 3x − y = 0 and every cubic polynomial with real coeﬃcients has at

least one real root. However, this function is not injective (and hence not bijective) since e.g. the pre-image of y = 2

is {x = −1, x = 2}. (In fact, the pre-image of this function for every y, −2 ≤ y ≤ 2 has more than one element.)

The function g : R → R deﬁned by g(x) = x2 is not surjective, because there is no real number x such that x2 = −1.

However, the function g : R → R0 + deﬁned by g(x) = x2 (with restricted codomain) is surjective because for every y

in the nonnegative real codomain Y there is at least one x in the real domain X such that x2 = y.

The natural logarithm function ln : (0,+∞) → R is a surjective and even bijective mapping from the set of positive

real numbers to the set of all real numbers. Its inverse, the exponential function, is not surjective as its range is the set

of positive real numbers and its domain is usually deﬁned to be the set of all real numbers. The matrix exponential

is not surjective when seen as a map from the space of all n×n matrices to itself. It is, however, usually deﬁned as a

map from the space of all n×n matrices to the general linear group of degree n, i.e. the group of all n×n invertible

matrices. Under this deﬁnition the matrix exponential is surjective for complex matrices, although still not surjective

for real matrices.

The projection from a cartesian product A × B to one of its factors is surjective unless the other factor is empty.

In a 3D video game vectors are projected onto a 2D ﬂat screen by means of a surjective function.

18.3 Properties

A function is bijective if and only if it is both surjective and injective.

18.3. PROPERTIES

87

f(x)

x

Y

X

f:X→Y

A non-surjective function from domain X to codomain Y. The smaller oval inside Y is the image (also called range) of f. This

function is not surjective, because the image does not ﬁll the whole codomain. In other words, Y is colored in a two-step process:

First, for every x in X, the point f(x) is colored yellow; Second, all the rest of the points in Y, that are not yellow, are colored blue.

The function f is surjective only if there are no blue points.

If (as is often done) a function is identiﬁed with its graph, then surjectivity is not a property of the function itself, but

rather a relationship between the function and its codomain. Unlike injectivity, surjectivity cannot be read oﬀ of the

graph of the function alone.

18.3.1

Surjections as right invertible functions

**The function g : Y → X is said to be a right inverse of the function f : X → Y if f(g(y)) = y for every y in Y (g can be
**

undone by f). In other words, g is a right inverse of f if the composition f o g of g and f in that order is the identity

function on the domain Y of g. The function g need not be a complete inverse of f because the composition in the

other order, g o f, may not be the identity function on the domain X of f. In other words, f can undo or "reverse" g,

but cannot necessarily be reversed by it.

Every function with a right inverse is necessarily a surjection. The proposition that every surjective function has a

right inverse is equivalent to the axiom of choice.

If f : X → Y is surjective and B is a subset of Y, then f(f −1 (B)) = B. Thus, B can be recovered from its preimage

f −1 (B).

For example, in the ﬁrst illustration, there is some function g such that g(C) = 4. There is also some function f such

that f(4) = C. It doesn't matter that g(C) can also equal 3; it only matters that f “reverses” g.

• Another surjective function. (This one happens to be a bijection)

• A non-surjective function. (This one happens to be an injection)

• Surjective composition: the ﬁrst function need not be surjective.

88

CHAPTER 18. SURJECTIVE FUNCTION

y

y

y

Y

im f

y

Y

im f

x

x

x

X

x

f :X

Y

y f x

x

X1

f : X1

y

X2

f : X2

Y1

Y2

f x

**Interpretation for surjective functions in the Cartesian plane, deﬁned by the mapping f : X → Y, where y = f(x), X = domain of
**

function, Y = range of function. Every element in the range is mapped onto from an element in the domain, by the rule f. There

may be a number of domain elements which map to the same range element. That is, every y in Y is mapped from an element x in

X, more than one x can map to the same y. Left: Only one domain is shown which makes f surjective. Right: two possible domains

X1 and X2 are shown.

y

y3

y

y

Y

im f

y2

y

Y

Y

Y

im f

y0

Y

y1

Y

x

x0

X

x

x

X

f :X

Y

y f x

x1

x3

X

x2

x

X1

f : X1

y

X

X

x

Y1

x

X

X2

f : X2

Y2

f x

Non-surjective functions in the Cartesian plane. Although some parts of the function are surjective, where elements y in Y do have

a value x in X such that y = f(x), some parts are not. Left: There is y0 in Y, but there is no x0 in X such that y0 = f(x0 ). Right:

There are y1 , y2 and y3 in Y, but there are no x1 , x2 , and x3 in X such that y1 = f(x1 ), y2 = f(x2 ), and y3 = f(x3 ).

