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Technical Guide for


WCDMA LAC Planning
Version: v1.0

Release 2007-11-6

Implementation 2007-11-6

Released by Network Planning & Optimization Dept., ZTE Corp.


This document contains proprietary information of ZTE Corporation and is not to be disclosed or
used except in accordance with applicable agreements.

Internal Use Only

Modification Record
File No.

Drafter /
Modifier

WANG Feng

Major Points Modified

Update
Date

Version

Reason for
modification

2007-3-6

V1.0

Guide
establishment

This document contains proprietary information of ZTE Corporation and is not to be disclosed or
used except in accordance with applicable agreements.

Contents
1

OVERVIEW..............................................................................................................................1

2
PAGING PRINCIPLE, PAGING CHANNEL PARAMETER AND SYSTEM
PARAMETER...................................................................................................................................1
2.1
2.2
2.3
3

PAGING PRINCIPLE............................................................................................................1
PAGING CHANNEL PARAMETER......................................................................................1
SYSTEM PARAMETER.......................................................................................................2

PAGING CAPACITY CALCULATION................................................................................2


3.1
PCH CAPACITY CALCULATION.......................................................................................2
3.1.1
Channel Number Confirmation..................................................................................2
3.1.2
GOS Confirmation......................................................................................................2
3.1.3
Channel Capacity Calculation....................................................................................3
3.2
EACH UES PAGING TRAFFIC CALCULATION ON BUSY HOUR.....................................3
3.2.1 CS Traffic Model................................................................................................................3
3.3
CALCULATION OF THE MAXIMUM SUBSCRIBER NUMBER THAT EACH LAC
SUPPORTS........................................................................................................................................5

LAC DIVISION PRINCIPLE.................................................................................................6

FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS OF WCDMA AND GSM CO-USE LAC.................................7


5.1
WCDMA PAGING CAPACITY CALCULATION.................................................................7
5.2
GSM PAGING CAPACITY CALCULATION........................................................................7
5.3
ADVANTAGE AND DISADVANTAGE OF WCDMA AND GSM CO-USE LAC, AS WELL AS
SUGGESTIONS...............................................................................................................................8

LIBYA LAC DIVISION CASE................................................................................................9

Internal Use Only

1 Overview
The guide introduces WCDMA paging channel capacity calculation from which deduces the
maximum number of sectors that can be supported by each LAC with different traffic model, as
well as general suggestions for LAC division; the guide provides instructions for LAC planning on
the phase of WCDMA radio network planning.
The guide includes paging principle, paging capacity calculation and LAC division principle.

2 Paging Principle, Paging Channel Parameter and System


Parameter
2.1 Paging Principle
LAC is an abbreviation for Location Area Code, a parameter represents UE paging location.
When a UE is paged, CN will send paging request through RNC to all NodeB that use the
corresponding LAC. One LAC may be used by tens or hundreds of cells, so the number of paging
message sent to RNC may be astonishing. NodeB has to send paging request through limited PCH
to UE, therefore too many NodeB that use one same LAC may cause NodeB paging overload,
even signaling congestion and paging message drop. But if too less NodeB use one same LAC,
then there will be many boundaries of areas with different LAC that make it easy for UE on these
boundaries to update location frequently among areas with different LAC; if UE is moving to an
area with different LAC and carrying out location update when a paging message is sent, then UE
cant receive the paging message sent to the area with the original LAC during the location update
period and therefore UE cant be connected.

