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Justice and Law

#1(28)'11

Legal Journal

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Justice and Law


saqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlosa da saqarTvelos mosamarTleTa asociaciis iuridiuli Jurnali
LEGAL JOURNAL OF THE SUPREME COURT OF GEORGIA AND OF THE JUDGES ASSOCIATION OF GEORGIA

redaqtori
nino ZiZiguri
redaqtoris TanaSemwe
irma beqauri
nomerze muSaobdnen:
inga alaviZe
leila koSkaZe
marine vasaZe
dizaini:
besik danelia
fotouzrunvelyofa:
daviT xizaniSvili
saredaqcio sabWo:
diana berekaSvili
Tamar zambaxiZe
inga kvaWantiraZe
konstantine kublaSvili
zaza meiSvili
valeri cercvaZe
Editorial Board:
DIANA BEREKASHVILI
TAMAR ZAMBAKHIDZE
INGA KVACHANTIRADZE
KONSTANTINE KUBLASHVILI
ZAZA MEISHVILI
VALERI TSERTSVADZE

Editor:
NINO DZIDZIGURI
Assistant to Editor:
IRMA BEKAURI
The issue was prepared by:
INGA ALAVIDZE
LEILA KOSHKADZE
MARINE VASADZE
Designed by
BESIK DANELIA
Photo support by
DAVIT KHIZANISHVILI

English version of articles has been provided by Candidates


of Law faculty of Tbilisi State University

uak (UDC) 340.11+340.130.5


m-306
ISSN 1512-259X
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saqarTvelos mosamarTleTa
asociacia
JUDGES ASSOCIATION OF GEORGIA

akrZalulia aq gamoqveynebuli masalebis


gadabeWdva, gamravleba an gavrceleba
komerciuli mizniT, saqarTvelos
mosamarTleTa asociaciisa da saqarTvelos
uzenaesi sasamarTlos werilobiTi
nebarTvisa da wyaros miTiTebis gareSe.

sarCevi/CONTENTS

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malxaz guruli: `sasamarTlos mimarT mosaxleobis ndoba


gazrdilia~
MALKHAZ GURULI: "PUBLIC TRUST TOWARD COURTS IS INCREASED"

joni xecuriani

saqarTvelos saxelmwifo ena


STATE LANGUAGE OF GEORGIA
JOHN KHETSURIANI

31

irma peraniZe

damoukidebeli sasarCelo moTxovnis gareSe mesame piri


samoqalaqo samarTalwarmoebaSi
THE THIRD PARTY IN CIVIL PROCEEDINGS WITHOUT SEPARATE CLAIM
IRMA PERANIDZE

41

simon CxaiZe

movaleTa da kreditorTa simravle valdebulebaSi


MULTITUDE OF DEBTORS AND CREDITORS IN LIABILITY
SIMON CHKHAIDZE

56

zurab Wyonia

samoqalaqo samarTalwarmoebisa da aRsrulebis sakiTxebi


sabWoTa saqarTveloSi
ISSUES OF CIVIL PROCEEDINGS AND EXECUTION IN THE SOVIET GEORGIA
ZURAB CHKONIA

72

laura miqava

vindikaciuri sarCeli, rogorc sanivTo uflebis dacvis


samarTlebrivi saSualeba
VINDICTIVE APPEAL AS LEGAL MEANS OF PROTECTING
THE PROPERTY RIGHT
LAURA MIKAVA

89

daviT mesxiSvili

gaerTianebuli erebis organizaciis konvencia


transnacionaluri organizebuli danaSaulis winaaRmdeg
UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION AGAINST TRANSNATIONAL
ORGANIZED CRIME
DAVID MESKHISHVILI

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giorgi dgebuaZe

101

kriminaluri miznobrivi dajgufebis - JOINT CRIMINAL


ENTERPRISE doqtrinis Seqmnisa da gamoyenebis aucilebloba
saerTaSoriso sisxlis samarTalSi
NEED FOR CREATION AND USAGE OF THE JOINT CRIMINAL
ENTERPRISE DOCTRINE IN THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL LAW
GEORGE DGEBUADZE

111

adam maxaraZe

sasjelis daniSvnis sakiTxisaTvis TanamonawileobiT


Cadenil danaSaulSi
THE PUNISHMENT INDIVIDUALIZATION MATTER IN COMMITTING CRIME
WITH ACCEESSARY
ADAM MAKHARADZE

123

nino osaZe

fulis gaTeTreba ofSoruli zonebis gamoyenebis gziT


MONEY LAUNDERING THROUGH OFFSHORE ZONES
NINO OSADZE

131

axali wignebi

`sasamarTlos mimarT
mosaxleobis ndoba
gazrdilia~

saqarTvelos erT-erTi yvelaze didi sasamarTlos _


quTaisis saapelacio sasamarTlos Tavmjdomare
malxaz guruli acxadebs, rom statistikuri
monacemebis mixedviT, quTaisis saapelacio
sasamarTlom 2010 wels sakmaod produqtiulad
imuSava da wina welTan SedarebiT gacilebiT meti
saqme ganixila.
quTaisis saapelacio sasamarTlos saqmianobis,
mimdinare reformisa da mosalodneli siaxleebis
Sesaxeb gTavazobT intervius quTaisis saapelacio
sasamarTlos TavmjdomaresTan, malxaz gurulTan.

batono malxaz, gasuli wlis 1 oqtombridan amoqmedda sisxlis samarTlis axali saproceso kodeqsi da, Sesabamisad, amoqmedda sruliad axali tipis
marTlmsajuleba. ukve oTxi Tve gavida da sainteresoa, rogor `moergo~ quTaisis saapelacio sasamarTlo axal process?
_ sisxlis samarTlis axali saproceso kodeqsis amoqmedebiT sruliad Seicvala sisxlis samarTalwarmoeba. es
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aris procesi, romelic dafuZnebulia mxareTa Tanasworobisa da SejibrebiTobis


principze, rac niSnavs, rom mxareebis kvalifikaciazea damokidebuli, Tu rogor
gadawyvetilebas miiRebs mosamarTle, romelic procesze mxolod arbitris rolSia
da mxareebis mier wardgenil mtkicebulebebs afasebs.
rac Seexeba quTaisis saapelacio sasamarTlos, Cven iseve, rogorc mTlianad sasamarTlo sistema, momzadebuli SevxvdiT am
cvlilebebs. mosamarTleebi ori wlis ganmavlobaSi intensiur treningebs gadiodnen, rogorc qarTvel, ise ucxoel eqspertebTan. Tamamad SeiZleba iTqvas, rom sisxlis samarTlis axali saproceso kodeqsis
implementacia warmatebiT mimdinareobs.

quTaisis saapelacio sasamarTlo


erT-erTi yvelaze msxvili sasamarTloa, emsaxurebiT dasavleT saqarTvelos, amitomac, sainteresoa,
Tqveni analizi, rogor SeafasebdiT
quTaisis saapelacio sasamarTlos
muSaobas 2010 wels?
_ statistikuri monacemebis mixedviT, quTaisis saapelacio sasamarTlom 2010 wels
sakmaod produqtiulad imuSava da wina
welTan SedarebiT ufro meti saqme daasrula.
aRsaniSnavia, rom 2010 wels SemoRebuli
iqna sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebis axali
formebi samoqalaqo da administraciul
saqmeebze, romlis meSveobiTac, sasamarTlos mier gamotanili gadawyvetilebebi
ufro daixvewa da moqalaqeebisaTvis advilad aRsaqmeli gaxda.
6

sasamarTloSi moewyo videokonferenciis


da saprezentacio darbazebi, romlis meSveobiTac, sasamarTlo procesze aRar iqneba saWiro regionebidan mowmeebis Camoyvana. isini daikiTxebian sasamarTloSi
TavianTi sacxovrebeli adgilis mixedviT,
rac xels Seuwyobs swrafi da efeqtiani
marTlmsajulebis ganxorcielebas.

administraciuli marTlmsajuleba saqarTveloSi 10 welia rac moqmedebs, SeiZleba Tqma, rom is mainc
axali rgolia marTlmsajulebisaTvis rogor SeafasebdiT Tqveni sasamarTlos administraciuli kolegiis saqmianobas? miT umetes, rom
administraciuli davisas, erTmaneTis pirispir dgas moqalaqe da saxelmwifo, sajaro samsaxuris saxiT.
rogori maCvenebeli aqvs quTaisis
saapelacio sasamarTlos _ gadawyvetilebebis ramdeni procentia moqalaqeebis sasargeblod gamotanili?
_ postsabWoTa qveynebs Soris, administraciuli samarTalwarmoebis mxriv, saqarTvelo lideria da es naTlad dadasturda
cota xnis winaT kievSi gamarTul saerTaSoriso konferenciaze, sadac sxvadasxva
qveynebis warmomadgenlebi TavianT moxsenebebSi xazgasmiT saubrobdnen im warmatebebis Sesaxeb, romelsac saqarTvelom
administraciuli marTlmsajulebis mxriv
am 10 wlis ganmavlobaSi miaRwia.
rac Seexeba moqalaqeTa sasargeblod gamotanil gadawyvetilebebs, arsebuli monacemebiT, gadawyvetilebebis 60 procenti
maT sasargeblod gamodis.

sasamarTlos saqmianobis maCvenebeli mosamarTleebis mier gamotanili gadawyvetilebebis xarisxia.


rogor fiqrobT, quTaisis saapelacio sasamarTlos mosamarTleebis
profesionalizmi da kvalifikacia
akmayofilebs Tanamedrove sasamarTlos standartebs?
_ geTanxmebiT, rom sasamarTlos saqmianobis maCvenebeli mosamarTleebis mier gamotanili gadawyvetilebebis xarisxzea damokidebuli. gadawyvetilebebis xarisxs ki
gansazRvravs, Tu ramdenad xSirad xdeba
maTi Secvla zemdgomi instanciis mier. Cveni sasamarTlos statistikis mixedviT, sakasacio wesiT gasaCivrebuli saqmeebis
umetesoba ZalaSi rCeba, rac quTaisis saapelacio sasamarTlos mosamarTleebis maRal profesionalizmze metyvelebs.

malxaz guruli _ 1996 wels, Tbilisis ivane


javaxiSvilis saxelobis saxelmwifo universitetis iuridiuli fakultetis dam-

Tumca, mTavari Semfasebeli mainc


sazogadoebaa, rogor fiqrobT, gaizarda Tu ara sazogadoebis ndoba
sasamarTlo xelisuflebis mimarT?
_ Cveni saqmianobis yvelaze obieqturi Semfasebelni arian is moqalaqeebi, romelTac
uSualo Sexeba hqondaT sasamarTlosTan.
2010 wels, sxvadasxva saerTaSoriso organizaciebis mier Catarebuli gamokiTxvebis
mixedviT, sasamarTlos mimarT mosaxleobis ndoba aSkarad gazrdilia da igi saSualod, daaxloebiT, 60 procents Seadgens.

Tavrebis Semdeg, zestafonis Sinagan saqmeTa raiganyofilebis ekologiis policiis


qveganyofilebaSi ufros momkvlev inspeqtorad muSaobda.
1998 wels, iusticiis saswavlo centrSi warmatebiT gaiara samTviani sasawavlo kursi
mosamarTlis TanaSemwis Tanamdebobis dasakaveblad.
1999-2004 wlebSi muSaobda Tbilisis saolqo sasamarTloSi mosamarTlis TanaSemwed
_ samoqalaqo saqmeTa saapelacio palataSi
da sisxlis samarTlis saqmeTa saapelacio
palataSi.

sainteresoa, Tqveni azri kodeqsiT


gaTvaliswinebul mniSvnelovan siaxlesTan _ nafic msajulTa sasamarTlosTan dakavSirebiT. am ins-

2003 wels, warmatebiT Caabara prokuraturis muSakTa sakvalifikacio gamocda. 2004


wels, aseve warmatebiT Caabara advokatTa

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sakvalifikacio gamocda. 2004-2005 wlebSi


muSaobda Sida qarTlis saolqo prokuraturaSi, prokurorad.
2005 wels, Caabara mosamarTlis sakvalifikacio gamocda sisxlis samarTlis specializaciiT. imave wels, saqarTvelos prezidentis brZanebulebiT dainiSna foTis saqalaqo sasamarTlos mosamarTled. Semdeg,
saqarTvelos prezidentis gankargulebiT,daekisra quTaisis saqalaqo sasamarTlos Tavmjdomaris uflebamosileba.
2006 wels, saqarTvelos mosamarTleTa konferenciis administraciuli komitetis
dadgenilebiT airCies saqarTvelos iusticiis umaRlesi sabWos wevrad.
2007 wels, saqarTvelos prezidentis brZanebulebiT dainiSna quTaisis saapelacio
sasamarTlos mosamarTled da saqarTvelos
iusticiis umaRlesi sabWos gadawyvetilebiT daekisra quTaisis saapelacio sasamarTlos Tavmjdomaris uflebamosileba.
saqarTvelos mosamarTleTa konferenciis
administraciuli komitetis 2007 wlis 31
ivlisis #6 dadgenilebiT, airCies saqarTvelos iusticiis umaRlesi sabWos wevrad.
2007 wlis 15 oqtombers, saqarTvelos iusticiis umaRlesi sabWos gadawyvetilebiT,
dainiSna quTaisis saapelacio sasamarTlos
sisxlis samarTlis saqmeTa palatis Tavmjdomared.
2007 wlis 15 oqtombers, saqarTvelos iusticiis umaRlesi sabWos gadawyvetilebiT,
dainiSna quTaisis saapelacio sasamarTlos
Tavmjdomared.

tituts garda momxreebisa, mowinaaRmdegeebic mravlad hyavs, romelTa mtkicebiT, es instituti saqarTveloSi ver imuSavebs.
_ nafic msajulTa sasamarTlos amoqmedebiT moqalaqeebs miecaT Sansi pirdapir CaerTon marTlmsajulebis ganxorcielebaSi
da gadawyviton pirovnebis damnaSaveobis
Tu udanaSaulobis sakiTxi, Tavis Tavze gamocadon, Tu rogori rTulia mosamarTleoba, rac gamoiwvevs maTi marTlSegnebis
amaRlebas da xels Seuwyobs sasamarTlos
imijis kidev ufro gazrdas.
am institutis mowinaaRmdegeebis argumentebi ZiriTadad, is aris, rom nafic msajulTa sasamarTlo ver iqneba Cvens qveyanaSi warmatebuli, radgan patara qveyanaa
da naTesauri kavSirebi Zalze gavrcelebulia. es aris absurduli mosazreba, radgan gasaTvaliswinebelia im qveynebis gamocdileba, romlebic saqarTvelos hgavs.
am mxriv, aRsaniSnavia Sotlandia, romelic
aseve, patara qveyanaa da sazogadoebac axlo kavSirebze aris dafuZnebuli. amis miuxedavad, nafic msajulTa sasamarTlo
SotlandiaSi mainc warmatebiT muSaobas.

ra azris xarT kidev erT siaxleze


_ sakonstitucio cvlilebaze, romlis mixedviTac, mosamarTleebi uvadod unda dainiSnon?
_ es aris Zalian mniSvnelovani sakonstitucio cvlileba da sasamarTlo reformis
erT-erTi yvelaze pozitiuri nabiji. uvadod daniSnul mosamarTles stabilurobis da damoukideblobis ufro meti gancda
aqvs.

sasamarTlo reformis ramdenimewliani gegma arsebobs, sainteresoa,


reforma quTaisis saapelacio sasamarTloSi rogor mimdinareobs, reformis romel etapze xarT axla da
2011 wlisTvis ra siaxleebs gegmavT?
_ saqarTveloSi sasamarTlo reforma warmatebulad mimdinareobs. amis Tqmis saSualebas maZlevs sxvadasxva avtoritetuli
saerTaSoriso organizaciebis mier Catarebuli kvlevis Sedegebi, romlis mixedviT, sasamarTlos momxmarebelTa ndobis
maCvenebeli sakmaod maRalia.
rac Seexeba siaxleebs, 2011 wlisTvis vgegmavT saqmis warmoebis eleqtronuli programis amaoqmedebas, rac nebismier moqalaqes sasamarTloSi warmoebuli misi saqmis
Sesaxeb detaluri informaciis miRebis saSualebas miscems.

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PUBLIC TRUST TOWARD


COURTS IS INCREASED

Chairman of the Kutaisi Appellate Court _ one of the biggest courts


in Georgia, Malkhaz Guruli states that according to the statistics,
year 2010 was quite productive for this court and has deliberated
much more cases compared to the previous year.
To review activities, reforms and anticipated novelties, we offer
interview with the Chairman of Kutaisi Appellate Court, Mr. Malkhaz
Guruli.

Mr. Malkhaz, starting October 1, last year, new Criminal Procedure Code entered the legal force and accordingly, entirely new
model of administration of justice in enforced. 4 months passed
and it is interesting, how Kutaisi Appellate Court adjusted to
the novelties?
_ New Criminal Procedure Law completely changed criminal proceedings.
This process is based on the adversarial principle between the parties. This
means that the decision of a judge completely depends on the competence
of the parties. Judge has the role of arbiter and evaluates the evidences presented by the parties.
As for the Kutaisi Appellate Court, we as well as the entire judiciary, were
ready for these changes. Judges had been trained during two years with Georgian as well as international experts. We can easily say that the implementation of the new Criminal Procedure Code is successful.
10

Kutaisi Appellate Court is one of the biggest


courts, you cover west Georgia, thus it is interesting to know your analysis, how would
you evaluate the work of Kutaisi Appellate
Court in 2010?

Indicator of the courts work is the quality of


the court decisions. Do you think the competence and qualification of the Kutaisi Appellate Court judges comply with modern standards in the courts?

_ According to the statistics, Kutaisi Appellate Court


worked very productively in 2010 and finished more
cases than last year.

_ I agree indicator of the court work depend on the


quality of the court decisions. Quality of the decisions is
verified when and how often they are appealed and
changed in the upper instances. According to the statistics of our court, the majority of the decisions that are
appealed in the cassation, are maintained this confirms
the competence and high qualification oft he Kutaisi
Appellate Court judges.

It has to be mentioned that the new templates were introduced for civil and administrative cases in 2010. This
facilitated improvement of the decisions and making
them easier to understand for the citizens.
Video Conference and presentation rooms have been
arranged in the court. Through that there will be no
need to bring witnesses from the regions and they will
be questioned in the court according to their residence
this will facilitate ensuring speedy and effective administration of justice.

Administrative case proceeding is enforced in


Georgia for 10 years, it being relatively new, how
would you evaluate the work of administrative
collegium? It is especially interesting as during this proceeding we have a citizen and the
state, through the public service, as opposing
parties. What is the statistics of the Kutaisi
Appellate Court what is the percentage of
the decisions made in favor of the citizens?

However, the main appraiser is public; do


you think the public confidence towards judiciary has increased?
The most objective assessors of our activities, are those
citizens that had to deal with the courts. According to
the surveys conducted by different international research
organizations, the public confidence towards courts has
clearly increased and composes 60-65 %.

It is interesting to know your opinion regarding the most important novelty of the Code
Jury Trail. This institute had many supporters as well as many opponents, who argue
that this institute will not work in Georgia.

_ Among the post soviet countries, Georgia is leader in


administrative case processing and this was proved at the
recent international Conference held in Kiev. Representatives of different countries spoke about the success that
Georgia achieved in this field during the last 10 years.

Through introducing the jury trail court, citizens got


opportunity to directly participate in the administration
of justice and decide the guilt and innocence of a person;
to judge themselves how difficult it is to be a judge. This
is result in raising their legal awareness and will facilitate
improvement of the court image.

As for the percentage of court decisions made in favor of


citizens, 60 % of the decisions are made in favor of them.

The opponents of this institute mainly refer to the fact


that the country is small and connections are too strong
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thus this institute will not work. This is absurd because we have to see the experience of the countries
similar to Georgia. For example Scotland that is also a
small country and society is based on the strong connection. Regardless this, jury trail is very successfully
implemented in Scotland.

What do you think about one more novelty


constitutional amendment according to which
judges will be appointed for the lifetime?
This is a significant constitutional amendment and one
of the most positive steps in the judicial reform. Judge
appointed for life will have higher sense of stability and
independence.

There is the plan of the judicial reform for the


years to come. It is interesting to know how is
the reform going on in Kutaisi Appellate Court.
At which stage are you currently and what kind
of novelties do you plan for 2011?
Judicial reform is successfully implemented. The surveys conducted by different international organizations
allow me to say this confidence of court consumers
towards the judiciary is quite high.
As for the novelties, in 2011 we plan to start implementation of the new electronic case management program
that will allow all the citizens to receive detailed information on his / her case in the proceeding.

12

saqarTvelos
saxelmwifo ena

joni xecuriani
saqarTvelos sakonstitucio sasamarTlos mosamarTle,
iuridiul mecnierebaTa doqtori, profesori,
saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa erovnuli akademiis
wevr-korespondenti

qarTuli ena uZvelesi enaa, romelsac unikaluri damwerloba aqvs qarTuli anbanis saxiT. msoflioSi 14 anbania, maT Soris, erT-erTi qarTulia. marTalia, qarTuli
werilobiTi Zeglebi dReisaTvis mxolod V saukunidan
mogvepoveba, magram qarTuli damwerlobis SemoRebas XI saukunis qarTveli istorikosi leonti mroveli farnavaz
mefis (Zv.w. I I I s.) damsaxurebad miiCnevs, romelmac `ganavrco ena qarTuli da arRara izraxeboda sxva ena qarTlsa
Sina Tvinier qarTulisa, da aman Seqmna mwignobroba qarTuli.~1
qarTuli ena ara mxolod saero enaa. IV saukunidan, rodesac saqarTveloSi qristianoba saxelmwifo religiad gamocxadda, qarTuli ena saqarTvelos marTlmadidebeli
eklesiis, RvTismsaxurebis enac gaxda.
qarTulma marTlmadidebelma eklesiam didi roli Seasrula qveyanaSi wera-kiTxvisa da ganaTlebis gavrcelebaSi. eklesia-monastrebTan iyo skolebi da akademiebi (gelaTSi, iyalToSi), sadac eklesiis mecnieri msaxurni eweodnen mwignobrul moRvaweobas. maT Seqmnes erovnuli hagiografiuli literaturis, filosofiuri da saistorio
mwerlobis mniSvnelovani Zeglebi.
qarTuli ena aZlierebda erovnuli erTianobis Segnebas.
kulturasTan, religiasTan da istoriasTan erTad qarTu13

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li ena erovnulobis, nacionaluri identobis umTavresi niSani iyo. igi yovelTvis


erovnuli mTlianobisa da konsolidaciis mZlavr saSualebas warmoadgenda da qarTvelTa kulturul da eTnikur erTobas uzrunvelyofda. samefoebad da samTavroebad
saqarTvelos daSlisa da daqucmacebis drosac ki, qarTuli ena sruliad saqarTvelos
mwignobrobisa da eklesiis enad rCeboda. swored amitom ambobda giorgi merCule (X s.),
rom `qarTlad friadi qveyana aRiracxebis, romelsaca Sina qarTuliTa eniTa Jami
Seiwirvis da locva yoveli aResrulebis.~2
qarTulma enam da damwerlobam mraval istoriul qartexils gauZlo da miuxedavad
qarTuli saxelmwifos ara Tu daSlisa da danawevrebis, aramed misi sruli gauqmebis
drosac ki, ganagrZobda arsebobasa da ganviTarebas. qarTveli eris istoriis am monakveTSi, qarTuli ena saxelmwifoebriobawarTmeul qarTvelTa erovnuli cnobierebisa
da TviTmyofadobis SenarCunebis, qarTvelTa gadagvarebisagan gadarCenis umTavres
Zalas warmoadgenda.
XIX saukunis damdegs, ruseTis mier saqarTvelos aneqsias Sedegad mohyva qarTuli
saxelmwifoebriobisa da qarTuli marTlmadidebeli eklesiis avtokefaliis gauqmeba.
saqarTvelo ruseTis imperiis nawili gaxda. qarTul enas saxelmwifoebrivi mniSvneloba
da funqcia daekarga, radgan aRar arsebobda qarTuli saxelmwifo _ saqarTvelo.
mravalsaukunovani qarTuli saxelmwifoebriobis gauqmebis Semdeg, caristuli ruseTi yovelgvari saSualebiT cdilobda qarTuli erovnuli erTobis moSlas, raTa qarTvel xalxs aRarasodes gasCenoda sakuTari saxelmwifoebriobis aRdgenis survili.
am miznis misaRwevad mTeli ZaliT amoqmedda antiqarTuli, gamarusebeli politika,
romlis mTavari samizne swored qarTvelTa erovnuli erTobis erT-erTi safuZveli _
qarTuli ena gaxda. sajaro da sazogadoebriv dawesebulebebSi rusuli enis damkvidrebasTan erTad daiwyo skolebidan da eklesiidan qarTuli enis gamodevna, romlis
adgils rusuli ena ikavebda. amasTanave, samegrelos, svaneTisa da aWaris skolebSi
qarTuli enis nacvlad swavleba SemoiRes megrulad, svanurad da Turqulad. ieriSi
qarTul damwerlobazec miitanes. 1889 wels rusuli anbanis mixedviT Seqmnes `megruli
anbani~. daiwyes saRvTo wignebis megrulad Targmna. ufro adre ki, 1864 wels rusuli
grafikis safuZvelze Seiqmna svanuri saanbano wigni ("luSnu anban"). damoukidebel, araqarTvel xalxebad cxaddebodnen megrelebi, svanebi, aWarlebi, xevsurebi da sxva.3 rogorc samecniero literaturaSi aRniSnaven, `es iyo aSkarad gamiznuli politikuri
nabiji, romlis mizansac qarTuli enis, rogorc eris SemakavSirebeli da gamaerTianebeli faqtoris, Ziris gamoTxra, saqarTvelos sxvadasxva eTnokulturebis dapirispireba da saerTo qarTuli cnobierebis mospoba warmoadgenda.~4
safrTxe marTlac realuri iyo. saxelmwifo mxardaWeras moklebuli, ufunqciod
darCenili qarTuli ena e.w. mkvdari enebis xvedrisaTvis iyo gamzadebuli. swored am
dros saqarTvelos erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebeli moZraobis mesveurebma (il. WavWavaZe,
d. yifiani, i. gogebaSvili, ak. wereTeli da sxva) naTlad gaacnobieres, rom enis sikvdili
TviT eris sikvdils moaswavebda da saTaveSi Caudgnen erovnul-kulturul moZraobas
qarTuli enis gadasarCenad, romelic imavdroulad qarTveli eris gadarCenisaTvis
brZolas niSnavda mefis ruseTis antiqarTuli gamarusebeli politikis pirobebSi.
14

maTi mondomebiTa da ZalisxmeviT ganaxlda da ganviTarda qarTuli kultura, ganaTleba, mecniereba, literatura, presa, wigni, xelovneba. ganxorcielda Tavad qarTuli anbanisa da saliteraturo enis reforma samwerlobo enis sasaubro enasTan daaxloebis gziT, raTa qarTuli saliteraturo ena mTeli erisaTvis gasagebi gamxdariyo.
aRadgines qarTuli Teatri, daaarses sajaro biblioTeka, gamosces qarTuli JurnalgazeTebi (`ciskari~, `saqarTvelos moambe~, `iveria~) da sxva.5 uaRresad STambeWdavia
ganaTlebis sferoSi maTi moRvaweoba. qarTuli enis gadarCena skolis gareSe warmoudgeneli iyo. ilia WavWavaZe da misi Taoba moiTxovdnen, rom dawyebiT skolebSi swavleba mxolod mSobliur enaze warmarTuliyo. amis Semdeg ki, SesaZlebeli iqneboda
rusuli enis `viTarca saxelmwifo enis~ Seswavla. dedaenisa da rusuli enis erTdroulad Seswavlas dawyebiT skolebSi isini yovlad miuReblad miiCnevdnen. `cxadia, rom
saero skola, rogorc pirvel-dawyebiTi skola erisa, sxva ara unda iyos-ra, garda dedaenisa da samSoblo qveynis maswavlebel skolisa...~ _ werda ilia WavWavaZe.6 amasTanave,
mowinave qarTveli moRvaweebi mxolod msjelobebiTa da survilebiT rodi kmayofildebian da saganmanaTleblo sakiTxebis gadasawyvetad praqtikul nabijebs dgamen. 1879
wels maT daarses `qarTvelTa Soris wera-kiTxvis gamavrcelebeli sazogadoeba~, romlis uaRresad farTo kulturul-saganmanaTleblo saqmianobaSi umTavres mimarTulebas qarTuli saxalxo skolebis daarseba, qarTuli saskolo saxelmZRvaneloebis Seqmna da gamocema warmoadgenda. sazogadoebam Seiswavla skolebis mdgomareoba saqarTvelos sxvadasxva kuTxeSi. aRricxa saskolo asakis bavSvebis raodenoba da Seudga
saxalxo skolebis daarsebas saqarTvelos teritoriaze da mis farglebs gareTac, sadac
qarTvelebi kompaqturad saxlobdnen (magaliTad, vladikavkazSi, alagirSi, mozdokSi,
nalCikSi, baqoSi da sxv.). didi Sroma gaswia sazogadoebam baTumis skolis daarsebisaTvis, radgan igi unda yofiliyo qarTuli enis sayrdeni da gamavrcelebeli axalSemoerTebuli aWaris gamahmadianebul qarTvel mosaxleobaSi. gansakuTrebuli yuradReba mieqca skolebis gaxsnas borCaloSi, saingiloSi, mesxeT-javaxeTSi. sazogadoebis
TaosnobiT ibeWdeboda iakob gogebaSvilis `deda ena~, `bunebis kari~, agreTve sxva avtorebis mier Seqmnili geografiis, bunebismetyvelebis, ariTmetikis, saqarTvelos
istoriis da sxva saxelmZRvaneloebi.7 da mainc, qarTuli enis gadarCenis saqmeSi sruliad gamorCeuli roli ekuTvnis iakob gogebaSvilis `deda enas~, romelzedac aRizardnen qarTvelTa mTeli Taobebi.8 `qarTvelTa Soris wera-kiTxvis gamavrcelebelma
sazogadoebam~, rogorc moswrebulad iTqva literaturaSi, `ruseTis mier dapyrobil
uuflebo saqarTveloSi faqtobrivad, ganaTlebis saministros funqcia Seasrula.~9
ilia WavWavaZisa da misi Taobis brZolas qarTuli enis gadarCenisa da axali saliteraturo qarTulis damkvidrebisaTvis uSedegod ar Cauvlia. `am brZolam didad Seuwyo
xeli eris dacemuli vinaobis aRdgenas. qarTuli ena TandaTan iqca mecnierebis, literaturis, skolis, erTiani qarTuli saxelmwifos saxelmwifo enad.~10
1917 wlis Teberval-martSi ruseTSi momxdari revoluciis Semdeg, ruseTis imperiis
dapyrobil erebSi erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebeli moZraobis gaZlierebis gamo, ruseTis
droebiTi mTavroba iZulebuli gaxda, garkveulad SeezRuda rusuli enis monopoliuri
mdgomareoba da nacionaluri enebisaTvis meti asparezi mieca.
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1917 wlis 10 seqtembers, ruseTis droebiTi mTavrobis amierkavkasiis sagangebo komitetma daamtkica debuleba kavkasiis saskolo olqSi saswavlo dawesebulebaTa nacionalizaciis (gaerovnebis) Sesaxeb. masSi naTqvami iyo, rom saxelmwifos mier dafinansebul skolebSi swavleba unda warmarTuliyo mSobliur enaze erovnuli saskolo komitetebis mier Sedgenili da damtkicebuli programebis mixedviT. erovnul sagnebad
miCneuli iyo dedaena, erovnuli literatura, eris istoria da geografia11.
1917 wlis oqtomberSi ruseTSi bolSevikuri gadatrialebis Semdeg, saqarTvelo
ruseTis imperiisagan Tavis daRwevisa da damoukidebel saxelmwifod Camoyalibebis gzas
daadga. saqarTvelos erovnulma yrilobam 1917 wlis 20 noembers Seqmna skolebisa da
universitetis seqcia, romlis xelmZRvanelad airCies ivane javaxiSvili. am seqcias unda
SeemuSavebina da erovnuli sabWosaTvis dasamtkiceblad waredgina saqarTveloSi arsebuli skolebis gaqarTulebisa da erovnuli universitetis daarsebis proeqti,12 rac
SemdgomSi warmartebiT ganxorcielda.
1918 wlis 26 maiss, saqarTvelos saxelmwifoebrivi damoukideblobis aRdgenis Semdeg, saswavlo da saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebebis paralelurad gaerovnebis (rusuli
enidan qarTul enaze gadasvlis) procesi saxelmwifoebriv da sazogadoebriv dawesebulebebSic daiwyo. am mxriv gansakuTrebul gulmodginebas iusticiis saministro iCenda
(ministri Salva aleqsi-mesxiSvili). am uwyebaSi aikrZala rusul enaze dawerili gancxadebebis miReba. saministrom miiRo dadgenileba, mosamarTleebad qarTuli enis
mcodneni gaemwesebinaT, marTlmsajuleba qarTul enaze ewarmoebinaT. amasTanave, saqarTvelos mTavrobam miiRo dadgenileba, saministroebsa da uwyebebSi Seqmniliyo qarTuli enis Semswavleli ufaso kursebi qarTuli enis armcodne moxeleTaTvis, raTa
qarTuli enis arcodna ar gamxdariyo maTi samuSaodan gaTavisuflebis safuZveli.13
saqarTvelos erovnulma xelisuflebam 1918 wlis 1 oqtombers miiRo kanoni `saqarTvelos saxelmwifo enisa,~14 romliTac qarTul enas saxelmwifo enis statusi mianiWa.
kanonis Tanaxmad, saqarTvelos erovnul sabWoSi15 yovelnairi saqmis warmoeba da kamaTi
unda gamarTuliyo qarTul enaze. amasTanave, kanonSi miTiTebuli iyo, rom erovnul
umciresobaTa enis xmareba sxvadasxva dawesebulebaSi calke kanoniT ganisazRvreboda.
imave wlis 15 oqtombers miRebuli kanoniT `wesi enis xmarebisa~16 damateba Sevida parlamentis reglamentSi da saxelmwifo enasTan erTad ganisazRvra erovnul umciresobaTa enebis gamoyenebis pirobebi da procedurebi. kanonma daadgina zogadi wesi, rom
parlamentis wevrebs sityva unda warmoeTqvaT qarTul enaze. amasTanave, qarTulidan
sxva enaze sityva ar gadaiTargmneboda. rac Seexeba parlamentar erovnul umciresobaTa
warmomadgenlebs, romlebmac qarTuli ena ar icodnen, kanonis Tanaxmad, maT SeeZloT
sityvis warmoTqma, garda Tavisi dedaenisa, umciresobis enaze, romelic parlamentis
prezidiumis erTma wevrma mainc icoda. amave dros, umciresobis enaze warmoTqmuli
sityvis dedaazri gadmocemuli unda yofiliyo qarTul enaze, Tu amas aranakleb 15
deputati mainc moiTxovda. werilobiTi winadadebebis, Sesworebisa da sxvaTa Setana
ki, SeiZleboda mxolod qarTul enaze. erovnuli umciresobis warmomadgenlis mier
warmoTqmuli sityva sxva umciresobis enaze ar gadaiTargmneboda.

