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Chapter

18

Chapter Organizer

The Circulatory System

Section

Objectives

Activities/Features
Explore Activity: Map a Route in the City,
p. 491

Chapter Opener

Standards
National

State/Local

Reproducible Resources

Technology

Test Practice Workbooks are available for


use with each chapter.

English and Spanish audiocassettes are


available for use with each section.

18-1
Circulation
3 Sessions
112 Blocks

1. Compare arteries, veins, and capillaries.


2. Trace the pathway of blood through the
chambers of the heart.
3. Describe pulmonary and systemic
circulation.

MiniLab: Inferring How Hard the Heart


Works, p. 493
Using Math, p. 497
MiniLab: Modeling a Blocked Artery, p. 498
Skill Builder: Concept Mapping, p. 500
Using Computers, p. 500
Activity 18-1: The Heart as a Pump, p. 501

National Content
Standards: UCP3,
A1, A2, C1, D1,
F1, F4

California Science
Content Standards:
5a, 5b, 6j, 7a, 7c,
7e

Activity Worksheets, pp. 9798, 101-102


Enrichment, p. 50
Laboratory Manual, pp. 103106
Reinforcement, p. 50
Study Guide, pp. 69-70

Section Focus Transparency 50


Teaching Transparency 35
Teaching Transparency 36
Glencoe Science Voyages
Interactive CD-ROM
Glencoe Science Voyages
Interactive VideodiscLife
The Infinite Voyage Series
Internet Connection, p. 499

18-2
Blood

4. Describe the characteristics and functions of


the parts of blood.
5. Explain the importance of checking blood
types before a transfusion is given.
6. Describe a disease and a disorder of blood.

Chemistry Integration, p. 503


Problem Solving: The Baby Exchange, p. 507
Skill Builder: Making and Using Tables, p. 508
Using Math, p. 508
Activity 18-2: Comparing Blood Cells, p. 509
Reading and Writing in Science: Fantastic
Voyage, p. 510

National Content
Standards: A1, A2,
B1, C1, E2, F3, F5

California Science
Content Standards:
5a, 5b, 7a, 7b, 7c,
7e

Activity Worksheets, pp. 99-100


Critical Thinking/Problem Solving, p. 18
Enrichment, p. 51
Multicultural Connections, pp. 3536
Reinforcement, p. 51
Laboratory Manual, pp. 107-110
Study Guide, p. 70

Section Focus Transparency 51


Science Integration Transparency 18
The Infinite Voyage Series
Internet Connection, p. 504
National Geographic Society: STV

7. Describe the functions of the lymphatic


system.
8. Explain where lymph comes from.
9. Explain the role of lymph organs in fighting
infections.

Skill Builder: Concept Mapping, p. 513


Science Journal, p. 513

National Content
Standards: UCP2,
C1, F1

California Science
Content Standards:
5a, 5b

Enrichment, p. 52
Reinforcement, p. 52
Study Guide, pp. 7172

Section Focus Transparency 52

3 Sessions
112 Blocks

18-3
The Lymphatic System
1 Session
12 Block

The number of recommended single-period sessions


The number of recommended blocks
One session and one-half block are allowed for chapter review and assessment.

Key to Teaching Strategies

Activity Materials
Explore

Activities

MiniLabs

p. 491
map of large city with key

p. 501
timer with second hand

p. 493
racquetball, timer

p. 509
prepared slides of human blood, prepared slides of
two other vertebrates, microscope

p. 498
dropper, mineral oil, clear plastic
tubing, cotton

The following designations will help you decide


which activities are appropriate for your students.
L1 Level 1 activities should be appropriate for students with learning difficulties.
L2 Level 2 activities should be within the ability range of all students.
L3 Level 3 activities are designed for above-average students.
ELL ELL activities should be within the ability range of English Language

Learners.
COOP LEARN Cooperative Learning activities are designed for small group work.

Assessment Resources
Chapter Review, pp. 3536
Assessment, pp. 6972
Performance Assessment in the Science
Classroom (PASC)
MindJogger Videoquiz
Alternate Assessment in the Science
Classroom
Performance Assessment, p. 18
Chapter Review Software
Computer Test Bank

P These strategies represent student products that can be placed into a best-

work portfolio.

Need Materials? Contact Science Kit at 1-800-828-7777 or at www.sciencekit.com on the Internet.


For alternate materials, see the activity on the listed page.

490A

CHAPTER 18

THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

Multiple Learning Styles logos, as described on page 63T, are used throughout
to indicate strategies that address different learning styles.

490B

18

Chapter

Resource Manager

The Circulatory System


This is a representation of key blackline masters available in the Teacher Classroom Resources.
See Resource Manager boxes within the chapter for additional information.

Transparencies

Hands-on Activities

Section Focus Transparencies

Activity Worksheets
NAME

Section 18-1

50

Section 18-2

51

SECTION FOCUS TRANSPARENCY

SECTION FOCUS TRANSPARENCY

WHAT IS A TONSILLECTOMY?

Following a major disaster such as an earthquake, in which many people


are injured, it is common to have a blood drive. During a blood drive, people are asked to visit a blood bank to donate blood that will be used to treat
sick or injured people. The blood collected by blood banks saves many lives
each year.

Doctors sometimes surgically remove the tonsils of people. The removal of


the tonsils through surgery is called a tonsillectomy. A tonsillectomy may be
performed when these organs become frequently inflamed and infected. At
one time, the tonsils of children were almost routinely removed. Today,
however, many doctors try to avoid removing the tonsils of their patients
unless the surgery is absolutely necessary.

Your pulse is the rhythm of your heart beating.

A healthy heart has a steady, regular rhythm


2. Why is it important to know your pulse? ____________________________________________

How can you measure heartbeat rate?

2 colored pencils (red and blue)


dissecting pan
heart (sheep or cow)

Inflamed
palatine tonsil

Materials

8. Collect and record the new data.

stopwatch, watch, or clock with a second


hand

Pulse Rate

Procedure

Pulse rate

1. Make a table like the one shown. Use it to


record your data.

At rest

1. What is the purpose of a blood bank?

2. Your partner should sit down and take his


or her pulse. You will serve as the recorder.

2. What types of situations might require a person to need a blood transfusion?

3. Find the pulse rate by placing the middle


and index fingers over one of the carotid
arteries in the neck. CAUTION: Do not press
too hard.

1. Have you had your tonsils removed or do you know anyone who has had
their tonsils removed?

Fresh hearts may be available from a local meat


packer. Once purchased, the hearts can be
preserved in alcohol for use in later years. Do not
use formaldehyde as a preservative.
Part A Outside of Heart
1. Position your sheep or cow heart in a dissecting pan so
that it matches FIGURE 1. CAUTION: Wash hands
thoroughly after handling heart.
NOTE: Use the description below and the directions of
arrows in FIGURE 2 to help locate each part of the heart.
Use FIGURE 2 to label each part as you identify it.
2. Blood returns to the heart on the right side of the body by
way of a vein from body organs. Locate and label the
vena cava. Blood returns to the heart on the left side by
way of a vein from the lungs. Locate and label the
pulmonary vein.
3. Blood in veins enters two small chambers at the top of the
heart. Locate and label the right and left atrium.
4. Pumping action of the heart squeezes blood from the atria
into large chambers at the bottom of the heart. Locate and
label the right and left ventricles.
5. Pumping action of the heart squeezes blood from the two
ventricles. Blood leaves the heart on the left side by way
of an artery. Locate and label the aorta, which carries
blood to all body parts. Blood leaves the heart on the
right side by way of another artery. Locate and label the
FIGURE 1
pulmonary artery, which carries blood to the lungs.

7. Reverse roles with your partner. You are


now the pulse taker.

Observe pulse rate.

Inflamed
palatine tonsil

Partners

Yours

70

70

After jogging

4. Calculate the resulting heart rate. Your


partner should count each beat of the
carotid pulse silently for 15 s. Multiply the
number of beats by four and record the
number in the data table.

2. Why do some people need to have their tonsils removed?

Have paper towels handy to absorb excess moisture.


You will need a scalpel or sharp knife to cut open
the hearts for students.

Procedure

6. Calculate this new pulse rate and record it


in the data table.

Goals

3. What might be some benefits and drawbacks to having ones tonsils


removed?

L2

L2

50

CopyrightGlencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Materials

5. Your partner should then jog in place for


one minute and take his or her pulse again.

What Youll Investigate

Lingual tonsil

3. In what way is the job carried out by the plumbing system of a home
similar to the functions of your circulatory system?

You will observe the outside and inside of a cow or sheep heart to locate and label the parts of a
heart.
You will study the direction of blood flow through the heart.
You will review the condition of blood on the right side of the heart as compared with the blood
on the left side of the heart. Discuss side reversal in detail with the class to avoid confusion.

The heart is a pumping organ. Blood is forced through the arteries


and causes the muscles of the walls to contract and then relax. This
creates a series of waves as the blood flows through the arteries. We
call this the pulse. Try this activity to learn about the pulse and the
pumping of the heart.

Tongue

Heart Structure 39

Strategy

that is not too fast and not too slow. Your pulse tells you what your hearts rhythm is like.

Palatine tonsil

Lingual tonsil

2. What happens to the dirty water after you have showered?

Spanish Resources

CLASS

Parts of this activity can be done even if hearts are not available for dissection.
Can you think of some part of your body that is a muscle, works on its own without any
reminder from you, pushes about five liters of liquid through your body each minute, relaxes for
only about half a second, and squeezes or contracts 70 to 100 times a minute? These features
describe a human heart.

1. How is your pulse related to your heart? ____________________________________________

Pharyngeal tonsil

Palatine tonsil

LABORATORY MANUAL

The Heart as a Pump

Lab Preview

Nasal cavity

3. Who do you think should donate blood? Who should not donate blood?
Why?

DATE

Chapter 20

ACTIVITY 20-1

BLOOD BANKS

Each day, you use water for a variety of purposes in your home. This water
is carried into your home by way of pipes that make up the plumbing system of the house. Similarly, the plumbing system carries wastewater into the
sewage system. This wastewater may contain dirt, soaps, detergents, and
human wastes.

1. Imagine you are going to shower in the home shown. Describe the path
water must follow to allow you to take your shower.

NAME

Chapter 20

CLEAN WATER IN, DIRTY WATER OUT

Hot-water
Cold-water
Vents
Drains

Lab Manual

CLASS

Section 18-3

52

SECTION FOCUS TRANSPARENCY

DATE

Accessibility

L2

51

CopyrightGlencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

L2

52

CopyrightGlencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Science Integration
Transparencies

Teaching Transparencies

L2

109

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Assessment

36. SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION

18

L2

109

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Extending Content

SCIENCE INTEGRATION TRANSPARENCY

Pipeline Pressure

Performance Assessment

Pressure stays
the same

Pipeline with deposits

Pulmonary artery

Inferior vena cava

LV

Critical Thinking/
Problem Solving

Chapter Review
NAME

DATE

CLASS

Exercise and Heart Rate

CHAPTER REVIEW

NAME

The Circulatory System

Regular exercise is a great help to the heart. Like any other muscle, the more the heart is used, the
stronger it gets. A strong heart can pump blood more efficiently than a weak heart can. When it is
strong, more work can be done by the heart with less effort.

Complete the following sentences using the vocabulary words listed below.

1. Make a data table to record your heart rate. While sitting quietly, check your pulse, and record
the number of beats per minute. Perform a non-strenuous activity and record your heart rate
immediately after completing the activity. Perform two more physical activities, and record
your heart rate after each.

atherosclerosis
arteries
atria
blood pressure
capillaries

2. Construct a bar graph that shows your heart rates from the data table.

coronary circulation
hemoglobin
hypertension
lymph
lymph nodes

CRITICAL THINKING

lymphatic system
systemic circulation
lymphocytes
veins
plasma
ventricles
platelets
pulmonary circulation

ventricles 2/20:1
2. The two lower chambers of the heart are the _________________________.
4. Make a generalization about the effect of exercise on heart rate.

arteries 1/20:1
3. The blood vessels that move blood away from the heart are called_________________________.
veins 1/20:1
4. The blood vessels that move blood in the direction of the heart are called __________________.

How much exercise is too much exercise? Anytime a person begins an exercise program, he or she is
advised to consult a doctor as to what amount of exercise will strengthen the heart without straining it
too much. A general rule to follow is to subtract your age from 220 to find the greatest heart rate you
should have after strenuous exercise. Then, assuming your doctor says it is safe, you should exercise
in a manner that will produce a heart rate that is 70 to 85 percent of that number.

Capillaries 1/20:1
5. ___________________________are
microscopic blood vessels that connect arteries and veins.
Pulmonary circulation
6. ___________________________is
the flow of blood through the heart and lungs. 3/20:1
Systemic circulation
7. ___________________________moves
blood to all tissues except the lungs and heart. 3/20:1

5. What is the greatest heart rate you should have after strenuous exercise?

atherosclerosis 3/20:1
8. The condition of fatty deposits on arterial walls is called___________________________.
Plasma 4/20:2
9. ___________________________is
the liquid part of blood and is made mostly of water.

6. With a doctors approval, what is the range of heart rates that will be safe for you for training?

Increasing water pressure

hemoglobin 4/20:2
10. Red blood cells contain_________________________,
a chemical that can carry oxygen and
carbon dioxide.
Platelets 4/20:2
11. ___________________________are
odd-shaped cell fragments that help clot blood.
hypertension 6/20:2
12. A common cardiovascular disorder is high blood pressure or _____________________________.
Coronary circulation
13. ___________________________
is the flow of blood to the tissues of the heart.