18.3.2

Surjections as epimorphisms

**A function f : X → Y is surjective if and only if it is right-cancellative:[3] given any functions g,h : Y → Z, whenever g
**

o f = h o f, then g = h. This property is formulated in terms of functions and their composition and can be generalized

to the more general notion of the morphisms of a category and their composition. Right-cancellative morphisms are

called epimorphisms. Speciﬁcally, surjective functions are precisely the epimorphisms in the category of sets. The

18.4. SEE ALSO

89

**preﬁx epi is derived from the Greek preposition ἐπί meaning over, above, on.
**

Any morphism with a right inverse is an epimorphism, but the converse is not true in general. A right inverse g of a

morphism f is called a section of f. A morphism with a right inverse is called a split epimorphism.

18.3.3

Surjections as binary relations

Any function with domain X and codomain Y can be seen as a left-total and right-unique binary relation between X

and Y by identifying it with its function graph. A surjective function with domain X and codomain Y is then a binary

relation between X and Y that is right-unique and both left-total and right-total.

18.3.4

Cardinality of the domain of a surjection

**The cardinality of the domain of a surjective function is greater than or equal to the cardinality of its codomain: If f
**

: X → Y is a surjective function, then X has at least as many elements as Y, in the sense of cardinal numbers. (The

proof appeals to the axiom of choice to show that a function g : Y → X satisfying f(g(y)) = y for all y in Y exists. g

is easily seen to be injective, thus the formal deﬁnition of |Y| ≤ |X| is satisﬁed.)

Speciﬁcally, if both X and Y are ﬁnite with the same number of elements, then f : X → Y is surjective if and only if

f is injective.

18.3.5

Composition and decomposition

**The composite of surjective functions is always surjective: If f and g are both surjective, and the codomain of g
**

is equal to the domain of f, then f o g is surjective. Conversely, if f o g is surjective, then f is surjective (but g,

the function applied ﬁrst, need not be). These properties generalize from surjections in the category of sets to any

epimorphisms in any category.

Any function can be decomposed into a surjection and an injection: For any function h : X → Z there exist a surjection

f : X → Y and an injection g : Y → Z such that h = g o f. To see this, deﬁne Y to be the sets h −1 (z) where z is in

Z. These sets are disjoint and partition X. Then f carries each x to the element of Y which contains it, and g carries

each element of Y to the point in Z to which h sends its points. Then f is surjective since it is a projection map, and

g is injective by deﬁnition.

18.3.6

Induced surjection and induced bijection

Any function induces a surjection by restricting its codomain to its range. Any surjective function induces a bijection

deﬁned on a quotient of its domain by collapsing all arguments mapping to a given ﬁxed image. More precisely, every

surjection f : A → B can be factored as a projection followed by a bijection as follows. Let A/~ be the equivalence

classes of A under the following equivalence relation: x ~ y if and only if f(x) = f(y). Equivalently, A/~ is the set of

all preimages under f. Let P(~) : A → A/~ be the projection map which sends each x in A to its equivalence class

[x]~, and let fP : A/~ → B be the well-deﬁned function given by fP([x]~) = f(x). Then f = fP o P(~).

**18.4 See also
**

• Bijection, injection and surjection

• Cover (algebra)

• Covering map

• Enumeration

• Fiber bundle

• Index set

• Section (category theory)

90

CHAPTER 18. SURJECTIVE FUNCTION

18.5 Notes

[1] “Injection, Surjection and Bijection”, Earliest Uses of Some of the Words of Mathematics, Tripod |ﬁrst1= missing |last1= in

Authors list (help).

[2] “Arrows – Unicode” (PDF). Retrieved 2013-05-11.

[3] Goldblatt, Robert (2006) [1984]. Topoi, the Categorial Analysis of Logic (Revised ed.). Dover Publications. ISBN 978-0486-45026-1. Retrieved 2009-11-25.

18.6 References

• Bourbaki, Nicolas (2004) [1968]. Theory of Sets. Springer. ISBN 978-3-540-22525-6.

Chapter 19

Unary operation

In mathematics, a unary operation is an operation with only one operand, i.e. a single input. An example is the

function f : A → A , where A is a set. The function f is a unary operation on A.

Common notations are preﬁx notation (e.g. +, −, not), postﬁx notation (e.g. factorial n!), functional notation (e.g.

sin x or sin (x)), and superscripts (e.g. transpose AT ). Other notations exist as well. For example, in the case of the

square root, a horizontal bar extending the square root sign over the argument can indicate the extent of the argument.

**19.1 Unary negative and positive
**

As unary operations have only one operand they are evaluated before other operations containing them in common

mathematics (because certain programming languages do not abide by such rules). Here is an example using negation:

3 − −2

Here the ﬁrst '−' represents the binary subtraction operation, while the second '−' represents the unary negation of the

2 (or '−2' could be taken to mean the integer −2). Therefore, the expression is equal to:

3 − (−2) = 5

Technically there is also a unary positive but it is not needed since we assume a value to be positive:

(+2) = 2

Unary positive does not change the sign of a negative operation:

(+(−2)) = (−2)

In this case a unary negative is needed to change the sign:

(−(−2)) = (+2)