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kanonis am normebSi aSkarad moCans gardamavali epoqis kvali. axalfexadgmuli qarTuli saxelmwifo cdilobda, erTi mxriv, imperiuli rusuli enis nacvlad qarTuli
enis rogorc saxelmwifo enis damkvidrebas saxelisuflebo organoebSi, xolo meore
mxriv, enobriv bariers naklebad SeeSala xeli saqarTveloSi mcxovrebi erovnuli umciresobebis qveynis marTvaSi monawileobisaTvis.
erovnulma xelisuflebam aseve, sagangebo yuradReba dauTmo enebis gamoyenebis sakiTxs adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis organoebSi. am mizniT, 1919 wlis 14 ianvars miRebuli kanoniT `adgilobriv TviTmarTvelobaTa organoebSi enis xmarebisa~17 dadginda,
rom `msjeloba, saqmis warmoeba da miwer-mowera qalaqis da erobis TviTmarTvelobaSi
swarmoebs saxelmwifo eniT~. amave dros kanonma gaiTvaliswina sagamonakliso wesebic,
saxeldobr, `ukeTu romelime TviTmarTvelobis farglebSi mcxovreb respublikis moqalaqeTa naxevarze metisaTvis salaparako ena aris mxolod erTi romelime ara qarTuli adgilobrivi ena, TviTmarTvelobis organoebis dadgenilebiT msjeloba da saqmis
warmoeba saxelmwifo enasTan erTad SeiZleba SemoRebul iqnes am umravlesobis enazec.~
am da sxva sakanonmdeblo aqtebma samarTlebrivi safuZvlebi Seuqmnes qarTuli enis
saxelmwifoebriv statuss, amasTanave, gansazRvres saqarTveloSi mcxovreb erovnul
umciresobaTa enebis gamoyenebis pirobebi da farglebi, rac Semdeg saTanadod aisaxa
saqarTvelos 1921 wlis konstituciaSi.18 saqarTvelos pirvelma konstituciam saqarTvelos saxelmwifo enad qarTuli ena daadgina (me-3 muxli). saqarTvelos istoriaSi
pirvelad qarTulma enam, rogorc saxelmwifo enam, konstituciuri statusi moipova.
saqarTvelos ZiriTad kanonSi aseve, mniSvnelovani adgili daeTmo erovnul umciresobaTa enebis sakiTxs. konstituciis me-14 Tavi, romelic mTlianad erovnul umciresobaTa uflebebs eZRvneba, im epoqisaTvis uaRresad progresul normebs adgenda.
konstituciiT ikrZaleboda saqarTvelos respublikis erovnuli umciresobis misi
dedaeniT swavla-aRzrdis SezRudva (129-e muxli). amasTanave, adgilobrivi mmarTveloba valdebuli iyo swavla-ganaTlebisaTvis gamiznuli TanxebiT daearsebina skolebis
sakmao raodenoba moqalaqeTa erovnuli Semadgenlobis proporciulad (134-e muxli).
adgilobrivi mmarTvelobis farglebSi, sadac erTi romelime erovnuli umciresobis
raodenoba aRemateboda yvela moqalaqis 20 procents, am umciresobis moTxovniT,
msjeloba da saqmiswarmoeba saxelmwifo da sazogadoebriv dawesebulebaSi, saxelmwifo
enasTan erTad, SemoRebuli unda yofiliyo mis mSobliur enazec (136-e muxli). araqarTvel deputats, romelmac sakmarisad ar icoda saxelmwifo ena, SeeZlo parlamentSi
sityva warmoeTqva mSobliur enaze, romlis swor Targmans winaswar warudgenda
parlamentis prezidiums (137-e muxli).
amasTan dakavSirebiT, saWirod migvaCnia, aRvniSnoT, rom saqarTvelos 1921 wlis konstituciis zemoaRniSnul normebSi asaxuli erovnul umciresobaTa enobrivi uflebebi
saqarTvelos konstituciis miRebidan mxolod naxevari saukunis Semdeg gamocemul
saerTaSoriso samarTlebrivi aqtebiT aRiares adamianis saerTaSoriso uflebebad.19
samwuxarod, saqarTvelos damoukidebeli saxelmwifoebrivi ganviTarebis gza saqarTvelos 1921 wlis konstituciis miRebisTanave Sewyda. sabWoTa ruseTis mier 1921 wlis

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TebervalSi, saqarTvelos mimarT ganxorcielebul intervencias, okupaciasa da aneqsias


Sedegad mohyva saqarTveloSi socialisturi tipis saxelmwifos Camoyalibeba saqarTvelos sabWoTa socialisturi respublikis saxiT, romelic sabWoTa kavSirSi iZulebiT
iqna gaerTianebuli.
sabWoTa kavSiri, romelic modernizebul rusul imperias warmoadgenda, enobriv
politikas ori ZiriTadi mimarTulebiT atarebda. erTi mxriv, oficialurad aRiarebda
mokavSire respublikebSi maT erovnul enebs saxelmwifo enad, rasac garkveul etapze
politikuri da ideologiuri mniSvneloba hqonda saqmis ise warmosaCenad, TiTqos sabWoTa kavSirSi gaerTianebuli erebi inarCunebdnen TavianT TviTmyofadobas da uzrunvelyofili iyo sruli enobrivi Tanasworoba, xolo meore mxriv, sakavSiro xelisuflebis organoebis samuSao enas faqtobrivad rusuli ena warmoadgenda. amasTanave, rusuli ena ganixileboda, rogorc sabWoTa kavSirSi mcxovreb xalxTa Soris urTierTobis
ena. Caketil sabWour sivrceSi igi am funqcias marTlac asrulebda. rusuli ena faqtobrivad dominanti ena gaxda mTel sabWoeTSi, rasac uzrunvelyofda mTeli sabWoTa
politikuri, partiuli da ideologiuri institutebis mizanmimarTuli saqmianoba saxelmwifoebrivi da sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis TiTqmis yvela sferoSi rusuli enis
dasamkvidreblad.
sabWoTa saxelmwifos amgvari enobrivi politikis gavleniT Camoyalibda imdroindeli sakanonmdeblo aqtebic, kerZod, rusuli ena sabWoTa kavSiris arc erTi konstituciiT (1924, 1936, 1977 w.w.) saxelmwifo enad ar iyo aRiarebuli, xolo mokavSire respublikebSi, magaliTad, saqarTveloSi qarTuli ena sabWoTa saqarTvelos oTxive konstituciiT (1922, 1927, 1937, 1978 w.w.) aRiarebuli iyo, rogorc saxelmwifo ena.
gasuli saukunis 70-ani wlebis bolos, sabWoTa xelisuflebam ganacxada, rom sabWoTa
kavSirSi aSenebulia ganviTarebuli socialisturi sazogadoeba, romlis erT-erTi gamoxatuleba iyo yvela klasisa da socialuri jgufis daaxloebis, yvela eris iuridiuli da faqtobrivi Tanasworobisa da maTi Zmuri TanamSromlobis safuZvelze, adamianTa axali istoriuli erTobis () _ sabWoTa xalxis Camoyalibeba. azri martivi
iyo: sabWoTa kavSirSi mcxovrebi erebi imdenad daaxlovdnen, rom maTi eTnikuri gansxvavebebi TiTqmis waiSala da Sedegad miviReT sabWoTa xalxi. sabWoTa xalxs ki, erT
enaze unda elaparaka. es ena, ra Tqma unda, rusuli ena unda yofiliyo. axali `istoriuli sinamdvile~ saTanadod unda asaxuliyo sabWoTa kavSirisa da mokavSire respublikebis konstituciebSi, romelTa miReba dagegmili iyo 1977-1978 wlebSi. imisaTvis,
rom rusuli ena iuridiulad ssr kavSiris saxelmwifo enad gamocxadebuliyo da mis
oficialur gamoyenebas mokavSire respublikebSi samarTlebrivi safuZveli Sehqmnoda,
sabWoTa xelisuflebam ssr kavSiris 1977 wlis axal konstituciaSi Tavi aarida saxelmwifo enis gansazRvris sakiTxs, samagierod mokavSire respublikebs mosTxova, maT axal
konstituciebSi adgilobrivi nacionaluri enebis saxelmwifoebrivi statusi aRar gaeTvaliswinebinaT. Tu es Canafiqri warmatebiT Sesruldeboda, maSin amis Semdeg ssr
kavSiris konstituciaSi Seitandnen damatebas rusuli enis ssr kavSiris saxelmwifo
enad gamocxadebis Sesaxeb da mTel sabWoeTSi es ena ukve iuridiulad erTaderTi saxelmwifo ena iqneboda.
18

am gegmis ganxorcielebas 1978 wels Seudgnen. magaliTad, saqarTvelos ssr 1937 wlis
konstituciisagan20 gansxvavebiT, sadac garkveviT iyo naTqvami, rom `saqarTvelos ssr-s
saxelmwifo ena aris qarTuli ena~ (156-e muxli), 1978 wlis 23 marts sayovelTao-saxalxo
ganxilvisaTvis gamoqveynebul saqarTvelos ssr axali konstituciis proeqtSi qarTuli
ena saqarTvelos ssr-is saxelmwifo enad ukve aRar iyo moxseniebuli. proeqtis 75-e
muxli aseTi Sinaarsis iyo: `saqarTvelos ss respublika uzrunvelyofs qarTuli enis
xmarebas saxelmwifo da sazogadoebriv organoebSi, kulturul da sxva dawesebulebebSi
da axorcielebs saxelmwifo zrunvas misi yoveli RonisZiebiT ganviTarebisaTvis. saqarTvelos ss respublikaSi, Tanasworuflebianobis safuZvelze, uzrunvelyofilia yvela
am organosa da dawesebulebaSi rusuli, agreTve sxva enebis Tavisufali xmareba, romlebiTac mosaxleoba sargeblobs. raime privilegiebi an SezRudvebi ama Tu im enis xmarebaSi ar daiSveba.~21
proeqtis am normaSi sagulisxmo iyo ori principuli xasiaTis siaxle. jer erTi, qarTuli enis saxelmwifoebrivi statusi gauqmebuli iyo, saqarTvelos saxelmwifo enas
konstitucia aRar adgenda da meore, pirvelad saqarTvelos konstituciaSi qarTuli
enis Tanabari statusi eniWeboda rusul enas.
saqarTvelos ss respublikis axali konstituciis proeqtis gamoqveynebas, romelic
qarTuli enis saxelmwifoebriv statuss auqmebda, 1978 wlis 14 aprils, TbilisSi moqalaqeTa farTomasStabiani saprotesto aqcia mohyva mSobliuri enis dasacavad. xelisuflebam ukan daixia da qarTul enas saxelmwifo enis statusi SeunarCunda. saqarTvelos ss respublikis 1978 wlis konstituciis 75-e muxlSi Caiwera, rom `saqarTvelos
sabWoTa socialisturi respublikis saxelmwifo ena aris qarTuli ena.~22 amasTanave,
konstituciis proeqtSi arsebuli Canaweri rusuli enis Tavisufali xmarebisa saxelmwifo organoebsa da sazogadoebriv dawesebulebebSi, konstituciaSi ucvlelad gadavida. ufro metic, axali konstituciiT saqarTvelos ss respublikis kanonebis, umaRlesi sabWos dadgenilebebisa da sxva aqtebis gamoqveyneba qarTulTan erTad rusuladac savaldebulo gaxda (110-e muxli).
sabWoTa kavSiris xelisuflebam am etapze dasaxul mizans srulad ver miaRwia, rusuli ena ssr kavSiris saxelmwifo enad ar iqna aRiarebuli, xolo saqarTveloSi qarTulma
enam kvlav SeinarCuna saxelmwifo enis statusi. am movlenebma qarTul sazogadoebaSi
kidev ufro gaaRviva mSobliuri enis pativiscemisa da dacvis interesi.23 miuxedavad
amisa, sabWoTa xelisuflebas dasaxuli miznis miRwevaze xeli ar auRia. rusuli enis
saxelmwifo enad iuridiulad gaformebis miswrafeba imdenad Zlieri iyo, rom zemoaRniSnuli movlenebidan zustad me-12 wlisTavze, 1990 wlis 24 aprils agoniaSi myofma
sabWoTa kavSirma gamosca kanoni `ssr kavSiris xalxTa enebis Sesaxeb,~24 romlis Tanaxmad,
ssr kavSirSi rusuli ena oficialur (anu saxelmwifo) enad gamocxadda. kanonis me-4
muxlSi naTqvami iyo: `istoriulad damkvidrebuli pirobebis gaTvaliswinebiT da saerTo sakavSiro amocanebis uzrunvelyofis mizniT rusuli ena ssr kavSiris teritoriaze miCneulia ssr kavSiris oficialur enad da gamoiyeneba rogorc erovnebaTaSorisi urTierTobis saSualeba.~
unda aRiniSnos, rom am kanonma rusuli enis, rogorc oficialuri enis, gamoyenebis
imdenad farTo areali daadgina, rom mokavSire respublikebis saxelmwifo enebi faq19

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tobrivad oficialuri (rusuli) enis danamatad gadaaqcia, romlebic droTa ganmavlobaSi usaTuod dakargavdnen saxelmwifoebriv mniSvnelobas da, saukeTeso SemTxvevaSi, mxolod yofiTi urTierTobebis enad SemorCeboda.
marTalia, sabWoTa kavSiris xelisuflebam zemoaRniSnuli kanonis miRebiT didi xnis
Canafiqri sabolood mainc aisrula, magram kanonis samoqmedod SemoRebidan weliwadnaxevarSi ssr kavSirma, rogorc saxelmwifom da masTan erTad am kanonmac Sewyvita arseboba, samagierod, saqarTvelom 1991 wlis 9 aprils saxelmwifoebrivi damoukidebloba
aRidgina.
erovnulma xelisuflebam saqarTveloSi gardamavali periodi gamoacxada da axali
konstituciis SemuSavebamde Seudga saqarTvelos imJamad moqmedi (1978 wlis) konstituciis modernizebas. sxva mniSvnelovan sakiTxebTan erTad cvlilebebi Seexo saqarTvelos konstituciis 75-e muxlsac, romelic, rogorc es zemoT iTqva, saqarTveloSi
enebis samarTlebriv statuss adgenda. cvlilebebis Sedegad, konstituciis am normidan
amoRebuli iqna `rusuli ena~, romelic gamorCeulad iyo moxseniebuli saqarTveloSi
mcxovreb erovnul umciresobaTa sxva enebTan SedarebiT.
saqarTvelos saxelmwifoebrivi damoukideblobis aRdgenis Semdeg naTlad gamoCnda
sabWoTa xelisuflebis mier aTeuli wlebis ganmavlobaSi gatarebuli rusifikatoruli
enobrivi politikis Sedegebi. miuxedavad imisa, rom sabWoTa periodis saqarTveloSi
qveynis ZiriTadi kanoniT saxelmwifoebrivi statusi mxolod qarTul enas hqonda, misi
gamoyenebis areali saqarTvelos teritoriaze mainc mniSvnelovnad iyo SezRuduli.
sakmarisia iTqvas, rom saqarTveloSi mcxovreb erovnul umciresobaTa25 didma nawilma
(gansakuTrebiT maTi kompaqturad dasaxlebis adgilebSi) saerTod ar icoda qarTuli
ena. isini flobdnen mxolod maT mSobliur da rusul enebs, rac maTTvis savsebiT
sakmarisi iyo qveynis saxelmwifoebriv da sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSi, SromiT da ekonomikur urTierTobebSi integrirebisaTvis.
aseTi iyo realuri enobrivi situacia saqarTveloSi gasuli saukunis 90-iani wlebis
dasawyisisaTvis. am realobebis gaTvaliswinebiT, `saqarTvelos moqalaqeobis Sesaxeb~
1993 wlis 25 marts miRebulma saqarTvelos respublikis kanonma26 saqarTvelos moqalaqeebad CaTvala saqarTveloSi mcxovrebi pirebi mxolod maTi binadrobis cenzis mixedviT (rasakvirvelia, Tu isini uars ar ganacxadebdnen saqarTvelos moqalaqeobaze).
rac Seexeba qarTuli enis codnas, am kanoniT igi erT-erT pirobad iqna gaTvaliswinebuli naturalizaciiT saqarTvelos moqalaqeobis miRebisas. amrigad, `saqarTvelos
moqalaqeobis Sesaxeb~ kanonis amoqmedebis Semdeg, saqarTveloSi mcxovrebi qarTuli
enis armcodne erovnul umciresobaTa warmomadgenlebi saqarTvelos moqalaqeebi gaxdnen, maTi STamomavlebi ki, qarTuli enis dauflebis gareSec xdebian dabadebiT saqarTvelos moqalaqeebi.
am arasaxarbielo mdgomareobis gamosworeba, uwinares yovlisa, saxelmwifo enis Sesaxeb kanonis miRebiT unda dawyebuliyo, xolo Semdeg, aucilebeli iyo am kanonis aRsrulebisaTvis iseTi programis SemuSaveba da ganxorcieleba, romelic Seqmnida pirobebs saxelmwifoebriv da mosaxleobis yoveldRiur saqmianobaSi saxelmwifo enis gamoyenebisaTvis. Tumca saqarTvelos saxelmwifo enis Sesaxeb kanonis miRebis sakiTxma gan20

sakuTrebuli aqtualuroba mxolod saqarTvelos 1995 wlis konstituciis miRebis Semdeg SeiZina. qveynis ZiriTadma kanonma saqarTvelos mTel teritoriaze saxelmwifo enad
qarTuli ena daadgina, xolo afxazeTis avtonomiur respublikaSi agreTve _ afxazuri.
aRsaniSnavia, rom pirvelad saqarTvelos konstituciiT, afxazur enas mieniWa saxelmwifo enis statusi. saqarTvelos 1995 wlis konstituciis miRebamde, afxazuri enis
saxelmwifoebrivi statusi ganmtkicebuli iyo mxolod afxazeTis avtonomiuri respublikis konstituciiT. amasTanave, unda iTqvas, rom afxazeTis avtonomiuri ss respublikis 1978 wlis konstituciiT saxelmwifo enis statusi afxazurTan erTad mikuTvnebuli hqonda qarTul da rusul enebsac.27
saxelmwifo enis kanonproeqtze muSaoba 1997 wels daiwyo enis saxelmwifo palatis
iniciativiT da ramdenime weliwads gagrZelda. sabolood, 2001 wlis 19 ivniss, saqarTvelos prezidentma `saxelmwifo enis Sesaxeb~ saqarTvelos kanonis proeqti sakanonmdeblo iniciativiT parlaments warudgina.
amave periodSi, kanonproeqtis ganxilvaSi aqtiurad Caeba evropis uSiSroebisa da
TanamSromlobis organizacia (euTo). erovnul umciresobaTa umaRlesi komisari rolf
ekeusi `saxelmwifo enis Sesaxeb~ kanonproeqtis parlamentSi pirveli mosmeniT ganxilvamde erTi TviT adre, 2002 wlis 8 aprils, parlamentis xelmZRvanelobisadmi gagzavnil
werilSi aRniSnavda: `saxelmwifo enis Sesaxeb kanonis miReba saqarTvelos ara mxolod
suverenuli uflebaa, aramed es aris aucilebeli nabiji, raTa Seiqmnas Zlieri da erTiani
qarTuli saxelmwifo... swored amitom saxelmwifo enis kanonis miReba prioritetuli
sakiTxia. mimaCnia, rom saWiroa saqarTveloSi saxelmwifo enis statusi ganmtkicdes,
gaZlierdes da Seiqmnas pirobebi qveynis teritoriaze mis gamosayeneblad... amasTanave,
aucilebelia saqarTvelos parlamentma da mTavrobam dauyovnebliv daiwyon SemuSaveba
farTo programisa, romelic uzrunvelyofs enis Seswavlas da mTel qveyanaSi mis gamoyenebas, gaaCaRebs saxelmwifo enis Seswavlis masStabur process saxalxo ganaTlebisa
da sajaro samsaxuris sferoSi (es gansakuTrebiT exeba qveynis zog regions), ...minda
dagarwmunoT, rom Cems movaleobad mimaCnia, am mniSvnelovan procesSi saqarTvelos
parlamentsa da mTavrobas daxmareba gavuwioT TviT finansuri mxardaWeris CaTvliT.~28
2002 wlisaTvis TiTqos yvela wina piroba iyo Seqmnili `saxelmwifo enis Sesaxeb~
kanonis misaRebad, magram samwuxarod, parlamentis wevrebs saamisod ar aRmoaCndaT
politikuri neba da kanonproeqtis ganxilva gaurkveveli vadiT gadaido. 2004 wlis 23
agvistos ki, es kanonproeqti ukan gamoiTxova misma iniciatorma. amgvarad, qveyana darCa
saxelmwifo enis kanonis, xolo saxelmwifo enobrivi politika _ sakanonmdeblo uzrunvelyofis gareSe.
samagierod, 2005 wlis 13 oqtombers, saqarTvelos parlaments saTanado politikuri
neba aRmoaCnda `erovnul umciresobaTa dacvis Sesaxeb~ evrosabWos 1995 wlis CarCo
konvenciis ratificirebisaTvis.29 es konvencia xelSemkvreli mxareebisaTvis erovnul
umciresobaTa enebis saxelmwifoebriv da sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSi gamoyenebis uzrunvelyofisa da maTi dacvis mraval valdebulebas iTvaliswinebs.
amasTanave, obieqturobisaTvis unda iTqvas, rom saqarTvelos parlaments upirobod
ar mouxdenia CarCo konvenciis ratificireba da Tavisi dadgenilebiT mniSvnelovani
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daTqmebi daurTo saratifikacio dokuments.30 aRsaniSnavia, rom daTqmebis ZiriTadi


nawili Seexeba erovnul umciresobaTa enebis gamoyenebis sakiTxs.
`erovnul umciresobaTa dacvis Sesaxeb~ CarCo konvenciis ratificirebis Taobaze
saqarTvelos parlamentis dadgenilebiT, saqarTvelom aiRo valdebuleba, erovnuli
umciresobebisadmi mikuTvnebuli pirebi31 administraciul organoebTan urTierTobaSi
da samarTalwarmoebis procesSi uzrunvelyos Tarjimnis daxmarebiT. amasTanave, saqarTvelom aiRo valdebuleba, da es metad mniSvnelovania, maqsimalurad Seuqmnas pirobebi
erovnuli umciresobebisadmi mikuTvnebul pirebs saxelmwifo enis Sesaswavlad (meore
punqtis `b~ qvepunqti). parlamentis dadgenilebaSi aRniSnulia, rom oficialur dokumentebSi erovnuli umciresobebisadmi mikuTvnebul pirTa saxelebisa da gvarebis
Cawera qarTul enaze ise, rom imavdroulad, SeZlebisdagvarad, daculi iyos maT enaze
gamoTqmis wesi, ganisazRvreba saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT (meore punqtis `g~ qvepunqti). saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT unda ganisazRvros agreTve CarCo konvenciis
me-11 muxlis pirveli punqtiT gaTvaliswinebuli is debulebebi, romlebic Seexeba
erovnuli umciresobebiT tradiciulad dasaxlebul regionebSi quCebisa da sxva topografiuli dasaxelebis qarTul da erovnul umciresobaTa enaze gamoyenebas. amasTanave, parlamentis dadgenilebaSi miTiTebulia, rom saqarTvelo ar ganixilavs erovnul umciresobaTa am uflebas rogorc saxelmwifos valdebulebas, Secvalos teritoriuli erTeulebis arsebuli dasaxelebebi (meore punqtis `d~ qvepunqti).
rac Seexeba meore saerTaSoriso samarTlebriv aqts, kerZod, evrosabWos 1992 wlis
2 oqtombris `evropul qartias regionuli an umciresobaTa enebis Sesaxeb~,32 saqarTvelos parlaments jerjerobiT misi ratificireba ar mouxdenia, Tumca amis valdebuleba saqarTvelos nakisri aqvs da darwmunebuli unda viyoT, rom am valdebulebis
Sesrulebas usaTuod moiTxoven.
Cveni azriT, rac ar unda damajereblad JRerdes evropuli qartiis debulebebi,
rom `regionuli an umciresobaTa enebis dacvam da waxalisebam ziani ar unda miayenos
oficialur enebsa da maTi Seswavlis aucileblobas~, an kidev `qveynis suverenitetisa
da teritoriuli mTlianobis dacvis principebs~, im enobrivi situaciis gaTvaliswinebiT, romelic Cvens qveyanaSia amJamad Seqmnili, zemoaRniSnuli evropuli qartiis
ratificireba da amoqmedeba ara gvgonia mizanSewonili iyos. amis safuZvels iZleva is
garemoeba, rom evropuli qartiis mixedviT, mxareebi iReben valdebulebas im teritoriebze, sadac regionuli an umciresobaTa enebi gamoiyeneba, xelmisawvdomi gaxadon am
enebze araTu skolamdeli, dawyebiTi, saSualo, teqnikuri da profesiuli, aramed sauniversiteto da sxva saxis umaRlesi ganaTleba; sasamarTloebSi nebismieri samarTalwarmoeba (sisxlis, samoqalaqo, administraciuli) erT-erTi mxaris moTxovniT unda
ganxorcieldes regionul an umciresobaTa enebze; xelisuflebis administraciulma
organoebma unda gamoiyenon regionuli an umciresobaTa enebi dokumentebis Sedgenisa da
saqmiswarmoebis CaTvliT, uzrunvelyon Tundac erTi radiosadgurisa da satelevizio
arxis Seqmna regionul an umciresobaTa enebze, dafaron im masmediis damatebiTi xarjebi, romlebic iyeneben am enebs; komerciul praqtikasTan dakavSirebiT, safinanso da
sabanko sferoSi nebadarTuli unda iyos regionuli an umciresobebis enebis gamoyeneba,
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gadaxdis orderebis (Cekebi, Tamasuqebi) an sxva finansuri dokumentebis Sedgena da


