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JAR 66 CATEGORY

uk
engineering

MODULE 11.07
EQUIPMENT AND
FURNISHINGS

CONTENTS
1

EQUIPMENT AND FURNISHINGS .............................................. 1-3


1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9

EMERGENCY EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS ..................................... 1-3


SEAT, HARNESSES AND BELTS ..................................................... 1-3
CABIN LAYOUTS ........................................................................... 1-5
CABIN FURNISHINGS..................................................................... 1-7
CABIN ENTERTAINMENT ................................................................ 1-7
GALLEY INSTALLATIONS ............................................................... 1-8
CARGO HANDLING AND RETENTION EQUIPMENT ............................ 1-8
CARGO RETENTION EQUIPMENT .................................................... 1-10
AIRSTAIRS ................................................................................... 1-11

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engineering

MODULE 11.07
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FURNISHINGS

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MODULE 11.07
EQUIPMENT AND
FURNISHINGS

EQUIPMENT AND FURNISHINGS

1.1 EMERGENCY EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS


On every aircraft, there can be found some form of emergency equipment. This
can vary from a simple seat belt and a fire extinguisher on a micro-light aircraft, to
a large list of equipment fitted to a commercial airliner. For example, a medium
sized aircraft like the Fokker 50 carries over thirty different types of safety
equipment. The list of equipment fitted in a 450+ seater Boeing 747-400, will
include items such as seat belts, lifejackets, first-aid kits, fire extinguishers,
oxygen sets, torches etc.
The types of safety equipment that must be carried on any specific flight, are laid
down in the Air Navigation Order, (ANO), schedule No.4. This list covers a wide
range of safety equipment, from mooring equipment for seaplanes to cookers and
snow shovels for arctic operation.
JAR 25 - Large Aeroplanes, details amongst others, the requirements for the
design and performance of safety and other equipment, ranging from size of
access doors and emergency exits and the numbers required for each size of
aircraft, width of cabin aisles, number of seats abreast. The list is endless, but the
JAR 25 regulations are an excellent source of information.
Some of the items of equipment carried may seem to be of little use, but each
has a specific purpose in some emergency or other. For example the large axe
carried on passenger aircraft is to enable any trapped passengers and crew to
cut their own way out of the cabin. Smoke hoods are to permit the cabin staff to
help passengers leave the aircraft, even if the cabin is full of smoke. Portable
oxygen is used in the cases of passengers feeling ill, in addition to the 'drop-out'
masks, which activated if the cabin pressurisation has failed.
1.2 SEAT, HARNESSES AND BELTS
All seat belts have to restrain the passenger (or crew) in their seat, even during a
crash landing. The seat to which the belt is attached, has to hold securely in the
seat rails, even during the high 'g' loadings experienced in an emergency landing.
The seat rails are a continuous extrusion with circular cut-outs, which allow the
seats to be attached and locked at different seat spacing, (pitch). The pitch is
usually in, one inch or 25mm increments.

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uk
engineering

MODULE 11.07
EQUIPMENT AND
FURNISHINGS

Seat Tracks
Figure
Aircraft seats can be divided into three main groups; passenger seats, flight
attendant seats and flight deck crew seats. Passenger seats are usually part of
multiple units, although in first class and executive seating, some individual seat
units can be found. Most passenger seats are manufactured from aluminium
alloy tube, which is riveted and welded to form the frame with supporting legs and
braces, individual reclining seat backs and integral tables.
Flight Attendant seats are usually more utilitarian than passenger seats and can
be mounted on seat tracks, the aircraft wall structure or, as in the ATR-72, to a
sliding assembly that stows away without taking up passenger space, as shown
below. They will all normally be fitted with a full harness seat belt, compared with
the 'lap strap' assemblies for the passengers.