2.2 Paging Channel Parameter


In 3G network, paging happens in PCCH. Logical channel PCCH is mapped to transmission
channel PCH and transmission channel PCH is mapped to physical channel SCCPCH, so paging is
transmitted in physical channel SCCPCH.
Related PCCH parameters are defined in Criterion 34.108. Two modes, 240bit/10ms and
80bit/10ms, are transmitted in PCCH. We usually use the mode 240bit/10ms. According to the
definition in the protocol, the length of IMSI-GSM-MAP is 60bits; with further consideration of
selection bits and paging reason bits, one PCCH frame can carry 3 IMSI. The length of TMSIGSM-MAP or PTMSI-GSM-MAP is 32bits, therefore one 10ms PCCH frame comprises at most 5
TMSI paging or PTMSI paging.
Paging channel of each cell includes one of the following combinations:
3 IMSI paging
2 IMSI paging at most 2 TMSI paging
1 IMSI paging + at most 4 TMSI paging
At most 5 TMSI paging
This document contains proprietary information of ZTE Corporation and is not to be disclosed or
used except in accordance with applicable agreements.
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The maximum paging number in one Paging Type1 Record is 8 refer to 25.331
maxpage1 ; therefore when it is IMSI paging, the maximum paging capacity of each paging
channel of each cell is Min(3,8)=3; when it is TMSI paging, the maximum paging capacity of each
paging channel of each cell is Min(5,8)=5.

2.3 System Parameter


The present system parameter default settings are:
Paging period is 640ms;
Radio paging repeats 4 times;
CN paging is resent once, total sending times is twice;
CN paging resending interval is 3 seconds;
Paging total congestion rate is set as 0.2.

3 Paging Capacity Calculation


3.1 PCH Capacity Calculation
3.1.1

Channel Number Confirmation

3 IMSI coding paging messages, or 5 TMSI coding paging messages can be put in 1X240
PCH FP transmission; therefore the maximum number of paging message that can be put in each
FP is defined as 5. Take the worst situation into account, we define sub-channel number of each
PCCH is 3, which can be adjusted dynamically.
3.1.2

GOS Confirmation

For improving paging success rate, RNC uses multi-retransmission; therefore the
corresponding relationship between call loss of multi-retransmission and call loss of single
retransmission needs to be calculated. Presently systems RNC retransmission times are 4.
Suppose that the call completion ratio first time is x1, call loss is s1, then x1=1-s1.
Suppose that the call completion ratio second time is x2, call loss is s2, then x1=1-s2.
Suppose that the call completion ratio third time is x3, call loss is s3, then x1=1-s3.
Suppose that the call completion ratio forth time is x4, call loss is s4, then x1=1-s4.
Then, the call incompletion probability in these 4 times is:
(1- x1)*(1-x2)*(1-x3)*(1-x4) = s1*s2*s3*s4
Suppose that call loss ratios each time are the same, then:
GoS single call lose = Power (actual call loss in RNC multi-retransmission, 1/RNC
retransmission times)
Here Power means multiplied by itself a certain number of times or extraction of a root.
It is given that the actual RNC multi-retransmission call loss rate is 0.2%, so GoS single call
lose = (0.002)1/40.211474
Notice: the proper actual RNC multi-retransmission call loss rate needs to be discussed.
3.1.3

Channel Capacity Calculation

Erlang B formula requires average call loss of GoS in multi-paging; because RNC repeat
multi-transmission and paging ratio is independent, here we can regard that the average call loss of
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used except in accordance with applicable agreements.
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GoS in multi-paging is equal to single call loss of GoS.
Channel number (equivalent sub-channel number) and congestion rate are given; we can
calculate PCH traffic according to Erlang B formula, which is shown as follows:

B pN

( / ) N / N !
N

( / ) / i!
i

i 0

Here, is average received call times in unit period of time; 1 / T , T is average call
duration; A / T , which is the traffic.
Actual Erlang B formula calculation is according to recursive algorithm.
B(0,rho)=1
B(Servers,rho)=(rho*B(Servers -1,rho)/ Servers)/(1+rho*B(Servers -1,rho)/ Servers)
Servers = Number of telephone lines
Intensity rho= Arrival rate of calls / Completion rate of calls
Arrival rate = the number of calls arriving per hour
Completion rate = the number of calls completed per hour
We already know paging congestion rate is 0.211474, when all uses IMSI paging, subchannel number is 3; when all uses TMSI paging, sub-channel number is 5. Input those into Erlang
B formula we can calculate paging traffic that PCH supports.
IMSI paging, paging traffic 2.00633(erl)
TMSI paging, paging traffic 4.13931(erl)