L2

L2

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

L2

Have you ever been told to finish your


spinach? Spinach is a leafy green vegetable,
rich in iron. You need to eat foods containing
iron to stay healthy.
Iron is an important part of hemoglobin, the
pigment that gives blood its color. Hemoglobin carries oxygen. In fact, oxygen binds to
the iron in hemoglobin. If you have too little
iron, your blood will not be able to carry
enough oxygen to your body tissues. As a
result, you will have headaches, feel tired, and
your heart will beat rapidly in an effort to
carry more oxygen to your cells.
So how can iron be bad for you? For most
people, iron is not bad. Their only problem
may be getting enough of it. But for about one
million Americans, iron is a poison. These
people have a hereditary condition called
hemochromatosis. Their bodies absorb too
much iron from their food and they become
overloaded with iron. The high concentration
of iron can lead to diabetes and liver cancer,
both of which can be fatal.

Hemochromatosis is caused by a genetic


defect. Compared to other genetic problems,
this genetic defect is one of the most common.
At this time, there is no cure for hemochromatosis. But there is a way to prevent any ill
effects from the condition. The treatment is
having blood drawn. Simply having a few
pints of blood removed is usually the only
treatment needed. Thus, the serious diseases
that could be caused by the condition are easily
prevented. However, many people do not
know that they have hemochromatosis until it
has caused serious problems. In its early stages,
the condition has many different symptoms
fatigue, weakness, sore jointswhich could be
caused by many different diseases. Most often,
the condition is found in people over 40 years
old who have severe heart or liver problems.
There is now hope for earlier detection. Some
experts suggest adding a test for iron levels to
all standard blood tests. One medical testing
laboratory has recently started testing all blood
for iron levels. Other labs may follow.

Applying Critical Thinking Skills


1. You have learned that hemochromatosis is relatively common. Why do you think doctors
sometimes overlook this condition?

6/20:2

lymphatic system
14. The _______________________
collects fluid from body tissue spaces and returns it to the
blood through lymph capillaries and large lymph vessels. 8/20:3

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

CLASS

The Circulatory System

Too Much of a Good Thing?

atria 2/20:1
1. The _______________________
are the upper two chambers of the heart.

3. What are the independent and dependent variables in the activity in Question 1?

DATE

Chapter 20

Part A. Vocabulary Review

Capillaries

Clean pipeline

Pressure
increases

RV

Increased blood pressure

CLASS

Chapter 20

SKILL ASSESSMENT

RA

Normal blood flow

DATE

Chapter 20

LA

Vein

NAME

Aorta

Fatty
deposit

Superior vena cava

Capillary

35. PULMONARY CIRCULATION

Artery

Artery blocked by
fatty deposit

Pulmonary vein

Path of blood in
human body

2. A diet rich in iron is good for most people. After reading this article do you think its a good
idea to eat your spinach or to avoid it? Explain.

Lymph nodes
15. ___________________________
filter out microorganisms and foreign materials. 9/20:3
lymph
16. Tissue fluid found inside lymphatic capillaries if known as ______________________.
9/20:3
17. When the heart pumps blood through the cardiovascular system, blood exerts a force called
blood pressure
________________________on
the walls of the vessels. 2/20:1

3. One of the most common conditions in the world is caused by too little iron in the diet. Too
little iron can lead to anemia, a condition with symptoms similar to some symptoms of
hemochromatosisdizziness, weakness, and headache. To prevent anemia, iron is often added
to breads and cereals. But the extra iron is a problem for those with hemochromatosis. Do you
think that its a good idea to add iron to foods? Why or why not?

18. The tissue fluid inside lymphatic capillaries consists mostly of water, dissolved substances,
lymphocytes
and a type of white blood cell known as _______________________.
9/20:3

L2

Meeting Different Ability Levels


Study Guide
for Content Mastery
Name

CHAPTER

20

Reinforcement

Date

NAME

Study Guide for Content Mastery

DATE

aorta
arteries
veins
pulmonary artery
pulmonary veins

1.

Person 2

Name

Patty

Andy

Age of person

18

40

Rate before exercise

60

72

from lungs
left atrium

7.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

superior
or inferior
vena cava

aorta

pulmonary
veins

pulmonary
artery

4.

pen

to smaller
arteries &
capillaries

3. inferior vena cava


right ventricle

8.

l
_____

Type of exercise

pencil

Person 4

Person 5

h
_____

Person 6

running

45 min

30 min

1. The

pulmonary vein

is the only vein in the body that carries oxygen-rich blood. This vein

moves blood from the

lungs

to the

2. Valves inside the veins prevent blood from flowing


3. Blood in

lungs

veins

veins

4. A measure of the flow of blood in arteries is called

arteries

heart

Rate after exercising

154

158

Rate after resting

84

102

away from

the heart.

blood pressure

Pulmonary circulation takes


5. What is pulmonary circulation and what is its function?___________________________________

3. the liquid part of blood, consisting mostly of water 2/20:1

a
_____

4. blood vessels that move blood away from the heart

k
_____

5. blood vessels that move blood toward the heart

c
_____

6. microscopic blood vessels connecting larger vessels 1/20:1

j
_____

7. moves blood to all tissues except lungs and heart

g
_____

8. collects fluid from body tissue spaces and returns it to


the blood 7/20:3

e
_____

9. a chemical that can carry oxygen and carbon dioxide 4/20:2

the blood to body tissues.

AT LEVEL
54

490C

CHAPTER 18

THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

L2

CHALLENGE
54

d. coronary circulation

3/20:1

f. hypertension
g. lymphatic system
h. plasma
i. pulmonary circulation
j. systemic circulation
k. veins
l. ventricles

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

c. low in wastes

Early Life
Charles Drew was born on June 3, 1904, in
Washington, D.C. When he was 15, his sister
died of tuberculosis. Watching her struggle with
the disease helped him decide to become a doctor. An all-American athlete in college, Drew
could have gone on in sports but decided to follow his original dream. After he received his
bachelors degree, Drew taught biology and
chemistry and coached athletics for two years at
Morgan State College in Baltimore, Maryland.

d. low in oxygen

a 15. A stroke can occur if an artery in the _____ is clogged.


_____
3/20:1
a. brain
b. heart
c. liver

d. lungs

b 16. Another name for high blood pressure is _____ .


_____
3/20:1
a. atherosclerosis
b. hypertension
c. leukemia

d. thrombosis

c 17. _____, the liquid part of blood, is mostly made of water.


_____
2/20:1
a. Hemoglobin
b. Lymph
c. Plasma

d. Platelets

a 18. Hemoglobin picks up _____ .


_____
4/20:2
a. carbon dioxide and oxygen
b. carbon dioxide and wastes
77

c. capillaries

2/20:1 e. hemoglobin

2/20:1

b 14. Coronary circulation is the flow of blood to the tissues of the _____ .
_____
3/20:1
a. brain
b. heart
c. kidneys
d. lungs

capillaries

L1

In 1900, the blood groups A, B, and O were discovered. This allowed doctors to ensure that in
a blood transfusion, donor and patient blood
types were compatible. Though transfusions had
been performed since 1818, this discovery greatly improved the safety and success of this lifesaving procedure. One serious problem
remained, however. Because blood could only
be stored for a very short time before spoiling,
most transfusions were person-to-person. That
is, doctors took blood from the donor and
almost immediately injected it into the patient.
As a result, blood transfusions didnt take place
very often and were not considered a very useful medical treatment.
In the late 1930s, Dr. Charles Richard Drew
changed all that. He discovered that blood plasma, the watery, yellowish liquid in which the
blood cells are suspended, could be stored more
easily than whole blood. This discovery turned
blood transfusions into a common procedure
that ultimately saved thousands of lives.

c 13. In systemic circulation, blood returns from your abdomen through the inferior vena
_____
3/20:1
cava to the _____ .
a. left atrium
b. left ventricle
c. right atrium
d. right ventricle

exchanges carbon dioxide for oxygen and returns to the heart. The heart then pumps

BASIC

2/20:1

b. atria

d 12. In pulmonary circulation, blood flows through two organs, the _____ .
_____
3/20:1
a. brain and heart
b. heart and kidneys c. heart and liver
d. lungs and heart

Conclusion

blood high in carbon dioxide and other cell wastes to the lungs. In the lungs, the blood

a. arteries

d 11. Blood in veins is _____ .


_____
1/20:1
a. high in oxygen
b. high in nutrients

Write a conclusion for your experiment. Include answers to the following questions.
1. Did the heart rate differ with age?
2. Did the heart rate go up by the same amount in all the people tested?
3. How long did each person rest after exercising? Had his or her heart rate returned to the first
measurement? Test yourself to see how long it takes for your heart rate to return to normal.

carries wastes away from the cells of the body back to the heart.

2. the two lower chambers of the heart

2/20:1

c 10. When blood moves from the left ventricle into the aorta, it must pass through a(n) _____ .
_____
2/20:1
a. A-V valve
b. murmur
c. semilunar valve
d. lymph node

exercising
Fill in the blanks with the correct terms for questions 14.

1. the two upper chambers of the heart

For each of the following, write the letter of the term or phrase that best completes each sentence.

Length of time

left ventricle

walking

Person 3

DATE

MULTICULTURAL CONNECTIONS

Match the description in the first column with the item in the second column by writing the correct letter in the space
provided. Some items in the second column may not be used.

b
_____

Multicultural Connections
NAME

The Circulatory System

I. Testing Concepts

Sample Data

Person 1

Test Practice Workbook

CLASS

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

CLASS

Chapter 20

CHAPTER TEST

Fill in the following table as you conduct your experiment. The rate in the table refers to the pulse rate or blood
pressure reading. If you need more space, use a separate sheet of paper.

pulmonary artery

6.
to lungs

DATE

Chapter 20

Use with Section 1

Circulation

Exercise and Circulation

superior vena cava

right atrium

2.

Assessment
NAME

CLASS

Design an experiment to test the circulation of six of your friends or family members. Choose an
exercise that will increase circulation, such as running in place or jumping jacks. Take a pulse
reading or a blood pressure reading for each person before and after exercising. Make sure the
exercise is not too strenuous for anyone you are testing.

aorta

5.

heart

DATE

ENRICHMENT

Label the diagram of the heart. Include the following terms on your diagram: right atrium, left atrium, right ventricle,
left ventricle, superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, pulmonary artery, aorta. Use a pencil to draw arrows showing
the path of oxygen-rich blood. Use a pen to show the path of oxygen-poor blood.

Directions: Use the following terms to complete the concept map below:

L2

Chapter 20

Circulation

39

20

NAME
Use with Section 1

REINFORCEMENT

L2
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Enrichment Worksheets

CLASS

Chapter 20

Overview The Circulatory System

34

c. nutrients and carbon dioxide


d. oxygen and wastes

L2

L3
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

89

L2

Charles Richard Drew

chemical that prevents clotting), then let the


sample sit in a test tube for a while, the heavier
red cells will migrate to the bottom, the lighter
white blood cells will sit just above the red cells,
and the plasma moves to the top of the test tube.
Plasma is valuable, especially after surgery,
because floating in the plasma are the platelets
and other materials that form blood clots. Many
patients who were candidates for blood transfusions actually only needed the clotting materials
in the plasma. So with plasmas longer storage
ability, plasma could solve many medical
problems.

A Career in Medicine

Banking Blood to Save Lives

In 1928, Drew enrolled at McGill University in


Montreal, Canada. Two years later, he won a
Rosenwald Scholarship, a highly respected
award for African American students. He went
on to earn a degree in medicine and the ranking
of a master of surgery. During his time at
McGill, Drew had observed lifesaving blood
transfusions, and that experience sparked his
interest in the problems associated with blood
transfusions.
In 1938 Drew received a Rockefeller Fellowship
to study at Columbia University in New York.
During this time, Drew discovered that plasma
could be stored longer than whole blood. If you
treat whole blood with an anti-coagulant (a

In early 1940, the Blood Transfusion


Association of New York City, aided by the
American Red Cross, began collecting blood to
ship to the British army fighting in Europe during the early part of World War II. The project
was called the Plasma for Britain Project. A colleague and mentor recommended that Charles
Drew direct the project. By this time, Drew was
considered an expert in blood fluids and plasma
storage. He was sent to England to oversee the
first major effort to produce plasma on a large
scale. There he discovered that instead of waiting for blood to separate, the British had taken a
machine that separated cream from milk and
adapted it to separate blood materials from plas-

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

L2
39

490D

Chapter

18

The Circulatory System

C ontent

Helping You Prepare


Circulation

Background

Blood

(Section 18-1)

In 1628, William Harvey published his findings


which indicated blood in the human body follows a motion as it were in a circle. Earlier
concepts viewed the motion of blood as a tide
that ebbed and flowed within the body. It came
to be recognized that the blood flowed through
a circulatory system. Pumped by the heart, the
blood moved through arteries into the body
and returned to the heart via the veins. However, it was still a mystery how the blood made
its way from the arteries, through tissues, and
into the veins. Not until the invention of the microscope was it discovered that minute vessels,
the capillaries, made the connection.
The heart is a muscular organ that lies in the
thoracic cavity between the lungs. It is not directly in the center of the chest. Two thirds of the
heart lies to the left and one third lies to the right.
It is enclosed by a protective sac of fibrous tissue,
the pericardium. Fluid between the pericardium
and the heart serves to lubricate and protect the
moving organ.
The initiation of the heartbeat originates
within the heart muscle. The sinoatrial node
(pacemaker) is a modified piece of cardiac muscle tissue located near the superior vena cava. An
impulse for this node spreads to the atria of the
heart causing them to contract. Another node

CD-ROM
Glencoe Science Voyages Interactive CD-ROM

Chapter Summaries
Use the Chapter Summary to introduce, teach,
or review chapter material.
(atrioventricular) receives the signal and then
transmits it to the ventricles causing them to
contract.
A cross section of arteries and veins shows
that the walls have three layers. The inner lining of the vessels is covered with two types of
tissue; one of these is a network of elastic connective tissue. The middle layer is smooth muscle and elastic tissue. The outer layer is collagenous connective tissue. The middle layer in
veins is less developed than in arteries, and
therefore collapses more easily. Capillaries
have walls only one cell thick. This allows materials to diffuse through them. So numerous
are the capillaries in the body that most cells
are less than one fourth of a millimeter from a
capillary.