Attendant Seat
Figure
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JAR 66 CATEGORY

uk
engineering

MODULE 11.07
EQUIPMENT AND
FURNISHINGS

The seats in the flight deck have to be the most comfortable on the aircraft,
because it is laid down in many airline regulations that there must be a full crew in
the cockpit, at all times. The crew must be as 'sharp' and attentive during the
landing as they were at take-off many hours ago.
Flight deck seats will have many different axes of movement such as height,
reach, backrest tilt, lumbar support, arm rest height, etc. Most of the larger seats
will have some of these movements powered by electrical actuators. These seats
will also have at least a four point harness assembly and, in many cases these
days, five point harnesses, with a lower crotch strap

Crew Seat
Figure
1.3 CABIN LAYOUTS
The layout of the cabin is a compromise between the builder/designer, who would
like it to contain as many paying passengers as possible, and the airworthiness
authorities, who wish to limit the maximum number of passengers. This maximum
has to be the number that can be evacuated from inside the cabin, through 50%
of available exits, in 90 seconds.
This ruling dictates the number and size of the exits, the width of the aisles and,
most importantly, the number of seats. As can be seen from the diagrams below,
the position of the exits varies with the design of the aircraft.

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engineering

MODULE 11.07
EQUIPMENT AND
FURNISHINGS

Seating And Emergency Exits


Figure
The majority of passenger aircraft have seats in pairs or triple units with one or
two aisles. The wide body Boeing 747 usually has two aisles with triple units
outboard and a pair of double units between the two aisles, giving 10 abreast
seating, the normal maximum.
The remainder of passenger cabins are fairly standard with overhead stowages.
Passenger service units (PSU) are located on the bottom of the overhead
stowage lockers and normally contain reading lights, call buttons, seat belt and
NO SMOKING warnings and, on aircraft that are equipped with them, drop-out
oxygen masks.
Galleys can be found in a variety of places in the cabin, at the front the rear, and
occasionally, centrally, where they can be used to divide the different classes of
passenger. They have their own power supply for heating, lighting and ventilation.
For maintenance the galley units are removable, as are all other dividing
partitions as well as the overhead units and PSUs.

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MODULE 11.07
EQUIPMENT AND
FURNISHINGS

engineering

Galleys are also supplied with their own water supplies to permit the making of
hot drinks, washing-up etc. This means they require connections to both fresh
(potable) water and grey (waste) water from the aircrafts own systems. Some
galleys are fitted in the under floor areas of larger aircraft, which necessitates the
installation of lifts between floors.
1.4 CABIN FURNISHINGS
As with galleys, all furnishings have to be easily removable, not only to allow the
engineers access during deep maintenance, but also to permit various items to
be changed at irregular intervals due to "fair wear and tear". This can include
worn carpets, torn seat covers, cracked plastic cabin wall skins, ceiling panels
and damaged overhead bin doors. All of the previous items are attached by
'quick release' fittings of varying types. Shown below are examples of an
overhead bin, a wall panel and a ceiling panel.

Cabin Furnishings
Figure
1.5 CABIN ENTERTAINMENT
Cabin entertainment varies greatly depending upon the aircraft type, (and age),
as well as the airline operating the aircraft. It can vary from little more than 'music'
played over the cabin P.A. system on smaller aircraft, through to the most
common installations of films, navigation information and cabin safety briefings
displayed on multiple television monitors located throughout the cabin.
Some modern aircraft have, fitted to their higher class seats, a complete
'entertainment experience', which can consist of individual viewing screens either
attached to the seat back of the unit in front, or individually seat arm located.
These screens can offer a multiple and individual video selection; computer
games; musical videos with stereo sound on headphones and, in business class,
access to a satellite telephone and other business tools.
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JAR 66 CATEGORY B1

uk
engineering

MODULE 11.07
EQUIPMENT AND
FURNISHINGS

1.6 GALLEY INSTALLATIONS


Galleys, as has been mentioned earlier, have to be modular units so that they
can be removed for maintenance. In the case of technical problems, it mayl also
be necessary, some times to remove the units. Most galley units will have a
supply of electricity and potable water and facilities for the disposal of 'grey' water
overboard.
As most modern catering operations use pre-prepared food, the standard sized
food trolleys and containers are given stowage space in the galley units, which
can then keep warm, heat up and chill both food and drinks as required. The
illustrations show two typical galleys, with a selection of full and half sized trolley
stowages, coffee makers and most of the facilities to provide a cabin meal and
refreshment service.