3.2 Each UEs Paging Traffic Calculation on Busy Hour


3.2.1 CS Traffic Model
CS domain uses traditional call model represented by traffic on busy hour, mainly includes
the following parameters:
BHCAABusy Hour Call Attempts;
Holding TimeBEach calls duration, unit : s;
Then, single subscribers average traffic on busy hour AB/3600Erl
CS traffic model refers to voice service model in ZXWR Radio Performance Indicator
Technical Guide V4.0, which is shown in the following table:
Table 3-1 Traffic Density of Voice Service

Area

Initial
phase
Developing
phase
Stable
phase

Dense
urban
Mean urban
Dense
urban
Mean urban
Dense
urban
Mean urban

3G UE
density

Activated
UE
proportion
on busy
hour

Activated
UE density
on busy
hour

Single UEs
trafficErl

Traffic density
Erl/km2

1200

100

1200

0.03

36

300

100

300

0.013

3.9

3600

100

3600

0.04

144

900

100

900

0.018

16.2

7500

100

7500

0.045

337.5

1950

100

1950

0.02

39

Table 3-2 Traffic Density of Visual Telephone

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used except in accordance with applicable agreements.
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Area

Initial
phase
Developing
phase
Stable
phase

Dense
urban
Mean urban
Dense
urban
Mean urban
Dense
urban
Mean urban

3G UE
density

Activated
UE
proportion
on busy
hour

Activated
UE density
on busy
hour

Single UEs
traffic (mErl)

Traffic density
(mErl/km2)

1200

5%

60

0.75

45

300

2%

0.35

2.1

3600

8%

288

1.5

432

900

5%

45

0.7

31.5

7500

10%

750

3.4

2550

1950

8%

156

1.5

234

Paging traffic calculation on busy hour requires call times and call duration that converted by
traffic on busy hour in traditional traffic model. CS12.2K call duration is set as 72 seconds,
CS64K call duration is set as 60 seconds, and then converted traffic model is shown in the
following table.
Table 3-3 CS Traffic Model after Conversion
CS12.2K voice traffic

CS64K visual telephone service

Area
BHCA

Call Duration(s)

BHCA

Call Duration(s)

Dense urban

1.5

72

0.045

60

Mean urban

0.65

72

0.021

60

Developing
phase

Dense urban

72

0.09

60

Mean urban

0.9

72

0.042

60

Stable
phase

Dense urban

2.25

72

0.204

60

Mean urban

72

0.09

60

Initial phase

Notice: BHCA and Call Duration need to be filled according to the actual situation of
countries and operators. As to each subscribers traffic on busy hour in traditional CS traffic
model, different BHCA will dramatically vary subscriber number that each LAC supports.
BHCA in traffic model is counted bilaterally, including MOC and MTC. Therefore when
counting paging BHCA, paging times shall be the half of call attempts, which is shown in the
following table.

Area

Table 3-4 Paging BHCA Model


CS64K paging
CS12.2K paging
BHCAtimes/hour
BHCAtimes/hour

CS domain paging
BHCAtimes/hou
r

Initial
phase

Dense urban

0.75

0.0225

0.7725

Mean urban

0.325

0.0105

0.3355

Developing
phase

Dense urban

0.045

1.045

Mean urban

0.45

0.021

0.471

Stable
phase

Dense urban

1.125

0.102

1.227

Mean urban

0.5

0.045

0.545

Paging traffic in RNC once paging can be calculated through paging BHCA model, which is
equal to BHCA x paging duration (10ms, one frame of PCCH).
Now ZTE RNC radio paging retransmission times is set as 4, RNC retransmission times is
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used except in accordance with applicable agreements.
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set as 2, CN paging interval between two paging is 3 seconds, CN twice paging proportion is 25%.
RNC transmits each paging for four times, therefore each subscribers paging traffic is equal
to the sum of all paging traffic in the four paging initiated by RNC as well as two paging traffic
initiated by CN. But the proportion of CN twice paging is not 100%, so the paging traffic of CN
twice paging is lower, which is the true situation in actual network. Each subscribers CS paging
traffic on busy hour = (the first paging traffic initiated by RNC + the second paging traffic
initiated by RNC + the third paging traffic initiated by RNC + the forth paging traffic initiated by
RNC)*(1+ the proportion of CN twice paging). The calculation result is shown in the following
table.
Table 3-5 Each Subscribers CS Paging Traffic on Busy Hour
Area

