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ECM3707

UNIVERSITY OF EXETER
COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING,
MATHEMATICS AND
PHYSICAL SCIENCES
MATHEMATICS
May 2013
Fluid Dynamics
Module Leader: Andrew D. Gilbert
Duration: 2 HOURS.
The mark for this module is calculated from 80% of the percentage mark for
this paper plus 20% of the percentage mark for associated coursework.

Answer Section A (50%) and any TWO of the three questions in


Section B (25% for each).
Marks shown in questions are merely a guideline. Candidates are permitted to use approved portable electronic calculators in this examination.
This is a CLOSED BOOK examination.

USEFUL FORMULAE
R
R
The Divergence Theorem is:
F n dS = V F dV
S
for a vector field F (x), where V is a volume bounded by a surface S with
outward unit normal n. For a scalar field (x), it has the more general form
Z
Z
Z
Z

dV
or
n dS =
dV.
ni dS =
S
V
S
V xi
The Navier-Stokes equation for a constant density fluid is
Du
u

+ u u = 1 p + g + 2 u
Dt
t

with

u = 0.

and = /. Eulers equation is the special inviscid case = 0.


Vector identities
The following standard vector calculus identities may be used without proof:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
(vi)

(v) = v + v ,
(v) = v + v,
(u v) = v u u v,
(u v) = u( v) v( u) + (v )u (u )v,
u ( v) + v ( u) = (u v) (u )v (v )u,
( u) = ( u) 2 u.

Formulae in spherical polar coordinates (r, , ):


In spherical polar coordinates
r xi + yj + zk = r sin cos i + r sin sin j + r cos k
and vector differential operators are given by
=

1
1

r +
+
,
r
r
r sin

1 2
1

1 F
(r Fr ) +
(sin F ) +
,
2
r r
r sin
r sin


r

r
sin



1
,
F = 2
/r
/
/

r sin
Fr
rF r sin F

F =

Page 2 of 8

ECM3707/continued . . .

1
= 2
r r
2

r
r
2

+ 2
r sin

sin


+

1
2
.
r2 sin2 2

The volume element is dV = r2 sin dr d d and the area element on a


sphere of radius a is dS = a2 sin d d. The operator E 2 is given by


2 sin
1
2
E =
.
+ 2
r2
r sin
Formulae in cylindrical polar coordinates (r, , z):
),
In cylindrical polar coordinates (with k z
r xi + yj + zk = r cos i + r sin j + z k
and vector differential operators are given by
=

,
r +
+
z
r
r
z

1
1 F Fz
(rFr ) +
+
,
r r
r
z


r

z

1
F = /r / /z ,
r
Fr
rF
Fz


1

1 2 2
2
r
+ 2
+ 2 .
=
r r
r
r 2
z
F =

The volume element is dV = r dr d dz and the area element on a cylinder of


radius a is dS = a d dz.
Formulae in plane polar coordinates (r, ):
In plane polar coordinates vector differential operators are given by
=

1
r +
,
r
r

F =

1
=
r r
2

r
r


+

1
1 F
(rFr ) +
,
r r
r
1 2
.
r2 2

The area element is dS = r dr d.

Page 3 of 8

ECM3707/continued . . .

SECTION A
1. (a) Define the Kronecker delta symbol ij and the epsilon symbol ijk .
Prove the vector calculus identities:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)

(v) = v + v ,
v = 0,
( u) = ( u) 2 u.

[Hint: you may use ijk ilm = jl km jm kl without proof.]

[10]

(b) Consider the twodimensional steady flow of fluid, constant


density , viscosity , down a fixed plane inclined at an angle
to the horizontal. Distance down the plane is measured by x
and distance normal to the plane is measured by y. Relative to
these coordinates flow is unidirectional u = (u(y), 0) and gravity
is g = g(sin , cos ). The surface of the fluid at y = H is
free to the atmosphere, where the pressure p takes the constant
atmospheric value p0 and the tangential stress du/dy on the fluid
vanishes.
(i) From the NavierStokes equation in the form


u

+ u u = p + g + 2 u,
t
write down the x- and y-components relevant to this steady,
unidirectional flow.
(ii) Deduce from the y-component and the pressure boundary
condition at the free surface that inside the fluid
p = p0 + (H y)g cos .
(iii) Establish from the x-component of the equation of motion
and the boundary conditions on the velocity that
u=

g sin
y(y 2H).
2

(iv) Obtain the solution in the case when the flow is instead
bounded at y = H by a fixed plane and there is no imposed
pressure gradient in the x-direction.
[15]

Page 4 of 8

ECM3707/continued . . .