sxva.
Zneli ar unda iyos imis mixvedra, rom Tu saqarTvelos parlamenti moaxdens am saerTaSoriso samarTlebrivi aqtis ratificirebas da igi srulad amoqmeddeba, erovnuli
umciresobebiT kompaqturad dasaxlebul saqarTvelos regionebidan, sadac qarTuli
enis gamoyenebis areali isedac SezRudulia, saqarTvelos saxelmwifo ena sabolood
iqneba gamodevnili da am regionebis mosaxleoba saqarTvelos saxelmwifoebrivi da
sazogadoebrivi cxovrebisagan mowyvetili aRmoCndeba. Cven, ra Tqma unda, sruliadac
ara varT imis winaaRmdegi, rom erovnul umciresobaTa enebi saTanadod iyos daculi,
waxalisebuli da mxardaWerili saxelmwifosagan, magram ara ise, rom amas Sedegad mohyves saxelmwifo enis daknineba da qarTveli xalxis dezintegracia, daSla da dacalkeveba, saqarTveloSi mcxovreb moqalaqeTa jgufebis erTmaneTisagan gaucxoeba, rac sabolood, qveynis mTlianobas realur safrTxes Seuqmnis.
imisaTvis, rom kargad gavacnobieroT, Tu rasTan gvaqvs saqme, magaliTisaTvis SeiZleba movitanoT belgia, evropis erT-erTi ganviTarebuli da dawinaurebuli qveyana,
sadac konstituciiT33 Seqmnilia oTxi enobrivi regioni: frangulenovani regioni,
niderlandurenovani regioni, dedaqalaq briuselis orenovani regioni da germanulenovani regioni, romelTa sazRvrebis Secvla an dazusteba SeiZleba mxolod parlamentis TiToeul palataSi arsebuli yoveli enobrivi jgufis xmaTa Tanabrobis dacviT
miRebuli kanoniT (me-4 muxli). SeiZleba iTqvas, rom msoflios arc erTi qveynis konstituciaSi ar eniWeba enobriv principebs iseTi mniSvneloba saxelmwifo xelisuflebis
organoTa formirebasa da saxelmwifoebriv-teritoriul mowyobaSi, rogorc es belgiaSia. enebis gamoyenebisa da maT warmomadgenelTa proporciulobis gaTvaliswinebiT
yalibdeba belgiis parlamenti, mTavroba, erTiani marTlmsajulebis sabWo da sxva organoebi, rom aRaraferi vTqvaT ganaTlebis sistemaze. amasTan, belgiam gasuli saukunis
meore naxevarSi, qveynis erTianobis SenarCunebis mizniT mniSvnelovani nabijebi gadadga
decentralizaciisaken. flamandurma, frangulma da germanulma gaerTianebebma oficialuri avtonomiis statusi miiRes da qveyana TandaTanobiT unitarizmidan federalur mowyobaze gadavida.34 miuxedavad yovelive amisa, belgiis samefom enobrivi regionebis dapirispirebisa da qveynis erTianobis SenarCunebis problemebi mainc ver daZlia. rogorc iuridiul literaturaSi aRniSnaven, erT-erTi partiis lideris, Jiul
destres mimarTvas belgiis mefe albert I-sadmi 1912 wels, rom `belgiaSi arian valonebi
da flamandelebi, magram ara belgielebi~, dRemde ar daukargavs Tavisi aqtualuroba.35
samwuxarod, saqarTveloSi regionuli enebis dakanonebis Tu enobrivi regionebis
Seqmnis ideas dResac gamouCndnen momxreebi. mimdinare wels masobrivi informaciis saSualebebiT gavrcelda cnoba, rom samegreloSi arasamaTavrobo organizaciam _ ganaTlebis centrma `kolxidam~ megrul enaze gamosca gazeTi `Surobumu~ (uTqmeli). sagazeTo interviuSi misi damfuZnebeli dabejiTebiT moiTxovs megruli da svanuri enebisaTvis regionuli enebis statusis miniWebas. misi azriT, `megrelebi arian kolxebi da
ara gurjebi~. saqarTvelo ki, unda gadakeTdes federaciad, sadac yvela regioni Tanasworuflebiani iqneba. am gazeTSi megrul enaze gamoqveynebulia fragmentebi ioanes
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saxarebidan (`saxareba ioaneSi~) da vefxistyaosnidan (`yiloStyebami~).36 XIX saukunis


ruseTis imperiis antiqarTuli politikis gamoZaxili, rogorc vxedavT, XXI saukuneSic
gaismis. amasTan dakavSirebiT, sworad SeniSnavs profesori soso sigua: `es imTaviTve
qarTuli cnobierebis daSlisken mimarTuli movlena iyo. ruseTs xels aZlevda svanuri,
megruli da qarTuli enebis dacalkeveba, raTa advilad gaenadgurebina qarTuli
saxelmwifoebrioba.~37
Tanamedrove periodSi am safrTxeze sagangebod miuTiTebs sruliad saqarTvelos
kaTolikos-patriarqi ilia I I 2010 wlis saSobao epistoleSi. kaTolikos-patriarqi
qarTul enas qarTveli eris rwmenis, erTobis da mTlianobis saZirkvelsa da mtkice
fuZes uwodebs da aRniSnavs: `dResac, rodesac Cvens winaSea umniSvnelovanesi amocana
teritoriuli mTlianobis aRdgenisa, TandaTan izrdeba meore, aranaklebi safrTxe
enobrivi daSlisa; arian iseTi Zalebi, romelnic naklebad moazrovne adamianebs ubiZgeben, rom iTargmnos biblia an sxva wignebi megrulad, svanurad, lazurad da moamzadon
niadagi imisaTvis, rom axlo momavalSi qarTuli enis es ganStoebani ukve calke enebad
gamoacxadon.
msoflioSi vrceldeba rukebi da kvalifikaciebi, TiTqos saqarTvelo aWarlebis,
lazebis, svanebis, megrelebis, TuSebis da sxvaTa xelovnuri gaerTianebaa, TiTqos yvelas Cven-Cveni ena da kultura gvaqvs. amiT undaT Cveni eris sxvadasxva erovnul gaerTianebebad warmoCena. aqedan ki, saxelmwifos daSlamde erTi nabijia.~38
cxadia, Tu saqarTvelo am gzas daadgeba da regionul enebs oficialurad aRiarebs,
maSin regionuli enebidan enobriv regionebamde erTi nabijia, enobrivi regionebidan
politikur avtonomiebamde meore, mesame ki, ueWvelad qveynis daSla iqneba.
es safrTxe rom Tavidan aviciloT, amisaTvis aucilebelia saxelmwifos swori enobrivi politika hqondes. Cveni azriT, qarTuli saxelmwifos enobrivi politika sami
ZiriTadi mimarTulebiT unda warimarTos:
pirveli, qarTuli enis, rogorc saxelmwifo enis (afxazeTSi agreTve afxazuri enis),
srulyofili sakanonmdeblo safuZvlebis, misi dacvis samarTlebrivi da instituciuri
garantiebis Seqmna;
meore, saqarTvelos moqalaqeebis, agreTve saqarTveloSi mcxovrebi sxva pirebisaTvis qarTuli enis Sesaswavlad saTanado pirobebis Seqmna;
mesame, saqarTveloSi mcxovreb erovnul umciresobaTa enebis gamoyenebis farglebis
dadgena da maTi dacvis uzrunvelyofa.
Tu enobrivi politikis meore da mesame mimarTulebiT saqarTveloSi garkveuli
praqtika arsebobs, romelic, rasakvirvelia, saWiroebs Semdgom srulyofas, qarTuli
enis, rogorc saxelmwifo enis, sakanonmdeblo safuZvlebi jer kidev, Sesaqmnelia. saqarTvelos, rogorc es ukve iTqva, ara aqvs saxelmwifo enis kanoni. saxelmwifo enasTan
dakavSirebuli urTierTobebis momwesrigebeli samarTlis normebi amJamad sxvadasxva
dargobriv sakanonmdeblo aqtebSia gafantuli. mxedvelobaSi gvaqvs saqarTvelos moqalaqeobis, reklamis, mauwyeblobis, ganaTlebis, sajaro samsaxuris Sesaxeb kanonebi,
zogadi administraciuli kodeqsi da sxv. ra Tqma unda, sakanonmdeblo teqnikis TvalsazrisiT, es Cveulebrivi movlenaa da ama Tu im sferoSi samarTlebrivi regulirebis
24

sagnis TaviseburebebiTaa ganpirobebuli. magram, amasTanave, aucileblad migvaCnia


saxelmwifo enis Sesaxeb CarCo kanonis miReba, radganac swored am kanonSi Camoyalibebuli normebisa da principebis Sesabamisad unda ganxorcieldes sxvadasxva sferoebSi
saxelmwifo enis gamoyenebis konkretuli sakanonmdeblo regulaciebi. amisaTvis ki,
saWiroa saxelmwifo enis Sesaxeb sakanonmdeblo aqti organuli kanonis rangSi iyos
ayvanili, raTa misi iuridiuli Zala aRematebodes sxva Cveulebrivi, dargobrivi kanonebis iuridiul Zalas. es Tavidan agvacilebs saxelmwifo enis Sesaxeb organuli kanoniT dadgenili normebisa da principebis sawinaaRmdego wesebis dadgenas mimdinare
sakanonmdeblo aqtebiT da uzrunvelyofs saxelmwifo enis sakanonmdeblo regulirebis
erTianobas.
saxelmwifo enis organulma kanonma, uwinares yovlisa, unda gansazRvros saxelmwifoebrivi da sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis is sferoebi, sadac qarTuli enis gamoyeneba
savaldebulo iqneba. Cveni azriT, qarTuli enis gamoyeneba savaldebulo unda iyos:
saxelmwifo xelisuflebis, maT Soris, avtonomiuri respublikebis xelisuflebis, adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobisa da sxva sajaro dawesebulebebis saqmianobaSi, maT mier
miRebuli samarTlebrivi aqtebis oficialuri gamoqveynebisas; samxedro ZalebSi; sakonstitucio, sisxlis, samoqalaqo, administraciul samarTalwarmoebaSi; sanotaro
moqmedebaSi; referendumisa da arCevnebis Catarebisas; zogadi, profesiuli da umaRlesi ganaTlebis miRebisas; informatikaSi; kavSirgabmulobaSi; satransporto, savaWro
da sxva saxis momsaxurebaSi; teleradio mauwyeblobasa da beWdviT mediaSi; reklamebSi;
geografiuli obieqtebis, agreTve, sagzao niSnebis aRniSvnisas. saqarTvelos saxelmwifo da sxva sajaro dawesebulebebis mier Catarebuli oficialuri Sexvedrebisas;
sajaro samarTlis iuridiuli pirebis mier ganxorcielebul saregistracio saqmianobaSi; saqarTvelos iuridiuli pirebis mier dokumentebis warmoebisas; saqarTvelos
teritoriaze fizikuri da iuridiuli pirebis mier garigebebis dadebisas.
ra Tqma unda, es sruliadac ar aris qarTuli enis savaldebulo gamoyenebis sferoebis amomwuravi CamonaTvali. organuli kanoniT kidev ufro dazustdeba rogorc qarTuli enis savaldebulo gamoyenebis sferoebi, ise misi gamoyenebis konkretuli SemTxvevebi da wesebi. amasTanave, am kanoniT qarTuli enis savaldebulo gamoyenebis zogierT
sferoSi (magaliTad, ganaTlebis miRebisas) gaTvaliswinebuli iqneba saqarTveloSi
mcxovrebi erovnuli umciresobebis enebis da ucxo enebis gamoyenebis SesaZleblobebi
da pirobebi.
saxelmwifo enis organulma kanonma unda daadginos aseve, iuridiuli pasuxismgebloba saxelmwifo enis Sesaxeb kanonmdeblobis darRvevisaTvis. am samarTaldarRvevaTa
konkretuli saxeobebis da maTi Sesabamisi iuridiuli pasuxismgeblobis zomebi gaTvaliswinebuli unda iyos samarTlis sxvadasxva dargis (sisxlis, administraciuli, samoqalaqo) sakanonmdeblo aqtebiT.
saxelmwifo enis organulma kanonma unda gaiTvaliswinos saxelmwifos enobrivi
politikis ganxorcielebis, agreTve, saxelmwifo enis Sesaxeb kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa aRsrulebisa da saxelmwifo enis dacvis uzrunvelyofis instituciuri garantiebi.
SeiZleba iTqvas, rom am mxriv amJamad arsebuli mdgomareoba aradamakmayofilebelia.
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Cveni azriT, ar iyo marTebuli 2004 wels saqarTvelos enis saxelmwifo palatis
gauqmeba, romelic 1997 wels Seiqmna, damoukideblobiT sargeblobda, angariSvaldebuli iyo mxolod saqarTvelos prezidentis winaSe da amasTanave, realuri makontrolebeli funqciebiT iyo aRWurvili saxelmwifo enis funqcionirebisa da qarTuli saliteraturo enis normaTa dacvis, saxelmwifo enobrivi politikis ganxorcielebisa
da moqalaqeTa enobrivi uflebebis dacvis sferoSi. sadReisod saxelmwifo enobrivi
politikis ganxorcieleba, saxelmwifo enis swavlebisa da ganviTarebis xelis Sewyoba,
agreTve Tvalyuris devneba mis swor gamoyenebaze saqarTvelos ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis saministros aqvs mikuTvnebuli. saministros struqturaSi am amocanebis Sesruleba, sxva sakiTxebTan erTad, davalebuli aqvs or qvedanayofs: samarTlebrivi uzrunvelyofis departamentsa da zogadi da profesiuli ganaTlebis ganviTarebis
departaments.39
vfiqrobT, mxolod Tvalyuris devneba saxelmwifo enis swor gamoyenebaze saqmes
ver uSvelis. Tvalyuris devnebas Tu ar axlavs danaxulsa da gagonilze mkacri reagireba, saxelmwifo enis upativcemulobisa da araswori gamoyenebis SemTxvevebi kvlavac
mravlad iqneba. am saqmis Sesruleba mizanSewonilia daekisros saTanado damoukideblobisa da uflebamosilebis mqone specialur organos, romelic kanoniT iqneba aRWurvili am sferoSi kontrolisa da zedamxedvelobis funqciebiT. Cveni azriT, `sajaro
samarTlis iuridiuli piris Sesaxeb~ saqarTvelos kanoni aseTi dawesebulebis Seqmnis
SesaZleblobas iZleva.
qarTuli enis, rogorc saxelmwifo enis dacva gulisxmobs ara mxolod mis uflebriv
dacvas, aramed, rac ase aucilebelia Tanamedrove periodSi, misi siwmindis dacvasac.
am mizniT, saxelmwifo enis organulma kanonma unda gansazRvros qarTuli saliteraturo enis normebis damdgeni samTavrobo organo (komisia), misi samarTlebrivi statusi
da qarTuli saliteraturo enis normebis dacvis savaldebulooba.
yovelive zemoaRniSnulidan gasagebia, Tu ra ganuzomeli mniSvneloba aqvs qarTul
enas qarTuli saxelmwifoebriobisaTvis da rom misi dacva, mofrTxileba da masze zrunva uaRresad saSuri saqmea, miT umetes dRes, rodesac kacobriobas e.w. globalizaciis
epoqa daudga. Tu adre, imperiebis SemadgenlobaSi saqarTvelos yofnisas qarTul enas
safrTxes uqmnida imperiuli enis, rogorc oficialuri enis da imperiaSi Semavali
erebis saurTierTobo saSualebis privilegirebuli mdgomareoba, axla, globalizaciis
epoqaSi, igive safrTxe arsebobs ucxo enebiT qarTuli enis Canacvlebis zRvardaudebeli da ukontrolo praqtikis gamo. Tu es praqtika saswrafod ar ailagma, uaxloes
momavalSi qarTuli enis adgils aucileblad daikavebs ucxo ena. es ar aris gadaWarbebuli Sefaseba. safrTxe realuria, radganac saqarTvelos saxelmwifo enis kanoni ar
gaaCnia da amdenad, am procesis winaaRmdegobis gamwevi kanonismieri saSualebebic ar
arsebobs.
qarTuli enis patroni mxolod qarTuli saxelmwifoa. qarTul enas ara aqvs qveynis
gareT xalxTa Soris sakomunikacio mniSvneloba. amitom, Tu qarTuli ena Tavad qarTuli
saxelmwifos mzrunvelobis gareSe darCa, maSin darwmunebuli unda viyoT, rom masze
sxva aravin izrunebs.
26

qarTuli enis saxelmwifoebrivi statusis mxolod konstituciiT deklarireba ar


aris sakmarisi. saWiroa saxelmwifo enis Sesaxeb specialuri kanonis miReba da efeqtiani
saxelmwifo enobrivi politikis gatareba am kanonis moTxovnaTa aRsrulebisaTvis.
winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi, saqarTvelo SesaZlebelia irlandiis mdgomareobaSi aRmoCndes,
sadac irlandiur enaze, romelic konstituciiT aRiarebulia erovnul enad da pirvel
oficialur enad, laparakobs mosaxleobis mesamedze naklebi, xolo inglisur enaze,
romelic konstituciiT meore oficialuri enaa, laparakobs mosaxleobis naxevarze
meti.40
rogorc vxedavT, qarTuli ena, uwinares yovlisa, saxelmwifoebriv mxardaWeras saWiroebs. swored saxelmwifom unda Seqmnas iseTi pirobebi, rodesac qarTuli ena srulad iqneba damkvidrebuli saxelmwifoebriv da sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSi qveynis mTel
teritoriaze.

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SeniSvnebi:
1

7
8

10
11

12
13
14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21
22
23

24

qarTlis cxovreba, mT. red. roin metreveli, `meridiani~, `artanuji~,


Tbilisi, 2008, gv. 46.
giorgi merCule, grigol xanZTelis cxovreba, qarTuli proza, wigni I,
Tbilisi, 1982, gv. 279-280.
ix.:qarTuli ena, enciklopedia, `erovnuli mwerloba~, Tbilisi, 2008,
gv. 180.
ix.: omar gogiaSvili, ilia dRes, ideologia, politika, Tbilisi, 2008,
gv. 408.
ix.:mixeil gafrindaSvili, qarTuli sazogadoebrivi azrovnebis istoria uZvelesi droidan meoce saukunemde, `mecniereba~, Tbilisi, 2004,
gv. 499-507; mamia faRava, ilia WavWavaZe da qarTuli saliteraturo
enis problemebi, krebuli: `ilia WavWavaZe 170~, gamomcemloba `baTumis universiteti~, 2007, gv. 26-54.
ilia WavWavaZe, b-n ianovskis werilisa gamo, rCeuli nawarmoebebi 5
tomad, Tbilisi, 1987, tomi me-4, gv. 197.
qarTuli ena, enciklopedia, gv. 495.
sagulisxmoa, rom i. gogebaSvilis `deda enis~ I nawili 45-jer gamoica
milionsamasiaTasiani tiraJiT, xolo me-2 nawili 36-jer, 670 aTasi
calis odenobiT (ix.: qarTuli ena, enciklopedia, gv. 139; mamia CorgolaSvili, mTawminda, gamomcemloba `xelovneba~, Tbilisi, 1991, gv. 80).
vaJa SubiTiZe, yvela drois asi udidesi qarTveli, Tbilisi, 2008, gv.
313.
mamia faRava, miT. naSromi, gv. 54.
ix.: aleqsandre bendianiSvili, saqarTvelos pirveli respublika (19181921w.w.), Tbilisi, 2001, gv. 257.
aleqsandre bendianiSvili, miT. naSromi, gv. 258.
iqve, gv. 258-259.
saqarTvelos demokratiuli respublikis samarTlebrivi aqtebis krebuli, 1918-1921, `iverTa mxare~, Tbilisi, 1990, gv. 80-81.
1918 wlis 8 oqtombridan erovnul sabWos saqarTvelos parlamenti
ewoda.
saqarTvelos demokratiuli respublikis samarTlebrivi aqtebis krebuli, gv. 83.
saqarTvelos demokratiuli respublikis samarTlebrivi aqtebis krebuli, gv. 206.
saqarTvelos demokratiuli respublikis samarTlebrivi aqtebis
krebuli, gv. 458-484.
ix.: rona k. m. smiti, adamianis saerTaSoriso uflebebi, saxelmZRvanelo, meore gamocema. oqsfordis universitetis gamomcemloba, mTargmneli m. kobiaSvili, `sezani~, Tbilisi, 2005, gv. 446-463.
saqarTvelos ssr konstituciuri aqtebis krebuli (1921-1978), Semdgeneli prof. gr. eremovi, Tbilisis universitetis gamomcemloba,
Tbilisi, 1983, gv. 131-160.
saqarTvelos ssr konstituciuri aqtebis krebuli (1921-1978), gv. 192.
saqarTvelos ssr konstituciuri aqtebis krebuli (1921-1978), gv. 268.
1983 wels uprecedento ram moxda, TbilisSi aRimarTa dedaenis, anu
qarTuli enis Zegli.
ix.: gazeTi `komunisti~, 1990 wlis 8 maisi.

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26
27
28

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30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37
38

39
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1990 wlisaTvis erovnul umciresobaTa raodenoba saqarTvelos mosaxleobis TiTqmis erT mesameds Seadgenda (ix.: saqarTvelos mosaxleoba, statistikuri krebuli, Tbilisi, 2003, gv. 68).
saqarTvelos parlamentis uwyebebi, #5 (622), 1993, marti, mux. 66.
ix.: qarTuli sabWoTa enciklopedia, Tbilisi, 1985, t. 9, gv. 245.
ix.: saqarTvelos parlamentSi 2002 wlis 7-10 maiss `saxelmwifo enis
Sesaxeb~ kanonproeqtis ganxilvis masalebi.
CarCo konvencia erovnul umciresobaTa dacvis Sesaxeb, strasburgi,
1995, 1 Tebervali, ix.: adamianis uflebaTa sferoSi ZiriTadi saerTaSoriso samarTlebrivi aqtebis krebuli, saxalxo damcvelis biblioTeka, meore nawili, Tbilisi, 2008, gv. 207-220.
ix.: saqarTvelos sakanonmdeblo macne, nawili mesame, 2005, 27 oqtomberi, #125, mux. 1401.
saqarTvelos parlamentis zemoaRniSnuli dadgenilebiT gansazRvrulia, pirTa romeli jgufi SeiZleba CaiTvalos erovnul umciresobad. dadgenilebis mixedviT, pirTa jgufi erovnuli umciresobis
statusiT SeiZleba sargeblobdes, Tu: misi wevrebi arian saqarTvelos moqalaqeebi; isini mosaxleobis udidesi nawilisagan gansxvavdebian sakuTari enobrivi, kulturuli da eTnikuri identurobiT;
xangrZlivi drois ganmavlobaSi cxovroben saqarTvelos teritoriaze da kompaqturad arian dasaxlebulebi (meore punqtis `a~ qvepunqti).
ix.: adamianis uflebaTa sferoSi ZiriTadi saerTaSoriso samarTlebrivi aqtebis krebuli, saxalxo damcvelis biblioTeka, Tbilisi, 2008,
gv. 221-244.
sazRvargareTis qveynebis konstituciebi, red. v. gonaSvili, nawili
IV, Tbilisi, 2007, gv. 106-161.
sazRvargareTis qveynebis konstituciebi, red. v. gonaSvili, nawili
IV, gv. 90.
, . . . , "-", ., 1997, . 103.
`kviris palitra~, yovelkvireuli gazeTi, #44 (848), 1-7 noemberi
2010, gv. 5.
iqve.
`yvela siaxle~, sazogadoebriv-politikuri gazeTi (#193), 7-13 ianvari, 2010, gv. 11.
ix.: saqarTvelos sakanonmdeblo macne, 2004, #54, nawili I I I , muxli 460.
sazRvargareTis qveynebis konstituciebi, red. v. gonaSvili, nawili
V, gv. 254.

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STATE LANGUAGE
OF GEORGIA

JOHN KHETSURIANI
Judge of the Constitutional Court of Georgia,
Doctor of Law, Professor, Member of the National Science Academy of Georgia

Georgia language is an ancient language having its own, unique alphabet.


The historians believe that the King Parnavaz (III c. BC) was the one to popularize the Georgian language and literacy in Georgia. Since IV century AD, when
the Christianity was declared as the state religion of Georgia, the Georgian language has become the service language of the Georgian Orthodox Church.
Notwithstanding of the Russification politics of the Russian Empire and the
Soviet Authorities, the Georgian people managed to preserve and develop the
national language. During the times of the first republic of Georgia (1918-1921)
the Georgian language was legally assigned the status of State Language for the
first time with the means of the special law (in 1918), as well as the Constitution
of Georgia (in 1921). Throughout the Soviet times, the Georgian Language was
recognized as the state language by all four constitutions of Georgia. According
to the acting Constitution of Georgia (since 1995) The state language of Georgia shall be Georgian, and in Abkhazia also Abkhazian (Article 8).
To our opinion, declaring the status of the Georgian as the State language only by the Constitution of Georgia is not enough. The globalization
process poses the Georgian language increased threat to be replaced with
some foreign languages. This threat is real, since the State does not have the
law on language and therefore legal means of fighting against this threat is
unavailable. Therefore, organic law on the state language shall be developed
and adopted. The law would define the rules for mandatory usage of State
language in various fields of state and social life, determine the legal liability
for violating the law on state language, provide for the institutional guarantees for the protection of state language and ensure the implementation of
the state language policy in general.
30

damoukidebeli
sasarCelo moTxovnis
gareSe mesame piri
samoqalaqo
samarTalwarmoebaSi

irma peraniZe
quTaisis saapelacio sasamarTlos mosamarTle

saqarTvelos samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsi aris kodificirebuli normatiuli aqti, romelic detalurad gansazRvravs samarTalwarmoebis zogad principebs, sasamarTlos uwyebriv qvemdebareobas da gansjadobas, procesis
monawile mxareebs, maT uflebaunarianobasa da qmedunarianobas, saqmeTa warmoebas yvela instanciis sasamarTloSi, sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebaTa gasaCivrebas da a.S.
sasamarTloSi samoqalaqo davis ganxilvaSi monawile
TiToeul pirs Tavisi saproceso statusi da Sesabamisi ufleba-movaleobebi aqvs. ZiriTad mxareebs mosarCele da mopasuxe warmoadgenen, Tumca erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi
subieqtia mesame piri.
samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsi ganasxvavebs mesame pirebs
damoukidebeli sasarCelo moTxovniTa da damoukidebeli
sasarCelo moTxovnis gareSe.
saqarTvelos samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis 89-e muxlis pirvel nawilSi mocemulia damoukidebeli sasarCelo
moTxovnis gareSe mesame piris definicia.
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miTiTebuli normis Tanaxmad, damoukidebeli sasarCelo moTxovnis gareSe mesame


piri aris saproceso subieqti, romelic, marTalia, uSualod ar aris sadavo samarTalurTierTobis monawile, ar acxadebs damoukidebel moTxovnas davis saganze an mis
nawilze, magram mimdinare sasamarTlo davis samarTlebrivi Sedegebi samomavlod SeiZleba uSualod Seexos mis kanonier ufleba-movaleobebsa da interesebs. igi SesaZloa
momdevno davaSi iyos mopasuxe.
ganvixiloT ramdenime SemTxveva:
1. samoqalaqo kodeqsis 301-e muxlis 1-li nawilis Sesabamisad, Tu movale ar daakmayofilebs moTxovnas, romlis uzrunvelyofis saSualebac aris ipoTeka, ipoTekari
uflebamosilia moiTxovos uZravi nivTis realizacia, Tu ipoTekis xelSekrulebiT
sxva ram ar aris gaTvaliswinebuli.
iseT SemTxvevaSi, rodesac ipoTekis sagnis mesakuTre da piradi movale erTi da
igive piri ar aris, ipoTekiT uzrunvelyofili sesxis dabrunebis Taobaze mimdinare
davaSi SesaZlebelia damoukidebeli moTxovnis gareSe mesame pirad Cabmuli iqnes
ipoTekis sagnis mesakuTre, vinaidan, Tuki dakmayofildeba kreditoris sasarCelo
moTxovna da Tanxis gadaxda daekisreba movales, samoqalaqo kodeqsis 301-e muxlis
1-li nawilis safuZvelze samomavlo davaSi savaraudo mopasuxe iqneba ipoTekis
sagnis mesakuTre.
2. samoqalaqo kodeqsis 199-e muxlis Sesabamisad, moTxovnis mflobels (kreditors)
SeuZlia movalis Tanxmobis gareSe moTxovna dauTmos mesame pirs... aseT SemTxvevaSi
Tavdapirveli mflobelis adgils ikavebs mesame piri.
Tuki sasamarTlo warmoebaSi iqneba axali kreditoris (visac dauTmes moTxovna) dava
movalis mimarT, saqmeSi damoukidebeli moTxovnis gareSe mesame pirad SeiZleba Cabmuli iqnes Tavdapirveli kreditori, romelmac sk is 199-e muxlis Sesabamisad, gadasca moTxovnis ufleba axal kreditors, vinaidan, saqmeSi monawileobiT SesaZloa
igi daexmaros mosarCeles, daicvas misi moTxovna mopasuxis mimarT.
garda amisa, mocemuli davis dasrulebis Semdeg, SesaZloa axal kreditors gauCndes
regresis wesiT moTxovnis ufleba Zveli kreditoris mimarT.
3. samoqalaqo kodeqsis Sesabamisad, mometebuli safrTxis wyarodan gamomdinare, zianis anazRaurebis sarCelebSi materialuri samarTalurTierToba arsebobs mosarCeles (dazaralebuli) da mometebuli safrTxis wyaros mflobels Soris da ara mosarCelesa da zianis uSualo mimyenebels Soris. uSualod zianis mimyenebeli SeiZleba saqmeSi monawileobdes damoukidebeli moTxovnis gareSe, mesame pirad.
amdenad, ganxilul magaliTebze dayrdnobiT dasturdeba, rom damoukidebeli moTxovnis gareSe, mesame piri aris fizikuri an iuridiuli piri, romelsac aqvs safuZvliani samarTlebrivi interesi mimdinare samarTalwarmoebis mimarT. procesSi maTi monawileoba ganpirobebulia materialursamarTlebrivi urTierTobidan. saqmeSi CarTuli damoukidebeli moTxovnis gareSe, mesame piri cdilobs daexmaros im pirs, romlis
mxaresac igi monawileobs procesSi, raTa daicvas Tavisi piradi interesebi. igi ebmeba
Tavdapirvel mxareTa Soris ukve dawyebul da mimdinare procesSi. misi mizani procesSi
monawileobisas aris piradi interesebis dacva, radgan ZiriTad davaze sasamarTlo
32

gadawyvetilebam SeiZleba gavlena moaxdinos mis uflebebsa da movaleobebze erT-erTi


mxaris mimarT.
Tu SevadarebT Tanamonawilisa da mopasuxis mxareze Cabmul damoukidebeli moTxovnis gareSe mesame pirs, maTi interesebi erTmaneTisagan gansxvavdeba: Tanamopasuxe yovelTvis aris mosarCelis mowinaaRmdege mxare da mis winaSe gaaCnia, mTlianad an nawilobriv, uSualo, pirdapiri pasuxismgebloba, xolo mopasuxis mxareze damoukidebeli
moTxovnis gareSe, mesame piri imyofeba materialursamarTlebriv damokidebulebaSi
mxolod mopasuxesTan da pirdapiri pasuxismgebloba mosarCelis mimarT ar gaaCnia.
aseT mesame pirs pasuxismgebloba SeiZleba daekisros mopasuxis mier regresuli wesiT
wardgenil damoukidebel procesSi.
unda aRiniSnos, rom umTavres SemTxvevaSi, tipiuri safuZveli ukve dawyebul saqmeSi
damoukidebeli moTxovnis gareSe, mesame piris CarTvisa aris ZiriTad davaze sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebis gamotanis Semdeg erT-erTi modave mxaris regresuli sarCelis
wardgenis SesaZlebloba mesame piris mimarT.
mniSvnelovania im sakiTxis garkveva, SesaZlebelia Tu ara erTad iqnes ganxiluli
ZiriTadi da regresuli sarCelebi.
sasamarTlo praqtikis analiziT dgindeba, rom ufro xSirad isini ganixileba
damoukideblad, Tumca, saproceso kanonmdebloba ar gamoricxavs maTi erTad ganxilvis
SesaZleblobas.
samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis 182-e muxlis me-4 nawilis Sesabamisad, Tu sasamarTlos warmoebaSia ramdenime erTgvarovani da samarTlebrivad erTmaneTTan dakavSirebuli saqme, romlebSic erTi da igive an sxvadasxva mxare monawileobs, sasamarTlos
SeuZlia Tavisi iniciativiT an mxaris SuamdgomlobiT gaaerTianos es saqmeebi erT warmoebad, erTad ganxilvisaTvis, Tu aseT gaerTianebas Sedegad mohyveba davis swrafad
da sworad ganxilva.
miTiTebuli normis Tanaxmad, dasaSvebia erTad iqnes ganxiluli damoukidebeli moTxovnis gareSe mesame piris monawileobiT ZiriTadi da regresuli sarCelebi, rac gamoiwvevs sasamarTlo droisa da resursis ekonomias.
damoukidebeli moTxovnis gareSe, mesame piris saqmeSi daSvebis sakiTxi regulirdeba
samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis 89-90-e muxlebiT.
sssk-is 89-e muxlis Sesabamisad, `yovel dainteresebul pirs, romelic ar acxadebs
damoukidebel moTxovnas davis saganze, an mis nawilze, SeuZlia mimarTos sasamarTlos
gancxadebiT, raTa dauSvas igi mesame pirad mosarCelis an mopasuxis mxareze, radgan
sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebas am saqmeze SeuZlia SemdgomSi gavlena moaxdinos mis uflebebsa da movaleobebze erT-erTi mxaris mimarT. damoukidebeli moTxovnis gareSe,
mesame pirad daSvebis sakiTxs mxareTa mosazrebebis gaTvaliswinebiT, wyvets sasamarTlo~.
sssk-is 90-e muxlis Sesabamisad, mesame piri damoukidebeli sasarCelo moTxovnis
gareSe SeiZleba saqmeSi Cabmuli iqnes erT-erTi mxaris iniciativiT, risTvisac igi
mimarTavs sasamarTlos motivirebuli gancxadebiT. aseTi gancxadeba sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebis gamotanamde SeiZleba gakeTdes rogorc werilobiTi, ise zepiri formiT.
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zepiri formis gancxadeba Seitaneba sasamarTlo sxdomis oqmSi. mxareTa mosazrebebis