The first paging traffic


initiated by
RNCErl

The second paging


traffic initiated by
CNErl

Each Subscribers
CS Paging Traffic
on Busy
HourErl

Initial
phase

Dense urban

2.14583E-06

5.36458E-07

9.11979E-06

Mean urban

9.31944E-07

2.32986E-07

3.96076E-06

Developing
phase

Dense urban

2.90278E-06

7.25694E-07

1.23368E-05

Mean urban

1.30833E-06

3.27083E-07

5.56042E-06

Stable
phase

Dense urban

3.40833E-06

8.52083E-07

1.44854E-05

Mean urban

1.51389E-06

3.78472E-07

6.43403E-06

3.3 Calculation of the Maximum Subscriber Number that Each LAC Supports
When network is configured with one PCH, which is the common configuration in most
actual networks, and RNC retransmission congestion rate is 0.2%, if we use IMSI paging, paging
traffic that PCH supports 2.00633(erl); if we use TMSI paging, paging traffic that PCH supports
4.13931(erl). Therefore, the subscriber number that each LAC supports = paging traffic that
PCH supports/each subscribers paging traffic on busy hour. As to IMSI paging and TMSI paging,
the subscriber number that each LAC supports is shown in the following table.
Table 3-6 Maximum Subscriber Number that Each LAC Supports

Initial
phase

Dense urban

CS domain paging
traffic of each
subscriber on busy
hour (Erl)
9.12E-06

Mean urban

3.96E-06

507000

1050000

Developing
phase

Dense urban

1.23E-05

163000

336000

Mean urban

5.56E-06

361000

744000

Stable
phase

Dense urban

1.45E-05

139000

286000

Mean urban

6.43E-06

312000

643000

Area

Subscriber number
that each LAC
supports in IMSI
paging
220000

Subscriber number
that each LAC
supports in TMSI
paging
454000

4 LAC Division Principle


1)

In LAC division, the upper limit of LAC is determined by paging capacity of each cell,
lower limit of LAC is determined by LAC update frequency. If LAC is too large, paging

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times in the network will be increased dramatically, even congestion will occur and
network paging success rate will be decreased. If LAC is too small, LAC update will be too
frequent and network signaling load will be increased. Therefore, these two factors need to
be considered in LAC division, and LAC shall be divided properly according to actual
network situation.
2)

LACs of areas with different traffic characteristics vary. Generally, LAC of dense urban <
LAC of mean urban < LAC of suburb < LAC of rural.

3)

Geographic characteristic and UE distribution shall be taken into account in LAC boundary
selection for decreasing LAC update frequency. Generally LAC boundary is located in
areas that have lesser subscribers or lower handover probability.

4)

Try to avoid LAC boundary locating in areas that have group subscriber or VIP clients.

5)

Impact from load increase shall be considered in LAC division.

6)

NodeBs that use multi-carriers shall belong to one same LAC.

7)

NodeBs coverage shall be continuous in one same LAC.

8)

In principle, LAC setting methods of 2G and 3G system are generally the same, therefore
3G LAC planning can refer to 2G LAC planning. Firstly, calculate paging capacity in radio
interfaces according to paging process and channel characteristic; secondly, figure out
traffic that one LAC can support according to traffic model; and finally set LAC according
to actual or estimated traffic in the network.

9)

RNC capacity in 3G network is generally larger than BSC capacity in 2G network, thus the
number of RNC is smaller than that of BSC and one LAC will not step across BSC,
therefore existing network LAC configuration and BSC traffic situation shall be taken into
account while planning 3G network LAC. 3G LAC can be the combination of the existing
network LACs according to traffic balance principle; 3G LAC boundary shall be better the
same with the boundary of the outer layer of combined 2G LACs.

5 Feasibility Analysis of WCDMA and GSM co-use LAC


This section offers calculation of paging capacity without consideration of factors such as
paging congestion rate, RNC multi-paging times and CN second paging, but brief comparison of
ideal paging capacity of WCDMA and GSM system, so as to analyze whether co-using LAC is
feasible as well as what advantages and disadvantages it may introduce.