Teachers
Corner
Products Available from Glencoe
To order the following products for use with this chapter, call Glencoe at 1-800-334-7344:

CD-ROM
NGS PictureShow: Human Body 2
Curriculum Kit
GeoKit: Human Body 1
Transparency Set
NGS PicturePack: Human Body 2
Videodisc
STV: Human Body

490E

CHAPTER 18

THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

Products Available from National


Geographic Society

(Section 18-2)

The liquid component of blood, the plasma, is a


complex solution of organic and inorganic substances dissolved in water. The various constituents in blood are shown in the table below.
Constituent

Percent

Water

90

Proteins (albumins, globulins, fibrinogen)

Electrolytes (sodium, potassium,


calcium, magnesium, chloride,
bicarbonate, phosphate, sulfate)

Gases (oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen)


Nutrients (glucose, amino acids, lipids,
vitamins, trace elements)
Waste Products (urea, creatinine, uric acid,
bilirubin)
Hormones and Antibodies

1

Your Lymphatic System


(Section 18-3)
The lymphatic system can be thought of as a
branch of the circulatory system. Lymph is
blood plasma that has diffused and filtrated
from the blood capillaries into the spaces

between cells. Often


the lymph in these
spaces is referred to as
intercellular or interstiFor current events or science in the news,
tial fluid. Like blood
access the Glencoe Science Web Site at
plasma, lymph conwww.glencoe.com/sec/science/ca
sists mainly of water,
some dissolved substances, and white
blood cells called lymphocytes.
Lymph from the interstitial spaces passes
through lymph capillaries, larger lymph vessels, lymph nodes, and lymph glands before entering a vein. Lymph is not under great pressure
and therefore external forces are needed to
cause it to flow. Gravity plays a role in the
movement of lymph above the heart. Other
forces include the contraction of smooth muscles in the larger lymphatic vessels, the contraction of skeletal muscles, and the movements of
breathing muscles. Backflow of lymph is prevented by valves in the large lymph vessels.
When the skin is subject to continued friction
or pressure, a blow, or heat, the blood capillaries dilate. Lymph accumulates in the injured
area and a liquid-filled blister is formed under
the skin. If there is poor circulation in a region
of the body, lymph may collect and cause a
swelling called an edema.

Teacher to Teacher
The discussion of the circulatory system provides an opportu-

To order the following products for use with this chapter,


call National Geographic Society at 1-800-368-2728:

nity to integrate the sciences. Supernovas are known to produce

Videos
Circulatory and Respiratory Systems (The Human
Body Series)
Incredible Human Machine

elements found in nature. The iron bound to hemoglobin came


from deep space in this manner when the planets were formed.

Edward G. Ezrailson, Ph.D.


Science Consultant
Spring, TX

490F

CHAPTER

CHAPTER

18

18

The Circulatory
System
CHAPTER OVERVIEW
Section 18-1 This section
provides an overview of the
major structures and functions of the circulatory system. The importance of the
system is highlighted with a
discussion of the diseases and
disorders of the heart.
Section 18-2 This section focuses on bloodthe flowing
tissue of the circulatory system. The liquid and solid
components of blood and
their roles in transporting
materials are discussed.
Section 18-3 The lymphatic
system is introduced, and its
important role in fighting infections is detailed.

Chapter Vocabulary
atria
ventricle
pulmonary
circulation
systemic
circulation
coronary
circulation
artery
vein
capillary

blood pressure
atherosclerosis
hypertension
plasma
hemoglobin
platelet
lymphatic
system
lymph
lymphocyte
lymph node

Chapter Preview
Section 18-1

The
Circulatory
System

Explore Activity
Purpose

Explore Activity

f you live in a big city or have ever visited one, you may have
noticed a beltway that circles the city. Most big cities also have
one or more interstate highways that cross through them. The
human circulatory system can be compared to a citys highway
system. Goods are transported to individual homes and factories. Completed products and wastes are collected and
removed. In a similar way, substances are transported throughout your body.

Circulation

Section 18-2
Blood

Section 18-3
Your Lymphatic
System

1. Obtain a map that shows the


Skill Builders

streets, interstate roads, and a


beltway around a large city.

Make and Use a Table


Compare and Contrast

2. Study the map to find the center,


or heart, of the city. Use the map
key to identify roads that are
interstates and roads that are
state and country routes.

Activities
Observe
Experiment

3. Plan a route from the center of

MiniLabs

the city to a street in the suburbs.

Compare
Interpret Data

g Chec

Readin

In your Science Journal,


compare the different
types of streets you
could take. If the city
represented a human
body, what would the
center of town represent? What would the
suburbs represent?

rent culw a diffe . Do peoo


h
t
u
o
Find
heart
ws the
the
ture vie culture draw
Do
is
h
shape?
ple in t
lentine
e
a
h
v
t
a
s
a
in
t
hear
heart
e
h
t
f
o
?
ns
ink
they th peoples emotio
f
o
r
e
t
cen

Theme Connection
Stability and Change The
circulatory system is a good
example of a system that
functions to maintain stability and respond to changes in
human life processes.
OUT OF

TIME

If time does not permit


teaching the entire chapter, use Reviewing Main
Ideas on pp. 514515.

490

CHAPTER 18

Materials
maps of your city, school,
community, or nearby large
city

Teaching Strategies

Map a Route in the City

Skills Preview

Visual-Spatial Use the


Explore Activity to help
students understand how
the circulatory system transports substances throughout
the body.

Have students use maps of


cities that provide a variety
of transportation routes into
and out of the city. Use the
maps legend to determine
the types of roads leading to
and from the city.
Students
answers
may vary
depending on the specific
map used in the activity. Advantages for some routes
may be shorter distances and
the ability to drive faster on a
highway than on a street. Disadvantages may be longer
distances and the need to use
many small streets. The center of the town represents the
heart, and the suburbs represent the organs to which the
blood must be delivered.

Assessment
491

490
Look for the following logos for strategies that emphasize different learning modalities.

Multiple
Learning
Styles

THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

Linguistic Using Science Words,


p. 495; Science Journal, p. 503; Preview, p. 514
Logical-Mathematical MiniLab,
p. 493; Activity, p. 501
Visual-Spatial Explore
Activity,
pp. 491, 509, 512; MiniLab, p. 498;
Assessment, p. 501; Making a Model,
p. 505; Across the Curriculum, p. 507;
Reteach, pp. 512, 514

Auditory-Musical Out of Time,


p. 514
Kinesthetic Activity, p. 493; Multiple
Learning Styles, pp. 494, 503; Reteach,
p. 497
Interpersonal Activity, p. 497; Discussion, p. 507; Reteach, p. 507;
Review, p. 514

Assessment Planner
Portfolio

Content Assessment

Refer to p. 515 for suggested items that students might select for their portfolios.

Section Assessment, pp. 500, 508, 513


Chapter Assessment, pp. 516517
Proficiency Prep, pp. 500, 508, 513

Performance Assessment
See p. 515 for additional Performance
Assessment options.
Skill Builder, pp. 500, 508
MiniLab, pp. 493, 498
Activity 18-1, p. 501; 18-2, p. 509

Performance Have students


use a map to trace the flow of
a regional commodity or
product (steel, lumber, corn,
dairy product) to large cities.
Then have students relate this
activity to the flow of blood in
the human body. Use Performance Assessment in the
Science Classroom, p. 55.

491

SECTION

18 1

181

Prepare

It's Important
You'll Learn

C ontent

Background

How to compare arteries,


veins, and capillaries
The pathway of blood
through the chambers of
the heart
The pulmonary and systemic
circulation systems

Refer to Circulation on p. 490E.

Preplanning

Vocabulary

Refer to the Chapter Organizer on pp. 490AB.

atria
ventricle
pulmonary circulation
systemic circulation
coronary circulation
artery
vein
capillary
blood pressure
atherosclerosis
hypertension

1 Motivate
Bellringer
Before presenting the lesson,
display Section Focus
Transparency 50 on the
overhead projector. Use the
accompanying Focus Activity
worksheet. L2 ELL

Circulation

Your Cardiovascular System


With a body made up of trillions of cells, you may seem
quite different from a one-celled amoeba living in a puddle of
water. But, are you really that different? Even though your
body is larger and made up of complex systems, the cells in
your body have the same needs as a single-celled organism,
the amoeba. You both need a continuous supply of oxygen
and nutrients and a way to remove cell wastes.
It's Important
An amoeba takes oxygen directly from its watery environment. Nutrients are distributed throughout its single cell by
moving through the cytoplasm. In your body, a cardioYou'll Learn
vascular system distributes materials. Your cardiovascular
system includes your heart, blood, and kilometers of vessels
that carry blood to every part of your body and then back to
the heart as shown in Figure 18-1A. It is a closed system

Why
What

It's Important
Blood plays a vital role as the
transport system of the body.

You'll Learn

because blood moves within vessels. The


system moves oxygen and nutrients to cells
and removes carbon dioxide and other
wastes from the cells. Movement of materials into and out of your cells happens by
diffusion. Diffusion, shown in Figure
18-1B, is when a material moves from an
area of high concentration to an area of
lower concentration.

2 Teach

Inferring How Hard the Heart Works


Procedure

Your Heart
Your heart is an organ made of cardiac
muscle. It is located behind your sternum,
which is the breastbone, and between your
lungs. Your heart has four cavities called
chambers. The two upper chambers are the
right and left atria (AY tree uh). The two
lower chambers are the right and left
ventricles (VEN trih kulz). During a single
heartbeat, both atria contract at the same
time. Then, both ventricles contract at the
same time. A valve separates each atrium
from the ventricle below it so that blood
flows only from an atrium to a ventricle. A
wall prevents blood from flowing between
the two atria or the two ventricles. It is
important to separate blood rich in oxygen
from blood low in oxygen to ensure that all
cells get an oxygen supply.

1. Take a racquetball and hold it in your out-

stretched arm.
2. Squeeze the racquetball again and again for one

minute.
Analysis
1. How many times did you squeeze the racquet-

ball in one minute? A resting heart beats at


approximately 70 beats per minute.
2. What can you do when the muscles of your arm
get tired? Explain why cardiac muscle in your
heart cannot do the same.

Blood vessel

Section 18-1

50

CY
ANSPAREN
FOCUS TR
SECTION

water
R OUT
me. This
RTY WATE
in your ho
sysTER IN, DI
of purposes
plumbing
the
CLEAN WA use water for a variety es that make up the ste
water into
you
way of pip system carries wa
Each day,
ents, and
home by
ps, deterg
into your
plumbing
n dirt, soa
is carried
ilarly, the
house. Sim stewater may contai
tem of the
wa
is
Th
.
tem
sewage sys s.
ste
human wa

Figure 18-1 Humans have a


closed circulatory system.

It's Important

B In a closed circulatory sys-

Why
You'll Learn
What
Hot-water
Cold-water
Vents
Drains

h
ibe the pat
wn. Descr
home sho
wer in the
r shower.
ng to sho
to take you
you are goi
allow you
?
1. Imagine
to
red
low
we
st fol
have sho
water mu
after you
a home
dirty water
system of
pens to the
plumbing
2. What hap
d out by the system?
job carrie
ry
the
ato
is
cul
y
cir
wa
r
ns of you
3. In what
ctio
fun
the
similar to
, Inc.
cGraw-Hill,
Glencoe/M
Copyright

anies
aw-Hill Comp
of The McGr
a division

Relate the role of the circulatory system transporting


nutrients to all the cells of the
body. These nutrients provide energy for all the cells
activities.

492

CHAPTER 18

a heart to all the cells of the


body and back to the heart
through a closed network of
blood vessels.

Waste
molecules
Cell membrane

50

492

CHAPTER 18

18 1

THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

Across the Curriculum

Resource Manager

Tying to Previous
Knowledge

tem, blood remains in


blood vessels. Nutrients
move from the blood into
cells by diffusion or active
transport. Waste products
produced by the cell move
out into the circulatory system to be carried away.

A The blood is pumped by

The following Teacher Classroom


Resources can be used with Section 18-1:

Reinforcement, p. 50 L2
Study Guide, pp. 69-70

Reproducible Masters
Activity Worksheets, pp. 9798, 101-102
Enrichment, p. 50 L3
Laboratory Manual, pp. 103106 L2

Transparencies
Teaching Transparency 35
Teaching Transparency 36

THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

L2

L1

L2
L2

ELL

History Have students research the writings of early Greek and Roman physician/scientists and their beliefs about the heart and
circulation of blood. Individuals to consider
are Galen, Leonardo da Vinci, and Vesalius.
L2

COOP LEARN

Materials
racquetball, stopwatch
Teaching Strategies
To help students know
whether they are squeezing too
quickly or too slowly, have them
first determine how many times
they must squeeze the racquetball each second. Have them try
to squeeze at a smooth, steady
rate throughout the whole
minute.

Nutrients
Cell

For additional help doing this


activity at home, see the corresponding pages in the Home
Involvement booklet.
Purpose
Logical-Mathematical
Students will observe and
record their rate of squeezing a
racquetball and compare it with
the heart rate. L2 ELL

CIRCULATION

493

Activity
Kinesthetic Ask each student to make a
closed fist with the right hand and hold
it on the chest to the left of the sternum. (Students might think that the heart is under the
sternum, directly in the middle of the chest.)
This will give them an idea of the size and position of the heart. L2 ELL

Analysis
1. Answers will vary depending
on students abilities, but
most likely they will find it difficult to maintain the 70squeezes-per-minute rate.
2. Students can stop or change
arms. The heart must continue
and not fatigue in order to
maintain the bodys activities.