(c) Consider motion of fluid of viscosity between two cylinders of


radii r = a and r = b > a, under a constant pressure gradient
G > 0, and neglecting the effects of gravity. You are given that
the equation governing steady flow w(r) in the axial direction is


d
dw
G =
r
.
r dr
dr
(i) Integrate the equation and so obtain the general solution w(r)
without imposing boundary conditions.
(ii) State appropriate boundary conditions for the problem and
apply these to the solution in (i) to obtain the flow down the
pipe in the form


G 2 b2 log(r/a) a2 log(r/b)
w=
r
4
log(b/a)
for a < r < b.
(iii) What boundary conditions would be applied if the inner
cylinder was not present?
[15]
(d) Consider a fluid flow u = (U, V, W ) which is independent of the z
coordinate. You are given that such a flow may be expressed in
terms of the streamfunction (x, y, t) and z component of velocity
W (x, y, t) with

,
V =
.
U=
y
x
(i) Show that the vorticity is


W
W
,
, ,
=
y
x
where is the z component of given by
 2

2
2
=
+ 2 .
x2
y
(ii) Verify directly that u = 0 and = 0.

[10]
[50]

Page 5 of 8

ECM3707/continued . . .

SECTION B
2. The vorticity equation for incompressible flow is

+ (u ) = ( )u + 2 .
t
Consider a steady, twodimensional, incompressible flow with
velocity u = (u, v, 0) and vorticity = (0, 0, )
(a) Use the vorticity equation, and the description of the flow above,
to obtain a governing equation for (the zcomponent of the
vorticity) in terms of the velocity components u and v.
[4]
(b) You are given that the velocity can be written in terms of a
streamfunction as follows
u=

,
y

v=

,
x

with the vorticity = 2 .


Consider stagnation point flow in the half plane y 0 with
an impermeable boundary at y = 0. Assume that the far-field
boundary condition is x(y y0 )/T as y , where T and
y0 are constants. What boundary condition would you impose on
at y = 0? Explain your answer.
[4]

(c) Seek a solution of the form = (x/)F () where = T and


= y/. Use your governing equation from part (a) to derive the
equation
F 0000 = F 0 F 00 F F 000 .
[6]
(d) Let 0 = y0 /. Show that suitable boundary conditions for the
flow are
F (0) = 0,

F 0 (0) = 0,

F () ( 0 ) as .
[5]

(e) Hence show that F () must satisfy the equation


F 02 F F 00 = F 000 + 1,
and provide a sketch of F as a function of .

[6]
[25]

Page 6 of 8

ECM3707/continued . . .

3. (a) Explain briefly how the NavierStokes equation (given in the


USEFUL FORMULAE) reduces to the Stokes equation
0 = p + 2 u

(with u = 0),

with no body forces in the limit of small Reynolds number Re =


UL/, using standard notation (with = /).
[5]
(b) If Stokes flow is given in the (x, y) plane in terms of a stream
function (x, y) with u = (
z ), show that
( ( ( (
z )))) = 2 2 (
z ) = 0,
and so obtain the biharmonic equation 2 2 = 0. Show, using
the USEFUL FORMULAE that this becomes
 2
2
1
1 2

+
+
= 0,
r2 r r r2 2
when is expressed in terms of plane polar coordinates (r, ).

[8]

(c) Consider a flow in the plane in a convergent channel given by


, where fluid is extracted from a sink at r = 0 and
the flow is purely radial. Show that a stream function of the form
= f (), independent of r, gives a purely radial flow u = u(r, )
r.
[2]
(d) By calculating 2 and then 2 2 , show that
f 0000 + 4f 00 = 0.
[5]
(e) By solving this ODE and applying a no-slip condition u = 0 on
the walls = , show that the radial flow is given by
u = Cr1 (cos 2 cos 2),
where C is a constant.

[5]
[25]

Page 7 of 8

ECM3707/continued . . .

4. Consider wingtip vortices (of strength and ), shed by an aircraft


of wingspan 2X0 flying at a height Y0 above the ground y = 0. It is
desired to study the motion of one of these vortices after it has been
shed from the wingtip.
(a) Draw a suitable sketch indicating the position and sense of
rotation of the two wingtip vortices in the (x, y)-plane.
[4]
(b) Explain why it is helpful to introduce fictitious image vortices to
this problem. Indicate the location and sense of rotation of these
image vortices in your sketch.
[5]
(c) Consider the location (X(t), Y (t)) of one wingtip vortex as a
function of time t. Assuming that this vortex is shed from the
wingtip at t = 0 write down initial conditions for X(t) and Y (t). [2]
(d) With reference to your sketch, derive differential equations for X
and Y in terms of X and Y . [Hint: The velocity at distance r
from a line vortex of strength has magnitude /2r.]
[8]
(e) Show that the final height of the vortex is half the wingspan when
Y0  X0 . [Hint: Use dY /dX = Y /X and the initial conditions.]
[6]
[25]

Page 8 of 8

ECM3707/END OF PAPER