**19.2 Examples from programming languages
**

19.2.1

C family of languages

**In the C family of languages, the following operators are unary:
**

• Increment: ++x, x++

91

92

**CHAPTER 19. UNARY OPERATION
**

• Decrement: −−x, x−−

• Address: &x

• Indirection: *x

• Positive: +x

• Negative: −x

• One’s complement: ~x

• Logical negation: !x

• Sizeof: sizeof x, sizeof(type-name)

• Cast: (type-name) cast-expression

19.2.2

Unix Shell (Bash)

In the Unix/Linux shell (bash/sh), '$' is a unary operator when used for parameter expansion, replacing the name of

a variable by its (sometimes modiﬁed) value. For example:

• Simple expansion: $x

• Complex expansion: ${#x}

19.2.3

Other languages

Windows PowerShell

• Increment: ++$x, $x++

• Decrement: −−$x, $x−−

• Positive: +$x

• Negative: −$x

• Logical negation: -not $x

• Invoke in current scope: .$x

• Invoke in new scope: &$x

• Cast: [type-name] cast-expression

**19.3 See also
**

• Binary operation

• Ternary operation

• Arity

• Operation (mathematics)

• Operator (programming)

19.4 References

• Matt Insall, “Unary Operation”, MathWorld.

Chapter 20

Universal algebra

Universal algebra (sometimes called general algebra) is the ﬁeld of mathematics that studies algebraic structures

themselves, not examples (“models”) of algebraic structures. For instance, rather than take particular groups as the

object of study, in universal algebra one takes “the theory of groups” as an object of study.

**20.1 Basic idea
**

In universal algebra, an algebra (or algebraic structure) is a set A together with a collection of operations on A.

An n-ary operation on A is a function that takes n elements of A and returns a single element of A. Thus, a 0-ary

operation (or nullary operation) can be represented simply as an element of A, or a constant, often denoted by a

letter like a. A 1-ary operation (or unary operation) is simply a function from A to A, often denoted by a symbol

placed in front of its argument, like ~x. A 2-ary operation (or binary operation) is often denoted by a symbol placed

between its arguments, like x ∗ y. Operations of higher or unspeciﬁed arity are usually denoted by function symbols,

with the arguments placed in parentheses

and separated by commas, like f(x,y,z) or f(x1 ,...,xn). Some researchers

∧

allow inﬁnitary operations, such as α∈J xα where J is an inﬁnite index set, thus leading into the algebraic theory

of complete lattices. One way of talking about an algebra, then, is by referring to it as an algebra of a certain type Ω

, where Ω is an ordered sequence of natural numbers representing the arity of the operations of the algebra.

20.1.1

Equations

After the operations have been speciﬁed, the nature of the algebra can be further limited by axioms, which in universal

algebra often take the form of identities, or equational laws. An example is the associative axiom for a binary

operation, which is given by the equation x ∗ (y ∗ z) = (x ∗ y) ∗ z. The axiom is intended to hold for all elements x, y,

and z of the set A.

20.2 Varieties

Main article: Variety (universal algebra)

An algebraic structure that can be deﬁned by identities is called a variety, and these are suﬃciently important that

some authors consider varieties the only object of study in universal algebra, while others consider them an object.

Restricting one’s study to varieties rules out:

• Predicate logic, notably quantiﬁcation, including universal quantiﬁcation ( ∀ ), except before an equation, and

existential quantiﬁcation ( ∃ )

• All relations except equality, in particular inequalities, both a ≠ b and order relations

93

94

CHAPTER 20. UNIVERSAL ALGEBRA

In this narrower deﬁnition, universal algebra can be seen as a special branch of model theory, typically dealing with

structures having operations only (i.e. the type can have symbols for functions but not for relations other than equality),

and in which the language used to talk about these structures uses equations only.

Not all algebraic structures in a wider sense fall into this scope. For example ordered groups are not studied in

mainstream universal algebra because they involve an ordering relation.

A more fundamental restriction is that universal algebra cannot study the class of ﬁelds, because there is no type

(a.k.a. signature) in which all ﬁeld laws can be written as equations (inverses of elements are deﬁned for all non-zero

elements in a ﬁeld, so inversion cannot simply be added to the type).

One advantage of this restriction is that the structures studied in universal algebra can be deﬁned in any category that

has ﬁnite products. For example, a topological group is just a group in the category of topological spaces.

20.2.1

Examples

Most of the usual algebraic systems of mathematics are examples of varieties, but not always in an obvious way – the

usual deﬁnitions often involve quantiﬁcation or inequalities.

Groups

To see how this works, let’s consider the deﬁnition of a group. Normally a group is deﬁned in terms of a single binary

operation ∗, subject to these axioms:

• Associativity (as in the previous section): x ∗ (y ∗ z) = (x ∗ y) ∗ z; formally: ∀x,y,z. x∗(y∗z)=(x∗y)∗z.

• Identity element: There exists an element e such that for each element x, e ∗ x = x = x ∗ e; formally: ∃e ∀x.

e∗x=x=x∗e.

• Inverse element: It can easily be seen that the identity element is unique. If this unique identity element is

denoted by e then for each x, there exists an element i such that x ∗ i = e = i ∗ x; formally: ∀x ∃i. x∗i=e=i∗x.