Assessment
Process Have students infer
the tiring time for cardiac muscles and compare this with the
tiring time for skeletal muscles.
Use Performance Assessment in the Science
Classroom, p. 17.

CA Science
Content
Page 492: 5a, 5b
Page 493: 5a, 5b, 6j, 7a,
7c, 7e
18-1 CIRCULATION

493

V ISUALIZING
Pulmonary Circulation

V ISUAL
Learning
Figure 18-2 Have students follow the flow of
blood through the heart.
Have them explain why
this definition of veins is
correct or incorrect: Veins
are blood vessels that
carry more carbon dioxide
than oxygen. The statement is incorrect. In pulmonary circulation the
veins carry more oxygen
than carbon dioxide. L2

Figure 18-2 Pulmonary circulation

C Oxygen-rich blood travels through the

moves blood between the heart


and lungs.
Blood, high in carbon dioxide
and low in oxygen, returns
from the body to the heart.
It enters the right atrium
through the superior and
inferior vena cavae.

pulmonary vein and into the left atrium.


The pulmonary veins are the only veins
that carry oxygen-rich blood.

Superior
vena cava
Aorta

Coronary Circulation

Capillaries

Pulmonary artery

Pulmonary vein
Left atrium
Right atrium

Quick Demo
Obtain a beef heart to examine. Draw students attention to the thick, muscular
walls of the ventricles, which
are necessary to supply a lifetime of pumping action.

Left ventricle

V ISUALIZING

CD-ROM

The right atrium contracts,


forcing the blood into the Right lung
right ventricle. When the
right ventricle contracts,
the blood leaves the heart
and goes through the pulmonary artery to the lungs,
where it picks up oxygen.

Glencoe Science Voyages


Interactive CD-ROM
Explorations
Have students do the interactive
exploration What factors affect
the likelihood of hypertension?

Right
ventricle

Left lung

D The left atrium contracts and forces the

Coronary
arteries

Aorta

Using Science Words


Linguistic Have students compare the physiological meaning of atrium
with the architectural meaning of the word. L2

Caption Answer
Figure 18-3 It gradually slows.

Carotid
artery

Internal
jugular vein

Videodisc

Aorta
Left
pulmonary
vein
Left pulmonary
artery

Superior vena cava


Right pulmonary artery

Glencoe Science Voyages


Interactive VideodiscLife
Side 2, Lesson 7 Health Is Just a
Heartbeat Away

!9B[:L"
23156
The Infinite Voyage: A Taste of
Health
Chapter 7 Arresting Heart Disease: A Case Study 6:00
Refer to the Videodisc Teacher
Guide for bar codes and teaching
strategies.

Heart

Right pulmonary vein


Inferior vena cava

blood into the left ventricle. The left ventricle contracts, forcing the blood out of the
heart and into the aorta.

Blood moves continuously throughout your body in a


closed circulatory system. Scientists have divided the system
into three sections. The beating of your heart controls blood
flow through these sections. Figure 18-2 shows pulmonary
circulation. Pulmonary (PUL muh ner ee) circulation is the
flow of blood through the heart, to the lungs where it picks
up oxygen, and back to the heart. Use Figure 18-2 to trace the
path blood takes through this part of the circulatory system.

The bodys largest artery is


the aorta. The name has its origin from the Greek word aorte,
meaning to raise or lift. Discuss why this is an appropriate word for this vessel.

Aorta

C ontent

Background

Coronary
veins

Systemic Circulation
The final step of pulmonary circulation occurs when blood
is forced from the left ventricle into the aorta (ay ORT uh). The
aorta is the largest artery of your body. It carries blood away
from the heart. Systemic circulation moves oxygen-rich
494

CHAPTER 18

Inferior
vena cava

Your heart has its own blood vessels that supply it with nutrients and oxygen and remove
wastes. As shown in Figure 18-4, these blood
vessels are involved in coronary circulation.
Coronary (KOR uh ner ee) circulation is the flow
of blood to the tissues of the heart. Whenever the
coronary circulation is blocked, oxygen cannot reach
the cells of the heart. The result is a heart attack.

Figure 18-3 The rate at


which blood flows through the
systemic system depends on how
quickly the left ventricle contracts.
How does the rate change when
a person has completed a race?

Pulmonary Circulation

Using Science Words

494

blood to all of your organs and body tissues except for the
heart and lungs. It is the most extensive of the three sections
of your circulatory system. Figure 18-3 shows the major arteries and veins involved in systemic circulation. Once nutrients
and oxygen are delivered by blood to your body cells and
exchanged for carbon dioxide and wastes, the blood returns
to the heart in veins. From the head and neck areas, blood
returns through the superior vena cava. From your abdomen
and the lower parts of your body, blood returns through
the inferior vena cava. More information about arteries
and veins will be presented later in this chapter.

CHAPTER 18

THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

Figure 18-4 Like the rest of the body, the heart receives
the oxygen and nutrients it needs and rids itself of waste by
way of blood flowing through blood vessels. On the diagram,
you can see the coronary arteries, which nourish the heart.
18-1

CIRCULATION

495

Multiple Learning Styles

Across the Curriculum

Kinesthetic On a large chart of


the heart and lungs, have students trace with their fingers the flow
of blood through the entire pulmonary circulation system as illustrated on the student page. Major vessels and chambers of the heart should
be identified.

Anthropology Have students research


the diets of Native Americans, Indians, Inuit,
and people who live in the rainforest. How
does the incidence of heart disease vary with
culture? L3

THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

Cardiac muscles
do not directly absorb nutrients and oxygen from
the blood that flows
through the chambers of
the heart. The right and
left coronary arteries that
branch off the aorta near
its origin from the left ventricle supply nutrients and
oxygen and remove
wastes. In addition, the
right coronary artery also
supplies the sinoatrial and
atrioventricular nodes responsible for coordinating
the heartbeat.

CA Science Content
Standards
Page 494: 5a, 5b
Page 495: 5a, 5b
18-1 CIRCULATION

495

Blood Vessels
Answer to

heck
Reading C

It wasnt until the middle 1600s that scientists confirmed


that blood circulates only in one direction and that it is
moved by the pumping action of the heart. They found that
blood flows from arteries to veins. What they couldnt figure
out is how blood gets from the arteries to the veins. With the
invention of the microscope, capillaries were seen.

e walls
d veins hav
Arteries an
of
three layers
consisting of
od
lo
ries move b
tissue. Arte
ove
art; veins m
from the he
e heart.
blood to th

B
Connective
tissue

Glencoe Science Voyages


Interactive VideodiscLife
Side 2, Lesson 7 Health Is Just a
Heartbeat Away

C
Smooth
muscle

Elastic
connective
tissue

!9G9;h|"

Elastic
connective
tissue

Smooth
lining

23622
Refer to the Videodisc Teacher
Guide for additional bar codes.

Valve

Artery

Vein

Capillary

Figure 18-5 The structures


of arteries (A), veins (B), and capillaries (C) are different. Valves in
veins help blood flow back toward
the heart. Capillaries are much
smaller and only one cell thick.

The walls of the aorta are composed of layers of elastic tissue.


These layers consist of elastic
membranes connected by elastic
fibers. When the heart contracts, a
portion of the force moves the
blood forward. The remainder of
the force is stored as potential energy by elastic tension within the
artery walls. When the contraction
ceases, the potential energy
transforms into kinetic energy
causing the blood to flow forward.

k
g Chec
Readin
rast
nd cont
a
e
r
a
p
s.
Com
and vein
arteries

496

CHAPTER 18

Types of Blood Vessels


As blood moves out of the heart, it begins a journey
through arteries, capillaries, and veins. Arteries are blood
vessels that move blood away from the heart. Arteries,
shown in Figure 18-5, have thick elastic walls made of
smooth muscle. Each ventricle of the heart is connected to an
artery. With each contraction of the heart, blood is moved
from the heart into arteries.
Veins are blood vessels that move blood to the heart. Veins
have valves to keep blood moving toward the heart. If blood
flows backward, the pressure of the blood closes the valves.
Veins that are near skeletal muscles are squeezed when these
muscles contract. This action helps blood move toward the
heart. Blood in veins carries waste materials, such as carbon
dioxide, from cells and is therefore low in oxygen.

THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

Figure 18-6 Blood pressure is


measured in large arteries using a
blood-pressure cuff and stethoscope.
Force


Pressure  
Area
F

When you pump up a bicycle tire, you can


feel the pressure of the air on the walls of the
tire. In the same way, when the heart pumps
blood through the cardiovascular system, blood
exerts a force called blood pressure on the walls of the
vessels. This pressure is highest in arteries. Blood pressure
is lower in capillaries and even lower in veins. As the wave
of pressure rises and falls in your
arteries, it is felt as your pulse.
Normal pulse rates are between
65 and 80 beats per minute.
Blood pressure is measured
in large arteries and is
expressed by two numbers,
such as 120 over 80. The first number is a measure of the
pressure caused when the ventricles contract and blood is
pushed out of the heart. Then, blood pressure suddenly
drops as the ventricles relax. The lower number is a measure
of the pressure when the ventricles are filling up, just before
they contract again. Figure 18-6 shows the instruments used
to measure blood pressure.

 450 m2
The pressure on the bottom
of the tank is 450 N/m2.
Blood exerts pressure on
blood vessels that can be
calculated.

Teacher FYI
The peak pressure of blood
flow caused by the contraction of the ventricles is systolic pressure. The low pressure of blood flow produced
when the heart relaxes is diastolic pressure.

3 Assess
Check for Understanding

A tank full of water


exerts a force of 900 N
on the bottom of a
tank that has an area
of 2 m2. Calculate
the pressure on the
bottom of the tank
using the following
formula.
P= F
A
How does
calculating pressure in
a water tank relate to
blood pressure in
humans?
18-1

CIRCULATION

497

Integrating the Sciences


Have students reflect on this statement:
Only 5 percent of the total blood volume is circulating in the capillaries at
any one point in time. Then, have them
write a brief report telling why this is
significant in light of the function of
capillaries.

496

CHAPTER 18

THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

900 N


P  A  
2 m2

Blood Pressure

Connective
tissue

Circular
smooth
muscle

Videodisc

Capillaries are microscopic blood vessels that connect


arteries and veins. The walls of capillaries are only one cell
thick. You can see the capillaries when you have a bloodshot
eye. They are the tiny red lines visible in the white area of the
eye. Nutrients and oxygen diffuse to body cells
through thin capillary walls. Waste materials and carbon dioxide move from body
cells into the capillaries to be carried back
to the heart.

Physics The term pressure is used in discussions of fluids such as gases and liquids.
Pressure is produced when a force is applied
to a fluid. The greater the force is, the
greater the pressure is on the fluid, and the
smaller the volume it takes up. Usually, the
volume of gas decreases by one-half when
the pressure doubles.

Activity
Interpersonal Check
students understanding
of the direction of blood flow
in arteries (from the heart) and
in veins (to the heart) and how
the blood gets from the arteries to the veins (capillaries).
Divide the class into pairs of
students. Hang a large paper
on the wall for each pair. One
student draws an outline of
the body and the major vessels. The other labels the vessels. L2 ELL COOP LEARN

Reteach
Kinesthetic On a chart
of the circulatory system, have students trace with
their fingers the flow of blood
from the heart to a major
artery and back again. L1 ELL

Extension
For students who have
mastered this section, use the
Reinforcement and Enrichment masters.

CA Science Content
Standards
Page 496: 5a, 5b
Page 497: 5a, 5b, 6j
18-1 CIRCULATION

497

V ISUALIZING
Atherosclerosis

Figure 18-7 When pressure is exerted on a

Purpose
Visual-Spatial Students
will observe the restricted
flow of mineral oil and make inferences about blood flow
through blocked arteries. L2

fluid in a closed container, the pressure is transmitted through the liquid in all directions. A balloon
filled with water has the same amount of pressure
pushing on all the inner surfaces of the balloon.
Your circulatory system is like a closed container.

The Big Push


PHYSICS
INTEGR ATION

ELL COOP LEARN P

Materials
15-cm length of plastic tubing
(1 cm diameter), dropper,
mineral oil, cotton
Teaching Strategies
Have students use different
amounts of cotton to show
varying degrees of blockage.
Use a toothpick to insert the
cotton plug.

Water-filled
balloon

Troubleshooting
Mineral oil is poisonous; do
not ingest. Wash hands after
handling mineral oil.
Analysis
1. The rate of flow of the oil
through the tube should be
less.
2. The oil had greater resistence to flow and moved
more slowly.
3. An inference can be made
that fatty deposits in an artery
will reduce the bloodflow.

Assessment
Performance Have students
design an instrument or a
method that will remove the fatty
deposit but will not harm the
blood vessel wall. Use Performance Assessment in the
Science Classroom, p. 45.

The Infinite Voyage: The


Champion Within
Chapter 7 Combating Heart
Attacks 6:30
Refer to the Videodisc Teacher
Guide for bar codes and teaching
strategies.

CHAPTER 18

Figure 18-8 Atherosclerosis


interferes with blood flow by blocking blood vessels with fatty substances. Each of these photos is
paired with an illustration showing
the build up of fatty deposits. What
happens if an artery in the heart
is blocked?

A This cross section of a


B Here, the blood-flow pathway

healthy coronary artery


shows a clear, wide-open
pathway through which blood
easily flows.

V ISUALIZING

has been narrowed by a


buildup of fatty deposits.
Blood flow is slowed. The
heart muscle does not get
enough oxygen and nutrients
to do its work. The muscle
begins to die.

Modeling a Blocked Artery


Procedure

Fatty deposit

1. Insert a dropperful of mineral oil into a piece of

clear, narrow, plastic tubing.