Galley Installations
Figure
1.7 CARGO HANDLING AND RETENTION EQUIPMENT
In the majority of commercial aircraft, cargo is carried below the cabin floor, in
dedicated fire resistant compartments that can be air conditioned if animals are
being carried. There are a number of different variations to the above, dependent
on the size of the aircraft, the type of passenger, the routes flown, etc. In the
Fokker 100, for example, most of the underfloor space is for baggage, excluding
the extreme front, which is for avionic equipment.
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JAR 66 CATEGORY

uk
engineering

MODULE 11.07
EQUIPMENT AND
FURNISHINGS

Under Floor Baggage Hlds


Figure
Smaller aircraft such as the Dornier 227 and the Fokker 50 have their cargo
carried within the cabin space, the underfloor space being limited. Aircraft at the
other end of the size spectrum, known as 'wide body' aircraft, can be produced as
dedicated freighters such as certain Boeing 747 models.
A more popular layout these days is the 'Combi freighter' which can carry both
extra freight and passengers in the cabin, whilst still carrying cargo in the
underfloor space. This type of aircraft is much more flexible on routes where the
cargo/passenger ratios can vary through the week, the month or year. At times,
there might be only 50 - 100 passengers on board whilst the remainder of the
aircraft is carrying cargo.
To speed-up the time spent on the ground, most larger aircraft have their cargo
pre-loaded into a range of containers which are an exact fit within the lower deck
cargo bays, hence their 'LD' prefix. These can be quickly loaded using freight
handling equipment within the aircraft. The illustrations below are of the lower
deck cargo system and cargo LD container sizes.
LD2

LD3

LD8

Baggage Containers
Figure

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JAR 66 CATEGORY B1

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engineering

MODULE 11.07
EQUIPMENT AND
FURNISHINGS

1.8 CARGO RETENTION EQUIPMENT


Once cargo is loaded into the aircraft, it must be restrained to prevent movement,
during take- off, in turbulent flight and landing, (especially hard braking). The LD
containers have positive latches, which attach the containers directly to the
aircraft structure, but with 'loose' baggage in cargo holds, they are usually
restrained by nets, which can be locked into the floor or the walls of the bay.
This system can also be used on pallets, where cases and bags are, again, preloaded and then covered by waterproof sheet and restraint netting. Once loaded,
the pallets are clamped down on to the cargo bay floor.

Baggage Hold-Down
Figure
To ease the job of handling both pallets and LD containers, the floor adjacent to
the cargo door has a system of roller balls, (Ballmat), fitted that allow unlimited
movement of units prior to moving them down the length of the hold, see below.

Freight Floors
Figure
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JAR 66 CATEGORY

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engineering

MODULE 11.07
EQUIPMENT AND
FURNISHINGS

1.9 AIRSTAIRS
The term airstairs is usually used to describe passenger steps that are integral to
the aircraft structure, meaning that it is independent of normal passenger steps
and of jetways at large airports. They are often fitted to aircraft that will be
operated into poorly equipped airports on a normal, day-to-day operation.
Airstairs can be manually or power operated and can be as simple as a set of
stairs set into the back of the entrance door or on larger aircraft, a fully powered,
folding set of steps that are extended and retracted by the operation of push
buttons.

Airstairs
Figure

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MODULE 11.07
EQUIPMENT AND
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The first example shown is from the ATR-72 turbo-propeller aircraft. This unit is
mechanically operated and counterbalanced by a pair of large springs. As can be
seen from the drawing, there are handrails, one of which can be folded, if
required.
The second example, (lower left), is an electrically powered airstair fitted to the
new Boeing 717-200. This aircraft can also be fitted with a second airstair at the
rear of the cabin, (lower right), which will allow the passengers to embark and
disembark through two doors simultaneously. This will speed up the turn around
maintenance.

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JAR 66 CATEGORY

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MODULE 11.07
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FURNISHINGS

engineering

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