(Some authors also use an axiom called "closure", stating that x ∗ y belongs to the set A whenever x and y do. But

from a universal algebraist’s point of view, that is already implied by calling ∗ a binary operation.)

This deﬁnition of a group is problematic from the point of view of universal algebra. The reason is that the axioms of

the identity element and inversion are not stated purely in terms of equational laws but also have clauses involving the

phrase “there exists ... such that ...”. This is inconvenient; the list of group properties can be simpliﬁed to universally

quantiﬁed equations by adding a nullary operation e and a unary operation ~ in addition to the binary operation ∗.

Then list the axioms for these three operations as follows:

• Associativity: x ∗ (y ∗ z) = (x ∗ y) ∗ z.

• Identity element: e ∗ x = x = x ∗ e; formally: ∀x. e∗x=x=x∗e.

• Inverse element: x ∗ (~x) = e = (~x) ∗ x formally: ∀x. x∗~x=e=~x∗x.

(Of course, we usually write "x−1 " instead of "~x", which shows that the notation for operations of low arity is not

always as given in the second paragraph.)

What has changed is that in the usual deﬁnition there are:

• a single binary operation (signature (2))

• 1 equational law (associativity)

• 2 quantiﬁed laws (identity and inverse)

...while in the universal algebra deﬁnition there are

• 3 operations: one binary, one unary, and one nullary (signature (2,1,0))

20.3. BASIC CONSTRUCTIONS

95

**• 3 equational laws (associativity, identity, and inverse)
**

• no quantiﬁed laws (except for outermost universal quantiﬁers which are allowed in varieties)

It is important to check that this really does capture the deﬁnition of a group. The reason that it might not is that

specifying one of these universal groups might give more information than specifying one of the usual kind of group.

After all, nothing in the usual deﬁnition said that the identity element e was unique; if there is another identity element

e', then it is ambiguous which one should be the value of the nullary operator e. Proving that it is unique is a common

beginning exercise in classical group theory textbooks. The same thing is true of inverse elements. So, the universal

algebraist’s deﬁnition of a group is equivalent to the usual deﬁnition.

At ﬁrst glance this is simply a technical diﬀerence, replacing quantiﬁed laws with equational laws. However, it has

immediate practical consequences – when deﬁning a group object in category theory, where the object in question

may not be a set, one must use equational laws (which make sense in general categories), and cannot use quantiﬁed

laws (which do not make sense, as objects in general categories do not have elements). Further, the perspective

of universal algebra insists not only that the inverse and identity exist, but that they be maps in the category. The

basic example is of a topological group – not only must the inverse exist element-wise, but the inverse map must be

continuous (some authors also require the identity map to be a closed inclusion, hence coﬁbration, again referring to

properties of the map).

**20.3 Basic constructions
**

We assume that the type, Ω , has been ﬁxed. Then there are three basic constructions in universal algebra: homomorphic image, subalgebra, and product.

A homomorphism between two algebras A and B is a function h: A → B from the set A to the set B such that, for every

operation fA of A and corresponding fB of B (of arity, say, n), h(fA(x1 ,...,xn)) = fB(h(x1 ),...,h(xn)). (Sometimes

the subscripts on f are taken oﬀ when it is clear from context which algebra your function is from) For example, if

e is a constant (nullary operation), then h(eA) = eB. If ~ is a unary operation, then h(~x) = ~h(x). If ∗ is a binary

operation, then h(x ∗ y) = h(x) ∗ h(y). And so on. A few of the things that can be done with homomorphisms, as well

as deﬁnitions of certain special kinds of homomorphisms, are listed under the entry Homomorphism. In particular,

we can take the homomorphic image of an algebra, h(A).

A subalgebra of A is a subset of A that is closed under all the operations of A. A product of some set of algebraic

structures is the cartesian product of the sets with the operations deﬁned coordinatewise.

**20.4 Some basic theorems
**

• The isomorphism theorems, which encompass the isomorphism theorems of groups, rings, modules, etc.

• Birkhoﬀ’s HSP Theorem, which states that a class of algebras is a variety if and only if it is closed under

homomorphic images, subalgebras, and arbitrary direct products.

**20.5 Motivations and applications
**

In addition to its unifying approach, universal algebra also gives deep theorems and important examples and counterexamples. It provides a useful framework for those who intend to start the study of new classes of algebras. It can

enable the use of methods invented for some particular classes of algebras to other classes of algebras, by recasting

the methods in terms of universal algebra (if possible), and then interpreting these as applied to other classes. It has

also provided conceptual clariﬁcation; as J.D.H. Smith puts it, “What looks messy and complicated in a particular

framework may turn out to be simple and obvious in the proper general one.”

In particular, universal algebra can be applied to the study of monoids, rings, and lattices. Before universal algebra

came along, many theorems (most notably the isomorphism theorems) were proved separately in all of these ﬁelds,

but with universal algebra, they can be proven once and for all for every kind of algebraic system.