2. Squeeze the oil through the tube.
3. Observe how much oil comes out the tube.
4. Next, refill the dropper and squeeze mineral oil

through a piece of clear plastic tubing that has


been clogged with cotton.
Analysis
1. How much oil comes out of the clogged tube?
2. Explain how the addition of the cotton to the

tube changed the way the oil flowed through


the tube.
3. How does this activity demonstrate what takes
place when arteries become clogged?

CHAPTER 18

Pressure Measurement
Scientists measure atmospheric pressure
with a mercury barometer. At sea level,
normal atmospheric pressure is 760 mm
mercury. This means that the force of the
atmosphere will raise a column of mercury
(Hg) 760 mm in the barometer. Compare
this to a normal blood pressure reading of
120 over 80 for a young adult. The first
number is the systolic pressure (the pressure produced when the ventricles force
blood from the heart). In this reading, the
systolic pressure would raise a column of
mercury 120 mm in a barometer. The second number is the diastolic pressure (the
pressure at the end of the cardiac cycle).
This pressure would raise a column of mercury 80 mm in a barometer.

V ISUAL
Learning

Magnification: 10

If the deposit continues to


build, blood flow through the
artery becomes limited and
may stop. The person will
suffer a heart attack.

Using an Analogy

Control of Blood Pressure


Special nerve cells in the walls of some arteries sense
changes in blood pressure. Messages are sent to the brain,
and the amount of blood pumped by the heart is
regulated. This provides for a regular, normal pressure
within the arteries.

Visit the Glencoe


Science Web Site at
www.glencoe.com/
sec/science/ca for
more information about
cardiovascular disease.

The buildup of fatty deposits in the walls of arteries is


similar to the buildup of hard
water deposits in plumbing
pipes. In both cases, the pathway is narrowed and the flow
is reduced.

Caption Answer
Figure 18-8 A heart attack
18-1

CIRCULATION

499

C ontent

Write-Draw-Discuss

THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

Magnification: 10

THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

This strategy encourages students to actively participate in reading and lectures, assimilating content creatively. Have students write about an idea,
clarify it, then make an illustration or drawing.
Ask students to share responses with the
class and display several examples. Have
students Write-Draw-Discuss about a concept
in this section.

Correcting Misconceptions
The link between cardiovascular disease and high
levels of cholesterol in the
blood has been established.
Cholesterol is a steroid lipid
and can cause the buildup
and deposition of fatty tissue
called atheroma in arteries.
Some people assume that any
cholesterol in the body is unhealthy. In fact, the liver produces this chemical, which is
involved in the production
and maintenance of nerve
cells and in the synthesis of
certain hormones. Normal
levels of cholesterol are essential for good health; high levels can contribute to ill health.

Figure 18-8 Have students study and describe


the narrowing of an artery.
Have them read Cardiovascular Disease. Ask
students to tell ways to
keep the arteries looking
like the one in figure
188A.

F
400 N
P

 8 N/m2
A
50 m2

Guided Reading Strategy

Videodisc

For example, a force of 400 N (F = 400 N)


on a container with an area of 50 m2 (A =
50 m2) would result in a pressure of 8
N/m2.

498

498

You learned that a force is exerted on the


inner walls of your blood vessels. The force
is the result of blood being pumped
through your body by the heart. Blood
pressure is a measure of this force.
The total amount of force exerted by a
fluid, such as blood or the gases in the
atmosphere, depends on the area on which
it acts. This is called pressure. In other
words, as shown in Figure 18-7, pressure
is the amount of force exerted per unit
of area. This is written with the following
formula.
Force
Pressure 
Area

Magnification: 10

Background

Internet Addresses

For Internet tips, see Glencoes Using the


Internet in the Science Classroom.

Not all persons with atherosclerosis


suffer discomfort. Sometimes even those
with a severe condition do not have any
symptoms. There are two factors that can
bring this about. (1) Neighboring vessels

may enlarge and compensate for the reduced blood flow to the area by the damaged artery. (2) Often, there is more blood
supplied to an area than is actually needed.

CA Science Content
Standards
Page 498: 5a, 5b, 6j, 7a,
7c, 7e
Page 499: 5a, 5b, 7b
18-1 CIRCULATION

499

Cardiovascular Disease

4 Close
Proficiency Prep
Use this quiz to check students recall of section content.
1. What are the lower
chambers of the heart
called? ventricles
2. What is the largest artery
in the human body? aorta
3. What is another term for
high blood pressure? hypertension

Section Assessment
1. Arteries and veins transport blood. Arteries have
thicker walls than veins.
Veins have valves. Arteries carry blood away
from the heart; veins
carry blood to the heart.
Capillaries connect arteries and veins.
2. Blood enters the right
atrium and then moves
into the right ventricle,
which pumps blood to
the lungs; blood enters
the left atrium and then
moves to the left ventricle
and out to the body
through the aorta.
3. Pulmonary circulation
transports blood through
the heart and to the lungs.
Systemic circulation
transports blood to all
parts of the body.
4. Think Critically carbon
dioxide

Figure 18-9 A stress test is


used to determine the amount of
strain placed on the heart.

Any disease or disorder that affects the cardiovascular system can seriously affect your health.
Heart disease is the major cause of death in the
United States. One leading cause of heart disease is
atherosclerosis (ah thur oh skluh ROH sus), a condition, shown in Figure 18-8, of fatty deposits on
arterial walls. Eating foods high in cholesterol and
saturated fats may cause these deposits to form. The
fat builds up and forms a hard mass that clogs the
inside of the vessel. As a result, less blood flows
through the artery. If the artery is clogged completely, blood is not able to flow through.
Another disorder is high blood pressure, or
hypertension. Atherosclerosis can cause hypertension. A clogged artery can cause the pressure
within the vessel to increase. This causes the walls
to lose their ability to contract and dilate. Extra
strain is placed on the heart as it works harder to
keep blood flowing. Being overweight as well as
eating foods with too much salt and fat may contribute to hypertension. Smoking and stress also can increase
blood pressure. Regular checkups, as shown in Figure 18-9, a
careful diet, and exercise are important to the health of your
cardiovascular system.

Section Assessment
1. Compare and contrast the three types of blood
vessels.
2. Explain the pathway of blood through the heart.
3. Contrast pulmonary and systemic circulations.
4. Think Critically: What waste product builds
up in blood and cells when the heart is unable to
pump blood efficiently?

Skill Builder

5.

Concept Mapping Make an events


chain concept map to show pulmonary circulation beginning at the right atrium and ending at
the aorta. If you need help, refer to Concept
Mapping in the Skill Handbook on page 678.

Using Scientific Methods

Activity

18 1

The Heart as
a Pump

Examples of database
entries:
atherosclerosisarteries
myocardial infarctionheart
leukemiawhite blood cells

500

CHAPTER 18

CHAPTER 18

Stopwatch, watch, or a
clock with a second hand

he heart is a pumping organ. Blood is forced through the


arteries and causes the muscles of the walls to contract and
then relax. This creates a series of waves as the blood flows
through the arteries. We call this the pulse. Try this activity to
learn about the pulse and the pumping of the heart.

Process Skills
interpreting data, communicating,
making and using graphs, using
numbers, inferring

What Youll Investigate


How can you measure heartbeat rate?

Goals
Observe pulse rate.

Procedure
1. Make a table like the one shown. Use it to
record your data.
2. Your partner should sit down and take his or
her pulse. You will serve as the recorder.
3. Find the pulse rate by placing the middle and
index fingers over one of the carotid arteries in
the neck as shown in the photo.
CAUTION: Do not press too hard.

4. Calculate the resulting heart rate. Your partner should count each beat of the carotid pulse
rate silently for 15 s. Multiply the number of
beats by four and record the number in the
data table.
5. Your partner should then jog in place for one
minute and take his or her pulse again.
6. Calculate this new pulse rate and record it in
the data table.
7. Reverse roles with your partner. You are now
the pulse taker.
8. Collect and record the new data.

Conclude and Apply

Pulse Rate
Pulse Rate

At rest
After jogging

Partners

Yours

70

70

Maps should show that blood


entering the right atrium is
pumped into the right ventricle, which
contracts and moves the blood to the
lungs. From the lungs the blood enters
the left atrium, which contracts and
forces the blood into the left ventricle,
which then contracts to move the blood
to the body through the aorta.

THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

CIRCULATION

Time
30 to 40 minutes
Teaching Strategies
Any student unable to jog can
be the timekeeper and recorder
for a pair of students.
Students should count pulse
silently to themselves and then
report results to the recorder.
Explain the reason for multiplying by four to obtain the pulse
rate for one minute.
Answers to Questions
1. Students should observe that
pulse rate increases after the
jogging activity.
2. Greater muscle activity requires the heart to pump more
blood to the muscles.
3. The heart pumps blood to the
body to meet all of its needs
when at rest and when active.

1. How does the pulse rate change?


2. What causes the pulse rate to change?
3. What can you infer about the heart as a
pumping organ?

Database Use different


references to research diseases and disorders of the
circulatory system. Make
a database showing what
part of the circulatory system is affected by each disease or disorder. Categories
should include the organs,
vessels, and cells of the circulatory system. If you
need help, refer to page
697.

Purpose
Logical-Mathematical
Students will measure carotid
pulse rate and interpret results of
the data.

501

THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

Skill Builder

5.

181

Materials

18-1

500

Activity

Assessment
Performance Assess students abilities to
form a concept map of the flow of blood
through the three types of vessels. Use Performance Assessment in the Science Classroom, p. 89.

Pulse Rate
Pulse Rate

Assessment
Partners (beats Yours (beats
per minute)
per minute)

At rest

70

70

After jogging

95

98

Performance Have students design another


activity that will result in an increased pulse rate
(e.g. dancing or shooting baskets). Do the activity
and gather the data. Use Performance
Assessment in the Science Classroom,
p. 17.

CA Science Content
Standards
Page 500: 5a, 5b, 7b
Page 501: 5a, 5b, 7c, 7e
18-1 CIRCULATION

501

SECTION

18 2

182

It's Important

Prepare

You'll Learn

C ontent

The characteristics and functions of the blood


The importance of checking
blood types before a
transfusion
Diseases and disorders
of blood

Background

Refer to Blood
on p. 490F.

Preplanning

Vocabulary

Refer to the Chapter Organizer on pp. 490AB.

plasma
hemoglobin
platelet

1 Motivate

Blood has many important


functions and plays a part in
You'll
every major
activityLearn
of your
body.

Before presenting the lesson,


display Section Focus
Transparency 51 on the
overhead projector. Use the
accompanying Focus Activity
worksheet. L2 ELL

White blood
cells

CY
ANSPAREN
FOCUS TR
SECTION

people
ich many

e, in wh
peoNKS
earthquak
od drive,
BLOOD BA jor disaster such as an od drive. During a blobe used to treat

a blo
a ma
t will
Following is common to have
e blood tha
many lives
k to donat blood banks saves
, it
are injured to visit a blood ban
by
ed
od collected
ple are ask
ple. The blo
peo
red
sick or inju
each year.

Blood is a tissue consisting of cells, cell fragments, and


liquid. Blood has many important functions. It plays a part in
every major activity of your body. First, blood carries oxygen
from your lungs to all body cells. It also removes carbon
dioxide from your body cells and carries it to the lungs to be
exhaled. Second, it carries waste products of cell activity to
your kidneys to be removed. Third, blood transports nutrients from the digestive system to body cells. Fourth, materiIt's Important
als in blood fight infections
and help heal wounds. Anything
that disrupts or changes any of these functions affects all the
tissues of the body.
You'lleight
Learn
Blood makes up about
percent of your bodys total
mass. If you weigh 45 kg, you have about 3.6 kg of blood
moving through your body. The amount of blood in an adult
would fill five 1-L bottles. If this volume falls, the body goes
into shock because blood pressure falls rapidly.

Artificial blood must not cause


clumping or be diseased.

Discussion

Magnification: 1000
Platelets

If youve ever taken a ride on a water slide at


an amusement park, you have some idea of
the twists and turns a blood cell travels
inside a blood vessel. On the ride, surrounded by water, you travel rapidly
through a narrow,It's
watery
pasImportant
sageway, much like a red blood
cell moves in the liquid part
plasma
of blood, as shownYou'll
in Learn
90% water
Figure 18-10.
plus dissolved
materials

Blood smear

Plasma

A cubic millimeter of blood has more than 5 million red


blood cells. In these disk-shaped blood cells is hemoglobin,
a chemical that can carry oxygen and carbon dioxide.
Hemoglobin carries oxygen from your lungs to your body
cells. Red blood cells also carry carbon dioxide from body
Magnification: 2000

Caption Answers
I N T E G R AT I O N

Figure 18-10
Figure 18-11

red blood cells


red blood cells

Artificial Blood
Artificial blood substances
have been developed to use
in blood transfusions. They
can carry oxygen and carbon
dioxide. Predict what other
properties they must have to
be safe.

Figure 18-12 Red blood cells


carry oxygen and carbon dioxide
and are disk shaped.

502

CHAPTER 18

C
8-

0
4-

-1
A2

C
THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

18 2

-8

CHAPTER 18

Have students view a film


clip of amoeba activity to draw
an analogy to white blood cell
movement and ingestion. L2

45%

51

502

Using an Analogy

red blood cells

on?
od bank?
od transfusi
se of a blo
need a blo
the purpo
person to
require a
e blood?
ns might
not donat
es of situatio
o should
Wh
?
od
2. What typ
blo
nate
should do
you think
3. Who do
Why?

The following Teacher Classroom


Resources can be used with Section 18-2:
Reproducible Masters
Activity Worksheets, pp. 99100 L2
Critical Thinking/Problem Solving, p. 18 L2
Laboratory Manual, pp. 107110
Multicultural Connections, pp. 3536 L2

THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

BLOOD

503

Multiple Learning Styles

Resource Manager

Fill two 2-L plastic softdrink bottles and half-fill a


third with red-colored water.
This volume of water represents the 5 L of blood in an
adult.