5.1 WCDMA Paging Capacity Calculation


3 IMSI coding paging messages, or 5 TMSI coding paging messages can be put in 1X240
PCH FP transmission; therefore the maximum number of paging message that can be put in each
FP is defined as 5.
WCDMA maximum paging capacity per second: the whole network uses TMSI paging, one
10ms PCCH/PCH frame includes 5 paging messages, 100 PCCH/PCH frames can be transmitted
on one PCH each second, totally 500 paging messages.
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used except in accordance with applicable agreements.
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WCDMA minimum paging capacity per second: the whole network uses IMSI paging, one
10ms PCCH/PCH frame includes 3 paging messages, 100 PCCH/PCH frames can be transmitted
on one PCH each second, totally 300 paging messages.

5.2 GSM Paging Capacity Calculation


According to GSM criterion, as to Combined BCCH/SDCCH cell, each 235ms multi-frame
transmits 3 paging groups; but as to Non-Combined BCCH/SDCCH cell, each 235ms multi-frame
transmits 9 paging groups. BTS broadcasts paging request through paging group. The following is
probable configuration in one paging request:
2 IMSIs
1 IMSI and 2 TMSIs
4 TMSIs
Suppose all paging groups are used by PCH (extreme situation):
In IMSI paging, as to Combined BCCH/SDCCH cell, each PCH each second transmits
1/0.235=4.25 multi-frames, each multi-frame has 3 paging groups, each paging group has 2 paging
messages, therefore 4.25*3*2=25 paging messages are sent each second.
In IMSI paging, as to Non-Combined BCCH/SDCCH cell, each PCH each second transmits
1/0.235=4.25 multi-frames, each multi-frame has 9 paging groups, each paging group has 2 paging
messages, therefore 4.25*9*2=76 paging messages are sent each second.
In TMSI paging, as to Combined BCCH/SDCCH cell, each PCH each second transmits
1/0.235=4.25 multi-frames, each multi-frame has 3 paging groups, each paging group has 4 paging
messages, therefore 4.25*3*4=51 paging messages are sent each second.
In TMSI paging, as to Non-Combined BCCH/SDCCH cell, each PCH each second transmits
1/0.235=4.25 multi-frames, each multi-frame has 9 paging groups, each paging group has 4 paging
messages, therefore 4.25*9*4=153 paging messages are sent each second.
In different combination, paging capacity comparison of WCDMA and GSM system is
shown in the following table.
WCDMA

GSM(Combined BCCH/
SDCCH cell)

GSM(Non-Combined BCCH/
SDCCH cell)

IMSI
300
25
76
TMSI
500
51
153
From the upper table we can see that in the situation of general parameter configuration,
WCDMA paging capacity is obviously stronger than that of GSM, therefore, traffic that WCDMA
each LAC supports is much higher than that of GSM.

5.3 Advantage and Disadvantage of WCDMA and GSM co-use LAC, as well as
Suggestions
1Advantage of GSM900, GSM1800 and WCDMA co-use LAC
When WCDMA and GSM are co-constructed, especially when most WCDMA sites co-site
with GSM sites, WCDMA uses the same LAC planning with that of GSM for speeding up data
configuration in network commissioning that facilitates fast commissioning of commercialized
WCDMA network.
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After long-term optimization, GSM LAC planning project is mature and LAC division is
reasonable. It accelerates LAC optimization process and decrease LAC optimization pressure if
WCDMA network uses the same LAC planning with that of GSM network.
GSM LAC division reflects existing networks traffic distribution and paging load; WCDMA
network is generally constructed after GSM network construction, then unreasonable LAC
division caused by inexact traffic estimation will be decreased if WCDMA uses the same LAC
planning with that of GSM network.
2Disadvantage of GSM900, GSM1800 and WCDMA co-use LAC:
WCDMA paging capacity is stronger than that of GSM, so WCDMA paging capacity cannot
be used fully when WCDMA uses the same LAC planning with that of GSM network.
Too small WCDMA LAC will cause frequent LAC update and heave signaling load, UE on
the boundary may even not receive paging.
Subscriber location and operation of WCDMA and GSM network may not the same, so
GSM LAC planning may not comply with characteristic of WCDMA service statistic.
3Suggestions for LAC division when GSM900, GSM1800 co-exist with WCDMA
WCDMA LAC division can be operated separately from reference to GSM LAC division,
which includes:
WCDMA LAC boundary location refers to that of GSM; GSM LAC boundaries are usually
on cells with low traffic and less handover times. WCDMA LAC is larger than that of GSM, but
WCDMA LAC boundary selection can refer to that of GSM completely. One important reason to
take GSM LAC boundary as a reference is that WCDMA traffic is low in the initial phase and its
traffic distribution has no statistic meaning.
The WCDMA LAC division refers to GSM LAC paging load statistics; try to balance each
LACs paging load. GSM network is mature and GSM subscriber number increases slowly, so it
will be more accurate in balancing WCDMA LAC paging load according to GSM existing
network traffic statistics.