gaTvaliswinebiT, sasamarTlo gamoitans ganCinebas mesame piris saqmeSi monawileobisaTvis Cabmis an aseT Cabmaze uaris Tqmis Sesaxeb.
miTiTebul normaTa mixedviT, mesame piri, mosarCelisa da mopasuxisagan gansxvavebiT, erTveba ukve dawyebul sasamarTlo proceSi da iuridiuli interesi aqvs gansaxilveli davis mimarT.
samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis mixedviT damoukidebeli moTxovnis gareSe, mesame
piris Cabmis samarTlebriv safuZvels mxolod iuridiuli interesi ar warmoadgens.
igi aucilebelia, magram arsebobs maSin, rodesac sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebas SeuZlia
gavlena moaxdinos mesame piris uflebebsa da movaleobebze erT-erTi mxaris mimarT.1
mesame piri damoukidebeli sasarCelo moTxovnis gareSe, saqmeSi SeiZleba daSvebul
iqnas rogorc Tavad dainteresebuli mxaris, aseve, mosarCelis an mopasuxis SuamdgomlobiT (gancxadebiT).
praqtikuli daskvnebi am gadawyvetilebisa mdgomareobs SemdegSi: Tu mopasuxe yovelTvis mxolod pasiuri mxarea saqmeSi imdenad, ramdenadac mas iwvevs mosarCele, damoukidebeli moTxovnis gareSe mesame piris saqmeSi Cabma SeiZleba iyos Tavad am piris
piradi iniciativa, anu adreuli miswrafeba, gamoricxos SesaZlebloba mopasuxis regresuli sarCeliT misTvis gansazRvruli valdebulebis dakisrebisa.
damoukidebeli moTxovnis gareSe, mesame piris procesSi CabmisaTvis ar aris sakmarisi mxolod mxaris Suamdgomloba (gancxadeba). gancxadeba damoukidebeli moTxovnis
gareSe, mesame piris saqmeSi CarTvis Taobaze motivirebuli unda iyos. igi SeiZleba ar
daakmayofilos sasamarTlom. aRniSnulis Taobaze pirdapir ar aris miTiTebuli samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsSi, Tumca, miTiTebulia, rom saqmis momzadebis etapze sasamarTlo wyvets sakiTxs damoukidebeli moTxovnis gareSe, mesame piris saqmeSi monawileobasTan dakavSirebiT (ssk-is 201-e muxlis me-2 nawilis `z.b~ qvepunqti).
rogorc werilobiTi, aseve, zepiri Suamdgomlobis ganxilvisas, sasamarTlo valdebulia moisminos mxareTa mosazrebebi da motivirebuli ganCinebiT saqmeSi CarTos damoukidebeli moTxovnis gareSe, mesame piri an uari Tqvas mis CarTvaze. sasamarTlos ganCineba unda Seicavdes miTiTebas, Tu vis mxareze xdeba mesame piris CarTva da konkretulad raSi gamoixateba misi iuridiuli interesi, agreTve, ra gavlena SeiZleba moaxdinos sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebam mesame piris uflebebsa an/da valdebulebebze procesis monawile erT-erTi mxaris mimarT.2
aqedan gamomdinare, imisaTvis, rom sworad e.i. kanonis Sesabamisad, gadawyvitos mesame pirad daSvebis sakiTxi, sasamarTlom zustad da naTlad unda gaarkvios, ra gavlenas
moaxdens am saqmeze gamotanili gadawyvetileba im piris erT-erTi mxaris mimarT uflebebsa da movaleobebze, romlebic mesame pirad saqmeSi CarTvas moiTxovs.3
sasamarTlo praqtikaSi gvxvdeba SemTxvevebi, rodesac saqmeSi mesame pirebad damoukidebeli sasarCelo moTxovnis gareSe Cabmulni arian pirebi, romlebsac mocemul saqmeze gamotanili gadawyvetilebiT ar SeiZleba warmoeSvaT raime uflebebi da movaleobebi saqmeSi monawile romelime mxaris mimarT. magaliTad, nasyidobis xelSekrulebis
baTilad cnobis Sesaxeb sarCelebze mesame pirad Cabmul notariuss sarCelis dakmayo34

filebis, an maszed uaris Tqmis SemTxvevaSi, aranairi uflebebi da movaleobebi mxareTa


mimarT ar warmoeSoba.
Sesabamisad, SeiZleba davaskvnaT, rom amosaval wertils saqmeSi mesame pirad damoukidebeli sasarCelo moTxovnis gareSe Cabmis sakiTxis gadawyvetisas gasarkvevia, warmoeSoba Tu ara dainteresebul pirs sasamarTlos mier miRebuli gadawyvetilebiT garkveuli uflebebi da movaleobebi romelime mxaris mimarT.4
dReisaTvis, saqarTveloSi arsebuli sasamarTlo praqtikiT, nebismier SemTxvevaSi,
sasamarTlom unda daakmayofilos Suamdgomloba da Caabas saqmeSi mesame piri damoukidebeli sasarCelo moTxovnis gareSe, Tu daadgens, rom sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebas
am saqmeze SeuZlia, SemdgomSi, gavlena moaxdinos piris uflebebsa da movaleobebze
erT-erTi mxaris mimarT. aseTi mesame piri davaSi, rogorc wesi, erTveba mxolod pirveli instanciis sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebis gamotanamde, xolo saapelacio sasamarTloSi misi CarTva dasaSvebia, Tu arsebobs samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis 215-e muxlis
me-3 nawiliT gaTvaliswinebuli sapatio mizezebi aseTi Suamdgomlobis pirveli
instanciis sasamarTloSi warudgenlobisa.
aRsaniSnavia, rom damoukidebeli moTxovnis gareSe, mesame pirs, rogorc saproceso
subieqts da misi davaSi Cabmis wesebs aseve, iTvaliswinebs sazRvargareTis qveynebis
saproceso kanonmdebloba.
magaliTad, ruseTis samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis 43-e muxlisa da ruseTis arbitraJis saproceso kodeqsis 39-e muxlis mixedviT, damoukidebeli moTxovnis gareSe, mesame pirebi SeiZleba saqmeSi monawileobisaTvis Cabmuli iqnen mxolod pirveli instanciis sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebis an arbitraJis gadawyvetilebis gamotanamde, saqmeSi
monawile pirTa SuamdgomlobiT an sasamarTlos (arbitraJis) iniciativiT.
ruseTisa da saqarTvelos saproceso kanonmdeblobebiT damoukidebeli moTxovnis
gareSe, mesame pirebis saqmeSi CarTvis wesebs Soris is arsebiTi gansxvavebaa, rom saqarTvelos kanonmdebloba ar iTvaliswinebs sasamarTlos iniciativiT aseTi mesame piris
saqmeSi Cabmis procesualur SesaZleblobas. Tumca, sssk-is 201-e muxlis me-2 nawilis
`z.b~ qvepunqti uflebas aZlevs sasamarTlos winadadeba misces mxareebs droulad ganacxadon, Tu vin SeiZleba Caebas saqmeSi mesame pirad, damoukidebeli moTxovnis gareSe.5
garda amisa, ruseTis kanonmdeblobisagan gansxvavebiT, saqarTvelos kanonmdebloba
ar gamoricxavs saapelacio instanciis sasamarTloSi damoukidebeli moTxovnis gareSe,
mesame pirebis davaSi Cabmis SesaZleblobas.
davis ganxilvaSi damoukidebeli moTxovnis gareSe, mesame piris monawileoba uzrunvelyofs procesualuri amocanebis mTeli kompleqsis Sesrulebas: upirvelesad, es aris
damoukidebeli moTxovnis gareSe, mesame piris saxiT monawile subieqtis materialursamarTlebrivi interesis dacva; meore mxriv, saqmeSi mosarCeled an mopasuxed monawile
pirTa subieqturi uflebebis dacvaSi daxmareba; mesame _ saqmeze yvela garemoebis
mravalmxrivi, sruli gamokvleva da sworad dadgena; meoTxe _ sasamarTlo droisa da
resursis ekonomia.6
rogorc irkveva, mesame pirebi, damoukidebeli sasarCelo moTxovnis gareSe, davaSi
mniSvnelovan subieqts warmoadgenen. Tumca, samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis Tanaxmad,
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isini ar sargebloben mxaris yvela uflebiT, kerZod, maT ar gaaCniaT ufleba: gaadidon
an Seamciron sasarCelo moTxovnis odenoba; Secvalon sarCelis safuZveli an sagani;
cnon sarCeli; uari Tqvan sarCelze; morigdnen; aRZran Segebebuli sarCeli; saapelacio
an sakasacio wesiT gaasaCivron sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebebi; moiTxovon sasamarTlo
gadawyvetilebis iZulebiTi aRsruleba7 (ssk-is 91-e, 364-e muxlebi). Tumca, aRsaniSnavia,
rom damoukidebeli moTxovnis gareSe, mesame pirebis saproceso uflebebi, am normisgan
gansxvavebiT, ufro ganvrcobilad aris ganmartebuli sasamarTlo praqtikiT, razedac
SemdgomSi iqneba saubari.
damoukidebeli sasarCelo moTxovnis gareSe, mesame piris erT-erTi umTavresi saproceso uflebaa, samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis 414-e muxlis me-2 punqtiT gaTvaliswinebul SemTxvevaSi, waradginos kerZo saCivari iseT ganCinebebze, romlebic Seexeba
mis interesebs da romelTa gasaCivreba damoukideblad aris SesaZlebeli.
garda 414-e muxlis me-2 punqtiT gaTvaliswinebuli gasaCivrebis uflebisa, saqmis
ganxilvaSi monawileobisas damoukidebeli moTxovnis gareSe, mesame pirebi iZlevian
ganmartebebs saqmesTan dakavSirebiT, maT SeuZliaT monawileoba miiRon mowmeTa dakiTxvaSi, werilobiT da nivTier mtkicebulebaTa gamokvlevaSi, eqspertTa dakiTxvaSi,
monawileoba miiRon sasamarTlo kamaTSi da a.S.8
marTalia, saqarTvelos samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis mixedviT, damoukidebeli
moTxovnis gareSe, mesame pirs ara aqvs ufleba saapelacio Tu sakasacio wesiT gaasaCivros sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba, magram dReisaTvis arsebuli sasamarTlo praqtikiT
dadgenilia, rom calkeul SemTxvevebSi, aseTi gasaCivreba SesaZlebelia.
saqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlos 2007 wlis 28 maisis ganCinebiT samoqalaqo saqmeze #as-323-676-07 ganxiluli iqna damoukidebeli moTxovnis gareSe, mesame piris saapelacio saCivris dasaSvebobis sakiTxi.
saqmis masalebis Tanaxmad, modave mxareebs (mosarCele, mopasuxe) warmoadgendenen
pirveli rigis memkvidreebi, xolo davis sagans warmoadgenda samkvidros miRebis vadis
aRdgena da memkvidred cnoba. aRniSnul davaSi Cabmuli iqna damoukidebeli moTxovnis
gareSe, mesame piri, romelsac Cuqebis xelSekrulebis safuZvelze, gadaeca sadavo samkvidro uZravi qoneba. pirveli instanciis sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebiT sarCeli dakmayofilda da, imavdroulad, gauqmda damoukidebeli moTxovnis gareSe, mesame piris
saxelze Sedgenili Cuqebis sanotaro xelSekruleba. pirveli instanciis sasamarTlo
gadawyvetileba saapelacio wesiT gaasaCivra damoukidebeli moTxovnis gareSe, mesame
pirma. misi saapelacio saCivari dauSveblad iqna miCneuli, rac kerZo saCivris safuZvelze, sakasacio sasamarTlos msjelobis sagani gaxda.
sakasacio sasamarTlom ganmarta, rom samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis 364-e muxlis
Tanaxmad, sasamarTlos pirveli instanciiT gamotanili gadawyvetileba mxareebma da
mesame pirebma damoukidebeli sasarCelo moTxovniT SeiZleba kanoniT dadgenil vadaSi
gaasaCivron saapelacio sasamarTloSi. miTiTebuli normis analizi cxadyofs, rom
kanonmdebeli, gansazRvravs ra, saapelacio saCivris Setanaze uflebamosil pirTa wres,
aRniSnul SesaZleblobas aZlevs im pirebs, romelTa kanonier interesebsac uSualod
exeba gasaCivrebuli gadawyvetileba. amasTan, Tu sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba Seexo
36

iseTi piris uflebebs, romelic saqmeSi ar iyo Cabmuli mosarCeled, mopasuxed an Tanamonawiled, arc mesame pirad, damoukidebeli sasarCelo moTxovniT da arc uflebamonacvled, aseT pirs ufleba aqvs gaasaCivros gadawyvetileba, radgan darRveulia
mxaris kanoniT garantirebuli ufleba _ monawileoba miiRos saqmis ganxilvaSi.9
sakasacio sasamarTlom miTiTebul davaze aRniSna, pirveli instanciis sasamarTlos
gadawyvetilebiT gauqmda ra, damoukidebeli moTxovnis gareSe, mesame piris saxelze
sanotaro aqtis safuZvelze Sedgenili uZravi qonebis Cuqebis xelSekruleba, igi uflebamosili iyo saapelacio wesiT gaesaCivrebina mis mimarT gamotanili gadawyvetileba.
aRsaniSnavia, rom uzenaesi sasamarTlos ganCinebaSi asaxulia is konkretuli SemTxveva, rodesac gadawyvetilebis sarezolucio nawiliT gadawyda sakiTxi, romelic uSualod Seexo damoukidebeli moTxovnis gareSe, mesame piris uflebas.
am msjelobidan gamomdinareobs, rom damoukidebeli moTxovnis gareSe, mesame pirs
yvela SemTxvevaSi ara aqvs gadawyvetilebis gasaCivrebis ufleba. mas SeuZlia gadawyvetileba gaasaCivros mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac gadawyvetileba pirdapir da
uSualod Seexeba kanoniT dacul mis uflebebs.
mniSvnelovania im SemTxvevis ganxilva, Tu ra gavlenas axdens gadawyvetilebiT dadgenili faqtebi da samarTlebrivi urTierTobebi damoukidebeli moTxovnis gareSe, mesame piris uflebebze:
samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis 266-e muxlis Sesabamisad, gadawyvetilebis kanonier ZalaSi
Sesvlis Semdeg, mxareebs, agreTve maT uflebamonacvleebs, ar SeuZliaT... sadavo gaxadon sxva
procesSi gadawyvetilebiT dadgenili faqtebi da samarTlebrivi urTierTobani.
amave kodeqsis 106-e muxlis `b~ punqtis Tanaxmad, mxareebi Tavisufldebian mtkicebulebaTa warmodgenisagan iseTi faqtebis dasadastureblad, romlebsac Tumca emyareba maTi moTxovnebi, Tu Sesagebeli, magram damtkicebas ar saWiroeben. esenia: faqtebi,
romlebic dadgenilia erT samoqalaqo saqmeze sasamarTlos kanonier ZalaSi Sesuli gadawyvetilebiT, Tu sxva samoqalaqo saqmeebis ganxilvisas igive mxareebi monawileoben.
miTiTebul normaTa mixedviT, damoukidebeli moTxovnis gareSe mesame pirTa monawileobiT gamotanili, kanonier ZalaSi Sesuli sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebiT dadgenili
faqtebi, rogorc preiudiciuli mniSvnelobisa, vrceldeba mesame pirTa mimarTac da
regresuli sarCelebis procesSi ar SeiZleba sadavo gaxdes.
magaliTad, Tu sasamarTlos kanonier ZalaSi Sesuli gadawyvetilebiT mopasuxes mosarCelis sasargeblod daekisreba zianis anazRaureba, aseT davaSi monawile damoukidebeli moTxovnis gareSe, mesame piris mimarT ukumoTxovnis wayenebisas, anu regresuli
sarCelis ganxilvisas damoukidebeli moTxovnis gareSe, mesame pirs aRar eqneba ufleba
amtkicos, rom ukumoTxovnis wamyenebels usafuZvlod daekisra zianis anazRaureba.
mas mxolod maSin aqvs ufleba amtkicos, rom ukumoTxovnis aRmZvrel mosarCeles usafuZvlod daekisra zianis anazRaureba, Tu igi ar iyo Cabmuli procesSi (ar iyo saTanadod gafrTxilebuli procesis Sesaxeb). es niSnavs, rom faqtebis dadgenis nawilSi
gadawyvetilebis kanonieri Zala vrceldeba mesame pirze, damoukidebeli moTxovnis
gareSe, Tu igi Cabmuli iyo saqmis ganxilvaSi.10
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rogorc ukve aRiniSna, nebismier SemTxvevaSi, sasamarTlom unda daakmayofilos dasabuTebuli Suamdgomloba da Caabas saqmeSi mesame piri, damoukidebeli sasarCelo
moTxovnis gareSe, Tu daadgens, rom sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebas am saqmeze SeuZlia,
SemdgomSi, gavlena moaxdinos aseTi piris uflebebsa da movaleobebze erT-erTi mxaris
mimarT. Tumca, aseTma moqmedebam SesaZloa mesame pirs samomavlo davaSi SeuzRudos
samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsiT gaTvaliswinebuli ZiriTadi uflebebi, rac gamomdinareobs Tanasworobis, SejibrebiTobisa da dipoziciurobis principebidan.
samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis me-4 muxlis Tanaxmad, `samarTalwarmoeba mimdinareobs SejibrebiTobis safuZvelze. mxareebi sargebloben Tanabari uflebebiTa da SesaZleblobebiT, daasabuTon TavianTi moTxovnebi, uaryon an gaaqarwylon meore mxaris
mier wamoyenebuli moTxovnebi Tu mtkicebulebebi. mxareebi TviTon gansazRvraven, Tu
romeli faqtebi unda daedos safuZvlad maT moTxovnebs, an romeli mtkicebulebebiT
unda iqnes dadasturebuli es faqtebi.~
amdenad, davis warmoebisas, mopasuxes ufleba aqvs gamoTqvas mosazrebebi mosarCelis
mier warmodgenili faqtebis uarsayofad, agreTve, warudginos sasamarTlos faqtebi
da mtkicebulebebi, romlebic amarTleben mis Sesagebels, aqarwyleben mosarCelis mier
warmodgenil mtkicebulebebs, adastureben am mtkicebulebaTa siyalbes, arasarwmunoobas da a.S.
Tu sarCeli wardgenili iqneba im mopasuxis mimarT, romelic Tavdapirvel davaSi
monawileobda, rogorc damoukidebeli moTxovnis gareSe, mesame piri, aseTi mopasuxe
araTanabar mdgomareobaSi aRmoCndeba mosarCelis mimarT, radganac dadasturebulad
CaiTvleba kanonier ZalaSi Sesuli gadawyvetilebiT dadgenili is faqtobrivi garemoebebi, romelTa Sedavebisa da gasaCivrebis SesaZlebloba mxares, rogorc damoukidebeli moTxovnis gareSe, mesame pirs ar gaaCnda.
dReisaTvis moqmedi saproceso kanonmdebloba ar iTvaliswinebs mxaris, maT Soris
damoukidebeli sasarCelo moTxovnis gareSe, mesame piris, saqmidan amoricxvis SesaZleblobas da, rodesac igi saqmeSi Cabmulia mosarCelis, an mopasuxis iniciativiT, aRniSnuli iwvevs dispoziciurobisa da SejibrebiTobis principebidan gamomdinare,
uflebebSi SezRuduli piris davaSi iZulebiT monawileobas da zrdis samomavlo davaSi
misi, rogorc mopasuxis, uflebebis SezRudvis risks.
Sesabamisad, misi davaSi Cabmis sakiTxis gadawyvetisas, sasamarTlo mxolod saproceso normis sityvasityviTi ganmartebiT ar unda Semoifarglos, samomavlod sasamarTlom unda gaiTvaliswinos ramdenad iqneba daculi damoukidebeli moTxovnis gareSe,
mesame piris uflebebi, xom ar iqneba darRveuli samoqalaqo samarTalwarmoebis ZiriTadi principebi da ise gadawyvitos mosarCelis an mopasuxis Suamdgomlobis safuZvelze, damoukidebeli moTxovnis gareSe, mesame piris saqmeSi daSvebis sakiTxi.
mosarCelis an mopasuxis Suamdgomlobis safuZvelze, saqmeSi damoukidebeli moTxovnis gareSe, mesame piris daSvebis sakiTxis gadawyvetamde mizanSewonilia, sasamarTlom moisminos aseTi piris mosazreba da mxolod misi Tanxmobis SemTxvevaSi, Caabas igi
davaSi. aseTi moqmedebiT daculi iqneba ZiriTad mxareTagan gansxvavebiT uflebaSezRuduli mesame piri, raTa aicilos samomavlo davaSi sssk-is 106-e muxliT gansazRvruli saproceso Sedegebi.
38

SeniSvnebi:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

10.

T. liluaSvili, samoqalaqo saproceso samarTali Tb., 2005, gv. 135;


T. liluaSvili, samoqalaqo saproceso samarTali Tb., 2005, gv. 136;
T. liluaSvili, samoqalaqo saproceso samarTali Tb., 2005, gv.131;
T. liluaSvilisadmi miZRvnili saiubileo krebuli, Tb., 2003, gv. 267272;
T. liluaSvili, v. xrustali, saqarTvelos samoqalaqo saproceso
kodeqsis komentari, meore gamocema, Tb., 2007, gv. 173;
, , , 1968, .
86-93;
T. liluaSvili, samoqalaqo saproceso samarTali Tb., 2005, gv. 137;
, , , 1968, . 90;
saqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebani samoqalaqo,
samewarmeo da gakotrebis saqmeebze, 2005 weli, #12, gv. 50-52; am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT ix. agreTve: T. liluaSvili, apelacia samoqalaqo procesSi, Tb., 2005, gv. 31-33;
T. liluaSvili, samoqalaqo saproceso samarTali Tb., 2005, gv. 382384.

gamoyenebuli literatura:
1. saqarTvelos samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsi, Tb., 2011;
2. T. liluaSvili, v. xrustali, saqarTvelos samoqalaqo saproceso
kodeqsis komentari, meore gamocema, Tb., 2007;
3. T. liluaSvili, samoqalaqo saproceso samarTali Tb., 2005;
4. saqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebani samoqalaqo,
samewarmeo da gakotrebis saqmeebze, 2005 weli, #12;
5. , , , 1968;
6. T. liluaSvilisadmi miZRvnili saiubileo krebuli, Tb., 2003;
7. T. liluaSvili, apelacia samoqalaqo procesSi, Tb., 2005;
8. saqarTvelos konstitucia, Tb., 1995.

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THE THIRD PARTY IN CIVIL


PROCEEDINGS WITHOUT
SEPARATE CLAIM
IRMA PERANIDZE
Judge of the Kutaisi Appellate Court

The new Civil Procedure Code of Georgia, which is substantially different


from the Civil Procedure code of Georgia dated back to 1964, entered into
force in 1997, though some set of norms that comply with current social and
economic requirements are retained in a new code as well.
Substantial law is basically dispositional and enables the participants of
legal relations to freely define the contents, rights and responsibilities of
these relations.
Whereas the norms of procedure law are normally of imperative nature
and the participants of these legal relations are not authorized to change or
transform them.
In other words, participants of formal relationships are equipped only
with those rights and responsibilities prescribed by legislation or law practice.
Therefore, the quality of democracy and freedom of the legal system of
state is determined on the bases of procedure legislation.
Despite of the amount of rights a person has, they will be deemed if the
person fails to realize and protect these rights through coercion mechanisms
of the state.
Therefore, the European Court of Human Rights when dealing with the
cases involving the violation of Article 6 of the European Convention on
Human Rights, always examines whether the formal, procedure rights of the
applicant were observed and whether these rights recognized by national
legislation comply with prescribed human rights standards.
The Civil Procedure Code defines the separate issues of law proceedings in
details, but after adoption of this law, it is necessary to find out whether the procedure
norm is effective, and whether some amendments and additions are needed.
Chapter XI of the Civil Procedure Code refers to third parties. The code
differentiates between the third parties with separate claim and the third
parties without separate claim.
This article aims to analyze the acting norms related with the rightsresponsibilities of the third party without separate claim, envisaged under
the Civil Procedure Code and to provide suggestions on the protection of
rights of these persons.
40

movaleTa da
kreditorTa simravle
valdebulebaSi
simon CxaiZe
quTaisis saapalacio sasamarTlos mosamarTle

vaxtang abaSmaZe wignSi `qarTuli inteleqtualuri fenomeni~ ganixilavs kolxeTis mefis, gubazis mkvlelobasTan dakavSirebul sasamarTlo process da aRniSnavs `anonim
kolx swavlul iuristTa~ gawafulobas, ara marto qarTul,
aramed Zvel romaul samarTalSic1. es kidev erTxel mowmobs, rom saqarTvelosaTvis odiTganve ar iyo ucxo romauli samarTali da is, rasac am samarTlis recefcia daerqva, CvenSi, dasavleT evropasTan SedarebiT adre unda momxdariyo. magram, rogorc ityvian, istoriulma bedukuRmarTobam sxvagvarad warmarTa qveynis bedi. amitom, me-20
saukunis bolos, romanul-germanuli samarTlis principebze agebuli samoqalaqo kodeqsis miReba CvenTvis tradiciebisaken mibrunebaa da ara axlis Seqmna.
romaelebi samoqalaqo samarTlis Semoqmedni arian. samarTlis am dargis umniSvnelovanesi sakiTxebi pirvelad,
swored maT daaregulires. maT Soris iyo e.w. solidaruli
urTierTobebic.
solidarul urTierTobaTa arsi romSi ramdenadme gansxvavdeboda Tanamedrovesagan. uwinares yovlisa, unda aRiniSnos, rom movaleTa da kreditorTa yoveli simravle solidarulobad ar iTvleboda. valdebulebebs in solidum
(srulad) hqonda Tavisi moqmedebis sfero da iyofoda ara
marto aqtiur da pasiur, aramed ufro viwro kuTxiT: uSualo da korealur solidarulobad (Tumca, mogvianebiT,
am meore datvirTvam Tavisi mniSvneloba dakarga). amasTan,
Tuki pirvel dayofas gaaCnda hqonda materialursamarTlebrivi Sinaarsi, meore ufro procesTan iyo dakavSirebuli da, rogorc Cans, Tavdapirvelad specifikur mniSvnelobas atarebda.
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romSi solidaruloba SeeZlo gaeTvaliswinebina kanons an xelSekrulebas. im SemTxvevaSi, roca es ase ar xdeboda, dgeboda pirTa wilobrivi valdebuleba, amasTan, Cveulebriv, Tu sxva ram ar iyo daTqmuli, igulisxmeboda Tanabari wili. Tumca, savaldebulo ar iyo pirdapir miTiTebuliyo in solidum, amisaTvis sakmarisi iqneboda movaleTa
urTierTTavdeboba. aseTive TaviseburebiT xasiaTdeboda deliqturi pasuxismgeblobac. zogierTi maTganis dadgoma iwvevda pirTa movaleobas gadaexadaT jarima sruli
moculobiT da es ar gaaTavisuflebda sxva movaleebs imave valdebulebis Sesrulebisagan. ase, rom kreditors SeeZlo mieRo anazRaureba imdenjer, ramdeni movalec hyavda.2
amaT garda, arsebobda valdebulebebi in solidum, romelSic igulisxmeboda:
a) kreditorTa simravle (aqtiuri solidaruloba), rodesac movales SeeZlo valdebuleba Seesrulebina nebismieri kreditoris winaSe da piriqiT: nebismier kreditors
ufleba hqonda moeTxova valdebulebis Sesruleba sruli moculobiT da es gaaTavisuflebda movales valdebulebisagan sxva kreditorebis mimarT, magram ar xsnida uflebas Tavad kreditorebs moeTxovaT valdebulebis Sesruleba, oRond amjerad yofili
Tanakreditoris mier, rasakvirvelia, misi wilis gamoklebiT.
b) movaleTa simravle (pasiuri solidaruloba), rodesac kreditors SeeZlo mTeli
valdebulebis Sesruleba mieRo nebismieri movalisagan (e.i. erT valdebulebaze
arsebobda ramdenime movale) da valdebulebis Sesruleba, am SemTxvevaSi, wyvetda valdebulebis moqmedebas yvela sxva movalis mimarT. aqac valdebuleba amsrulebel movaleze gadavidoda e.i. mas warmoeSoboda pasiuri solidaruloba yofil TanamovaleTa
mimarT.
raRa Tqma unda, SeiZleboda arsebuliyo erTdroulad pasiuri da aqtiuri solidaruloba, es im SemTxvevaSi, Tu erT valdebulebaze erTdroulad ramdenime movale da
kreditori gamovidoda.
rogorc aRvniSneT, klasikuri periodis samarTali solidarulobas sxva kuTxiTac
ganasxvavebda: maT Soris, sakuTriv solidaruloba, warmoiSoboda im SemTxvevaSi, Tu
valdebuleba pirebs ekisrebodaT maTi nebisagan damoukideblad, anu kanonis ZaliT, rac
gulisxmobda, rom valdebulebis Sesruleba erT-erTi movalis mier aTavisuflebda sxva
movaleebs am valdebulebisagan, xolo meore _ korealuri, im SemTxvevaSi, Tu solidaruloba warmoiSoboda valdebulebis monawile mxareTa nebiT, igive Sedegi dadgeboda,
roca kreditori miiyvanda sarCels erT-erTi movalis mimarT litiskontestaciamde,
Tundac sarCeli ar dakmayofilebuliyo. mogvianebiT, iustinianes kodifikaciisas, am
or saxes Soris gansxvaveba ukve aRar arsebobda da litiskontestacia aRar iTvleboda
valdebulebis moqmedebis Semwyvet pirobad.3
arsebobda Tu ara qarTul samarTalSi valdebulebebi in solidum, rTuli saTqmelia.
rogorc ivane javaxiSvili araerTxel aRniSnavs, wyaroTa simcire aZnelebs qarTuli
samarTlis kvlevas.4 gansakuTrebiT es SeiZleba qarTuli samoqalaqo samarTlis Sesaxeb
iTqvas, magram msgavsi urTierTobebis arseboba (da, rom arsebobda xelSekruleba davuSvaT sesxisa, sadac ramdenime piri monawileobda, udavod dadasturebulia faqtebiTa
da dokumentebiT), agreTve qarTuli da romauli (SemdgomSi _ bizantiuri) samarTlis
mWidro kavSiri gvafiqrebinebs, rom solidarul valdebulebaTa sistema CvenSiac
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mowesrigebuli unda yofiliyo. yovel SemTxvevaSi, erT-erTi piroba solidarulobisa,