How do blood platelets


function in maintaining
homeostasis when the skin
is cut? Platelets form clots to
help prevent further loss of
blood.

white blood cells

1. What is

Tying to Previous
Knowledge

of a liquid portion called plasma and


a solid portion that includes red
blood cells, white blood cells, and
platelets. What type of cells are
most numerous in the human circulatory system?

CHEMISTRY

Blood Cells

55%

this test tube has been separated


into its parts. Each part plays a
key role in body functions. What
part of blood is the most dense?

anies, Inc.
aw-Hill Comp
of The McGr
a division

Figure 18-11 Blood consists

If you examine blood closely, as in Figure 18-11, you see


that it is not just a red-colored liquid. Blood is a tissue made
of red and white blood cells, platelets, and plasma. Plasma is
the liquid part of blood and consists mostly of water. It makes
up more than half the volume of blood. Nutrients, minerals,
and oxygen are dissolved in plasma.

Parts of Blood

Figure 18-10 The blood in

cGraw-Hill,
Glencoe/M
Copyright

2 Teach

Functions of Blood

Why
What

Section 18-2

51

Red blood
cells

Why
What

It's Important

Bellringer

Blood

Reinforcement, p. 51
Study Guide, p. 70
Enrichment, p. 51

L2

Transparencies
Science Integration Transparency 18

L2

CPR Have students write what the letters CPR stand for and analyze the parts
of the words to find out what they mean.
Find out where they can learn CPR. CPR
stands for Cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
CPR is an emergency procedure that is used
with mouth-to-mouth resuscitation when the
heart has stopped beating. L2

Kinesthetic Have
students
make models of red and white
blood cells from modeling clay to reinforce concepts about relative size,
shape, and color. L1 ELL COOP LEARN

CA Science Content
Standards
Page 502: 5a, 5b
Page 503: 5a, 5b
18-2 BLOOD

503

Discussion
Why would relatively
minor cuts and bruises be
hazardous to hemophiliacs?
Even minor cuts and bruises can
cause major bleeding problems
that could result in death.

Figure 18-13 While red blood cells supply


your body with oxygen, white blood cells and
platelets have more protective roles.

bleed to death from a minor wound. The bleeding stops


because platelets in your blood make a blood clot that helps
prevent blood loss. A blood clot is somewhat like a bandage.
When you cut yourself, a series of chemical reactions causes
threadlike fibers called fibrin to form a sticky net that traps
escaping blood cells and plasma. This forms a clot and helps
prevent further loss of blood. Figure 18-14 shows the bloodclotting process that occurs after a cut. Some people have the
genetic disease hemophilia. Their blood lacks one of the
clotting factors that begins the clotting process.

A Platelets help stop bleeding.


Platelets not only plug holes in
small vessels, but they also
release chemicals that help form
filaments of fibrin.

Enrichment
Have students find out
about the role of thrombokinase, prothrombin, fibrogen,
and calcium in the mechanism
of blood clotting. L3

shapes of white blood cells


exist. These cells destroy
bacteria, viruses, and
foreign substances.

Videodisc
The Infinite Voyage: The
Geometry of Life
Chapter 8 Hemophilia: The Effects of Factor Eight 5:30
Refer to the Videodisc Teacher
Guide for bar codes and teaching
strategies.

Red blood cell

B Several types, sizes, and

Magnification: 1500

Internet Addresses

Visit the Glencoe


Science Web Site at
www.glencoe.com/
sec/science/ca for
more information about
blood clotting.

For Internet tips, see Glencoes


Using the Internet in the
Science Classroom.

Fibrin

A Blood flows out of a


damaged blood vessel.
Platelets

cells to your lungs. Red blood cells have a life span of about
120 days. They are formed in the marrow of long bones such
as the femur and humerus at a rate of 2 to 3 million per
second and contain no nuclei. About an equal
number of old ones wear out and are
destroyed in the same time period.
In contrast to red blood cells, there are
only about 5000 to 10 000 white blood
cells in a cubic millimeter of blood.
White blood cells fight bacteria,
viruses, and other foreign substances
that constantly try to invade your body.
Your body reacts to infection by increasing
its number of white blood cells. White blood
cells slip between the cells of capillary walls and
out around the tissues that have been invaded. Here,
they absorb foreign substances and dead cells. The life span
of white blood cells varies from a few days to many months.
Circulating with the red and white blood cells are platelets.
Platelets are irregularly shaped cell fragments that help clot
blood. A cubic millimeter of blood may contain as many as
400 000 platelets. Platelets have a life span of five to nine
days. Figure 18-13 summarizes the solid parts of blood and
their functions.

Blood Clotting
Everyone has had a cut, scrape, or other minor wound at
some time. The initial bleeding is usually stopped quickly,
and the wounded area begins to heal. Most people will not

504

CHAPTER 18

THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

Red blood cell


Platelets

White blood cell

Making a Model

Figure 18-14 A sticky blood


clot seals the leaking blood vessel.
Eventually, a scab forms, protecting
the wound from further damage and
allowing it to heal.

B Platelets stick to the area of the wound and


release chemicals. The chemicals make other
nearby platelets sticky and cause threads of
fibrin to form. More and more platelets and blood
cells become trapped and
seal the wound.

Videodisc
STV: Human Body, Vol. 1
Unit 1 Blood and Circulation
1:55

!7+/~E"
blood cells destroy invading
bacteria. Skin cells begin the
repair process.

9508-12959
Refer to the Videodisc Teacher
Guide for additional bar codes
and teaching strategies.

Fibrin

C The clot becomes harder. White


Scab

D The wound continues to


heal. Eventually the scab
will fall off.

C ontent

Background

Blood Types
Sometimes, a person loses a lot of blood. This person may
receive blood through a blood transfusion. During a blood
transfusion, a person receives blood or parts of blood.
Doctors must be sure that the right type of blood is given.
18-2

BLOOD

505

Integrating the Sciences


Platelets Have students research the
origin of platelets from megakaryocytes
and write a life history from the perspective of a platelet.

504

CHAPTER 18

THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

Visual-Spatial Put a
thin layer of cotton
fibers on the bottom of a wire
sieve. Pour in some white
glue. Have students notice
how the glue is prevented
from oozing by the network
of fibers. Relate this to a
blood clot. The dried glue
and fibers simulate a scab.

Chemistry When a person has a cut, substances released by broken platelets start
chemical reactions that cause fibers to form.
These fibers trap cells and a clot forms. Have
students find out about the roles of calcium
and vitamin K in blood clotting. Calcium and
vitamin K must be present in order for the
chemical reactions in blood clotting to take
place. L2

To determine the
blood type of an individual,
a suspension of the persons red blood cells is
mixed with different types
of serums. Each type of
serum has a known, particular antibody. If a specific
serum causes agglutination
of the cells, it is an indication that the cells must
contain that antigen with
which that specific antibody
agglutinates. This reaction
identifies the blood type of
the individual.

CA Science Content
Standards
Page 504: 5a, 5b, 7b
Page 505: 5a, 5b
18-2 BLOOD

505

Table 18-1

Correcting Misconceptions
It is sometimes assumed
that if the blood type of the
donor and recipient are the
same, a blood transfusion is
absolutely safe. However,
this is not always true. A
number of other blood factors could cause a harmful reaction. Also, repeated transfusions of even the same
blood type may eventually
cause agglutination.

Table 18-2

Blood Types
Blood Type

Antigen

Antibody

Anti-B

Red blood cell

B
B

Answer to

heck
Reading C

Anti-A

Anti-B

None

If it is the wrong type, the red blood cells of the person clump
together. Clots form in the blood vessels, and the person dies.

are
type O blood
People with
le
op
e
blood to p
able to give
od.
lo
b
er types of
with all oth

The ABO Identification System

Teacher FYI
Students may be aware that
people with type O blood are
universal donors, but may not
realize that they can receive
only from people with type O
blood. Likewise, people with
type AB blood are universal
recipients, but can donate
only to people with type AB
blood.

None

k
g Chec
Readin
O
ith type
People w said to be
re
blood a donors.
al
s
univer
k
you thin iate
o
d
Why
pr
o
r
p
p
a
n
this is a
?
m
r
te

Doctors know that humans can have one of four types of


blood: A, B, AB, and O. Each type has a chemical identification tag called an antigen on its red blood cells. As shown in
Table 18-1, type A blood has A antigens. Type B blood has B
antigens. Type AB blood has both A and B antigens on each
blood cell. Type O blood has no A or B antigens.
Each blood type also has specific antibodies in its plasma.
Antibodies are proteins that destroy or neutralize foreign
substances, such as pathogens, in your body. Antibodies prevent certain blood types from mixing. Type A blood has antibodies against type B blood. If you mix type A blood with
type B blood, type A red blood cells react to type B blood as
if it were a foreign substance. The antibodies in type A blood
respond by clumping the type B blood. Type B blood has antibodies against type A blood. Type AB blood has no antibodies, so it can receive blood from A, B, AB, and O types.
Type O blood has both A and B antibodies. Table 18-2 lists
the four blood types, what they can receive, and what blood
types they can donate to.

The Rh Factor
Just as antigens are one chemical identification tag for
blood, the Rh marker is another. Rh blood type also is inherited. If the Rh marker is present, the person has Rh-positive
(Rh) blood. If it is not present, the person is said to be
506

CHAPTER 18

History
Have students research how blood transfusion experiments started in the early 1800s.
Some cultures consider blood to be a necessary part of their diet. Others use it in the
preparation of certain foods (blood
sausage). Have students find out what nutrients are supplied by the blood (usually
sodium and iron). L2

506

CHAPTER 18

THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

Can receive

Can donate to

O, A

A, AB

O, B

B, AB

AB

all

AB

all

Treatment for the Rh problem, erythroblastosis fetalis, includes blood transfusions and
exposure to fluorescent light.

Have students review how


traits are inherited. One of the
alleles for a trait comes from
the mother and one from the
father.

Rh-negative (Rh). Any Rh person receiving blood from an


Rh person will produce antibodies against the Rh factor.
A problem also occurs when an Rh mother carries an
Rh baby. Close to the time when the baby is about to be
born, antibodies from the mother can pass from her blood
vessels into the babys blood vessels and destroy the babys
red blood cells. If this happens, the baby must receive a blood
transfusion before or right after birth. At 28 weeks of pregnancy and immediately after the birth, the mother can
receive an injection that prevents the production of
antibodies to the Rh factor. To prevent deadly consequences, blood groups and Rh factor are checked
before transfusions and during pregnancies.

Think Critically
The only blood type the baby
from family one could have is
type O. The babies should be
exchanged. The babies from
family two could also have
type A blood. P

3 Assess
Check for Understanding
The Baby Exchange
Two mothers took their new babies home from the
hospital on the same day. On the first day home,
when mother number one was removing the hospital
name tag from her baby, she discovered that the other
mothers name was on the tag. The other mother was

Blood Test Results


Person

Blood Type

Mother #1

Father #1

Baby taken home


by parents #1

Mother #2

Father #2

AB

Baby taken home


by parents #2

contacted, but she was sure that she had the right
baby. She did not want to give up the baby she had
brought home from the hospital. Because the identity
of the babies was disputed, the issue had to be
decided in court. Analyze the data provided in the
table and apply the laws of inheritance to solve the
problem.
Think Critically: What is the only blood type
the baby from family one could have? Should the
babies be exchanged? Because A and B blood types
are always dominant to blood type O, what other
blood type could babies from family two have?
18-2

THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

Across the Curriculum

Type

Anti-A

AB

Teacher FYI

Blood Transfusion Possibilities

C ontent

Background

The original research regarding


the Rh factor was done with blood cells
from Rhesus monkeys. The antigen found
was named using the first two letters of
Rhesus.

BLOOD

507

Across the Curriculum

Discussion
Interpersonal Survey
the students to find out
whether they know their own
blood type. Discuss when it
might be important for them
to know this information. L2

Reteach
Interpersonal Have
each student, in a
cooperative-learning group,
pick a different blood type.
Let students decide who can
give blood to whom and from
whom they can receive blood.
L2 COOP LEARN

Extension
For students who have
mastered this section, use the
Reinforcement and Enrichment masters.

Health Visit a local blood bank and have


students observe the various tests the collected blood undergoes before being sent to
hospitals. L2

CA Science Content
Standards
Page 506: 5a, 5b
Page 507: 5a, 5b
18-2 BLOOD

507

Diseases and Disorders of Blood

Caption Answer
Figure 18-15 Built-up wastes
are toxic to cells. Without oxygen, cell respiration cannot occur.

4 Close
Proficiency Prep
Use this quiz to check students recall of section content.
1. What is blood? Blood is a
tissue consisting of cells, cell
fragments, and liquid.
2. Are there more red or
white blood cells in the
body? red

Figure 18-15 Persons with


sickle-cell anemia have deformed
red blood cells. The sickle-shaped
cells clog the capillaries of the person with this disease. Oxygen cannot reach tissues served by the
capillaries, and wastes cannot be
removed. How does this damage
the affected tissues?

Section Assessment
1. carries oxygen from the
lungs to cells; removes
carbon dioxide; carries
wastes to kidneys; transports nutrients from the
digestive system to cells;
has materials to fight infections and heal wounds
2. red cellstransport oxygen and carbon dioxide;
white cellsfight infections;
plasmacarries
dissolved nutrients, minerals, oxygen; platelets
help in blood clotting
3. to prevent blood cells
from clumping
4. Leukemia is a disease in
which large numbers of
white blood cells are
made; anemia is a disorder in which there are too
few red blood cells.
5. Think Critically Wastes
would become toxic and
tissues would die.

Section Assessment
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

508

CHAPTER 18

What are the four functions of blood in the body?


Compare blood cells, plasma, and platelets.
Why is blood type checked before a transfusion?
Describe a disease and a disorder of blood.
Think Critically: Think about the main job of your
red blood cells. If red blood cells couldnt pick up carbon dioxide and wastes from your cells, what would be
the condition of your tissues?