6 Libya LAC Division Case


There are totally 260 sites in the phase one and phase two Libya Tripoli network and they
belong to 7 LACs; RNC10 has 2 LACs, RNC1 has 5 LACs. It is hard to avoid areas with high
traffic becoming LAC boundary due to too many LACs, which will surly impact call performance.
DT KPI is regulated in Libya acceptance, including Call Setup Success Rate which will inevitably
be impacted by too many LACs.
As to commercialized network, stability is the primary demand. Therefore, we use this
project while combining LAC: Sites controlled by RNC1 are classified into 2 LACs, sites
controlled by RNC10 are classified into 1 LAC, so the original 7 LACs now turn out to be the
present 3 LACs, and then LAC update requests decrease dramatically. The project is shown in the
following figure.

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Figure 1 LAC Combination Illustration

We use concentric circles mode to re-plan LAC. LAC1080 and LAC1090 of RNC10 are
combined as one LAC; LAC1010, LAC1020 and LAC1030 of RNC1 are combined as one LAC;
LAC1050 and LAC1070 are combined as one LAC.
In order to validate whether the maximum paging times of combined LAC exceeds
equipment capacity, in OMCR LMT, choose a cell randomly in each LAC to test and calculate
each LACs maximum paging times on busy hour after combination, so as to observe each LACs
paging load. The maximum paging times of RNC10 after combination on busy hour is 18+16=34
per second, average paging times is 5.75+3.98=9.73. RNC1 has 2 LACs after combination, the
total maximum paging times of LAC1010, LAC1020 and LAC1030 on busy hour is
16.5+21+19=56.5 per second, average paging times is 5.14+5.17+5.84=16.15; the total maximum
paging times of LAC1050 and LAC1070 after combination on busy hour is 16.5+14=30.5 per
second while average paging times is 5.04+3.79=8.83. System maximally supports 100 times
paging per second, therefore after combination, peak value of each LACs paging channel
utilization ratio are separately 34, 56.5% and 30.5%; While average paging channel utilization
ratio are separately 9.73%, 16.15% and 8.83%.
Notice Here is a problem. The sum of the maximum paging times of each LAC is larger
than the actual maximum paging times, because it is impossible that all LACs paging times reach
their peak values at the same time, the total maximum paging times is just estimation.
Now the number of active subscriber in VLR in Libya is only around 30,000, after RNC1
combination, one of its LACs paging utilization ratio is over 50%, paging load is obviously too
large. The R&D Dept. has not provided a reasonable explanation or solution for the situation,
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therefore the combination project is temporarily suspended in the field.
The PCH paging times calculation in the table is according to Section 6.2.4 in 25435700
Protocol. Two consecutive PCH frames carry paging indication information and paging message
separately, and the two compose a complete paging message. Related description in the protocol is
as follows:
The PCH DATA FRAME includes the paging indication information and paging messages [FDD To page one User Equipment, two consecutive PCH DATA FRAMEs with consecutive CFN
numbers are transmitted, the first frame contains the Paging Indication Information and the second
contains the Paging Message.] [TDD To page one User Equipment, one or more PCH DATA
FRAMEs are transmitted.]

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used except in accordance with applicable agreements.
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