The 1956 paper by Higgins referenced below has been well followed up for its framework for a range of particular

algebraic systems, while his 1963 paper is notable for its discussion of algebras with operations which are only partially

96

CHAPTER 20. UNIVERSAL ALGEBRA

deﬁned, typical examples for this being categories and groupoids. This leads on to the subject of higher-dimensional

algebra which can be deﬁned as the study of algebraic theories with partial operations whose domains are deﬁned under

geometric conditions. Notable examples of these are various forms of higher-dimensional categories and groupoids.

20.6 Generalizations

Further information: Category theory, Operad theory and Partial algebra

A more generalised programme along these lines is carried out by category theory. Given a list of operations and

axioms in universal algebra, the corresponding algebras and homomorphisms are the objects and morphisms of a

category. Category theory applies to many situations where universal algebra does not, extending the reach of the

theorems. Conversely, many theorems that hold in universal algebra do not generalise all the way to category theory.

Thus both ﬁelds of study are useful.

A more recent development in category theory that generalizes operations is operad theory – an operad is a set of

operations, similar to a universal algebra.

Another development is partial algebra where the operators can be partial functions.

20.7 History

In Alfred North Whitehead's book A Treatise on Universal Algebra, published in 1898, the term universal algebra

had essentially the same meaning that it has today. Whitehead credits William Rowan Hamilton and Augustus De

Morgan as originators of the subject matter, and James Joseph Sylvester with coining the term itself.[1]

At the time structures such as Lie algebras and hyperbolic quaternions drew attention to the need to expand algebraic

structures beyond the associatively multiplicative class. In a review Alexander Macfarlane wrote: “The main idea of

the work is not uniﬁcation of the several methods, nor generalization of ordinary algebra so as to include them, but

rather the comparative study of their several structures.” At the time George Boole's algebra of logic made a strong

counterpoint to ordinary number algebra, so the term “universal” served to calm strained sensibilities.

Whitehead’s early work sought to unify quaternions (due to Hamilton), Grassmann's Ausdehnungslehre, and Boole’s

algebra of logic. Whitehead wrote in his book:

“Such algebras have an intrinsic value for separate detailed study; also they are worthy of comparative

study, for the sake of the light thereby thrown on the general theory of symbolic reasoning, and on algebraic

symbolism in particular. The comparative study necessarily presupposes some previous separate study,

comparison being impossible without knowledge.” [2]

Whitehead, however, had no results of a general nature. Work on the subject was minimal until the early 1930s,

when Garrett Birkhoﬀ and Øystein Ore began publishing on universal algebras. Developments in metamathematics

and category theory in the 1940s and 1950s furthered the ﬁeld, particularly the work of Abraham Robinson, Alfred

Tarski, Andrzej Mostowski, and their students (Brainerd 1967).

In the period between 1935 and 1950, most papers were written along the lines suggested by Birkhoﬀ’s papers, dealing

with free algebras, congruence and subalgebra lattices, and homomorphism theorems. Although the development of

mathematical logic had made applications to algebra possible, they came about slowly; results published by Anatoly

Maltsev in the 1940s went unnoticed because of the war. Tarski’s lecture at the 1950 International Congress of

Mathematicians in Cambridge ushered in a new period in which model-theoretic aspects were developed, mainly by

Tarski himself, as well as C.C. Chang, Leon Henkin, Bjarni Jónsson, Roger Lyndon, and others.

In the late 1950s, Edward Marczewski[3] emphasized the importance of free algebras, leading to the publication of

more than 50 papers on the algebraic theory of free algebras by Marczewski himself, together with Jan Mycielski,

Władysław Narkiewicz, Witold Nitka, J. Płonka, S. Świerczkowski, K. Urbanik, and others.

20.8. SEE ALSO

97

**20.8 See also
**

• Graph algebra

• Homomorphism

• Lattice theory

• Signature

• Term algebra

• Variety

• Clone

• Universal algebraic geometry

• Model theory

20.9 Footnotes

[1] Grätzer, George. Universal Algebra, Van Nostrand Co., Inc., 1968, p. v.

[2] Quoted in Grätzer, George. Universal Algebra, Van Nostrand Co., Inc., 1968.

[3] Marczewski, E. “A general scheme of the notions of independence in mathematics.” Bull. Acad. Polon. Sci. Ser. Sci.

Math. Astronom. Phys. 6 (1958), 731–736.

20.10 References

• Bergman, George M., 1998. An Invitation to General Algebra and Universal Constructions (pub. Henry Helson,

15 the Crescent, Berkeley CA, 94708) 398 pp. ISBN 0-9655211-4-1.

• Birkhoﬀ, Garrett, 1946. Universal algebra. Comptes Rendus du Premier Congrès Canadien de Mathématiques,

University of Toronto Press, Toronto, pp. 310–326.

• Brainerd, Barron, Aug–Sep 1967. Review of Universal Algebra by P. M. Cohn. American Mathematical

Monthly, 74(7): 878–880.