Skill Builder

6.

Making and Using Tables Look at the


data in Table 18-2 about blood group interactions. To
which group(s) can type AB donate blood? If you need
help, refer to Making and Using Tables in the Skill
Handbook on page 680.

Calculate the ratio


of the number of red
blood cells to the
number of white
blood cells and to the
number of platelets in
a cubic millimeter of
blood. What are the
percentages of each
kind of solid?

Activity

Activity

18 2

Comparing
Blood Cells

182

Materials
Prepared slides of
human blood
photos of human blood
Prepared slides of two
other vertebrates (fish,
frog, reptile, bird) blood
photos of two other
vertebrates blood
Microscope

lood is an important tissue for all vertebrates. How


do human blood cells compare with those of other
vertebrates?

What Youll Investigate


How does human blood compare with the blood
of other vertebrates?

*Alternate Materials

Goals

Observe the characteristics of red blood cells,


white blood cells, and platelets.
6. Examine the slide for small fragments that
appear blue. These are platelets.
Compare human blood cells with those of other
vertebrates.
7. Draw, count, and describe the platelets on
your data table.
Procedures
8. Follow steps 1 to 7 for each of the other verte1. Under low power, examine the prepared slide
brate cells.
of human blood. Locate the red blood cells.
2. Examine the red blood cells under high power. Conclude and Apply
3. Make a data table. Draw, count, and describe 1. Does each vertebrate studied have all three cell
types?
the red blood cells.
4. Move the slide to another position. Find one or 2. What might you infer about the ability of the different red blood cells to carry oxygen?
two white blood cells. They will be blue or purple due to the stain.
3. What is the function of each of the three types
of blood cells?
5. Draw, count, and describe the white cells in a
data table.
Human blood

Snake blood
Frog blood

Bird blood

18-2

508

CHAPTER 18

A person with AB type blood


can only donate to another
person with AB type blood.

THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

BLOOD

509

THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

Skill Builder

6.

5001000 RBC for every WBC;


12.5 RBC for every platelet
92.5 percent RBC,
0.090.18 percent WBC, 7.4
percent platelets

Blood, like other body tissues, is subject to disease. Because blood circulates to all parts of the
body and performs so many vital functions, any
disease of this tissue is cause for concern.
Anemia is a disorder in which there are too few
red blood cells or there is too little hemoglobin
in the red blood cells. Because of this, body tissues cant get enough oxygen. They are unable
to carry on their usual activities. Sometimes, the
loss of great amounts of blood or improper diet
will cause anemia. Anemia also can result from
disease or as a side effect of treatment for a disease.
Figure 18-15 illustrates another blood disease.
Leukemia (lew KEE mee uh) is a disease in which
one or more types of white blood cells are produced in
increased numbers. However, these cells are immature and
do not effectively fight infections. Blood transfusions and
bone marrow transplants are used to treat this disease, but
they are not always successful, and death can occur.
Blood transports oxygen and nutrients to body cells and
takes wastes from these cells to organs for removal. Cells in
blood help fight infection and heal wounds. You can understand why blood is sometimes called the tissue of life.

Using Scientific Methods

Assessment
Performance Use this Skill Builder to assess students abilities to use Table 18-1 to
determine acceptable donors for someone
with type AB blood. Use Performance Assessment in the Science Classroom, p. 17.

Inclusion Strategies
Visually Impaired Place students who
have difficulty seeing objects through a
microscope in charge of recording the data in
the data chart.

Purpose
Visual-Spatial Students
will observe and compare
the characteristics of blood cells of
selected vertebrates. L2 ELL
COOP LEARN P

Process Skills
observing, classifying, communicating, inferring, comparing and
contrasting, interpreting data
Time
45 to 50 minutes
Safety Precautions
Alert students to be careful handling glass slides, which have
sharp edges.
Teaching Strategies
Remind students of the difference between red blood cells and
white blood cells. Point out that
white blood cells are colorless by
nature, but are stained for use in
slides to bring out details.
Troubleshooting Review procedures for working with prepared
microscope slides to prevent damage to them.
Conclude and Apply
1. yes
2. Accept all reasonable responses. Students might infer
that red blood cells without nuclei can carry more oxygen.
3. Red blood cells carry oxygen
and carbon dioxide. White
blood cells ingest foreign substances and dead cells.
Platelets help clot blood.

Assessment
Performance To further assess students understanding of blood cells, obtain a slide of insect
blood cells. Have students compare these blood
cells with those of humans. Use Performance
Assessment in the Science Classroom,
p. 25.

CA Science Content
Standards
Page 508: 5a, 5b
Page 509: 5a, 5b, 7a, 7c,
7e
18-2 BLOOD

509

Reading & Writing


in Science

Reading & Writing


in Science

Fantastic Voyage

C ontent

Background

Isaac Asimov (1920-1992) was


born in Petrovichi in the former Soviet Union. He came
with his parents to the United
States in 1923. After earning a
Ph.D. in chemistry at Columbia University, he taught biochemistry and later became a
professor at Boston University
School of Medicine. Asimov
wrote more than 450 books.
He won many awards for his
writing, including five Hugo
Awards for science fiction.

Teaching Strategies
Discuss the questions raised
in the feature. For instance,
students may have expected
the red blood cells to look
red. Mention that Asimov
explains elsewhere that red
blood corpuscles look red
when a large number are
grouped together, but are
straw-colored individually.
Students will recognize the
milky, pulsating cell as a
white blood cell. Its purpose is to ingest foreign
substances. The cell moved
by putting out extensions
into which the mass of the
cell flowed. Ask students
why the white blood cell
did not ingest Proteus with
its crew as it would a bacterium of the same size.
Asimov explains that although the vessel is small
enough to be ingested, its
exterior is made of metal. A
white blood cell seeks only
objects with organic
specifically, mucopolysaccharidecell walls. Discuss
other parts of the cell described by the author.

510

CHAPTER 18

What are the objects described in the paragraph above?


What color did you expect these objects to be?

510

CHAPTER 18

THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

The functions of the lymphatic


system
Where lymph comes from
The role of lymph organs in
fighting infections

183

Prepare
C ontent

Background

Refer to Your
Lymphatic System on
p. 490F.

Vocabulary

It's Important

lymphatic system
lymph
lymphocyte
lymph node

Why
What

Preplanning

Learn
Refer to the You'll
Chapter
Organizer on pp. 490AB.

It's Important
The lymphatic system plays a
vital role in protecting the
You'll
Learn
body against
infections
and
diseases.

Tonsils
Lymph
nodes
Lymphatic
duct

Lymph
nodes
Thoracic duct

Spleen

Figure 18-16 Like the circulatory system, the lymphatic system is connected by a vast
network of vessels, but does not
have a pump or heart. How do
muscles help move lymph?

Lymph
vessels

JOURNAL

Bellringer

52

Lymph
nodes

Science

1 Motivate
Before presenting the lesson,
display Section Focus
Transparency 52 on the
overhead projector.
Use the
It's Important
accompanying Focus Activity
worksheet. L2 ELL

Thymus

Lymph
nodes

Why
You'll Learn
What

SECTION
FOCUS TR
ANSPAREN
CY

WHAT IS
A TONSILL
ECTOMY?
Doctors som
etimes

Section 18-3

sur
the tonsils
through sur gically remove the
tonsils of
performe
people. Th
d when the gery is called a ton
e removal
sillectomy.
se organs
one time,
of
bec
A tonsillect
the tonsils
omy may
of children ome frequently inf
however,
be
lamed and
ma
we
infected. At
unless the ny doctors try to avo re almost routinely
surgery is
removed.
id removing
Tod
absolutely
ay,
the
tonsils of
necessary
their patien
.
ts

Nasal cav

ity

Palatine ton
sil
Lingual ton
sil
Tongue

In your Science Journal, describe


the inside of your mouth as it
might have looked to the crew of
the Proteus. If you could undergo
miniaturization, what part of
your body would you most like
to see and explore? Why?

Pharynge

al tonsil

Palatine ton
sil
Lingual ton
sil

Inflamed
palatine ton
sil
Inflamed
palatine ton
sil

1. Have you
had your
tonsils rem
their tonsils
oved or do
Hans &rem
Cassady,ov
Inc.ed?
you

know any
one who
A
has had
some peo
ple need
to have the
3. What mi
ir tonsils
ght be som
removed?
e benefits
removed?
and drawb
acks to hav
ing ones
tonsils
2. Why do

THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

Answers will vary. Look for


vivid, but scientifically supported descriptions of the inside of the
mouth and various body parts.

You'll Learn

You have learned that blood carries nutrients and oxygen


to cells. Molecules of these substances pass through capillary
walls to be absorbed by nearby cells. Some of the water and
dissolved substances that move out of your blood become
part of a tissue fluid that is found between cells. Your
lymphatic (lihm FAT ihk) system, shown in Figure 18-16, collects this fluid from body tissue spaces and returns it to the
blood through a system of lymph capillaries and larger
lymph vessels. This system also contains cells that help your
body defend itself against disease-causing organisms.

In the science fiction novel Fantastic Voyage, later made


into a movie (see scene below), a scientist defecting from
his native country develops a blood clot in his brain and
lapses into a coma. Valuable information that governments are competing for is now beyond reach. A traditional operation wont work, but luckily for science
fiction fans, an alternative is available. This new method
uses miniaturization to operate on the blood clot from
inside the body. A small submarine, Proteus, and its
five passengersone of whom is a brain surgeonare
reduced to one millionth their former size. They make
their way through the patients circulatory system (see
blood vessel at right) to the blood clot. The operation
must be done quickly because the ship and its crew
will return to their
normal size in 60
minutes. Here is
Asimovs description of their fantastic voyage in the
bloodstream:

SECTION
It's Important

Functions of Your Lymphatic System

by Isaac Asimov

It was a vast,
exotic aquarium
they faced, one in
which not fish but
far stranger objects
filled their vision.
Large rubber tires, the centers depressed but not pierced
through, were the most numerous objects. Each was
twice the diameter of the ship, each an orange-straw
color, each sparkling and blazing intermittently, as
though faceted with slivers of diamonds.

18 3

Your Lymphatic
System

18 3

For Additional Information

Tying to Previous Knowledge

Parker, Steve. How the Body Works. London: Dorling Kindersley, Limited, 1994.
Daniels, Patricia, Kinney, Karen, eds.
Understanding Science and Nature: Human
Body. Time Life, Inc., 1992.

Ask students to recall when they may


have had an infection and experienced
swolled lymph glands in the neck or under
the arm. What do they think caused this? L2

Caption Answer
Figure 18-17 As skeletal muscles contract
they force lymph to move within the lymph vessels.

YOUR LYMPHATIC SYSTEM

511

Copyright
Glencoe/M
cGraw-Hill,

a division
of The McGr
aw-Hill Comp
anies, Inc.

52

Resource Manager
The following Teacher Classroom
Resources can be used with Section 18-3:
Reproducible Masters
Enrichment, p. 52 L3
Reinforcement, p. 52 L2
Study Guide, pp. 7172 L1 ELL

CA Science Content
Standards
Page 510: 5a
Page 511: 5a, 5b
18-3 LYMPHATIC SYSTEM

511

2 Teach

system and is located behind the upper-left part of the stomach. Blood flowing through the spleen gets filtered. Here,
worn out and damaged red blood cells are broken down.
Specialized cells in the spleen engulf and destroy bacteria
and other foreign substances.

Figure 18-17 Lymph is fluid


Lymph
node

that has moved from around cells


into lymph vessels.

Activity
Visual-Spatial Collect
magazine articles about
research on HIV. Discuss how
the lymphatic system is involved in HIV infection. L2

Flex Your Brain


Use the Flex Your Brain
activity to have students
explore LYMPH.

Capillary
vein
Lymph
vessel
Lymph

Blood flow

Capillary
artery

Lymphatic Organs

Tissue cell
Tissue fluid

Answer to

heck
Reading C

water,
mposed of
Lymph is co
all prosm
,
utrients
dissolved n
mphocytes.
teins, and ly

3 Assess

k
g Chec
Readin
akes up
What m
lymph?

Before lymph enters blood, it passes through bean-shaped


structures throughout the body known as lymph nodes.
Lymph nodes filter out microorganisms and foreign materials that have been engulfed by lymphocytes. When your
body fights an infection, lymphocytes fill the nodes. They
become inflamed and tender to the touch.
Tonsils are lymphatic organs in the back of the throat. They
provide protection to the mouth and nose against pathogens.
The thymus is a soft mass of tissue located behind the sternum. It produces lymphocytes that travel to other lymph
organs. The spleen is the largest organ of the lymphatic

Have students compare and


contrast the lymphatic system
with the circulatory system.
They should include movement and type of tissue fluid,
location, structure, and function.

Reteach
Visual-Spatial Have
students construct a
table to illustrate the function
of lymph nodes, the thymus,
and the spleen. L2

For students who have


mastered this section, use the
Reinforcement and Enrichment masters.

CHAPTER 18

512

CHAPTER 18

THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

Inclusion Strategies

Extension

512

Once tissue fluid moves from around


body tissues and into lymphatic capillaries,
shown in Figure 18-17, it is known as lymph.
It enters the capillaries by absorption and diffusion. Lymph consists mostly of water, dissolved substances such as nutrients and small
proteins, and lymphocytes (LIHM fuh sites), a type of white
blood cell. The lymphatic capillaries join with larger vessels
that eventually drain the lymph into large veins near the
heart. No heartlike structure pumps the lymph through the
lymphatic system. The movement of lymph is due to contraction of skeletal muscles and the smooth muscles in lymph
vessels. Like veins, lymphatic vessels have valves that prevent the backward flow of lymph.