Tavdeboba valdebulebebSi, namdvilad arsebobda, rac SesaniSnavad aqvs gamokvleuli
ivane javaxiSvils da, agreTve, mas exeba (marTalia, sxva kuTxiT) ilia WavWavaZec aRniSnavs Tavis cnobil narkvevTa ciklSi `cxovreba da kanoni~, sadac igi pirdapir miuTiTebs, rom valdebulebebze Tavdebobas qarTveli glexebi solidaruli valdebulebis
warmomSobad Tvlidnen (rasakvirvelia, am termins igi ar xmarobs, magram Sinaarsobrivad
zustad es igulisxmeba) da gaurbodnen.5 yvelaferi es gvafiqrebinebs, rom saWiroa am
sagnis ufro saguldagulo kvleva da, saerTod, mTeli qarTuli samarTlis, rac Cveni
Tanamedrove samoqalaqo kanonmdeblobis srulyofas udavod Seuwyobs xels.
vidre, saqarTveloSi moqmed solidarul urTierTobebze gadavidodeT, oriode sityviT unda mimovixiloT dasavleTis qveynebSi arsebuli solidarul urTierTobaTa
sistema. am mxriv, yvelaze samagaliTod SeiZleba franguli sistema miviCnioT, radgan
Tu romaelebma saerTod samoqalaqo samarTali Seqmnes, frangebi arian Tanamedrove
samoqalaqo samarTlis Semoqmedni.
solidarul urTierTobaTa franguli koncefcia, ZiriTadad, emyareba imave principebs, rasac Zveli romauli. aqac ganasxvaveben erTmaneTisagan aqtiursa da pasiur
solidarulobas da agreTve, sakuTriv solidarulobasa da valdebulebebs in solidum,
Tumca, am ukanasknels gansxvavebuli datvirTva aqvs. aqtiuri solidaruloba warmoiSoba valdebulebebSi kreditorTa simravlis dros. kreditorTa simravle gamoixateba
imaSi, rom nebismieri kreditorTagan aris mTeli valdebulebis kreditori da aqvs
valdebulebis mTlianad Sesrulebis moTxovnis ufleba, xolo Tu movale srulad Seusrulebs valdebulebas kreditorTagan erT-erTs, igi mTlianad Tavisufldeba movaleobisagan.6 aqtiuri solidarulobis principebia:
1. yvela kreditors calk-calke aqvs valdebulebis Sesrulebis moTxovnis ufleba;
2. erT-erTi kreditoris mier valdebulebis Sesrulebis vadis darRvevis aRniSvna an
moqmedeba, romelic wyvets sasarCelo xandazmulobas ericxeba yvela kreditors;
3. movale uflebamosilia, Seusrulos sruli valdebuleba nebismier kreditors da amiT
gaTavisufldes. amas igi akeTebs sakuTari arCevaniT, Tu ra Tqma unda, romelimes
mier ar aris aRZruli sarCeli;
4. kreditorTagan is, romelic miiRebs mTeli valdebulebis Sesrulebas, movalea, Tu
valdebuleba gayofadia, danarCenebs misces is wili, rac maT ekuTvniT.
pasiuri solidaruloba dgeba maSin, roca erT valdebulebaze ramdenime movalea
(aqac romauli samarTlis principi moqmedebs). valdebulebis Sesrulebis moTxovnis
ufleba saerTo kreditors aqvs nebismieri movalisagan. es uflebamosileba wydeba maSin, rodesac erT-erTi movale gardaicvleba. STamomavlobaze gadadis mxolod wili
da ara solidaruli pasuxismgebloba sxva movaleTa msgavsad (Tu xelSekrulebiT sxva ram
ar aris daTqmuli). pasiuri solidaruloba aris garantia kreditorTaTvis erT-erTi
movalis gadaxdisuunarobis SemTxvevaSi.7 Cveulebriv, am xelSekrulebas deben TavdebTanac (magaliTad, rodesac piri Tavdebobs sesxSi).
franguli samarTlis mixedviT, `solidaruloba ar igulisxmeba~,8 radgan igi aris
gamonaklisi saerTo wesidan, rac Tavis Sedegebs iwvevs:
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1. vinc miuTiTebs solidarulobaze, unda amtkicos, rom amis Sesaxeb iyo gamoTqmuli
mxareTa neba;
2. sasamarTlos ara aqvs ufleba daadasturos solidarulobis arseboba movaleTa
Soris, misi warmoSobis safuZvlebis miTiTebis gareSe, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi, gadawyvetileba eqvemdebareba gauqmebas sakasacio instanciaSi.
is, rom solidaruloba unda iyos dadasturebuli ar gulisxmobs, rom garigebaSi
aucileblad unda arsebobdes werilobiTi daTqma solidarulobis arsebobis Sesaxeb,
sakmarisia, mxareTa neba gamoxatuli iyos aSkarad da pirdapir.
savaWro samarTali gamonaklisia wesidan _ aq solidaruloba igulisxmeba.
romauli tradiciis Tanaxmad, solidarulobis safuZveli garda mxareTa nebisa, aris
kanoni. es xdeba sam SemTxvevaSi:
1. mxareTa nebis ganmartebiT:
a) rodesac ramdenime piri aiRebs sesxs erToblivad, isini kreditoris winaSe solidarulad arian pasuxismgebelni;
b) rodesac mindobil pirs rwmuneba miecema ramdenime marwmuneblis mier erToblivad,
rwmunebuli marwmunebelTa winaSe solidarulad agebs pasuxs;
g) sruli amxanagobis (sps) partniorebi solidarulad arian pasuxismgebelni sawarmos
mier nakisr valdebulebebze, Tundac warmomadgenlobiTi uflebamosileba ganexorcielebina ara yvela partniors erToblivad, aramed mxolod erT-erT maTgans;
d) indosantebi Tamasuqze, Tamasuqis gamcemTan erTad solidarulad arian pasuxismgebelni Tamasuqis mflobelis winaSe.
2. kanoni, garantiis saxiT, solidarulobas awesebs im kreditorebis mimarT, romlebic gansakuTrebul mzrunvelobas saWiroeben, magaliTad, meurve daqorwinebis
Semdeg meuRlesTan erTad solidarulad aris pasuxismgebeli sameurveo piris
qonebis marTvaze.
3. solidaruli pasuxismgebloba aris zianis anazRaurebis uzrunvelyofis saSualeba kanoniT gansazRvrul zogierT SemTxvevaSi:
a) Tu erT-erTi meuRlis gardacvalebis Semdgom cocxali meuRle, romelic gaxdeba
Tavisi arasrulwlovani Svilis meurve (franguli samoqalaqo kanonmdeblobis mixedviT, mSoblebis samarTalurTierToba SvilebTan ganisazRvreba, rogorc kanonismieri _ oficialuri meurvisa sameurveo pirTan) ar Caatarebs meuRleTa saerTo
qonebis aRweras, mas ekisreba solidaruli pasuxismgebloba meurvis moadgilesTan
erTad yvela im moTxovnaze, romlis dakmayofilebis uflebac aqvs meurveobis qveS
myof pirs;
b) saanderZo danakisris amsrulebelni arian solidarulad pasuxismgebelni;
g) yvela piri, romelic dasjili iqneba erToblivi danaSaulisaTvis an gadacdomisaTvis, solidarulad aris pasuxismgebeli jarimis gadaxdaze da qonebis dabrunebaze;
d) pirebi, romlebic erToblivi danaSaulebrivi qmedebiT zians miayeneben pirs solidarulad arian pasuximgebelni mis winaSe. es principi amoRebulia romis samarTlisa
da revoluciamdeli franguli samarTlis praqtikidan, Tumca, garkveulwilad winaaRmdegobaSia safrangeTis samoqalaqo kodeqsis 1202-e muxlTan, rom solidaruloba
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ar igulisxmeba. magram frangi iuristebi zemoxsenebul muxls avrceleben mxolod


saxelSekrulebo valdebulebebze.9 amiT isini yvela am princips icaven da savsebiT
samarTlianadac.
solidaruli movaleobis dros kreditoris uflebebi efuZneba erTiani valis cnebas,
valdebulebis erTi sagniTa da ramdenime movaliT, romelTagan yoveli piradad da
sxvebisagan damoukideblad agebs pasuxs am valis mTlianad, sruli moculobiT dafarvaze. amasve efuZneba movalis dacviTi saSualebebi. Sesabamisad, pasiuri solidarulobis dros moqmedebs ori principi: a) valis erTianoba; b) movaleobaTa simravle. am
or princips emyareba, rogorc kreditorTa, aseve movaleTa uflebebi.
kreditoris uflebebia:
erTiani valis principis Sedegad:
moTxovos nebismier movales valis mTlianad dafarva da Sesabamisad, moTxovnis
daukmayofileblobis SemTxvevaSi, Seitanos sarCeli amis Taobaze, nebismieri
solidaruli movalis mimarT. movales, Tavis mxriv, ufleba aqvs daayenos Suamdgomloba
saqmeSi TanamovaleTa CarTvis moTxovniT.
movaleobaTa simravlis principis Sedegad:
es principi gamomdinareobs, rom nebismieri TanamovaleTagan movaleobas damoukideblad atarebs, amis gamo:
a) erT-erTi movalis mimarT sarCelis Setana kreditors xels ar uSlis sarCeli Seitanos sxva TanamovaleTa mimarTac;
b) erT-erTi Tanamovalis gardacvalebis SemTxvevaSi, memkvidreebi valdebulni arian
ara solidarulad, aramed wilobrivad, Sesabamisad, maTi wilisa samkvidroSi. es safrTxes uqmnis kreditors da amitom, Cveulebriv, xelSekrulebaSi uTiTeben ara marto
valdebulebis solidarulobas, aramed mis ganuyoflobasac.10
solidarul movaleTa dacviTi saSualebebia:
erTiani valis principis Sedegad:
a) yovel Tanamovales ufleba aqvs miuTiTos im safuZvlebze, romelic valdebulebis
mTlianad gauqmebas gamoiwvevs. magaliTad, gadaxda, xandazmulobis vadis gasvla da
a.S.
b) yovel movales ufleba aqvs kreditoris sarCelis winaaRmdeg wamoayenos is Sesagebeli, romelic exeba valdebulebis arss. magaliTad, valdebulebis baTiloba misi
kanonsawinaaRmdegobisa an saTanado formis daucvelobis gamo. amas ewodeba yoveli
movalisaTvis saerTo Sesagebeli.
movaleobaTa simravlis principis Sedegad:
a) erT-erTi movalis valdebulebebi SesaZlebelia ar emTxveodes TanamovaleTa valdebulebebs. magaliTad, kreditoris mier erT-erTi Tanamovalis gaTavisufleba
valdebulebisagan, movalis mier saerTo kreditoris kreditorad an erTaderT memkvidred gaxdoma da a.S. msgavsi urTierTdamTxvevebi faravs mxolod aRniSnuli movalis valdebulebas. franguli doqtrinis Tanaxmad, amas movleTa piradi Sesagebeli
ewodeba.
piradi Sesagebeli SesaZlebelia iyos:
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a) wmindad piradi. magaliTad, rodesac valdebulebis CaTvlis moTxovnis ufleba aqvs


mxolod am Tanamovales piradad;
b) ubralod piradi, rodesac valdebulebis CaTvlis moTxovnis ufleba aqvT sxva
Tanamovaleebsac, rasakvirvelia, CasaTvleli valdebulebis wilis odenobiT.
franguli koncefciis mixedviT, solidaruli valdebuleba, garda ZiriTadisa iwvevs,
agreTve, e.w. meorexarisxovan Sedegebsac. ganasxvaveben sam meorexarisxovan Sedegs:11
1) erT-erTi Tanamovalis mier valdebulebis Sesrulebis vadis gadacilebis dadgena
iTvleba imaves dadgenad yvela Tanamovalis mimarT da iwvevs Sesabamis Sedegebs
(procentebisa da pirgasamtexlos daricxva da a.S.);
2) kreditoris mier erT-erTi Tanamovalis mimarT sarCelis Setana wyets sasarCelo
xandazmulobis vadis moqmedebas sxva TanamovaleTa mimarTac;
3) Tu nivTi, romelic iyo valdebulebis sagani ganadgurdeba erT-erTi Tanamovalis
braliT, zianis anazRaurebaze movaleebi solidarulad ageben pasuxs, magram mxolod nivTis daRupvaSi braleul movales SeiZleba daekisros damatebiTi pasuxismgebloba.
erT-erTi Tanamovalis mier valdebulebis srulad Sesrulebis Semdeg dgeba regresuli anazRaurebis problema. franguli samoqalaqo kodeqsi aRiarebs movalis ukumoTxovnis uflebas. am SemTxvevaSi, darCenil Tanamovaleebs anazRaureba ekisrebaT
valdebulebaSi maTi wilis proporciulad. roca amis dadgena SeuZlebelia, anazRaurebis sakiTxs wyvets sasamarTlo. regresuli anazRaurebis moTxovnis ufleba cxadia
ar dgeba Tavdebobisas, rodesac valdebulebas Seasrulebs movale da ara Tavdebi.
safrangeTSi regresuli moTxovna xorcieldeba Semdegi sarCelebis meSveobiT:
1) mindobilobis xelSekrulebis sarCeli;
2) sxvisi saqmeebis mindobilobis gareSe warmoebis sarCeli.
orive SemTxvevaSi, fuladi valdebulebisas, dasaSvebia, rom gadaxdis dRis dadgomidan mTlianad gadasaxdel Tanxas daericxos procentebi.
Sesabamisad, valdebulebis Sesrulebis Semdeg movale xdeba yofil TanamovaleTa
kreditori, oRond darCenili movaleebi mis winaSe valdebulni arian ara solidarulad, aramed valdebulebaSi TavianTi wilis Sesabamisad, magram im SemTxvevaSi, Tu erTerTi movale aRmoCndeba valauvali, misi wili valdebulebaSi nawildeba yvela sxva
gadaxdisunarian movaleze, gakreditorebuli movalis CaTvliT.
solidarul valdebulebebTan dakavSirebiT franguli doqtrina did mniSvnelobas
aniWebs valdebulebis ganuyoflobis cnebasac.
ganuyofelia valdebuleba, romlis Sesruleba SeiZleba mxolod da mxolod srulad,
ufro zustad: `valdebuleba gayofadia an ganuyofelia imis mixedviT, SeiZleba Tu ara
gaiyos is nivTi an moqmedeba, romelic Seadgens mis sagans.~12 Tu valdebulebaSi aris
erTi kreditori da erTi movale, valdebuleba yovelTvis srulad unda Sesruldes
(rasakvirvelia, Tu ar arsebobs kanonisa an xelSekrulebis specialuri daTqma). kreditori uflebamosilia es movalisagan moiTxovos, xolo movales, Tundac valdebuleba
iyofodes, ara aqvs ufleba aiZulos mevale valdebulebis nawil-nawil Sesrulebis
miRebaze. magram, rodesac movaleTa an\da kreditorTa simravlea, valdebulebaTa
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gayofa-ganuyofloba seriozuli msjelobis sagania, radgan, rodesac valdebulebis


erT-erTi subieqti gardaicvleba da datovebs ramdenime memkvidres: a) valdebuleba,
romelic iyofa, gaiyofa memkvidreebze, samkvidroSi maTi wilis proporciulad; b)ganuyofadi valdebuleba warmoSobs aqtiur an pasiur soldarulobas. e.i. gansxvaveba
valdebulebaTa ganuyoflobas da solidarul valdebulebebs Soris is aris, rom
ganuyofeli valdebuleba memkvidreebze gadadis srulad, xolo gayofadi _ wilis Sesabamisad. ganuyofeli valdebuleba, amasTanave, ar iwvevs e.w. meorexarisxovan Sedegebs,
garda xandazmulobis vadasTan dakavSirebuli Sedegebisa.
garda solidaruli valdebulebebisa, rogorc aRvniSneT, franguli samarTali icnobs
valdebulebebs in solidum. arsebiTad, es aris igive solidaruli valdebulebebi,
oRond yovelgvari meorexarisxovani Sedegis gareSe da ZiriTadad, exeba samoqalaqo
samarTlebriv deliqtebs, kerZod: braleuli qmedeba; erToblivad miyenebuli ziani;
agreTve, Tamasuqidan warmoSobili valdebulebani da msg.
amiT SegviZlia davasruloT frangul samoqalaqo samarTalSi solidarul urTierTobaTa sistemis mimoxilva da gadavideT uSulod qarTul sistemaze.
saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsSi solidarul urTierTobebs exeba mesame wignis
meSvide kari; agreTve, muxlebi 895_896 _ solidaruloba Tavdebobisas; muxli. 998 _
deliqturi solidaruloba da msg. samewarmeo sferoSi solidarul urTierTobebs
aregulirebs saqarTvelos kanoni `mewarmeTa Sesaxeb~ (muxlebi dakavSirebuli sps-sTan;
ks-sTan; agreTve, zogadi nawilis zogierTi muxli) da a.S. solidarul pasuxismgeblobas
awesebs, aseve, zogierTi sxva kanonic (mag., saqarTvelos kanoni `fasiani qaRaldebis
bazris Sesaxeb,~ sadac solidaruli pasuxismgebloba, ratomRac sajaro samarTalTanaa
kavSirSi13) da a.S. qarTuli koncefcia icnobs solidarulobis or saxes: aqtiursa da
pasiurs. valdebulebebi in solidum Cveni samarTlis sistemas ar gaaCnia.
aqtiuri solidaruloba dgeba im SemTxvevaSi, roca ramdenime piri uflebamosilia
moiTxovos valdebulebis Sesruleba ise, rom TiToeuls SeuZlia mTliani Sesrulebis
moTxovna, xolo movale valdebulia mxolod erTjeradad Seasrulos. am SemTxvevaSi,
zemoxsenebul pirebs ewodebaT solidarulad uflebamosili pirebi, anu solidaruli
kreditorebi.14 rogorc gansazRvrebidan Cans, aqtiuri solidarulobis dasadgomad
saWiroa ramdenime piroba:
1. unda arsebobdes valdebulebis monawile ramdenime piri (kreditori);
2. TiToeul kreditors unda hqondes valdebulebis mTlianad Sesrulebis moTxovnis
ufleba;
3. movales unda evalebodes valdebulebis erTjeradad Sesruleba.
aqedan gamomdinareobs, rom movales kreditorebis mimarT aqvs saerTo valdebuleba, aseve samoqalaqo kodeqsis 378-e muxlis mixedviT: kreditoris Tanxmobis SemTxvevaSi, movales ufleba aqvs valdebuleba nawil-nawil Seasrulos. definiciis meore
punqtidan gamomdinare, aseTi Tanxmoba SeiZleba gasces mxolod yvela kreditorma erTxmad. dabolos, Cveni samoqalaqo kanonmdeblobiT dauSvebelia Zveli romauli wesis
gamoyeneba deliqturi solidarulobis SemTxvevaSi. kodeqsi ar azustebs, igulisxmeba
Tu ara solidaruloba, Tumca, zogadi specifikidan gamomdinare, SeiZleba rig SemTxvevaSi, am kiTxvas dadebiTi pasuxi gavceT.
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solidarulobis sami safuZveli arsebobs:


1. kanoni;
2. xelSekruleba;
3. valdebulebis sagnis ganuyofloba.
sxva danarCen SemTxvevaSi, wilobrivi valdebuleba pirTa simravliT warmoiSoba.15
kanonis mixedviT, solidaruli valdebuleba warmoiSoba: Tavdebobis SemTxvevaSi,
deliqturi valdebulebis SemTxvevaSi, agreTve samewarmeo urTierTobebSi. amaTgan,
aqtiuri solidaruloba SeiZleba warmoiSvas bolo or SemTxvevaSi.
deliqturi valdebuleba warmoSobs aqtiur solidarulobas maSin, rodesac erTi piri an pirTa jgufi miayenebs ramdenime pirs saerTo zians. aqtiuri solidaruloba aqvT
solidaruli pasuxismgeblobis sazogadoebis partniorebsa da komandituri sazogadoebis komplementarebs sawarmos movaleTa mimarT. xelSekrulebam SeiZleba gaiTvaliswinos solidaruloba nebismier SemTxvevaSi da aseT daTqmas eqneba savaldebulo
Zala. Tu ra igulisxmeba ganuyofel valdebulebebSi, ganmartebuli araa, magram SegviZlia davaskvnaT, rom es aris iseTi valdebulebebi, romelTa cal-calke Sesruleba
SeuZlebelia. aqedan gamomdinare, samoqalaqo kodeqsis 461-e muxli, romlic Tanaxmad,
Tu solidarul kreditors hyavs ramdenime memkvidre, maTze gadadis mxolod is wili
valze uflebisa, rac maT samkvidro wils Seesabameba, moiTxovs dazustebas, rameTu:
a) valdebulebis sagnis ganuyoflobis SemTxvevaSi, rTuldeba am saganSi memkvidreTa
wilis gansazRvra, Tumca, aq SesaZlebelia analogiiT amoqmeddes muxli 1459, romelic gulisxmobs, rom ganuyofeli qoneba (davumatoT _ moTxovna) ar eqvemdebareba
gayofas da xdeba memkvidreTa saerTo sakuTreba (saerTo ufleba);16
b) gaurkvevelia, solidaruli kreditoris gardacvalebis SemTxvevaSi, rogor urTierTobaSi iqnebian misi memkvidreebi TanakreditorebTan, anu maT Soris imoqmedebs isev
aqtiuri solidaruloba, Tu iqneba wilobrivi. aqac, Tu analogiiT gamoviyenebT
`mewarmeTa Sesaxeb~ kanonis 33-e muxls SegviZlia davaskvnaT, rom: a) msgavsi SeTanxmeba SeiZleba gaiTvaliswinos xelSekrulebam; b) SeiZleba aseTi gadawyvetileba
miiRon Tanakreditorebma memkvidris gancxadebis safuZvelze, gansakuTrebiT im SemTxvevaSi, Tu piri iqneba erTaderTi memkvidre samkvidros damtoveblisa. nebismier
SemTxvevaSi, gadawyvetileba unda ecnobos movaleebs. aseTi gadawyvetileba did mniSvnelobas iZens aqtiuri solidarulobis specifikidan gamomdinare. saxeldobr, movalis uflebamosilebidan Seasrulos valdebuleba nebismieri Tanakreditoris winaSe (Tuki romelime maTgans ara aqvs mis mimarT wayenebuli Sesagebeli) da, amasTan,
gaTavisufldes valdebulebisagan aseTi Sesrulebis Semdeg.
garda amas, bevri sxva sakiTxic bundovani rCeba. kerZod: wyvets Tu ara erT-erTi
kreditoris mier valdebulebis Sesrulebaze sarCelis aRZvra sasarCelo xandazmulobis moqmedebas yvela danarCeni kreditoris mimarT; ra saxis valdebulebebi ekisrebaT movalis memkvidreebs; rogor daregulirdeba valdebulebisa da moTxovnis Tanxvedra erT pirovnebaSi (savaraudoa, rom aseT SemTxvevaSi, movales unda gamoakldes am
kreditoris wili, magram maSin iqneba problema valdebulebis sagnis ganuyoflobasTan
dakavSirebiT, radgan, nebismier SemTxvevaSi, aseTi valdebuleba unda Sesruldes sru48

lad) da, ukanasknelic, Tu movale gaxdeba Tanakreditoris kreditori moxdeba Tu ara


valdebulebis CaTvla sxva kreditorebis mimarTac.
am kiTxvebs, erTgvarad, naTels hfens samoqalaqo kodeqsis 459-e muxli, romlis mixedviTac: `Tu erT-erTi kreditori uars ityvis movalis winaSe moTxovnaze, maSin movale Tavisufldeba mxolod im nawilis gadaxdisagan, romelic mocemul kreditors
ergeboda~. Tumca, igi mainc zog kiTxvas srulad da zogsac _ saerTod ar pasuxobs.
kodeqsi aregulirebs aqtiuri solidarulobis zogierT procesualur mxaresac (igulisxmeba ara formalur-samarTlebrivi, aramed procesTan dakavSirebuli). kerZod,
movales ar SeuZlia erT-erTi kreditoris mimarT gamoiyenos is faqtebi, romlebic sxva
kreditorTanaa dakavSirebuli (es muxlic erTgvarad pasuxobs dasmul kiTxvebs, magram
misi komentari mravalgvarad SeiZleba, radgan erTob zogadia), aq saubari exeba valdebulebis CaTvlas, Camoweras da msg. am muxlis analogiiT, arc solidarul kreditors
unda hqondes imis ufleba, wamoayenos movalis mimarT iseTi moTxovna, romelic eqneboda
mis Tanakreditors saerTo valdebulebis mimarT. yvela am problemis gadaWra, albaT,
mxolod Sesabamisi sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebebis precedentebis safuZvelze moxerxdeba.
dabolos, movale uflebamosilia valdebuleba Seasrulos nebismieri solidaruli
kreditoris winaSe. rasakvirvelia, aseTi Sesrulebis Semdeg, am kreditors ekisreba
garkveuli valdebulebebi TanakreditorTa mimarT. aseTi Sesruleba ar warmoSobs axal
aqtiur solidarulobas, aramed mxolod kreditoris movaleobas gadauxados danarCen
kreditorebs kuTvnili wili. am wilis odenobas gansazRvraven Tavad kreditorebi, xolo
Tu ar arsebobs aseTi gansazRvra, igulisxmeba, rom TiToeul maTgans Tanabari wili
aqvs.17 sakorporacio samarTalSi aseT wils gansazRvraven `mewarmeTa Sesaxeb~ kanonis
Sesabamisi muxlebi.
rogorc aRvniSneT, saqarTvelos kanoni garda aqtiurisa, icnobs pasiur solidarulobasac.
kanonis mixedviT, solidaruli valdebuleba dgeba im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac ramdenime
pirs evaleba valdebulebis Sesruleba ise, rom TiToeulma unda miiRos monawileoba
mTliani valdebulebis SesrulebaSi, xolo kreditors eqneba Sesrulebis mxolod
erTjeradi moTxovnis ufleba. e.i. solidaruli valdebuleba (pasiuri solidaruloba)
dgeba, roca:
1. aris erTiani valdebuleba;
2. aris am valdebulebaze erToblivad pasuxismgebeli ramdenime movale;
3. aris kreditori;
4. valdebuleba unda Sesruldes erTxel.
pasiuri solidaruloba, iseve, rogorc aqtiuri dgeba xelSekrulebiT, kanoniT an
valdebulebis sagnis ganuyoflobiT. kanoniT pasiuri solidaruloba SeiZleba gamoiwvios Tavdebobamac. am SemTxvevaSi, solidaruli valdebuleba dgeba, Tu:
1. Tavdebi ikisrebs pasuxismgeblobas solidarulad an sxva TanabarmniSvnelovani saxiT;
2. erTsa da imave valdebulebaze iqneba ramdenime Tavdebi, Tundac amaT Tavdeboba
erTad ar ekisraT;
3. Tavdebi kreditoris winaSe ivaldebulebs winamorbed TavdebTa mier nakisr valdebulebaTa Sesrulebas.
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am sami daTqmidan, pirvelSi, Tavdebs solidaruli valdebuleba warmoeSoba ZiriTad


movalesTan erTad, xolo danarCen or SemTxvevaSi _ sxva TavdebebTan erTad. Tumca,
rasakvirvelia, Tavdebi, nebismier SemTxvevaSi, aris damatebiTi movale da masze valdebulebis Sesrulebis moqceva daiSveba mxolod mas Semdeg, rac kreditori uSedegod
ecdeba igive ganaxorcielos ZiriTad movalesTan. Tumca Tavdebis mier kreditoris
dakmayofilebis Semdeg, masze gadadis kreditoris moTxovna ZiriTadi movalis mimarT.
deliqtur valdebulebebze pasiuri solidaruloba dgeba, roca ramdenime piri erToblivad miayenebs zians dazaralebuls. am SemTxvevaSi, solidaruloba gavrceldeba
im pirebzec, vinc:
1. daiyolia zianis mimyenebeli aseT moqmedebaze;
2. xeli Seuwyo mas;
3. Segnebulad isargebla miyenebuli zianiT.
naTelia, rom `xelSemwyobSi~ igulisxmeba, ara marto, damxmare, aramed zianis miyenebis organizatoric.
sakorporacio samarTalSi pasiuri solidaruloba, iseve, rogorc aqtiuri warmoiSoba solidaruli pasuxismgeblobis sazogadoebebSi, komanditur sazogadoebebSi, agreTve, zogierT sxva SemTxvevaSi. magaliTad: sawarmos Camoyalibebamde nakisr valdebulebebze;18 sazogadoebis xelmZRvanelTa valdebulebebze movaleobaTa arajerovani
SesrulebisaTvis19 da msg.
fasiani qaRaldebis brunvidan warmoSobili valdebulebebi ganuyofeli valdebulebebia da aqac pasiuri solidaruloba upirobod moqmedebs.
rogorc definiciidan gamomdinareobs, kreditors aqvs mxolod erTjeradi moTxovnis ufleba, Tumca, es moTxovna man sakuTari arCevaniT SeiZleba nebismieri movalis
winaSe ganaxorcielos. kreditorma SeiZleba moiTxovos movalisagan valdebulebis
mTlianad Sesruleba, an misi Sesruleba nawilobriv. Tu erT-erTi movale valdebulebas
mTlianad Seasrulebs, maSin es Sesruleba moxsnis kreditors uflebas, xolo danarCen
movaleebs movaleobas _ Seasrulon valdebuleba (sainteresoa, rom Tu isini Seutyobineblobis an sxva ram mizezis gamo, mainc Seasruleben mas, maT Tavad mouwevT aseTi
Sesrulebis usafuZvlobis mtkiceba, radgan samoqalaqo kodeqsis 361-e muxlis Tanaxmad, moqmedebs valdebulebis arsebobis prezumfcia). nebismier SemTxvevaSi, Tundac
movale apirebdes kreditoris winaSe valdebulebis mTlianad Sesrulebas, Sesrulebamde danarCeni movaleebis valdebuleba ZalaSi rCeba (e.i. maT SeiZleba moeTxovoT
Sesruleba; aRiZras sarCeli da a.S.).
garda valdebulebis Sesrulebisa, valdebulebis Sinaarsze moqmedebs, agreTve:
1. erT-erT movalis mier valdebulebis nawilobriv Sesruleba;
2. erT-erTi movalis mier kreditorTan valdebulebis gaqviTva;
3. erT-erTi movalis valis gaerTianeba kreditoris moTxovnasTan;
4. kreditoris mier valis patieba movalisaTvis.
rogori damokidebuleba eqneba nawilobrivi Sesrulebis Semdeg movales TanamovaleebTan, gansazRvruli ar aris, magram logikuria, rom amis Semdeg dadges ramdenime
Sedegi:
50