• Burris, Stanley N., and H.P. Sankappanavar, 1981. A Course in Universal Algebra Springer-Verlag. ISBN

3-540-90578-2 Free online edition.

• Cohn, Paul Moritz, 1981. Universal Algebra. Dordrecht, Netherlands: D.Reidel Publishing. ISBN 90-2771213-1 (First published in 1965 by Harper & Row)

• Freese, Ralph, and Ralph McKenzie, 1987. Commutator Theory for Congruence Modular Varieties, 1st ed.

London Mathematical Society Lecture Note Series, 125. Cambridge Univ. Press. ISBN 0-521-34832-3. Free

online second edition.

• Grätzer, George, 1968. Universal Algebra D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc.

• Higgins, P. J. Groups with multiple operators. Proc. London Math. Soc. (3) 6 (1956), 366–416.

• Higgins, P.J., Algebras with a scheme of operators. Mathematische Nachrichten (27) (1963) 115–132.

• Hobby, David, and Ralph McKenzie, 1988. The Structure of Finite Algebras American Mathematical Society.

ISBN 0-8218-3400-2. Free online edition.

• Jipsen, Peter, and Henry Rose, 1992. Varieties of Lattices, Lecture Notes in Mathematics 1533. Springer

Verlag. ISBN 0-387-56314-8. Free online edition.

• Pigozzi, Don. General Theory of Algebras.

• Smith, J.D.H., 1976. Mal'cev Varieties, Springer-Verlag.

• Whitehead, Alfred North, 1898. A Treatise on Universal Algebra, Cambridge. (Mainly of historical interest.)

98

CHAPTER 20. UNIVERSAL ALGEBRA

**20.11 External links
**

• Algebra Universalis—a journal dedicated to Universal Algebra.

20.12. TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES

99

**20.12 Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses
**

20.12.1

Text

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Derksen, Zundark, Xaonon, Danny, Oliverkroll, Kurt Jansson, Stevertigo, Patrick, Michael Hardy, Kku, Александър, Revolver, Charles

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Giftlite, Everyking, Georgesawyer, Wyss, Simon Lacoste-Julien, Jorend, Hkpawn~enwiki, TheObtuseAngleOfDoom, Possession, Noisy,

Rich Farmbrough, Pak21, Paul August, Gauge, Aranel, El C, PhilHibbs, Robotje, Jumbuck, Keenan Pepper, ABCD, Hu, Julioc, LOL,

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100

CHAPTER 20. UNIVERSAL ALGEBRA

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102

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Ropestring, Edward Gordon Gey, EliteforceMMA, Karthickraj007, VirusKA, MYustin, Brad7777, Idresjafary, Nbrothers, IkamusumeFan, Kavy32, Sklange, Blevintron, BlevintronBot, Sulphuric Glue, Dexbot, Rezonansowy, Mudcap, Augustus Leonhardus Cartesius,

Pankaj Jyoti Mahanta, Ybidzian, TycoonSaad, Jarash, Chern038, FireﬂySixtySeven, Kind Tennis Fan, Justin86789, 12visakhva, Dodi

8238, Rcehy, Vanisheduser00348374562342, 115ash, AdditionSubtraction, Mario Castelán Castro, Arvind asia, Rctillinghast, KasparBot, Kaﬁshabbir and Anonymous: 1222

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Michael Hardy, Voidvector, Hectorthebat, TowerDragon, Filemon, Yekrats, Gubbubu, Beland, Pmanderson, Iantresman, Rich Farmbrough, ArnoldReinhold, Dbachmann, Paul August, Zaslav, EmilJ, Jumbuck, Oleg Alexandrov, Igny, Salix alba, Mike Segal, Magidin,

YurikBot, SmackBot, Silly rabbit, Octahedron80, Darth Panda, Jon Awbrey, BryanG, SashatoBot, Lambiam, Bjankuloski06en~enwiki,

Alpha Omicron, Mets501, JRSpriggs, CmdrObot, CBM, Pointlessness, Gregbard, Julian Mendez, Thijs!bot, Pjvpjv, Icep, Mhaitham.shammaa,

Kerdek, JAnDbot, JamesBWatson, David Eppstein, R'n'B, VolkovBot, LokiClock, Dependent Variable, SieBot, Iamthedeus, Gerakibot,

Paolo.dL, Se16teddy, Denisarona, Justin W Smith, Alexbot, Hans Adler, DumZiBoT, SilvonenBot, Addbot, Pelex, CarsracBot, Zorrobot, Daniele Pugliesi, ArthurBot, Xqbot, Shades97, Kallikanzarid, TobeBot, Reach Out to the Truth, Alph Bot, EmausBot, Lipsio,

QuentinUK, Quondum, FinalRapture, Paulmiko, ChuispastonBot, ClueBot NG, Master Uegly, Quantamﬂux, MerlIwBot, Arcane21,

Yardimsever, Barymar, IvanZhilin and Anonymous: 29

• Order theory Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Order_theory?oldid=666554129 Contributors: Bryan Derksen, Toby Bartels, Michael