Lymph Nodes

Check for Understanding


Discussion

Gifted Have students research the functions of these cells found in the lymph nodes:
lymphocytes, macrophages, and plasma
cells. L3

THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

below, is a virus that attacks helper


T cells. This makes it harder for the
body to fight infections.

Proficiency Prep
Use this quiz to check students recall of section content.
1. How does tissue fluid
get into lymphatic capillaries? absorption and diffusion
2. What are the structures
in lymph vessels that
prevent the backward
flow of lymph? Valves
3. How does HIV cause the
body to be less able to
fight pathogens? It destroys helper T cells, which
help produce antibodies to
fight infections.

A Disease of the Lymphatic System

Blood flow
Lymph
node

4 Close

Figure 18-18 HIV, shown

As you have probably learned, HIV is a deadly virus. As


shown in Figure 18-18, when HIV enters a persons body,
it attacks and destroys a particular kind of lymphocyte
called helper T cells. Normally, helper T cells help
produce antibodies to fight infections. With fewer
helper T cells, a person infected with HIV is less
able to fight pathogens. The infections become
difficult to treat and often lead to death.
The lymphatic system collects extra fluid from
body tissue spaces. It also produces lymphocytes
that fight infections and foreign materials that
enter your body. This system works to keep your
body healthy. This system is critical in defending
your body against disease. Through a network of
vessels, lymph nodes, and other organs, your lymphatic system is a strong defense against invasion.
However, if the system is not working properly, even a common cold can become a serious threat.

RNA

Section Assessment
Protein coat

1. It collects fluid from body


tissue spaces and returns
it to the blood. Its cells
help your body defend itself against pathogens.
2. Lymph comes from tissue
fluids and gets into lymphatic capillaries by absorption and diffusion.
3. the thymus gland, the
spleen, tonsils
4. It attacks and destroys
helper T cells.
5. Think Critically The fluid
will be forced out of the
spaces and will pass into
lymph vessels.

Outer proteins

Section Assessment
1. Describe the role of your lymphatic system.
2. Where does lymph come from and how does it get into
the lymphatic capillaries?
3. List the major organs of the lymphatic system.
4. What happens when HIV enters the body?
5. Think Critically: When the amount of fluid in the
spaces between cells increases, so does the pressure
in these spaces. What do you infer will happen?
6.

An infectious
microorganism gains
entrance into your
body. In your Science
Journal, describe how
the lymphatic system
provides the body with
protection against the
microorganism.

Skill Builder
Concept Mapping The circulatory system
and the lymphatic system are separate systems, yet they
work together in several ways. Do the Chapter 18 Skill
Activity on page 723 to make a concept map comparing
the two systems.

18-3

YOUR LYMPHATIC SYSTEM

513

Assessment
Performance To further assess students
understanding of the lymphatic system,
have students research disorders of the
lymph nodes, the thymus, and the spleen.
Use Performance Assessment in the Science Classroom, p. 105.

Journal entries should reflect the roles of the lymph


nodes, lymphocytes, and
the spleen in providing
protection against microorganisms.

CA Science Content
Standards
Page 512: 5a, 5b
Page 513: 5b

18-3 YOUR LYMPHATIC SYSTEM

513

Preview

or a preview of this
chapter, study this
Reviewing Main Ideas
before you read the chapter.
After you have studied this
chapter, you can use the
Reviewing Main Ideas to
review the chapter.

The Glencoe
MindJogger,
Audiocassettes,
and CD-ROM
provide additional
opportunities for review.

Review
Interpersonal Have
students answer the
questions on separate pieces
of paper and compare their
answers with those of other
students in the class.

Readin

ontrast
e and c
Compar types of vese
the thre in why all
la
p
x
E
.
ls
ry for
se
necessa
e
r
a
e
e
r
h
t
ion.
circulat

ectio

18-1 TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM


The main function of the circulatory system is to transport materials
through the body. It carries food, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and a variety of
other chemicals. The blood circulates in
a closed system. The heart is a fourchambered pump that circulates the
blood throughout the body. Through a
series of coordinated muscular contractions, the heart provides the pressure
that pushes blood through the
vessels. What component
of blood carries oxygen
to the cells of the
body?

Answers to Questions
Section 18-1
Transportation System Hemoglobin is the blood component that carries the oxygen.
Circulation Pulmonary circulation is the flow of blood
through the heart, to the
lungs, and back to the heart.

ectio

Linguistic Have students try to answer the


questions in their Science
Journal. Use student answers
as a source for discussion
throughout the chapter.

18

g Chec

Reviewing Main Ideas

Reviewing Main Ideas can


be used to preview, review,
reteach, and condense chapter content.

Chapter

18

Reviewing
Main Ideas

Chapter

18-2 BLOOD
Blood is a tissue consisting of cells, cell fragments,
and liquid. Each of the solid components of blood has a
specific function: the red blood cells carry oxygen and
carbon dioxide, platelets form clots, and white blood cells
fight infection. Blood also contains a liquid portion called
plasma. The plasma consists mostly of water
plus some dissolved materials. Blood
types A, B, AB, and O are determined by the presence or absence
of antigens. How do sickleshaped red blood cells
cause anemia?

Section 18-2
Blood Sickle cells do not
have normal hemoglobin and
cannot carry sufficient oxygen to tissues.
Section 18-3
Lymphatic System When the
body is fighting infections,
the lymph nodes are filled
with lymphocytes and become inflamed and tender.

Reteach

OUT OF

TIME

Auditory-Musical If
time does not permit
teaching the entire chapter, use the information on
these pages along with the
chapter Audiocassettes to
present the material in a
condensed format.

514

CHAPTER 18

Charles Drew, Medical Pioneer


When blood is taken from donors, the red
blood cells spoil rapidly, but the plasma does
not. Dr. Charles Drew, an African-American
surgeon, discovered that patients recovered
from blood loss whether they were given
plasma or whole blood. Ask students what
effect Dr. Drews discovery had on blood
storage and transportation. L2
CHAPTER 18

THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

Glencoe Science Voyages


Interactive CD-ROM
Chapter Summaries and Quizzes
Have students read the
Chapter Summary then take the
Chapter Quiz to determine
whether they have mastered
chapter content.

ectio

18-3 THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM


Fluid found in body tissue is collected by the
vessels in the lymphatic system and returned to
the blood system. Structures in the lymphatic system filter the blood and produce white blood cells
that destroy microorganisms and foreign materials.
How is an inflamed lymph node a sign that
the body is fighting an infection?

THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

Cultural Diversity

514

CD-ROM
S

CIRCULATION
Arteries carry blood from the heart.
Capillaries exchange food, oxygen, and
wastes in cells. Veins return blood to the
heart. Blood enters the heart through
the right atrium, moves to the right
ventricle, and goes to the lungs through
the pulmonary artery. Blood rich in oxygen returns to the left atrium of the heart
and passes through a valve into the left
ventricle. Blood leaves the heart through
the aorta and travels to all parts of the
body. What is the pathway of blood in
the pulmonary circulation system?

Visual-Spatial Have
students look at the illustrations on the pages. Ask
them to describe details that
support the main ideas of the
chapter found in the statement for each illustration.

CHAPTER 18 REVIEWING MAIN IDEAS

515

Assessment
Portfolio Encourage students to place in
their portfolios one or two items of what
they consider to be their best work. Examples include:
MiniLab, p. 498
Problem Solving, p. 507
Activity 18-2, p. 509 P

Performance Additional
assessments
may be found in Performance Assessment
and Science Integration Activities. Performance Task Assessment Lists and rubrics
for evaluating these activities can be found
in Glencoes Performance Assessment in
the Science Classroom.

CHAPTER 18 REVIEWING MAIN IDEAS

515

Chapter

18

Assessment

Chapter

Using Vocabulary

Using Vocabulary
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.

1. k
2. c
3. a
4. b
5. e

g.
h.
i.
j.

To reinforce
chapter vocabulary, use the Study Guide
for Content Mastery booklet.
Also available are activities for
Glencoe Science Voyages on
the Glencoe Science Web Site.
www.glencoe.com/sec/
science/ca

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

11. C
12. A
13. C
14. D
15. A

filters microorganisms
upper heart chambers
vessel connected to the heart ventricle
fatty deposit on artery walls
blood vessel that connects arteries
to veins

Choose the word or phrase that best answers


the question.

16. oxygen-rich blood: aorta,


coronary arteries, left
atrium, left ventricle; carbon dioxide-rich blood:
coronary veins, inferior
vena cava, right atrium,
right ventricle, superior
vena cava
17. All three blood vessels
transport blood. Capillaries are only one cell thick;
veins and arteries have
three layers; veins have
valves. Veins carry blood
to the heart; arteries carry
blood away from the heart.
Capillaries link veins to
arteries.
18. The lymphatic system,
like your veins, carries
fluid away from body tissues and returns it to
your circulatory system
through veins.
CHAPTER 18

lymphatic system
lymphocyte
plasma
platelet
pulmonary
circulation
p. systemic
circulation
q. vein
r. ventricle

k.
l.
m.
n.
o.

Checking Concepts

6. Where does the exchange of food, oxygen, and wastes occur?


A) arteries
C) veins
B) capillaries
D) lymph vessels

Thinking Critically

516

artery
atherosclerosis
atria
blood pressure
capillary
coronary
circulation
hemoglobin
hypertension
lymph
lymph node

Each phrase below describes a science term


from the list. Write the term that matches the
phrase describing it.

Checking Concepts
6. B
7. B
8. C
9. A
10. D

18 Assessment

7. Where does oxygen-rich blood enter first?


A) right atrium
C) left ventricle
B) left atrium
D) right ventricle
8. What is circulation to all body organs?
A) coronary
C) systemic
B) pulmonary
D) organic
9. Where is blood under great pressure?
A) arteries
C) veins
B) capillaries
D) lymph vessels

516

CHAPTER 18

11. Which cells fight off infection?


A) red blood
C) white blood
B) bone
D) nerve
12. In blood, what carries oxygen?
A) red blood cells C) white blood cells
B) platelets
D) lymph
13. To clot blood, what is required?
A) plasma
C) platelets
B) oxygen
D) carbon dioxide
14. What kind of antigen does type O blood
have?
A) A
C) A and B
B) B
D) no antigen
15. What is the largest filtering lymph organ?
A) spleen
C) tonsil
B) thymus
D) node

Thinking Critically
16. Identify the following as having
oxygen-rich or carbon dioxide-full blood:
aorta, coronary arteries, coronary veins, inferior vena cava, left atrium, left ventricle,
right atrium, right ventricle, and superior
vena cava.
17. Compare and contrast the three types of
blood vessels.
18. Explain how the lymphatic system
works with the cardiovascular system.
19. Why is cancer of the blood or lymph
hard to control?
20. Arteries are distributed throughout the
body, yet a pulse is usually taken at
the neck or wrist. Why do you think
this is so?

Developing Skills
If you need help, refer to the Skill Handbook.

Test Practice

21. Concept Mapping: Complete the events


chain concept map showing how lymph
moves in your body.

Test-Taking Tip

The Test-Taking Tip was


written by The Princeton Review, the nations leader in
test preparation.
1. C
2. A

Investigate Ask what kinds of questions to expect on the test. Ask for practice tests so that you can become
familiar with the test-taking materials.

Tissue fluid
around body cells
moves into
Lymphatic capillaries

Test Practice
Developing Skills

Use these questions to test your Science


Proficiency.

Lymphatic vessels

21. See student page.


22. red blood cells120 days;
white blood cellsa few
days to several months;
platelets5 to 9 days
23. males  68; females 
73; in general, males
heart rates are lower than
females.
24. An experiment should include trials for both resting
and exercising heart rates
with different subjects.
25. Cigarettes contain nicotine, which is a stimulant.
Heart rate will increase.

1. The veins in the blood circulatory system


and the vessels of the lymphatic system
have valves. What is the major function
of these structures?
A) Valves help filter out microorganisms
and foreign matter.
B) Valves keep the fluids from moving
too rapidly in the vessels.
C) Valves permit the fluids to flow in
only one direction.
D) Valves connect arteries, veins, and
lymphatic vessels.

Lymph nodes

Blood vessels
Blood moves through
circulatory system
and is filtered by the
Spleen

22. Comparing and Contrasting: Compare


the life span of the different types of
blood cells.
23. Interpreting Data: Interpret the data
listed below. Find the average heartbeat
rate of four males and four females and
compare the two averages.
Males: 72, 64, 65, 72
Females: 67, 84, 74, 67
24. Designing an Experiment: Design an
experiment to compare the heartbeat rate
at rest and after exercising.

2. Veins never carry oxygen-rich blood.


Which statement below BEST defends or
refutes the above statement?
A) The pulmonary vein carries blood to
the left atrium.
B) The vena cava carries blood to the
right atrium.
C) The pulmonary artery carries blood to
the lungs.
D) The aorta carries blood from the heart
to the body.

25. Hypothesizing: Make a hypothesis to


suggest the effects of smoking on
heartbeat rate.

THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

19. Blood and lymph move throughout the


entire body.
20. These arteries are closest to the skin and
the pulse can be more easily felt.

THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

10. What is bloods function?


A) digest food
C) dissolve bone
B) produce CO2
D) carry oxygen

Assessment

Bonus Question
What is the relationship
among valves in veins, lymphatic capillaries, and gravity? Valves help keep blood and
lymph moving against gravity.

TEST-TAKING
CHAPTER 18 ASSESSMENT

517

Assessment Resources
The Test Practice Workbook provides students
with practice in the format, concepts, and critical-thinking skills tested in standardized exams.

Glencoe Technology
Chapter Review Software
Computer Test Bank

Reproducible Masters
Chapter Review, pp. 3536 L2
Performance Assessment, p. 18
Assessment, pp. 6972 L2

MindJogger Videoquiz

L2

CHAPTER 18 ASSESSMENT

517