1. Tu Sesrulebuli valdebuleba Seesabameba movalis wils saerTo valdebulebaSi,


igi gaTavisufldeba, rogorc valdebulebisagan, agreTve regresuli moTxovnis uflebamosilebisagan. aseve, Tanamovaleebis saerTo valdebulebas gamoakldeba gaTavisuflebuli movalis wili;
2. Tu aRemateba an naklebia wilze, am SemTxvevaSi, Sesabamisad:
a) gaTavisufldes valdebulebisagan da darCes regresuli anazRaurebis moTxovnis
ufleba im valdebulebaze, rac zedmetad Seasrula;
b) gaTavisufldes valdebulebisagan saerTo kreditoris mimarT da darCes Sesasrulebel valdebulebaze movaleoba TanamovaleTa mimarT.
3. Tu solidaruloba warmoSobilia Tavdebobis safuZvelze, movaleobis nawilobrivi
Sesruleba ver gaaTavisuflebs ZiriTad movales valdebulebis mTlianad Sesrulebisagan an yovel SemTxvevaSi, es ar warmoSobs Tavdebis valdebulebas Seasrulos
movaleoba mTlianad.
valdebulebis gaqviTva SeiZleba moxdes, Tu movale gaxdeba kreditoris kreditori,
agreTve, zogierT sxva SemTxvevaSi. gaqviTva SeiZleba moxdes, rogorc mTlianad valisa,
aseve misi nawilisac. gaqviTva, yovelTvis vrceldeba saerTo valze da yvela movaleze
e.i. Tu solidarul movalesa da kreditors Soris moxdeba valis gaqviTva mTeli TanxiT,
es gaaTavisuflebs Sesrulebis movaleobisagan danarCen Tanamovaleebsac. Tumca, aqac
saWiro iqneba ramdenime ganmarteba. kerZod: a) aseTi gaqviTvis Semdeg im movales, romelmac moaxdina gaqviTva unda warmoeSvas regresuli anazRaurebis ufleba sxva TanamovaleTa winaSe; b) solidarul movales Tu saerTos garda piradi aqvs valic kreditorisa, gaqviTva SeiZleba moxdes swored am kerZo valis da ara saerTo valisa, amasTan gadawyvetilebis miRebis ufleba unda hqondes kreditors. garda amisa, kanoniT
miTiTebulia SemTxvevebi, rodesac valis gaqviTva dauSvebelia, kerZod:
a) Tu es winaswar iyo gamoricxuli;
b) deliqturi valdebulebis SemTxvevaSi, roca miyenebulia ziani (maT Soris, erToblivi) piris janmrTelobisa da sicocxlisaTvis da msg.
erT-erTi movalisaTvis valis patieba aTavisuflebs sxva solidarul movaleebsac,
magram aqac arsebobs daTqma: ar unda iyos miTiTebuli, rom vali epatieba mxolod da
mxolod erT movales. aseT SemTxvevaSi, danarCen TanamovaleTa pasuxismgebloba rCeba,
oRond, ra Tqma unda, gaTavisuflebuli movalis wilis gamoklebiT.
kidev erTi garemoeba, romelic moqmedebs valdebulebis bunebaze aris kreditoris
moTxovnis gaerTianeba erT-erTi solidaruli movalis valTan. amasve unda mivakuTvnoT is SemTxvevebi, rodesac kreditori da erT-erTi movale aRmoCndebian erTi da
igive piri. es SeiZleba moxdes im SemTxvevaSi, Tu movale aRmoCndeba kreditoris erTaderTi memkvidre an piriqiT. msgavsi situacia daregulirebulia samoqalaqo kodeqsis
1493-e muxliT, romlis mixedviTac: `Tu mamkvidrebelma Tavisi qoneba kreditors
uanderZa, es ar SeiZleba CaiTvalos kreditoris moTxovnis uflebis gaqviTvad.~ Tumca,
es specialuri daTqmaa. moTxovnisa da valis faqtobrivi gaerTianeba aTavisuflebs
movales valdebulebis Sesrulebisagan, xolo saerTo vals danarCeni movaleebisaTvis
akldeba gaTavisuflebuli movalis wili.
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rogorc cnobilia, valdebulebaTa arsi gulisxmobs, ara marto, movalis Sesrulebis


valdebulebas, aramed kreditoris valdebulebasac miiRos Susruleba. rasakvirvelia,
Sesrulebis miReba SeiZleba dayovndes kreditoris an movalis mizeziT. Cveni kanonmdeblobis Tanaxmad, Tu Sesruleba dayovnebulia kreditoris mizeziT, misi Sedegebi gavrceldeba yvela solidarul movaleze, xolo Tu erT-erTi movalis mizeziT _ Sedegebis
gavrceleba yvela movaleze dauSvebelia (Sedegi ki, SeiZleba iyos procentebis daricxva, pirgasamtexlos gadaxda da a.S.).
solidarul movaleTa mier valdebulebis Seusrulebloba aris safuZveli kreditoris mier sarCelis Setanisa. kreditors ufleba aqvs sarCeli Seitanos, rogorc erTi
movalis, agreTve, yvela movalis mimarTac. amasTan, erTi movalis mimarT sarCelis Setana sxva movaleebzec sasamarTlo wesiT, moTxovnis uflebas ar arTmevs. e.w. meorexarisxovani Sedegebi, romelsac franguli samarTali icnobs, Cveni sistemis mier ar aris
aRiarebuli. davazustebT: erT movaleze sarCelis Setana ar wyvets xandazmulobis
moqmedebas sxva movaleebze. cxadia, am SemTxvevaSi, upriania kreditorma Seitanos
saerTo sarCeli. aRsaniSnavia, rom es wesebi ar SeiZleba gavrceldes deliqtur valdebulebebze da sakorporacio samarTliT daregulirebul urTierTobebze.
zogadad, rogorc Cans, solidarul valdebulebebSi kanonmdebeli kreditorTa interesTan erTad, cdilobda maqsimalurad daculi yofiliyo movaleTa interesebic.
sasamarTlo davis SemTxvevaSi, movales ufleba aqvs kreditors warudginos yvela is
Sesagebeli, romelic:
a) gamomdinareobs valdebulebis arsidan;
b) romlis uflebac aqvs marto mas;
g) romelic saerToa yvela solidaruli movalisaTvis.
kreditors ki, Tavis mxriv, ufleba aqvs, erT-erTi solidaruli movalis winaaRmdeg
gamoiyenos mxolod is faqtebi, romlebic uSualod mas exeba. magram Tu konkretuli
valdebulebiTi urTierTobidan sxva ram gamomdinareobs, zemoxsenebuli principi aRar
imoqmedebs.
rogorc zemoT aRiniSna, movaleTa solidaruloba aris kreditorisaTvis valdebulebis Sesrulebis garantia. es pirdapiraa miTiTebuli kanonSi, romlis mixedviTac,
Tu erT-erTi movale aRmoCndeba valauvli, misi wili nawildeba yvela sxva gadaxdisunarian movaleze. aman unda uzrunvelyos movalisaTvis valdebulebis utyuarad
Sesruleba.
mas Semdeg, rac erT-erTi movale valdebulebas mTlianad Seasrulebs kreditoris
winaSe, mas uCndeba ukumoTxovnis ufleba yofil TanamovaleTa mimarT.20 am SemTxvevaSi,
SeiZleba amoqmeddes ori wesi:
1. moeTxovos Tanamovaleebs anazRaureba gadamxdelis wilis gamoklebiT;
2. moeTxovos anazRaureba srulad.
es meore SemTxveva SeiZleba gaiTvaliswinos:
a) kanonma. magaliTad, Tavdebobis SemTxvevaSi, rodesac Tavdebi dafaravs ZiriTadi
movalis vals;
b) mxareTa SeTanxmebam.
52

wili ganisazRvreba:
a) mxareTa SeTanxmebiT;
b) logikuri analiziT.
roca SeTanxmeba ar arsebobs da sxvagvaradac SeuZlebelia pasuxismgeblobis odenobis gansazRvra, igulisxmeba Tanabari wili. amas garda, moqmedebs erTi friad mniSvnelovani wesi: Tu erT-erTi solidaruli movale miiRebs sargebels am solidaruli valdebulebidan, maSin im solidarul movales, romelsac sargebeli ar miuRia, SeuZlia
moTxovos mas dakmayofileba Tavisi valdebulebis Sesasruleblad. solidaruli valdebulebis arseboba, garda erToblivi movaleobisa, gulixmobs erTobliv mizans,
amasTanave, movaleTa garkveuli xasiaTis Tanadgomas. swored am postulatebidan gamomdinareobs zemoxsenebuli muxli, sadac aRsaniSnavia sami momenti:
1. erT-erTma movalem miiRo mogeba swored saerTo solidaruli valdebulebisagan
da ara sxvagvari movaleobiTa da uflebiT;
2. Tanamovales sargebeli ar miuRia;
3. am ukanasknels ufleba aqvs mosTxovos pirvels dakmayofileba mxolod im odenobiT,
rac saWiroa kreditoris winaSe solidaruli valdebulebis dasafaravad.
savaraudod, am valdebulebis Secvla SeuZlia movaleTa SeTanxmebas.
dabolos, kidev erTi sakiTxi, romelic unda ganvixiloT, aris movalis memkvidreTa
uflebebi. rogorc aqtiuri solidarulobis SemTxvevaSi, pasiuri solidarulobisas memkvidreze gadadis mxolod wili valdebulebisa (Sesabamisad _ uflebisa), gamomdinare
samkvidro qonebidan, magram es wesi ar imoqmedebs valdebulebis ganuyoflobis SemTxvevaSi, amitom frangebis msgavsad, kreditorisaTvis umjobesia aseTi daTqma gaukeTdes
xelSekrulebis teqsts. am SemTxvevaSi, amoqmeddeba 1484-e muxlis me-2 nawili, romlis
mixediTac: Tu mamkvidrebeli memkvidreebze gadasuli valebiT solidaruli movale iyo,
maSin memkvidreebic solidarulad ageben pasuxs. es SeiZleba moxdes samkvidro qonebis
gayofamdec. solidaruli movalis memkvidreTa SeTanxmebiT SesaZlebelia erT-erTi
memkvidrisaTvis valdebulebis Sesrulebis mTlianad dakisreba, samkvidrodan valdebulebis Sesabamisad gazrdili wilis micemis sanacvlod.21 savaraudod, aseT SeTanxmebas,
valdebulebis sagnis ganuyoflobisas dasWirdeba kreditoris Tanxmoba.

daskvna
daskvnis saxiT SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom qarTuli samoqalaqo kodeqsiT ganmtkicebuli
solidaruli urTierTobebis sistema uaRresad daxvewilia da savsebiT Seesabameba,
rogorc Tanamedrove dasavlur sistemas, aseve mTlianad samoqalaqo samarTlebriv
tradicias.

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gamoyenebuli literatura
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

vaxtang abaSmaZe, qarTuli inteleqtualuri fenomeni;


ivane javaxiSvili, qarTuli samarTlis istoria;
ilia WavWavaZe, cxovreba da kanoni;
saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsi;
saqarTvelos kanoni `mewarmeTa Sesaxeb~;
saqarTvelos kanoni `fasiani qaRaldebis bazris Sesaxeb~;
`mewarmeTa Sesaxeb~ kanonis komentari, me-2 gamocema;
zurab axvlediani, valdebulebiTi samarTali;
Salva CikvaSvili, saojaxo da memkidreobiTi samarTali;
saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsis komentari, wigni I;
, ;
. . , . . , ;
, . ,
.

SeniSvnebi:
1
2
3
4

5
6

10

11

12

13
14
15
16

17
18
19
20
21

vaxtang abaSmaZe, qarTuli inteleqtualuri fenomeni, Tb., 1992.


. . , . . , , , 1994.
. . , . . , , , 1994.
ivane javaxiSvili, qarTuli samarTlis istoria, Txzulebani Tormet
tomad, t. VI.
ilia WavWavaZe, cxovreba da kanoni, rCeuli xuT tomad, t. IV, Tb., 1987.
, . , Code civil, .
1197, ., 1986.
, , . I,
, 1960.
, . , Code civil. .
1202, , 1986.
, , . I,
, 1960.
, , . I,
, 1960.
, . , Code civil, Article.
1205-1207, , 1986.
, . , Code civil, Article.
1217, , 1986.
saqarTvelos kanoni `fasiani qaRaldebis bazris Sesaxeb~, muxli 4.13.
saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsi, muxli 455, Tb., 1997.
zurab axvlediani, valdebulebiTi samarTali, Tb., 1999.
Salva CikvaSvili, saojaxo da memkidreobiTi samarTali, Tb., 1999. unda
moxdes nivTis (uflebis) iseTi gayofa, `romelic am nivTs ar
daukargavs sameurneo an sxva miznobriv daniSnulebas~.
zurab axvlediani, valdebulebiTi samarTali, Tb., 1999.
saqarTvelos kanoni `mewarmeTa Sesaxeb~, muxli 3.4.
iqve, muxli 9.7.
zurab axvlediani, valdebulebiTi samarTali, Tb., 1999.
Salva CikvaSvili, saojaxo da memkidreobiTi samarTali, Tb., 1999.

54

MULTITUDE OF DEBTORS
AND CREDITORS IN
LIABILITY
SIMON CHKHAIDZE
Judge of the Kutaisi Appellate Court

Pursuant to the Article 455 of the Civil Code of Georgia, if several persons
are authorized to request the fulfillment of liability in a form, where each of
them can request absolute fulfillment and where the debtor is obliged to
fulfill it only once, they can be referred as solidery authorized persons
Solider creditors.
In accordance with the Article 463 of the same Code, if several persons
are obliged to fulfill their liability in a form, where each of them should
participate in the fulfillment of the common liability (solider liability), and
the creditor is authorized to file as single request on fullfillment, then they
represent solider debtors.
According to the law, these types of legal relations are referred as multitude
of creditors and debtors in liability.
Similar types of legal relations are also covered by the Roman Civil Law
and as a result of its processing, modern civil law of Continental Europe and
the civil legislation of the Continental European states were developed. Our
country joined these laws on November 25, 1997, immediately after the Civil
Code of Georgia entered into force.
In order to better realize the contents of legal relations, it is necessary to
study the grounds and sources that after processing and development served
as the bases for the establishment of legal system in its current form.
The presented paper serves the same purpose.

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samoqalaqo
samarTalwarmoebisa
da aRsrulebis
sakiTxebi sabWoTa
saqarTveloSi
zurab Wyonia
saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis doqtoranti

saqarTvelos damoukideblobis aRdgenis Semdeg dadga


sakiTxi im samoqalaqo, Tu sxva dargis marTlmsajulebis
mankieri da korufciuli sistemisagan gaTavisuflebisa,
romelic saqarTvelos sabWoTa epoqidan memkvidreobiT ergo.
swored amitomac, damoukideblobis Semdeg pirveli wlebi
saqarTveloSi gardamaval etapad gamocxadda. 1995 wels
miRebul iqna saqarTvelos konstitucia. daiwyo sasamarTlo sistemisa da samoqalaqo saproceso kanonmdeblobis
reforma, romelic dRemde ar dasrulebula. zemoaRniSnulidan gamomdinare, mniSvnelovnad migvaCnia sabWoTa samoqalaqo samarTalwarmoebisa da misi efeqtianobis ganmsazRvreli saaRsrulebo warmoebis, rogorc uaryofiTi,
ise dadebiTi mxareebis mimoxilva da analizi, raTa reformisas gaTvaliswinebul iqnes aRniSnuli gamocdileba.
sabWoTa xelisufleba aneqsiisTanave Seudga saqarTveloSi marTlmsajulebis sistemis uzurpacias. am mizniT
revkomma gaauqma damoukidebeli saqarTvelos sasamarTlo
xelisufleba.1 1923 wels miRebul iqna debuleba sasamarTlo wyobilebis Sesaxeb, xolo 1924 wels ki, samoqalaqo
samarTlis saproceso kodeqsi.2
sabWoTa saqarTveloSi saerTo sasamarTloebis sistemaSi arsebobda ori instanciis sasamarTlo. I instanciis
sasamarTlo saqmes wyvetda arsebiTad, xolo meore instan56

cia (sakasacio, anu sarevizio) ki, saqmeebs amowmebda mxolod iuridiuli kuTxiT.3 Seiqmna da moqmedebda aRmosavleT da dasavleT saqarTvelos olqis sasamarTloebi, aseve
uzenaesi sasamarTlo. afxazeTSi, aWaraSi da oseTSi arsebobda sakuTari sasamarTloebi.4 sakasacio sasamarTlo axdenda aseve, kanonis ganmartebas gadawyvetilebis gamotanisas, rac savaldebulo iyo konkretuli ganxiluli saqmisaTvis, amasTan, saxelmZRvanelo xasiaTis gaxldaT analogiuri saqmis gadawyvetisas, anu praqtikuli mniSvneloba hqonda. Tumca, realurad sasamarTlo praqtikis Camoyalibeba SesaZlebeli
iqneboda mxolod erTi sakasacio instanciis arsebobis SemTxvevaSi..5
pirveli instanciis wesiT saqmeebi ganixileboda saxalxo sasamarTloebSi, olqis
sasamarTloebSi da aseve uzenaes sasamarTloSic.6
saxalxo mosamarTlisaTvis da saxalxo sasamarTloebisaTvis sakasacio instancias
warmoadgenda olqis sasamarTlo (samoqalaqo sakasacio Tanaganyofileba), olqis sasamarTloebisaTvis _ uzenaesi sasamarTlo (sakasacio kolegia), xolo uzenaesi sasamarTlosaTvis sakasacio instancia ar arsebobda.7
saqmeebis ganxilva ZiriTadad, saerTo sasamarTloebSi mimdinareobda kolegiurad
_ yvela instanciis sasamarTloebSi, kerZod: saxalxo sasamarTloSi erTi mudmivi mosamarTlisa da ori saxalxo msajulis SemadgenlobiT, olqis sasamarTloebSi da uzenaes
sasamarTloSi ki, sasamarTlos erTi wevrisa da ori msajulis SemadgenlobiT.8 mxolod
SedarebiT martivi saqmeebis gadawyveta iyo SesaZlebeli I instanciis saxalxo mosamarTlis mier erTpirovnulad.9
mudmivi mosamarTle iniSneboda 1 wliT, xolo saxalxo msajuli miiwveoda sxdomaze
weliwadSi mxolod 6 dRiT. mosamarTleobis kandidats ar moeTxoveboda arc iuridiuli
da arc saerTo ganaTleba. mosamarTled SeiZleboda daniSnuliyo 18 wels miRweuli
piri.10 mosamarTlis Tanamdeboba gaxldaT arCeviTi da misi arCeva xdeboda samazro aRmasrulebeli komitetis im kandidatTa siidan, romlebic naCvenebi iqnebodnen olqis
sasamarTlos an iusticiis saxalxo komisariatis mier.11
rac Seexeba mosamarTlis damoukideblobas, unda iTqvas, rom mosamarTle ar gaxldaT damoukidebeli da arc Seucvleli. igi SeiZleba gamowveuliyo vadamdec, im organoebis mier, romlebic mas irCevdnen. maSin moqmedi konstitucia saxelmwifo xelisuflebis ramdenime Stod danawilebas ar scnobda. amis dasturia aseve, cnobili lozungi
`mTeli xelisufleba sabWoebs~. `muSaTa da glexTa saxelmwifos xelisuflebisagan
damoukidebeli ver iqneba verc erTi organo an Tanamdebobis piri, maSasadame verc
mosamarTle.~12
maSin moqmedi samoqalaqo procesi scnobda dispoziciurobis princips, Tumca, es
principi kanonmdeblobiT gaxldaT mniSvnelovnad ugulebelyofili. magaliTisaTvis,
marTalia saqmis ganxilvas sasamarTlo iwyebda mxolod dainteresebuli mxaris gancxadebiT da mxares SeeZlo sasarCelo moTxovnis gadideba da Semcireba, Tumca, samoqalaqo saqmis aRZvris ufleba hqonda prokurorsac, rogorc saxelmwifo xelisuflebis warmomadgenels, rodesac misi azriT, amas moiTxovda saxelmwofos an mSromelTa
interesi. amave mizniT prokurors ufleba hqonda Careuliyo sxvis mier dawyebul procesSi.13 amasTan, sasamarTlos SeeZlo mxareTa moTxovnis farglebs gascdenoda da
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mxarisaTvis imaze meti miekuTvnebina, rasac igi moiTxovda. mxares SeeZlo uari eTqva
Tavis uflebaze da aseve, saqme daemTavrebina morigebiT, Tumca uaric da morigebac
eqvemdebareboda sasamarTlos kontrols. procesi iTvaliswinebda gadawyvetilebis
gauqmebas mxaris saCivris arsebobis miuxedavad, Tavad uzenaesi sasamarTlos iniciativiT da aseve, Sesabamisi dawesebulebis da Tanamdebobis pirTa iniciativiTac, im
SemTxvevaSic ki, Tundac gadawyvetileba ZalaSi yofiliyo Sesuli.14
dispoziciurobis principis msgavsad mniSvnelovnad SezRuduli gaxldaT SejibrebiTobis principic, vinaidan sasamarTlos Tavad hqonda miniWebuli farTo iniciativa.15
maSin moqmedi saproceso kanonmdeblobiT saqmeTa ganxilva mimdinareobda sajarod.
rac Seexeba saaRsrulebo warmoebas procesis Tanaxmad, ZiriTadad, aRsrulebas axdendnen sasamarTlo aRmasruleblebi, Tumca, sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebiT aRsrulebis movaleoba SeiZleboda dakisreboda milicias da raionis aRmasrulebel komitets.
isini aRsrulebisas xelmZRvanelobdnen sasamarTlo aRmasrulebisaTvis gansazRvruli
wesebiT.16 is piri, romlis sasargeblodac gamotanili iyo gadawyvetileba iwodeboda
`gadamxdevineblad~, xolo is vis winaaRmdegac iyo gadawyvetileba miRebuli, iwodeboda
`movaled~. sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebis aRsruleba iwyeboda gadamxdevineblis mier
sasamarTlos gacemuli aRsrulebis furclis wardgeniT im adgilis saaRsrulebo organoSi, sadac unda aRsrulebuliyo gadawyvetileba. aRsrulebis procesSi monawileobda orive mxare.17 gadawyvetilebis gadadebis, SeCerebisa da Sewyvetis ufleba aRmasrulebels hqonda mxolod gadamxdevineblis gancxadebis safuZvelze mosamarTlis
specialuri dadgenilebiT.18 aRmasrulebels miniWebuli hqonda uflebamosileba, Tu
gadamxdevinebeli konkretulad ver miuTiTebda sasamarTlo aRmasrulebels movalis
qonebaze, aRmasrulebels ufleba hqonda gaeCxrika movalis bina miliciis da saxlis
administraciis warmomadgenlis daswrebiT.19 fulis iZulebiT gadaxdevineba xdeboda
aRweriT da gayidviT. amasTan, Tuki movale iyo saxelwifo dawesebuleba, centraluri,
Tu adgilobrivi, saxelmwifo biujetze myofi ar SeiZleboda misi qonebis aRwera da
gayidva. Tu gadawyvetilebas ar Seasrulebda nebayoflobiT, gadamxdevinebels SeeZlo
eCivla movalis zemdgom organosTan. Tu dawesebuleba ar gadaixdida iseTi saaRsrulebo furcliT, romelic gacemuli iyo Sromis sasamarTlos mier, Sromis prokuroris
gankargulebiT, gadawyvetileba SeiZleba iZulebiT yofiliyo aRsrulebuli an damnaSave Tanamdebobis piri SeiZleba pasuxisgebaSi yofiliyo micemuli..20
aRsaniSnavia, rom procesiT gansazRvruli iyo is minimumi, romelzedac ar SeiZleboda iZulebiTi aRsruleba.21
aRmasruleblis moqmedeba da gadawyvetileba mxareebs SeeZloT gaesaCivrebinaT sasamarTloSi.22
procesSi arsebuli xarvezis Taobaze aRsrulebasTan dakavSirebiT, cnobili qarTveli procesualisti sergi jafariZe aRniSnavda, rom `samoqalaqo procesi sruliad aras
ambobs imis Sesaxeb, Tu ra wesiT unda aRsruldes sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba maSin,
rodesac mopasuxes davalebuli aqvs iseTi moqmedebis Sesruleba, rac sxvisi saSualebiT
ar Sesruldeba, an raime moqmedebisagan Tavis Sekaveba.~23

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1929 wels, f. m. naximsoni ganmartavda, rom `sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebis aRsruleba


warmoadgens Cvens samuSaoSi erT-erT yvelaze mniSvnelovan funqcias. dRemde saqmis am
ubanze Cven gvaqvs sruliad arasaxarbielo mdgomareoba. centrSi amJamad muSavdeba
sakiTxi sasamarTlo aRsrulebis aparatis Zirfesviani reorganizaciis da racionalizaciis Sesaxeb~.24.
rac Seexeba ucxo qveynebis sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebis aRsrulebas, aRsrulebas eqvemdebareboda mxolod im qveynebis sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebebi, romlebTanac
sabWoTa kavSirs dadebuli hqonda xelSekruleba.25
1931 wels miRebul iqna saqarTvelos ssr samoqalaqo samarTlis saproceso kodeqsi.
am kodeqsis me-11 muxlis Tanaxmad, saqmiswarmoeba mimdinareobda qarTul enaze an saTanado adgilis mosaxleobis umetesobis enaze.26 amave kodeqsis 98-e muxlis Sesabamisad,
saqmis garCeva mimdinareobda sajarod da sityvierad. gansakuTrebul SemTxvevebSi,
saqme unda ganxiluliyo daxurul sxdomaze, Tumca, me-100 muxlis Tanaxmad, sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba sajarod unda gamocxadebuliyo. 101-e muxlis Sesabamisad, sasamarTlos SeeZlo saqmeSi monawile pirebis gaZeveba am pirTa mxridan wesrigis darRvevisas, amasTan, ar SeiZleboda prokuraturis warmomadgenlis da damcvelis gaZeveba.
rac Seexeba dispoziciurobas da SejibrebiTobas, procesi aRiarebda aRniSnul principebs,27 Tumca, realurad sasamarTlo gaxldaT inkviciziuri da mas miniWebuli hqonda
uflebamosileba xSir SemTxvevaSi, sakuTari iniciativiT mniSvnelovani sakiTxebis gadawyvetisa. cnobili procesualisti s. abramovi ganmartavda, rom `gamomdinare iqidan,
rom sabWoTa marTlmsajulebis uryev mizans warmoadgens materialuri WeSmaritebis dadgena, kanoni (sssr samoqalaqo samarTlis saproceso kodeqsis muxli. 6) avaldebulebs sasamarTlos, rom manve yoveli Rone ixmaros, raTa gamoarkvios mxareTa namdvili uflebani da urTierTobani.~28 samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis 182-e muxliT sasamarTlos ufleba hqonda gascdenoda sarCelis moTxovnas da saqmis garemoebebis gaTvaliswinebiT, mxarisaTvis miekuTvnebina imaze meti, vidre is moiTxovda. mtkicebis tvirTi mxareebs Soris nawildeboda Tanabrad. 1931 wlis samoqalaqo samarTlis saproceso
kodeqsis 126-e muxliT TiToeulma mxarem unda daamtkicos is garemoeba, razedac igi
amyarebs Tavis moTxovnas da Sesagebels.
1936 wels miRebul iqna sabWoTa socialisturi respublikebis kavSiris konstitucia.29 `procesis mTeli rigi principebi damkvidrebul iqna stalinuri konstituciiT,
amitomac maT sxvagvari Tviseba SeiZines. aseT principebs miekuTvneba a)marTlmsajulebis ganxorcieleba mxolod sasamarTlos mier (ssr kavSiris konstituciis 102-e muxli); b)marTlmsajulebis ganxorcieleba kolegiuri sasamarTlos mier (ssr kavSiris
konstituciis 103-e muxli); g) marTlmsajulebis ganxorcieleba saxalxo msajulebis
monawileobiT (ssr kavSiris konstituciis 103-e muxli); d) marTlmsajulebis ganxorcieleba arCeul mosamarTleTa mier (ssr kavSiris konstituciis 105-109-e muxlebi);
marTlmsajulebis ganxorcieleba damoukidebel da mxolod kanonisadmi damorCilebul
mosamarTleTa mier (ssr kavSiris konstituciis 112-e muxli); v)marTlmsajulebis
ganxorcieleba mokavSire an avtonomiuri respublikis, avtonomiuri olqis, naciona-