Hardy, Dineshjk, Ehn, Charles Matthews, Dcoetzee, Jitse Niesen, Wik, Natevw, VeryVerily, Populus, Topbanana, Robbot, Henrygb, ElBenevolente, Tobias Bergemann, Giftlite, Markus Krötzsch, Elias, DefLog~enwiki, Yarnover, APH, SimonLyall, Xrchz, Abar, Pjacobi,

Paul August, Tompw, Nickj, Themusicgod1, Lysdexia, Arthena, Joriki, Linas, Jeﬀ3000, Josh Parris, Salix alba, Mathbot, Hairy Dude,

Dmharvey, Trovatore, Ott2, Arthur Rubin, Modify, Netrapt, That Guy, From That Show!, SmackBot, KnowledgeOfSelf, Mhss, Bluebot, RDBrown, Cybercobra, Kntrabssi, Dreadstar, JohnI, 16@r, Loadmaster, Dicklyon, Landonproctor, Levineps, Dreftymac, Majora4,

CRGreathouse, CBM, Sam Staton, Skittleys, Ankit mcgill, MER-C, VoABot II, David Eppstein, Gwern, Maurice Carbonaro, Inquam,

Daniel5Ko, Jorfer, JohnBlackburne, Trondarild, Philip Trueman, GcSwRhIc, The Tetrast, Magmi, Geometry guy, Tomaxer, StevenJohnston, AS, Anchor Link Bot, Randomblue, ClueBot, Justin W Smith, Hans Adler, Wikidsp, Addbot, Barak Sh, Badou517, Legobot,

Buenasdiaz, Smallman12q, Tuetschek, FrescoBot, Mark Renier, Orhanghazi, Chenopodiaceous, Gamewizard71, Genezistan, John of

Reading, Dadaist6174, ClueBot NG, Syamino, MerlIwBot, Helpful Pixie Bot, Knwlgc, VolunBute, Brad7777, Nicuchalan1, K401sTL3,

JaconaFrere, Srlgator, Pheello87, KasparBot and Anonymous: 59

• Outline of algebraic structures Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Outline_of_algebraic_structures?oldid=635868033 Contributors:

Zundark, Michael Hardy, GTBacchus, Charles Matthews, Aleph4, Enochlau, Giftlite, Waltpohl, D6, EmilJ, Mdd, Mysdaao, Woohookitty,

Tizio, Salix alba, Dar-Ape, RussBot, Michael Slone, Grubber, Grafen, Trovatore, Reyk, Netrapt, SmackBot, Melchoir, Concerned cynic,

FlyHigh, Gennaro Prota, JorisvS, Dr Greg, Rschwieb, Simon12, Zero sharp, Myasuda, Chris83, DustinBernard, Pjvpjv, RobHar, Nick

Number, Icep, Lovibond, The Transhumanist, MetsBot, David Eppstein, Jacobko, JaGa, Gwern, R'n'B, Jeepday, Station1, Dirkbb,

Paolo.dL, Fratrep, StaticGull, Pakaraki, JP.Martin-Flatin, Sun Creator, Hans Adler, Lambtron, Palnot, Magnesium, DrilBot, Jujutacular,

Gamewizard71, Quondum, ClueBot NG, Wcherowi, Frietjes, DPL bot, Brad7777, Herrmannda, CsDix, MofoJones and Anonymous: 24

• Structure (mathematical logic) Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Structure_(mathematical_logic)?oldid=663385071 Contributors:

Michael Hardy, Hyacinth, Rorro, Tobias Bergemann, Giftlite, Jason Quinn, Jabowery, D6, Spayrard, Oleg Alexandrov, Linas, Salix

alba, John Baez, Jrtayloriv, Algebraist, Grubber, Archelon, Trovatore, Zwobot, Mhss, Byelf2007, Physis, Simon12, CBM, Gregbard,

Salgueiro~enwiki, DWIII, Swpb, Thehalfone, R'n'B, Ps ttf, VolkovBot, Crisperdue, Jorgen W, Niceguyedc, Hans Adler, Addbot, DOI

bot, Drpickem, Ht686rg90, Pcap, KamikazeBot, Citation bot, Xqbot, FrescoBot, Kwiki, Citation bot 1, Adlerbot, RedBot, Nascar1996,

Wojowu, RjwilmsiBot, EmausBot, Tijfo098, Jiri 1984, Helpful Pixie Bot and Anonymous: 26

• Surjective function Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surjective_function?oldid=670090862 Contributors: AxelBoldt, Tarquin, Amillar, XJaM, Toby Bartels, Michael Hardy, Wshun, Pit~enwiki, Karada, Александър, Glenn, Jeandré du Toit, Hashar, Hawthorn, Charles

Matthews, Dysprosia, David Shay, Ed g2s, Phil Boswell, Aleph4, Robbot, Fredrik, Tobias Bergemann, Giftlite, Lethe, Jason Quinn,