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luri okrugis an raionis enaze, moqalaqeTaTvis sasamarTloSi dedaenaze gamosvlis


uflebis uzrunvelyofiT (ssr kavSiris konstituciis 110-e muxli); z)marTlmsajulebis
ganxorcieleba sajaro procesis safuZvelze (ssr kavSiris konstituciis 111-e muxli).~30
1936 wlis `ssr kavSiris konstitucia iTvaliswinebda mTel ssr kavSirisaTvis erTiani
samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis gamocemas.31
samoqalaqo samarTlis saproceso kodeqsiT gansazRvruli iyo saqmis warmoeba sasarCelo wesiT (nawili I) da aseve, saqmis warmoeba gansakuTrebuli wesiT (nawili I I ), anu
udavo warmoebis wesiT.
sasamarTlo gadawyvetileba samoqalaqo samarTlis saproceso kodeqsis 266-e muxliT saCivrdeboda sakasacio wesiT, xolo 290-e muxliT respublikis prokurors da
uzenaesi sasamarTlos Tavmjdomares ufleba hqondaT gamoeTxovaT respublikis yoveli sasamarTlodan zedamxedvelobis wesiT gadaTvalierebisaTvis kanonier ZalaSi Sesuli yvela saqme, gadawyvetileba da SeeCerebinaT gadawyvetilebis aRsruleba saqmis
warmoebis zedamxedvelobis wesiT damTavrebamde. Tu aRmoCndeboda, rom gadawyvetilebiT arsebiTad da TvalsaCinod iyo darRveuli moqmedi kanoni, an kanonis pidapiri
moTxovnis miuxedavad, aSkarad darRveuli iyo muSaTa da glexTa saxelmwifos, Tu mSromeli masebis interesebi, respublikis prokurors da uzenasi sasamarTlos Tavmjdomares ufleba hqondaT gaeprotestebinaT es gadawyvetileba zedamxedvelobis wesiT
uzenaes sasamarTloSi. protests ganixilavda sasamarTlos samoqalaqo sakasacio kolegiis plenumi, xolo uzenaesi sasamarTlo kolegiis gadawyvetilebaze da uzenaesi
sasamarTlos sakasacio kolegiis gadawyvetilebaze _ uzenaesi sasamarTlos plenumi.
gamomdinare zemoaRniSnulidan, 290-e muxli gaxldaT dispoziciurobis principis ugulebelyofis klasikuri magaliTi.
1933 wels sabWoTa kavSiris prokuraturis CamoyalibebiT uzenaesi sasamarTlo gaTavisuflda kanonierebaze saerTo zedamxedvelobis funqciidan. amasTan, gaizarda misi
sasamarTlo-sazedamxedvelo funqciebi.32 1938 wels miRebul iqna kanoni sasamarTlo
wyobilebis Sesaxeb, xolo 1958 wlis 25 dekembers ki, kanonmdeblobis safuZvlebi sabWoTa kavSirisa da mokavSire respublikebis sasamarTlo mowyobis, samoqalaqo da sisxlis samarTlis samarTalwarmoebis Sesaxeb.33
saaRsrulebo warmoeba 1931 wels miRebuli samoqalaqo samarTlis saproceso kodeqsiT daregulirebuli gaxldaT kodeqsis V nawiliT. ssr kavSiris, mokavSire da avtonomiuri respublikebis sasamarTlo wyobilebis kanonis me-80 muxliT, sasamarTlo ganaCenebis, gadawyvetilebebisa da dadgenilebebis aRsrulebasTan dakavSirebiT, sasamarTlo aRmasruleblis mier wardgenili moTxovna savaldebulo iyo yvela Tanamdebobis pirisa da moqalaqisaTvis. sasamarTlo aRmasrulebels gadawyvetileba sisruleSi
mohyavda aRmasrulebeli furcliT, romelsac rogorc wesi, gascemda sasamarTlo, gadawyvetilebis ZalaSi Sesvlis Semdeg (aRmasrulebeli furceli gaicemoda dauyovnebliv aRsasrulebel gadawyvetilebaze).34 saaRsrulebo moqmedebas sasamarTlos aRmasrulebeli Seudgeba gadamxdevineblis sityvieri an werilobiTi gancxadebiT, agreTve,
sasamarTlos an prokuroris winadadebiT, saTanadod gacemuli saaRsrulebo dokumentis safuZvelze.35 aRsaniSnavia, rom alimentis gadaxdevinebis saqmeze aRmasrulebeli
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furceli ara ugvianes meore dRisa, dRidan gadawyvetilebis gamotanisa, unda gadagzavniliyo movalis samuSao adgilis Sesabamisad.36
maSin moqmedi saqarTvelos samoqalaqo samarTlis saproceso kodeqsis 301-e muxlis
Sesabamisad, `ukeTu nebayoflobiT aRsrulebisaTvis sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebiT
gansakuTrebuli vada ar iqneba micemuli, sasamarTlo aRmasrulebeli, movalisaTvis
uwyebis wardgenisa da gagzavnisTanave dauniSnavs mas aRsasrulebel vadas ara umetes
5 dRisa~. 303-e muxliT saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi, sasamarTlo aRmasrulebels SeeZlo
daeTvalierebina movalis sadgomi da sacavebi saxlis administraciis an sasoflo sabWos warmomadgenlis TandaswrebiT. sasamarTlo aRmasrulebels iZulebiTi aRsruleba
unda daemTavrebina 10 dRis vadaSi. iZulebiTi aRsrulebisas sasamarTlo aRmasrulebels ufleba ar hqonda mosarCelisa an mopasuxisaTvis gadaexdevinebina raime gamosaRebi gadawyvetilebis aRsrulebisaTvis.37
saxelmwifo, kooperaciul-sakolmeurneo da sxva sazogadoebriv dawesebulebaTa,
sawarmoTa da organizaciaTa Soris davebis gamo sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebaTa aRsrulebisaTvis dadgenili iyo erTwliani xandazmulobis vada. yvela sxva davaTa gamo ki,
samwliani vada.38
gadawyvetilebis iZulebiTi aRsruleba SesaZlebeli gaxldaT mxolod dedani aRmasrulebeli furclis safuZvelze. amasTan, Tundac, notariulad damowmebuli asliT, ar
daiSveboda aRsruleba. dakargvis SemTxvevaSi, dainteresebul pirs SeeZlo miemarTa
sasamarTlosaTvis TxovniT gaeca aRmasrulebeli furclis dublikati. mosamarTle
saTanado gamokvlevis Semdeg dadgenilebis safuZvelze gascemda dublikats, anu gamoiwereboda aRmasrulebeli furceli, romelzedac keTdeboda warwera `dublikati~.39
`saxalxo mosamarTleni da saTanado sasamarTloebis Tavmjdomareni pasuxs ageben
sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebaTa aRsrulebis dargSi muSaobis mdgomareobaze da, rom maT
ekisrebaT mudmivi kontroli gauwion sasamarTlos aRmasrulebelTa muSaobas.~40 sasamarTlo aRmasruleblis saqmianobaze mudmiv kontrols uwevda sasamarTlo, rogorc
administraciuli zedamxedveli mis daqvemdebarebaSi myof Tanamdebobis pirs.41 sasamarTlo aRmasruleblis moqmedebaze saCivari ori saxis iyo, kerZod, saCivari, romelic
ganixileboda sasamarTlo wesiT da saCivari, romelic ganixileboda administraciuli
wesiT. saCivari sasamarTlo wesiT ganixileboda sasamarTlo aRmasruleblis moqmedebaze mis mier kanonis araswor gamoyenebaze, xolo saCivari sasamarTlo aRmasruleblis
moqmedebaze ganixileboda mis araswor samsaxurebriv moqmedebaze.42 saCivari sasamarTlo wesiT ganixileboda erTpirovnulad, saxalxo mosamarTlis mier (1941 wlis 29
martis cvlilebiT ki, kolegiurad) samsjavro sxdomaze.43
1964 wlis 26 dekembers miRebul iqna axali saqarTvelos ssr samoqalaqo samarTlis
saproceso kodeqsi, romelic samoqmedod SemoRebul iqna 1965 wlis 1 ivlisidan.44 am
kodeqsis 1-li muxlis Tanaxmad, aseve, ganixileboda sasamarTlos mier administraciulsamarTlebrivi urTierTobidan gamomdinare davebi. me-4 muxliT sasarCelo warmoebis saqmeebze Sedioda sasarCelo gancxadebebi, xolo administraciulsamarTlebrivi urTierTobidan warmoSobil saqmeebze da gansakuTrebuli warmoebis saqmeebze _
saCivrebi da gancxadebebi. me-5 muxliT marTlmsajulebas samoqalaqo saqmeebze axorci61

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elebda mxolod sasamarTlo kanonisa da sasamarTlos winaSe yvela moqalaqis Tanasworobis sawyisebze. me-6 muxlis Tanaxmad, samoqalaqo saqmeebs ssr yvela sasamarTloSi
ganixilavdnen mosamarTleni da saxalxo msajulebi, romlebic arCeuli iyvnen kanoniT
dadgenili wesiT. amave muxliT samoqalaqo saqmeebi pirveli instanciis yvela sasamarTloSi ganixileboda ori saxalxo msajulis SemadgenlobiT, romlebic sargeblobdnen
sasamarTlo sxdomis Tavmjdomaris Tanaswori uflebebiT yvela sakiTxis gadaWraSi.
sasamarTloebi saqmeebis ganxilvas sakasacio wesiT axorcielebdnen sasamarTlos sami
wevris SemadgenlobiT, xolo sasamarTlo zedamxedvelobis wesiT _ sasamarTlos sul
cota, sami wevris SemadgenlobiT.
saproceso kodeqsis me-10 muxliT uzrunvelyofili gaxldaT saqmeTa ganxilvisas
sajarooba. imave kodeqsis me-8 muxliT aRiarebuli iyo mosamarTleTa da msajulTa
damoukideblobis principi. amave kodeqsis 52-e muxliT TiToeul mxares unda daemtkicebina is garemoebani, romlebzedac igi amyarebda Tavis moTxovnas da Sesagebels.
sasamarTlos movaleoba iyo saqmeze obieqturi WeSmaritebis dadgena. samoqalaqo
samarTlis saproceso kodeqsis me-11 muxliT, `sasamarTlo movalea ar dasjerdes
warmodgenil masalebsa da axsna-ganmartebebs da miiRos kanoniT gaTvaliswinebuli
yvela zoma, raTa yovelmxriv, srulad da obieqturad gamoarkvios saqmis namdvili
garemoebani da mxareTa ufleba-movaleobani.~ aqedan gamomdinare, aSkaraa, rom sasamarTlo mkveTrad inkviziciuri iyo, anu procesi ar emyareboda SejibrebiTobis princips.
marTalia, saproceso kodeqsis 34-e muxli formalurad Seicavda dispoziciurobis
princips, magram ara tradiciuli gagebiT. dispoziciurobis principi Tavad 1977 wels
miRebul sabWoTa kavSiris konstiutuciis 37-e muxliT iyo garantirebuli, Tumca,
saqarTvelos samoqalaqo samarTlis saproceso kodeqsis 34-e muxlis meore abzaciT,
es principi faqtobrivad fundamenturad SezRuduli gaxldaT, vinaidan meore abzacis
Tanaxmad, `sasamarTlo ar miiRebs mosarCelis uars sarCelze, mopasuxis mier sarCelis
cnobas da ar daamtkicebs mxareTa morigebas, Tu es moqmedeba ewinaaRmdegeba kanons an
arRvevs visime uflebebs da kanoniT dacul interess.~ zemoaRniSnuli SezRudva ki,
ukavSirdeboda imave saproceso kodeqsis me-2 muxlis meore abzaciT gansazRvrul daTqmas, romlis Tanaxmadac, `samoqalaqo samarTalwarmoeba xels unda uwyobdes socialisturi kanonierebis ganmtkicebas, samarTaldarRvevis Tavidan acilebas, moqalaqeTa
aRzrdas sabWoTa kanonebis ganuxreli Sesrulebisa da socialisturi saerTo cxovrebis
wesebis pativiscemis suliskveTebas.~ amasTan, saqmis aRZvra sasamarTloSi SesaZlebeli
iyo prokuroris gancxadebis safuZvelzec. aseve, sazedamxedvelo warmoebis aRZvra
SeeZloT ara dainteresebul pirebs, aramed protestis aRZvris uflebamosilebis mqone
prokuraturis da sasamarTlos Tanamdebobis pirebs.45
migvaCnia, rom yuradRebas imsaxurebs saqarTvelos samoqalaqo samarTlis saproceso
kodeqsis 164-e muxli, romliTac gansazRvrulia sxdomaze saqmeSi monawile pirTa da
maT warmomadgenelTa gamoucxadeblobis Sedegebi. am muxlis Tanaxmad, sasamarTlo uflebamosili iyo erT-erTi mxaris gamoucxadeblobis SemTxvevaSi (Tuki saqmeSi iyo cnoba, rom mas uwyeba Cabarda) mosamarTles SeeZlo ganexila saqme mis dauswreblad, anu
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procesi iTvaliswinebda ara dauswrebeli gadawyvetilebis gamotanas, aramed, gadawyvetilebis mxaris dauswreblad miRebas. amasTan, imave muxlis Tanaxmad, sasamarTlos miniWebuli hqonda uflebamosileba, Tu igi saWirod scnobda gamoucxadebeli mxaris
piradi axsna-ganmartebis mosmenas, gadaedo saqmis ganxilva. sagulisxmoa, rom imave
muxliT, sasamarTlos SeeZlo mosarCelis an mopasuxis piradi axsna-ganmartebisaTvis
dabareba, im SemTxvevaSic, Tu saqmeSi maTi warmomadgenlebi monawileobdnen. 166-e muxliT alimentis saqmeebze sasamarTlos SeeZlo savaldebulod ecno mopasuxis gamocxadeba, xolo gamoucxadeblobis SemTxvevaSi, daejarimebina 10 maneTamde da daedgina
iZulebis wesiT misi sasamarTloSi miyvana. 167-e muxliT, Tu orive mxare (mopasuxe da
mosarCele) ar gamocxaddebodnen sapatio mizezis gareSe, sasamarTlo gadadebda saqmis
ganxilvas im SemTxvevaSi, Tu arc erTi mxarisagan ar Sevidoda gancxadeba saqmis mis
dauswreblad ganxilvis Sesaxeb. ganmeorebiT dabarebuli mxareebis arasapatio mizeziT
gamoucxadeblobis SemTxvevaSi, sasamarTlo gamoitanda ganCinebas sarCelis ganuxilvelad datovebis Sesaxeb. imave kodeqis 201-e muxliT sasamarTlos, msgavsad 1931 wlis
redaqciis samoqalaqo samarTlis saproceso kodeqsisa, saqmis garemoebaTa gamorkvevis
mixedviT SeeZlo gascdenoda mosarCelis moTxovnis farglebs.
rac Seexeba sabWoTa sasamarTlo praqtikis mniSvnelobas, aRniSnulze parizis universitetis profesori rene davidi Tavis monografiaSi werda, rom `im viTarebaSi, roca
samarTali Zalian mWidrodaa dakavSirebuli saxelmwifo politikasTan da roca ase
mowadinebuli arian xalxis suvereniteti qmediTi gaxadon, gamoricxulia SesaZlebloba, rom sasamarTlo samarTlis Semqmnelad gvevlinebodes da mas mxolod samarTlis
zusti ganmarteba ZaluZs~.46 imave naSromSi igi aseve ganmartavs, rom `xazgasmiT unda
aRiniSnos is faqti, rom sabWoTa kavSirSi sasamarTloebis gamocdilebas ar ugulebelyofen.47
sabWoTa periodSi sasamarTlos damoukidebloba gaxldaT konstituciiT aRiarebuli
principi, Tumca, realurad am mxriv, qveyanaSi Seqmnili iyo sruliad radikaluri mdgomareoba, kerZod, `mosamarTlis arCeva Tanamdebobaze xdeboda mxolod maSin, Tu is iyo
komunisturi partiis wevri, rac arCevis momentidanve iZleoda saSualebas masze ganxorcielebuliyo umkacresi partiuli kontroli da moexdinaT masze gavlena. es e.w.
`satelefono samarTlis~ periodia, rodesac mosamarTleTa mier partiuli xelmZRvanelebis davalebis sawinaaRmdego yoveli gadawyvetilebis gamotanis Semdeg, xdeboda
maTi `gamogdeba xaliCaze~, dawyebuli raikomis an qalaqkomis pirveli mdivnidan da
nebismieri ganyofilebis instruqtoriT damTavrebuli.~48
sabWoTa periodSi `Tavad gageba `sasamarTlo xelisufleba~ praqtikulad ucnobi
gaxldaT, vinaidan sasamarTlo organoebis sistema ganixileboda ara xelisuflebis
gagebis principiT, aramed sasamarTlo saqmianobis poziciidan~.49 `sasamarTlo xelisuflebis~ Sesaxeb ufro seriozuli midgomis dasawyiss miekuTvneba 80-iani wlebis bolo da 90-iani wlebis periodi. aRiarebul iqna, ra `sasamarTlo xelisuflebis~ gagebis
uqonloba da rom sabWoTa kavSiris istoriis manZilze sasamarTlo xelisuflebas
arasodes ekava saTanado adgili da ar iyo damoukidebeli aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebisagan da sxva xelisuflebis Stoebisagan~.50
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`unda aRiniSnos aseve, rom mosamarTleTa materialuri mdgomareoba gaxldaT imdenad mZime (rigiTi mosamarTlis xelfasi, romelsac hqonda mcire staJi, Seadgenda 180
maneTs), rom bevr mosamarTles ubiZgebda qrTamis aRebisaken.~51
sabWoTa xelisuflebis damyarebis Semdeg, sameurneo urTierTobebis ganviTarebasTan erTad, gaCnda aucilebloba saxelmwifo sawarmoebsa da organizaciebs Soris davebis gadawyvetis mizniT specialuri organos Seqmnisa. am mizniT 1922 wels Seiqmna
saarbitraJo komisiebi. 1931 wels, mmarTvelobis organoebis sistemaSi Seiqmna saxelmwifo arbitraJi dawesebulebaTa, sawarmoTa da sabWoTa sameurneo organizaciaTa Soris
qonebrivi davebis gadasawyvetad. Camoyalibda ori saxis arbitraJi _ saxelmwifo da
sauwyebo. saxelmwifo arbitraJSi wydeboda davebi sxvadasxva uwyebaTa daqvemdebarebis
sawarmoTa da organizaciaTa Soris, xolo sauwyeboSi ki, erT uwyebas daqvemdebarebul
organizaciebs Soris (saministros, komitetis da sxva daqvemdebarebis).52
arbitraJebis saqmianobam gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba SeiZina 1965 wlis sameurneo
reformis Semdeg, rodesac daiwyo saxalxo meurneobis gadayvana dagegmvisa da ekonomikuri stimulirebis axal sistemaze.53
saxelmwifo arbitraJis saboloo etapi dakavSirebulia 1977 wels, ssrk konstituciis miRebisTan, sadac arbitraJi cnobil iqna sakonstitucio organod. saxelmwifo
arbitraJis muSaobis organizacia da wesi pirvelad ganisazRvra 1979 wlis 30 noembers
miRebuli ssrk-is kanoniT `ssrk saxelmwifo arbitraJis Sesaxeb.~54 am kanonis miRebamde
saqarTvelos saxelmwifo arbitraJis saqmianoba regulirdeboda 1974 wlis 14 maisis
specialuri debulebiT.55 ssrk ministrTa sabWos 1980 wlis 5 ivnisis dadgenilebiT damtkicda saxelmwifo arbitraJis mier sameurneo davebis ganxilvis wesebi.56
profesori rene davidi sabWoTa arbitraJis Sesaxeb werda, rom `davis dasaxelebuli
kategoria imitomac ar SeiZleba sasamarTloebs gadaeces, rom sasamarTloebis dakompleqtebis wesi ver uzrunvelyofs amgvari davis sakmaod kvalificiur gadawyvetas.
roca moqalaqeTa yoveldRiuri cxovrebis interesebsa da garemoebebzea saubari, arCeviT mosamarTles, zogadi kompetenciiT, SeuZlia dava gadawyvitos da kanoni gamoiyenos. saxelmwifo da sameurneo sawarmoebs Soris warmoSobil davas ki, sruliad sxva
xasiaTi aqvs, maTi gadawyveta organizaciul-teqnikur normebs ufro ukavSirdeba, vidre
samarTlisa da moralis gagebas.57
rac Seexeba ssrk-is saxelmwifo arbitraJis organoebs, is Sedgeboda ssrk ministrTa
sabWosTan arsebuli saxelmwifo arbitraJisagan, aseve, mokavSire da avtonomiuri respublikebisa da ministrTa sabWoebTan, mSromelTa deputatebis samxareo, saolqo da saqalaqo (moskovi, leningradi) sabWoebis aRmaskomebTan arsebuli saxelmwifo arbitraJebisagan (saqarTvelos ssr-Si Semaval avtonomiur respublikebSi da samxreT oseTis
avtonomiur olqSi arbitraJi ar arsebobda). saxelmwifo arbitraJis organoebs saTaveSi
edgnen mTavari arbitrebi da maTi moadgileebi. arbitraJSi saqme aRiZvreboda dainteresebuli mxaris mier an arbitraJis mier. davas ganixilavdnen saxelmwifo arbitri da
mxareTa warmomadgenlebi. arbitraJis gadawyvetileba dauyovnebliv Sedioda ZalaSi.
gadawyvetilebis Sesasruleblad arbitraJi gamoscems brZanebas. arbitraJi saministros
(uwyebis) organo iyo da iqmneboda mis aparatSi da muSaobda misi xelmZRvanelobiT.58
64

progresulad unda iqnes miCneuli, rom rogorc sakavSiro, ise saqarTvelos ss respublikis kanonmdebloba aseve, iTvaliswinebda samoqalaqo davebis samediatoro sasamarTloebis mier gadawyvetis SesaZleblobas. saqarTvelos ssr samoqalaqo saproceso
kodeqsi Seicavda danarTs #3 saxelwodebiT, `debuleba samediatoro sasamarTloebis
Sesaxeb~. am debulebis 1 muxlis Sesabamisad, `moqalaqeebs SeuZliaT maT Soris warmoSobili yoveli dava gadasces gansaxilvelad samediatoro sasamarTlos, garda davisa,
romelic gamomdinareobs SromiTi da ojaxuri urTierTobidan.~ debulebis me-7 muxlis
Sesabamisad, `saqmis ganxilva samediatoro sasamarTloSi usasyidlod warmoebs~. debulebis me-2 muxliT, sasamarTlo iqmneboda mxareTa SeTanxmebiT erTi an ramdenime mosamarTlisagan, romelTac irCevdnen mxareebi. samediatoro sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba
Tanaxmad, saproceso kodeqsis 352-e muxlis me-10 punqtisa eqvemdebareboda iZulebiT
aRsrulebas. zemoaRniSnuli debulebis me-17 muxliT iZulebiTi aRsruleba SesaZlebeli iyo saxalxo sasamarTlos mier gacemuli saaRsrulebo furcliT. garda droebiT
konkretuli saqmeTa gadawyvetisaTvis Seqmnili samediatoro sasamarTloebisa, moqmedebda mudmivmoqmedi samediatoro sasamarTloebi.59
sabWoTa saqarTveloSi aseve, arsebobda arCeviTi sazogadoebrivi organo amxanaguri
sasamarTlo, romelic iqmneboda sawarmoebSi, dawesebulebebSi, organizaciebSi, umaRles da saSualo spec. saswavleblebSi, kolmeurneobebSi, dabebsa da soflebSi, saxlmmarTvelobebsa da quCis komitetebTan. sasamarTlos wevrebs weliwadSi erTxel Ria
kenWisyriT irCevda mSromelTa koleqtivis saerTo kreba. amxanaguri sasamarTloebi
ganixilavdnen Sromis disciplinis darRvevis da administraciuli gadacdomebis SemTxvevebs, roca saqme gadacemuli iyo saTanado organoebis mier, aseve, zogierTi samoqalaqo samarTlebrivi saqme (sacxovrebel da arasacxovrebel SenobaTa dazianeba, moqalaqeTa dava damxmare saTavsoebiT sargeblobis Taobaze da sxva). saqmeebi ganixileboda Ria sxdomaze da gadawyvetileba cxaddeboda sajarod. samarTaldamrRvevze SeiZleboda gamoyenebuli yofiliyo gafrTxileba, sazogadoebrivi gakicxva, jarima, sayveduri da sxva. gamotanili gadawyvetileba saboloo iyo, magram Tu igi ewinaaRmdegeboda
saqmis garemoebebs an moqmed kanonmdeblobas, profkavSiris Sesabamisi komitetis an adgilobrivi sabWos aRmaskomis winadadebiT amxanaguri sasamarTlo saqmes xelaxla arCevda.60
rac Seexeba saaRsrulebo warmoebas, is daregulirebuli gaxldaT 1964 wlis redaqciis saqarTvelos ssr samoqalaqo samarTlis saproceso kodeqsis V kariT. amave kodeqsis 362-e muxliT, `sasamarTloebisa da sxva organoebis dadgenilebaTa aRsrulebas
awarmoebdnen sasamarTlo aRmasruleblebi, romlebic raionul (saqalaqo) saxalxo sasamarTloebTan funqcionirebdnen.~ 363-e muxliT, kvlav, `gadawyvetilebaTa droulad
da sworad aRsrulebaze kontrols axorcielebs mosamarTle.~ SemdgomSi sasamarTlo
aRmasruleblebi aRmoCndnen ormag daqvemdebarebaSi, kerZod, maT niSnavda da aTavisuflebda iusticiis ministri, Tumca, isini sasamarTloebTan iyvnen da maT xelmZRvanelobas sasamarTlos Tavmjdomare axorcielebda. aseTma Taviseburma ormagma daqvemdebarebam realurad gamoiwvia sasamarTlo aRmasruleblebis moqmedebaTa ukontroloba.61 garda aRniSnulisa, sasamarTlo aRmasruleblis moqmedebis kanonierebaze kontrols axorcielebda prokuratura.62
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unda aRiniSnos, rom 1964 wlis redaqciis saqarTvelos ssr-is axali samoqalaqo samarTlis saproceso kodeqsiT arsebiTi cvlilebebi saaRsrulebo warmoebaSi ar ganxorcielebula. garda zemoaRniSnulisa, saaRsrulebo warmoeba regulirdeboda 1985
wlis 15 noembers ssrk-is ministrTa sabWos brZanebiT damtkicebuli instruqciiT `saaRsrulebo warmoebaTa Sesaxeb.~63

daskvna
saqarTvelSi, sabWoTa aneqsiis Semdeg, Camoyalibda aRmasrulebel xelisuflebaze
da mis politikur nebaze mniSvnelovnad damokidebuli sasamarTlo sistema. sabWoTa
kanonmdebloba ar scnobda saxelmwifo xelisuflebis danawilebas ramdenime Stod.
zemoaRniSnulidan gamomdinare, sasamarTlo organo sabWoTa periodSi saerTod ar
ganixileboda, rogorc `xelisufleba~. sasamarTloze prokuraturis zedamxedveli
funqcia mniSvnelovnad zRudavda mis damoukideblobas da Sesabamisad, gamoricxavda
samarTliani sasamarTlos arsebobas. samoqalaqo saqmis ganxilvisas, sasamarTlos
inkviciziuri xasiaTi, prokuroris monawileoba da misi SeuzRudavi roli ugulebelyofda iseT saproceso principebs, rogoricaa dispoziciurobis, SejibrebiTobis
da sxva principi, rac procesis monawile mxareebis uflebaTa arsebiTad SelaxvaSi
vlindeboda.
marTalia, kanoniT aRiarebuli iyo mosamarTleTa damoukidebloba da mosamarTled
gamweseba xdeboda arCevnebis gziT, magram, aRniSnuli realurad ver uzrunvelyofda
maT damoukideblobas, vinaidan arCevnebi atarebda formalur xasiaTs da amasTan,
aucilebeli iyo kandidatisaTvis komunisturi partiis wevroba, rac TavisTavad gamoricxavda mosamarTlis obieqturobas da damoukideblobas, vinaidan partiuli interesi
yvela sxva interesze maRla idga. aseve, sabWoTa sasamarTlos erT-erTi uaryofiTi
momenti iyo mosamarTleTa da msajulTa arakvalificiuroba.
garda zemoaRniSnulisa, aseve, uaryofiTad unda Sefasdes sabWoTa sasamarTlo sistemaSi apelaciis uqonloba.
rac Seexeba saaRsrulebo warmoebas, unda iTqvas, rom igi mTeli sabWoTa periodis
ganmavlobaSi, rogorc saqarTveloSi, ise mTels sabWoTa kavSirSi naklebad efeqturi
iyo.
miuxedavad yovelive zemoaRniSnulisa, sabWoTa periodis samoqalaqo samarTalwarmoeba da aRsruleba ar SeiZleba Sefasdes mxolod uaryofiTad, vinaidan aRniSnuli
periodis ganmavlobaSi, sxva rom araferi, dagrovda mdidari sasamarTlo praqtika.
aseve, pozitiurad unda miviCnioT davebis gadawyvetis sasamarTlos alternatiuli
saSualebebis _ arbitraJis, samediatoro da amxanaguri sasamarTloebis arseboba. Tumca, msgavsad sasamarTlo xelisuflebisa, aRniSnuli sistemebic gaxldnen politizebuli, vinaidan saqmis politikuri da saproceso mniSvneloba erTimeorisagan ganuyoflad iyo miCneuli.64

66

migvaCnia, rom Tanamedrove periodSi mimdinare samoqalaqo samarTalwarmoebis reformis warmatebisaTvis ualternativo gzaa aramarto sasamarTlo sistemis da saproceso kanonmdeblobis srulyofa, aramed iseTi sakanonmdeblo bazis Seqmna, romlis
pirobebSic erT-erTi mniSvnelovani adgili samoqalaqo samarTalwarmoebis sistemaSi
miCenili eqneba davaTa gadawyvetis saSualebebs sasamarTlos alternatiuli gzebiT.

gamoyenebuli literatura
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ISSUES OF CIVIL
PROCEEDINGS AND
EXECUTION IN
THE SOVIET GEORGIA
ZURAB CHKONIA
Doctoral Candidate, Technical University of Georgia

After the Soviet annexation of Georgia, the Judicial system of the state
became significantly dependant upon the executive authorities and their political wills. The Soviet legislation did not recognize the separation of state
authorities into several branches. Therefore, during the Soviet era, the judicial body was not considered as an authority at all. The supervisory function of the prosecutors office over the judiciary, limited its independence
and accordingly possibility of having fair trial was completely excluded. While
considering the civil cases, the inquisitive nature of the court, prosecutors
participation and his/her unrestricted role would disregard proceeding principles of disposition, adversity and others, that were reflected in substantial
violation of the rights of the Parties.
The law officially recognized the independence of judges and they were
elected on the bases of elections, but in reality, it still failed to guarantee their
independence. The elections were just a formality and at the same time, the
potential candidates were required to be the members of the Communist
party, which automatically excluded the possibility of having objective and
independent judge, since the Party interest was the priority. Lack of qualified
judges was one more negative side of the Soviet Judiciary.
Besides the above mentioned, the negative side of the soviet system was
the lack of possibility for the appeal.
As for the execution proceedings, we should say that during the entire
period of soviet time, in Georgia, as well as in entire Soviet Union, it was less
effective.
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Besides all above mentioned, the civil case proceedings during the soviet time and the execution may not be
evaluated only as negative. Along with other things, during this period, we have collected a very reach court
practice. Also, a very positive thing was possibility of alternative dispute resolution through arbitrage, mediation
and friendship courts. Although, similar to the judiciary, the above-mentioned systems were also extremely politicized. As the procedural and political meaning of the case were not differentiated.
We believe that in modern times, in order to ensure the success of the civil case proceedings, the only successful way is not just reformation of the judiciary and procedural legislations, but also introducing the legislation that
will allow and even prioritize the alternative dispute resolutions in civil case proceedings.