Jorge Stolﬁ, Matt Crypto, Keeyu, Rheun, MarkSweep, AmarChandra, Tsemii, TheObtuseAngleOfDoom, Vivacissamamente, Rich Farmbrough, Quistnix, Paul August, Bender235, Nandhp, Kevin Lamoreau, Larry V, Obradovic Goran, Dallashan~enwiki, ABCD, Schapel,

Oleg Alexandrov, Tbsmith, Mindmatrix, LOL, Rjwilmsi, MarSch, FlaBot, Chobot, Manscher, Algebraist, Angus Lepper, Ksnortum,

Rick Norwood, Sbyrnes321, SmackBot, Rotemliss, Bluebot, TedE, Soapergem, Dreadstar, Saippuakauppias, MickPurcell, 16@r, Inquisitus, CBM, MatthewMain, Gregbard, Marqueed, Sam Staton, Pjvpjv, Prolog, Salgueiro~enwiki, JAnDbot, JamesBWatson, JJ Harrison,

Martynas Patasius, MartinBot, TechnoFaye, Malerin, Dubhe.sk, Theabsurd, UnicornTapestry, Eliuha gmail.com, Anonymous Dissident,

SieBot, SLMarcus, Paolo.dL, Peiresc~enwiki, Classicalecon, UKoch, Watchduck, Bender2k14, SchreiberBike, Neuralwarp, Petru Dimitriu, Matthieumarechal, Kal-El-Bot, Addbot, Download, PV=nRT, ماني, Zorrobot, Jarble, Legobot, Luckas-bot, Yobot, Fraggle81, II

MusLiM HyBRiD II, Xqbot, TechBot, Shvahabi, Raﬀamaiden, Omnipaedista, Applebringer, Erik9bot, LucienBOT, Tbhotch, Xnn, Jowa

fan, EmausBot, PrisonerOfIce, WikitanvirBot, GoingBatty, Sasuketiimer, Maschen, Mjbmrbot, Anita5192, ClueBot NG, Helpful Pixie

Bot, BG19bot, Cispyre, Lfahlberg, JPaestpreornJeolhlna, TranquilHope and Anonymous: 87

20.12. TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES

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Patrick, Wshun, Voidvector, Andres, Seth Arlington, Charles Matthews, Robbot, Fredrik, Giftlite, Paul Pogonyshev, Macrakis, Jacob

grace, Pmanderson, Tzarius, Andreas Kaufmann, Mormegil, Noisy, Rich Farmbrough, Forderud, Oleg Alexandrov, Japanese Searobin,

Gsnxn, Ruud Koot, MFH, Isnow, Salix alba, Tardis, JPD, YurikBot, Bota47, Kjak, SmackBot, RDBury, Gelingvistoj, Bluebot, Octahedron80, Dﬂetter, Richard L. Peterson, Eassin, Pointlessness, Lark ascending, PamD, Thijs!bot, Headbomb, Mhaitham.shammaa,

Ianare, Salgueiro~enwiki, JAnDbot, Burga, JoergenB, Gwern, R'n'B, BlGene, TXiKiBoT, Anonymous Dissident, Gerakibot, Alksentrs,

JP.Martin-Flatin, Jedihawk, Addbot, Ghettoblaster, Btx40, Download, Zorrobot, Legobot, Bunnyhop11, Ztianjin, Erik9bot, Alph Bot,

EmausBot, Quondum, Kodefuguru, BG19bot, Creation FrOH, Pratyya Ghosh, Quenhitran and Anonymous: 41

• Universal algebra Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Universal_algebra?oldid=653169020 Contributors: AxelBoldt, Bryan Derksen,

Zundark, Andre Engels, Toby~enwiki, Toby Bartels, Youandme, Michael Hardy, GTBacchus, Andres, Revolver, Charles Matthews,

Dysprosia, Aleph4, Robbot, Fredrik, Sanders muc, Kowey, Fuelbottle, Giftlite, APH, Sam Hocevar, AlexChurchill, Zaslav, Tompw,

Rgdboer, EmilJ, AshtonBenson, Msh210, ABCD, Linas, Mindmatrix, Smmurphy, Isnow, Magidin, Jrtayloriv, Wavelength, Hairy Dude,

Chaos, Wiki alf, Arthur Rubin, RonnieBrown, SmackBot, El Fahno, Alink, Nbarth, Zvar, Spakoj~enwiki, Henning Makholm, WillowW,

HStel, Sam Staton, Sadeghd, Rlupsa, Knotwork, JAnDbot, Sean Tilson, Twisted86, David Eppstein, JaGa, Pavel Jelínek, Trusilver,

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Algebran, Addbot, Delaszk, Loupeter, Legobot, Yobot, Ptbotgourou, AnomieBOT, RibotBOT, Oursipan, Thehelpfulbot, Ilovegrouptheory, D stankov, Yaddie, Rausch, Eivuokko, Nascar1996, GoingBatty, Quondum, ClueBot NG, Bezik, Frietjes, MerlIwBot, Beaumont877,

Brad7777, Duxwing, Jochen Burghardt, NQ, JMP EAX and Anonymous: 60

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