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vindikaciuri sarCeli,
rogorc sanivTo
uflebis dacvis
samarTlebrivi saSualeba
Ibi jus, ibi remedium _ sadac uflebaa, iqvea misi dacvis saSualebac

laura miqava
zugdidis raionuli sasamarTlos mosamarTle,
ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo
universitetis iuridiuli fakultetis doqtoranti

sakuTrebis uflebis dacva samarTlis arsebobisa da samarTlebrivi sistemis funqcionirebis erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi qvakuTxedia. sakuTrebis ufleba adamianis
fundamentur uflebaTa ricxvs ganekuTvneba, romlis gareSec SeuZlebelia demokratiuli saxelmwifos arseboba.
saqarTvelos sakonstituco sasamarTlos erT-erT gadawyvetilebaSi vkiTxulobT: `sakuTreba aris instituti, romelic saxelmwifos ekonomikur safuZvels warmoadgens.
sakuTrebis uflebis dacva ucxoa totalitaruli saxelmwifosaTvis, xolo demokratiuli, samarTlebrivi da socialuri saxelmwifosaTvis sasicocxlod aucilebelia
erTi mxriv, sakuTrebis, rogorc institutis konstituciursamarTlebrivi garantireba, xolo meore mxriv _ mesakuTrisaTvis, rogorc subieqtisaTvis uflebis samarTlebrivi dacvis sakmarisi saSualebebis miniWeba, misi xelSewyobisa da uzrunvelyofis garantiebis Seqmna. sakuTrebis uflebis ignorireba gamoricxavs Tavisufali sabazro ekonomikis ganviTarebas mTlianad sazogadoebisa da mis
calkeul wevrTa Rirseuli cxovrebis uzrunvelyofas da
politikur, ekonomikur Tu socialur stabilurobas. de72

mokratiuli, samarTlebrivi da socialuri saxelmwifos ekonomikuri siZliere swored


sakuTrebis uflebis pativiscemasa da dacvas eyrdnoba.~1
sakuTrebis ufleba warmoSobilia adamianis bunebidan, vinaidan igi individualuri
survilebis ganviTarebis saSualebaa. sakuTreba fundamentur rols asrulebs ekonomikaSi imdenad, ramdenadac uzrunvelyofs qonebis mimoqcevas, mis moxmarebasa da eqspluatacias, simdidris wyaros. sakuTreba aris konkretuli gamoyeneba Tavisuflebisa
romelic icavs adamianebis Tanasworobas sakuTrebaze Tavisuflad xelmisawvdomobis
meSveobiT da aseve, icavs maT Rirsebas, qonebis gamoyenebisas pasuxismgeblobis gziT.
sakuTreba sazogadoebrivi urTierTobebisa da ekonomikuri saqmianobis safuZvelia,
misi dacva Tanabar SesaZleblobas iZleva, arapirdapir uzrunvelvyoT mTeli rigi fundamenturi uflebebis dacva (mrewvelobis Tavisufleba, socialuri da ekonomikuri
urTierTobebis Tavisufleba, Tanasworoba, Rirseba, samarTali).2
bunebrivia, demokratiuli saxelmwifos arseboba praqtikulad, SeuZlebelia sakuTrebis uflebis dasacavad myari samarTlebrivi garantiebis Seqmnisa da maTi realurad
uzrunvelyofis gareSe.
rogorc zemoT aRiniSna, sakuTrebis ufleba waruvali da uzenaesi adamianuri Rirebulebaa, demokratiuli sazogadoebisa da samarTlebrivi saxelmwifos qvakuTxedia.
Tumca, sakuTrebis uflebis ganxorcielebam ar unda daarRvios sxvaTa uflebebi, sakuTrebiT sargebloba imavdroulad unda emsaxurebodes saerTo keTildReobas, vinaidan sakuTreba adamianis yofierebis arsebiTi safuZvelia. aseve aRiniSna isic, rom
sakuTrebis ufleba adamianis ZiriTad uflebaTa jgufs ganekuTvneba, xolo `ZiriTadi
uflebebis dacva SeuZlebelia, Tuki, ar arsebobs uflebaTa saerTo wesrigi. es wesrigi
adamianis organizmiviTaa da rac ufro janmrTelia igi, miT ufro garantirebulia
aRniSnuli uflebebis dacva. sakuTrebis uflebis garantiebs sakuTrebiTi wesrigi
qmnis. samoqalaqo brunvis wesrigi safuZvelia samoqalaqo uflebebis realizaciisaTvis. nebismieri uflebis dacva samarTlebrivi wesrigis sivrceSi unda jdebodes~.3 saqarTveloSi sakuTrebis arsebobis da dacvis fundamentur garantias qmnis saqarTvelos
konstitucia, romlis 21-e muxlis pirveli punqtis Tanaxmad, `sakuTreba da memkvidreobis ufleba aRiarebuli da uzrunvelyofilia. dauSvebelia sakuTrebis, misi SeZenis,
gasxvisebis an memkvidreobiT miRebis sayovelTao uflebis gauqmeba.~ sakuTrebis ufleba aRiarebulia adamianis uflebaTa da ZiriTad TavisuflebaTa dacvis evropuli
konvenciis pirveli damatebiTi oqmiT, romlis pirveli muxlis Tanaxmad: `yovel fizikur da iuridiul pirs aqvs Tavisi sakuTrebiT Seuferxeblad sargeblobis ufleba...~
2001 wlis 27 dekembers, saqarTvelos parlamentma 1950 wlis evropuli konvenciis pirveli damatebiTi oqmis ratificireba moaxdina,4 riTac Tavisi iurisdiqciis farglebSi,
sakuTar Tavze aiRo sakuTrebis uflebis dacvis uzrunvelyofis valdebuleba. swored
saxelmwifos valdebuleba, uzrunvelyos sakuTrebis ufleba, moiTxovs Sesabamisi samarTlebrivi wesrigis, maT Soris, kerZosamarTlebrivi wesrigis Seqmnas. sakuTrebis
uflebis sruli da efeqtiani dacvisaTvis aucilebelia adekvaturi, srulyofili da
detalurad gawerili procedurebis arseboba, raTa mesakuTrem SeZlos qonebis kuTvnilebis marTlzomierebaze dava da am gziT uzrunvelyofil iqnes sakuTrebis insti73

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tutis xelSeuxebloba. yovelive es kanonmdebels avaldebulebs, Seqmnas materialur


da procesualur normaTa iseTi sistema, romelic am institutis arsebobas eWvqveS ar
daayenebs.
samarTlebriv saxelmwifoSi yvelaze mniSvnelovania samarTlebrivi garantiebi sakuTrebis uflebebis dacvis sferoSi. Tavis mxriv, sakuTrebis uflebebis dacvis garantiebi gamoxatulebas poulobs kanonis calkeul normebSi, romlebic akontroleben
sakuTrebasTan dakavSirebul uflebebs, adgenen misi ganxorcielebis wesebsa da dacvis
saSualebebs. es normebi unda icavdes TiToeuli piris sakuTrebis uflebas, rac aseve,
moicavs mesakuTris samarTlebriv SesaZleblobas, nebismieri sxva piris mxridan mis
sakuTrebaSi ukanono Carevis SemTxvevaSi, sakuTrebis uflebis dasacavad sarCeliT
warsdges sasamarTloSi. sainteresoa, evro sasamarTlos ganmarteba, sadac saubaria,
rom `nebismieri RonisZieba, romelic ereva sakuTrebiT daubrkoleblad sargeblobis
uflebis gamoyenebaSi, samarTlian wonasworobas unda amyarebdes sazogadoebis zogadi
interesis moTxovnilebebsa da individis ZiriTadi uflebebis dacvis moTxovnebs
Soris.~5 aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom demokratiul sazogadoebaSi sakuTrebis uflebis
garanti kanonis uzenaesobaa, xolo kanonis uzenaesobis umaRlesi damcveli _ sasamarTlo. davis SemTxvevaSi, mxolod sasamarTlos gziT sakuTrebis dacvas SeuZlia uzrunvelyos am fundamenturi uflebis realizacia.
sasamarTlos gziT sakuTrebis uflebis dacvis samoqalaqosamarTlebriv saSualebebs Soris erT-erT umniSvnelovanes da uZveles samarTlebriv meqanizms vindikaciuri
sarCeli warmoadgens, romlis ZaliTac mesakuTre uflebamosilia sxvisi ukanono mflobelobidan gamoiTxovos nivTi (moaxdinos nivTis vindicireba). vindikaciuri sarCeli,
rogorc sakuTrebis uflebis dacvis sanivTosamarTlebrivi saSualeba, uzrunvelyofs
kanonis ZaliT sakuTrebis uflebis dacvas. vindikaciur sarCels mravali qveynis samarTali icnobs, Tavdapirvelad ki, igi Zveli romis civilur samarTalSi warmoiSva (rei
vindicatio da actio negatoria). gaiusis6 azriT _ sanivToa sarCeli (actio in rem), roca vacxadebT
pretenzias sxeulebrivi nivTis kuTvnilebaze. nivTze sakuTrebis uflebis warmoSobisaTvis romis samarTlis mixedviT saWiro iyo nivTis gadacema _ "tradicio". adamianebs
Soris nivTebis Taobaze warmoqmnili urTierTobebi sanivTo samarTliT wesrigdeboda,
romliTac calkeul pirTa an pirTa jgufebisaTvis nivTebis kuTvnilebis forma da maTi
sruli gankargvis dadgena xdeboda. Zveli romauli samarTlis mixedviT nivTze sakuTrebis uflebis (dominium)7 safuZvelze, nivTis mimarT nivTis mesakuTres absoluturi
samarTlebrivi pozicia hqonda. nivTze sakuTrebis uflebis Taobaze gamarTul sasamarTlo procesze (in rem) mesakuTres, nebismier mesame pirze, maT Soris, imave nivTze raime
sxva uflebis mqoneze, gacilebiT myari samarTlebrivi mdgomareoba hqonda. amitom
sakuTrebis uflebiT yovelgvari samarTlebrivi SezRudvis gareSe, nivTze piris abstraqtuli kuTvnileba (proprietas) sruli moculobiT igulisxmeboda. maSasadame, mxolod mesakuTres SeeZlo eTqva, rom nivTi mxolod mas ekuTvnoda (meum esse aio).
romauli samarTlis mixedviT, `vindikaciur sarCelze ufleba mesakuTres eniWeboda
im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac vinme TavisTan akavebda mesakuTris kuTvnil nivTs da ar ubrunebda mas. amdenad, pirs sakuTrebis uflebis srulad darRvevisas rei vindicatio
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eniWeboda.8 `vindikaciuri sarCelis meSveobiT mflobel aramesakuTres edaveboda


mesakuTre aramflobeli. TiToeuli modave mxareTagani acxadebda magistratis winaSe
sakuTari mesakuTruli uflebebis Sesaxeb da Tavisi naTqvamis dasadastureblad joxs
_ `viniktas~ daadebda sadavo nivTs. aqedan warmoiSva saxelwodeba vindikacuri
procesi, sadac mosarCeles awva mtkicebis tvirTi _ `onus propadi~. es ki imas niSnavda,
rom mosarCeles unda emtkicebina, rom sadavo nivTi mas ekuTvnoda sakuTrebis uflebiT, xolo mopasuxe ar iyo valdebuli raime emtkicebina misi uflebis Sesaxeb. `iTvleboda, rom mopasuxis sasargeblod metyvelebda TviT nivTis flobis faqti. im SemTxvevaSi, Tu mosarCele ver SeZlebda Tavisi kanonieri uflebis damtkicebas, rom nivTi
mas ekuTvnoda sakuTrebis uflebiT, mas sarCelze uars etyodnen. romis samoqalaqo
samarTals Camoyalibebuli hqonda wesi: sadac me vipovni Cems nivTs, iq vavendicireb _
vibruneb (Ubi meam rem invenio, ibi eam vindicio). Rei indicatio-s meSveobiT xdeboda mesakuTris
uflebis dacva, romelsac misi nebis sawinaaRmdegod CamoarTves nivTis flobis ufleba.
civilur mesakuTres SeeZlo vindikaciuri sarCelis wardgena im SemTxvevaSi, Tu
moxdeboda mis sakuTrebaSi arsebuli nivTis flobis xelyofa. mosarCele sasarCelo
moTxovnas im mopasuxes uyenebda, romelic uSualod flobda sadavo nivTs.
rogorc zemoT aRiniSna, davis SemTxvevaSi, mopasuxes ukeTesi mdgomareoba hqonda,
vinaidan swored mosarCeles awva mtkicebis tvirTi, rom sadavo nivTze sakuTrebis ufleba mxolod mas ekuTvnoda, amitom xSirad vindikaciur process win uswrebda ganxilva,
Tu ramdenad marTlzomierad flobda nivTs mopasuxe. romauli samarTlis mixedviT,
nivTze mflobelobis aRdgena sami aspeqtis gaTvaliswinebiT unda momxdariyo: 1.nivTis
nayofisa da damatebiTi nawilebis daangariSeba; 2. im xarjebis dacva, rolmlebic nivTis
mflobelma nivTis mimarT gaswia; 3. nivTisaTvis miyenebuli zianis an zaralis Sedegebi.
samive aspeqtis Sinaarsze gavlenas axdenda mosamarTlis gadawyvetileba imis Taobaze,
iyo Tu ara nivTis faqtobrivi mflobeli-mopasuxe keTilsindisieri an arakeTilsindisieri (possessio icesta, possesssio inuista (vitiosa)) SemZeni.
romis samarTlis mixedviT, nivTi mesakuTres ubrundeboda nayofisa da namatis CaTvliT. mflobelis mier nivTis mimarT gaweuli xarjebi sami kriteriumiT fasdeboda: 1.
aucilebeli xarjebi, romelTa gaweva gardauvali iyo nivTis Senaxvis mizniT; 2. sasargeblo xarjebi, romlebmac xeli Seuwyves nivTis gadidebas an gaumjobesebas; 3. TviTneburi an fuWi xarjebi, romelTa mizani ar iyo sameurneo efeqtis miReba da Sesabamisad,
ar SeiZleboda maTi xarjebis safasurSi CaTvla. klasikur samarTalSi, keTilsindisieri mflobelis mier gaweuli saWiro da sasargeblo xarjebis anazRaureba nivTis mesakuTres evaleboda, Tu aseTi xarjebis gaweva davis sagnis (litis colntestatio) dadgenamde
moxdeboda. keTilsindisieri mflobeli mxolod im zianis gamo agebda pasuxs, romelic
nivTs misi braleuli qmedebis Sedegad miadga, Tumca, mxolod davis sagnis (litis colntestatio)
dadgenamde da araviTar SemTxvevaSi, mis Semdgom. arakeTilsindisieri mflobeli ki,
pasuxismgebeli iyo nebismier viTarebaSi. `nivTi mesakuTres ubrundeboda mflobelis
keTilsindisierebis miuxedavad, vinaidan romis samoqalaqo samarTali idga SeuzRudavi
vindikaciis poziciaze.~9 qarTul feodalur samarTalSic sapatio adgili hqonda daTmobili vindikacias. amasTan dakavSirebiT vaxtang meeqvsis samarTlis wignma Semogvinaxa
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Zveli qarTuli wesi _ `kaci Tavis saqonels icnobs, Suas wyalSi CaeWidebiso~ (158-e
muxli).~10
romanul-germanuli samarTlebrivi sistemis qveynebSi sakuTrebis uflebis dasacavad aseve, gamoiyeneba vindikaciuri sarCeli _ sasarCelo moTxovnis gziT mesakuTris
mier sxvisi ukanono mflobelobidan nivTis gamoTxovaze. imdenad, ramdenadac vindikaciur sarCels aqvs mizani daicvas mesakuTris interesi konkretuli obieqtis mimarT,
romelic gamovida mesakuTris xelidan da ara raime kompensaciis micema nivTis dakargvis safasurad, is gankuTvnilia mesakuTris uflebis dasacavad individualurad gansazRvrul saqonelze an im sagnebze, romlebic SeiZleba iyvnen individualizebulni.
es ar niSnavs, rom gansazRvrul situaciaSi vindikaciuri sarCelis wardgena ar SeiZleba
damTavrdes mosarCelis mimarT saTanado anazRaurebis gadaxdiT. aseTi anazRaureba
gaTvaliswinebulia germaniis samoqalaqo samarTalSi, kerZod, im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac
sasamarTloSi saqmis aRZvris Semdeg, saqoneli daiRupa mflobeli-mopasuxis braliT
(par. 989 gsk).11
romis samarTlis gavleniT, rei vindicatio-s iTvaliswinebs franguli samarTali.
Tumca, aRniSnuli sarCelebi, safrangeTis samoqalaqo kodeqsis normaTa Sinaarsidan
gamomdinare, eniWeboda, rogorc wesi, mxolod miwis nakveTis mesakuTres.12 safrangeTSi
wesebi vindikaciur sarCelze ar aris gaTvaliswinebuli samoqalaqo kodeqsiT, magram
damuSavebulia doqtriniT da sasamarTlo praqtikiT.13 aseTi SezRudva ar arsebobs
germaniis samoqalaqo kodeqsSi, romelSic sakuTrebis uflebidan gamomdinare, moTxovnis uflebebi, maT Soris, nivTis ukanono mflobelobidan gamoTxovis Sesaxeb moTxovnebi SemuSavebulia mesame wignis meoTxe TavSi (par. 985-1007 gsk); italiis samoqalaqo
kodeqsSi sakuTrebis uflebidan gamomdinare moTxovnis uflebebs daTmobili aqvs 948949 muxlebi; kvebekis samoqalaqo kodeqsSi _ 929-e, 953-e muxlebi; holandiis samoqalaqo
kodeqsSi ki, 5:1 muxlis me-2 punqti.
germaniis samoqalaqo kodeqsis mixedviT vindikaciuria sarCeli, rodesac qonebis
aramflobeli mesakuTre sarCeliT iTxovs mflobeli aramesakuTris mier am qonebis
dabrunebas (par. 985, 1004 gsk). germaniis samoqalaqo samarTalSi arsebobs prezumfcia,
rom moZravi qonebis mflobeli iTvleba mis mesakuTred (par. 1006 gsk); safrangeTis
samoqalaqo kodeqsis mixedviT (2279 fsk) `moZravi qonebis mflobeloba erTgvarovania
masze uflebamosilebis~ (analogiurad aris mowesrigebuli es sakiTxi Sveicariis samoqalaqo kodeqsiT _ 930 Ssk).`mesakuTres, romelic axorcielebs vindikacias nivTze
(saqonelze) SeuZlia mimarTos sxvadasxva xerxs, raTa gaaqarwylos miTiTebuli prezumfcia da mtkiceba imisa, rom mopasuxe aris am qonebis mflobeli. uwinares yovlisa, mesakuTres aqvs saSualeba amtkicos, rom mopasuxis mier ganxorcielebuli mflobeloba
ar Seesabameba moTxovnebs, romlebsac iTvaliswinebs kanoni mflobelobis dacvaze, mopasuxem unda amtkicos kanonieri safuZvlis arseboba _ masze gacemuli sakuTrebis
ufleba, miuxedavad imisa, rom es ewinaaRmdegeba prezumfcias _ dawesebuls mis sasargeblod da Tu is ver SeZlebs daamtkicos aRniSnulis arseboba, nivTi iqneba gamoTxovili, anu CamorTmeuli mosarCele-mesakuTris sasargeblod; mesakuTris interesebis dasacavad SeiZleba gamoyenebul iqnes sxva xerxic, kerZod, mas aqvs ufleba warmo76

adginos mopasuxis mier mflobelobis ganxorcielebis arakeTilsindisieri xasiaTis


mtkicebulebebi. am SemTxvevaSi zemoT naxsenebi prezumfcia ar aTavisuflebs mopasuxemflobels nivTze misi mflobelobis safuZvlebze miTiTebisagan, kerZod, man unda
waradginos mtkicebuleba (aqti), ris safuZvelzec mas ergo es nivTi dabolos, mosarCele-mesakuTrem SeiZleba miuTiTos mtkicebulebaze, rom mopasuxem arakeTilsindisierad Caigdo xelSi nivTi. magaliTad: icoda, rom is iyo moparuli, dakarguli an
sxvagvarad gasuli mesakuTris mflobelobidan, es debuleba, rogorc gamonaklisi saerTo prezumfciisagan (par. 1006) aRiarebulia agreTve, franguli sasamarTlo praqtikiT.vindikaciis pirobebSi mesakuTre valdebulia daamtkicos ara marto qurdobis
faqti an nivTis dakargva (gaqroba) misi nebis gareSe, aramed nivTis SemZeni mopasuxemflobelis arakeTilsindisiereba. ganviTarebuli qveynebis samoqalaqo samarTali (par.
932 gsk, 933 Ssk, 2-403 aSS, franguli sasamarTlo praqtika), romelic uzrunvlyofs
keTilsindisieri SemZenis intersebis dacvas, iTvaliswinebs seriozul zRvars mesakuTris mier nivTis gamoTxovaze. saerTo principis Tanaxmad, nivTi SeiZleba iyos gamoTxovili mesakuTris mier mxolod arakeTilsindisieri mflobelisagan.14 aseT mflobelad
igulisxmeba pirovneba, romelic marTlsawinaaRmdegod daeufla nivTs, an icoda, rom
iZens am nivTs arauflebamosili pirisagan (magaliTad, Semnaxvelisagan, romelic marTlsawinaaRmdegod daeufla aRniSnul nivTs _ par. 932 gsk). keTilsindisieri mflobelis uflebebi kanoniT daculia am nivTis aramflobeli mesakuTrisagan. keTilsindisierad iTvleba is mflobeli, romelic uxeSi daudevrobis gareSe moqmedebs, ar icis,
rom nivTi (saqoneli) ar ekuTvnis mis gamsxvisebels (par. 932 gsk). gamonakliss warmoadgens mxolod SemTxveva, roca xdeba iseTi nivTis ukan dabruneba, romelic gamosulia
mesakuTris mflobelobidan misi nebis gareSe. nivTis vindikaciis SemTxvevaSi, romelic
SeZenil iqna sajaro bazrobaze (par. 932-935 gsk).15moZravi nivTi, keTilsindisierad
SeZenili nebismieri pirisagan, maT Soris, mis gasxvisebaze arauflebamosilisaganac,
ar SeiZleba gamoTxovil iqnes mesakuTris mier, is xdeba SemZenis sakuTreba. `piri, romelsac aqvs sakamaTo tituli, SeuZlia gadasces srulfasovani tituli keTilsindisier
SemZens anazRaurebad sawyisebze~ (2-403 aSS). aseTi pozicia ganapirobebs saxelmwifos
miswrafebas gaamartivos samoqalaqo brunva, gamoricxos SemZenis mier yvela SemTxvevaSi, Semowmeba gamsxviseblis uflebamosilebisa, rac xels uSlis samoqalaqo brunvis
ganviTarebas. miwasTan dakavSirebuli saqmianoba eqvemdebareba specialur gaformebas,
sadac ufro advilia gamsxviseblis uflebis dadgena. saerTo wesidan keTilsindisieri
SemZenis dasacavad keTdeba gamonaklisi imasTan dakavSirebiT, Tu ra pirobebSi dakarga
mesakuTrem qoneba, pirveli gamonaklisi aris nivTis dakargva mesakuTris nebis gareSe.
safrangeTis samoqalaqo kodeqsis Tanaxmad, qurdobis an sxva gziT nivTis dakargvisas
mesakuTres aqvs ufleba mosTxovos nivTi keTilsindisier mflobels sami wlis vadaSi
dRidan dakargvisa an qurdobisa (2279 fsk), germaniis samoqalaqo kodeqsis mixedviT,
mesakuTre uflebamosilia mosTxovos keTilsindisier SemZens praqtikulad, yvela
saqonlis dabruneba, romelic misi nebis gareSea gasuli misi mflobelobidan. meore
gamonaklisi exeba saqonlis vindikacias, romelic SeZenilia sajaro vaWrobis dros
(auqcionze). germaniis samoqalaqo kodeqsis Tanaxmad, aseT SemTxvevaSi, ar aris daSve77

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buli nivTis gamoTxova mesakuTris mier (par. 935 gsk). franguli samarTliT vindikacia
SeiZleba nivTis keTilsindisieri SemZenisagan, magram im pirobiT rom mas gadaecema
fuladi anazRaureba, rac man gadaixada am nivTze (2280 fsk). amavdroulad mesakuTre
uflebamosilia moiTxovos misi saqonlis ara marto dabruneba, aramed nivTis nayofi
da Semosavalic. arakeTilsindisieri mflobeli valdebulia gadasces yvela nayofi da
Semosavali, romelic miRebuli aqvs qonebis gamoyenebis dros, keTilsindisieri
mflobeli ki, valdebulia gadasces is nayofi da Semosavali, romelic miRebulia im
droidan, roca man gaigo arakanonier mflobelobaze an sarCelis wardgenis mere. Tu
es saqoneli mas aqvs SeZenili anazRaurebis gareSe, maSin is valdebulia nayofi da Semosavali gadasces usafuZvlo gamdidrebis wesiT (par. 987-988, 990 gsk). garda valdebulebisa, daubrunos nayofi da Semosavali, mflobeli valdebulia aunazRauros mesakuTres dakarguli sargebeli (par. 987 gsk). Tanaxmad kvebekis samoqalaqo kodeqsisa,
nayofsa da Semosavals ubrunebs mxolod keTilsindisieri mflobeli im droidan, roca
misi mflobeloba gaxda arakeTilsindisieri. mflobels, visganac vindicirebulia (gamoTxovilia) nivTi, aqvs ufleba aunazRauron aucilebeli xarjebi mis Senaxvaze. rogorc keTilsindisier, ise arakeTilsindisier mflobels aqvs ufleba Sesabamisi anazRaurebis: safrangeTSi_ mTeli mflobelobis dros (1381 fsk), germaniaSi _ sasamarTloSi sarCelis aRZvramde (par. 994 gsk), Sveicariis samoqalaqo kodeqsiT, mxolod keTilsindisier mflobels aqvs ufleba xarjebis anazRaurebaze da rogorc germanul
samarTalSi _ aqvs ufleba iqonios nivTi im dromde, vidre meore mxare ar aanazRaurebs
xarjebs (939-940 Ssk, par. 1000 gsk). mflobels aseve, aqvs ufleba moiTxovos xarjebis
anazRaureba, romelic man gaswia saqonlis gaumjobesebaze im dromde, roca misTvis
cnobili gaxda samarTlebrivi safuZvlis gareSe, mflobelobis Sesaxeb. safrangeTSi,
SveicariaSi, germaniaSi aseT xarjebs uwodeben sasargeblo xarjebs (1381 fsk, 939 Ssk).
Tanaxmad, germaniis samoqalaqo kodeqsisa, isini ganisazRvrebian, rogorc mflobelis
xarjebi, ris gamoc gaizarda saqonlis Rirebuleba (par. 996 gsk).16 aRniSnulidan gamomdinare, vindikaciuri sarCelis pirobebSi mesakuTrisa da nivTis mflobels Soris
urTierTobebi moicavs Semdegi saxis urTierTmavaldebulebel moTxovnebs: roca mesakuTres SeuZlia mosTxovos mflobels nivTis gadacema; roca mesakuTres aqvs ufleba
mosTxovos zaralis anazRaureba nivTis gauaresebis an ganadgurebasTan dakavSirebiT;
mesakuTres SeuZlia mosTxovos Semosavlebis dabruneba, miRebuli mflobelis mier
nivTis gamoyenebis Sedegad; roca mesakuTre piriqiT, valdebulia aunazRauros mflobels xarjebi, romlebic dakavSirebulia nivTis SenaxvasTan (e. w. `saWiro xarjebi~).17
naTelia, rom vindikaciuri sarCelis arsi sakuTrebis absoluturi bunebidan momdinareobs. saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsis 170-e muxlis Tanaxmad, mesakuTres SeuZlia kanonismieri an sxvagvari, kerZod, saxelSekrulebo SeboWvis farglebSi Tavisuflad flobdes da sargeblobdes qonebiT (nivTiT), ar dauSvas sxva pirTa mier am qonebiT
sargebloba, gankargos igi. amave muxlis me-3 nawilis, agreTve ssk 158-e muxlis Sesabamisad, mesakuTres ufleba aqvs ar flobdes an ar sargeblobdes kuTvnili nivTiT.
amdenad, mesakuTres aqvs sakuTari nivTis Tavisufali flobisa da sargeblobis ufleba,
Tu ar arsebobs sargeblobis aucilebeli socialuri interesi. es ki, gulisxmobs
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mesakuTris Tavisuflebas, nebismier dros daeuflos kuTvnil nivTs an isargeblos am


nivTiT, maT Soris, gamoiTxovos kuTvnili nivTi sxva piris ukanono mflobelobidan.
ukanono mflobelobidan nivTis gamoTxovis ufleba mesakuTris prerogativaa da mas
SeuZlia nivTis mflobels mosTxovos nivTis dabruneba sasamarTloSi sarCelis Setanis
gziT. yovel konkretul SemTxvevaSi, vindikaciuri sarCelis aRZvris safuZveli vlindeba ukanono mflobelobaSi arsebuli qonebis gamoTxovaSi _ ukanono, anu samarTlebrivi safuZvlis gareSe, mesakuTris nebis sawinaaRmdegod arsebuli qonebis mopasuxis mflobelobidan gamoTxovaSi. maSasadame, gansaxilveli sarCeli miznad isaxavs
arauflebamosil pirTagan nivTis gamoTxovas da mis gadacemas uflebamosili pirisaTvis. aRniSnul urTierTobas awesrigebs saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsis 172-e muxlis
pirveli nawili, kerZod, `mesakuTres SeuZlia mflobels mosTxovos nivTis ukan dabruneba, garda im SemTxevebisa, roca mflobels hqonda am nivTis flobis ufleba~. mflobelis mimarT mesakuTres wardgenili unda hqondes dasabuTebuli pretenzia, amisaTvis
vindikaciuri sarCeli unda akmayofilebdes ssk 172-e muxlis pirveli nawilis Semadgenel sam elements:
1. mosarCele unda iyos nivTis mesakuTre;
2. mopasuxe unda iyos nivTis mflobeli;
3. mopasuxes ar unda hqondes am nivTis flobis ufleba (normis aRwerilobiTi nawilis
e.w. negatiuri, uaryofiTi Semadgeneli elementi).
mxolod mas Semdeg, rodesac mosamarTle am samive winapirobis (normis aRwerilobiTi
nawilis Semadgeneli elementebis) arsebobas daadgens, SeuZlia ganawesos samarTlebrivi Sedegi: mosarCelis sasargeblod mopasuxisaTvis ukanono mflobelobidan nivTis
gamoTxovis dakisreba.18
rogorc zemoT aRiniSna, vindikaciuri sarCelis dakmayofilebis pirveli pirobaa,
rom mosarCele unda iyos nivTis mesakuTre. saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsis 172-e
muxlis 1-li nawilis normiT dadgenili moTxovnis ufleba ekuTvnis, rogorc moZravi,
ise uZravi nivTis mesakuTres. nivTis ukanono mflobelobidan gamoTxova aseve, SeuZlia
erT-erT TanamesakuTresac, Tu adgili aqvs saerTo sakuTrebaSi arsebul nivTze ukanono mflobelobis ganxorcielebas. am SemTxvevaSi, TanamesakuTrem nivTi unda gamoiTxovos mxolod mTlianad, yvela TanamesakuTris sasargeblod da ara mxolod Tavisi
wilis farglebSi (saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsis 173-e muxlis 1-li nawilis me-3
winadadeba). vindikaciaze uflebis subieqtia mesakuTre (mosarCele), xolo valdebulebis subieqtia aramarTlzomieri mflobeli (mopasuxe), romelic faqtobrivad flobs
sadavo nivTs moTxovnis wardgenis momentisaTvis. `vindikaciis viTarebaSi mesakuTres
SerCenili aqvs mxolod nivTze sakuTrebis ufleba, romelic TavisTavad aramaterialuri uflebaa da vis xelSic ar unda iyos sakuTrebis obieqti, mesakuTres es ufleba ar
waerTmeva. vindicirebis wesi mTlianad damokidebulia, Tu ra gziTaa gamosuli mesakuTris xelidan sakuTrebis obieqti~,19 iyo Tu ara nivTis mflobeli am nivTis keTilsindisieri SemZeni. kanonmdebloba mesakuTrisa da keTilsindisieri SemZenis interesTa
konfliqtis sakiTxs gansxvavebulad awesrigebs moZravi da uZravi qonebis brunvis
SemTxvevaSi. Tu pirvel SemTxvevaSi, wina planze dgas qonebis mesakuTris interesebi,
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meore SemTxvevaSi, prioriteti eZleva keTilsindisieri SemZenis interesebs. uZrav


qonebaze sakuTrebis warmoSobisaTvis `aucilebelia garigebis werilobiTi formiT
dadeba da SemZenze am garigebiT gansazRvruli sakuTrebis uflebis registracia sajaro reestrSi~ (ssk 183-e muxli). `uZravi qonebis SeZenis es wesi ganapirobebs keTilsindisieri SemZenis interesebis dacvis mowesrigebas. samoqalaqo kodeqsis 185-e muxlSi
aRniSnulia: `SemZenis interesebidan gamomdinare, gamsxvisebeli iTvleba mesakuTred,
Tu igi aseTad aris registrirebuli sajaro reestrSi, garda im SemTxvevebisa, roca
SemZenma icoda, rom gamsxvisebeli ar iyo mesakuTre~. keTilsindisieri SemZenis aseTi
uflebrivi mdgomareoba gamowveulia sajaro reestris specifikuri daniSnulebiT
samoqalaqo brunvis meqanizmSi. `uZravi nivTis gamsxviseblis mesakuTred miCnevisaTvis
SemZenisaTvis sakmaris safuZvelia, rom gamsxvisebeli mesakuTred registrirebuli
iyos sajaro reestrSi.Tumca, am wesidan gamonaklisi dadgenilia amave normiT. es is
SemTxvevaa, rodesac SemZenma icis, rom sajaro reestrSi registrirebuli gamsxvisebeli
ar aris mesakuTre. amdenad, aRniSnuli normiT dawesebuli SemZenis keTilsindisierebis
dadgenisaTvis, sakmarisi ar aris mxolod sajaro reestris monacemebis gaTvaliswineba,
vinaidan mocemul SemTxvevaSi, arsebiTi sakiTxia mesakuTris vinaobisadmi SemZenis
subieqturi damokidebuleba (icoda Tu ar icoda). Sesabamisad, SemZenis interesebis
dacvis maregulirebeli normis gamoyenebisas unda Semowmdes rogorc sajaro reestris
monacemebi, aseve utyuarad unda dadgindes, rom SemZenma ar icoda qonebis sxva
mesakuTris Taobaze.~20 sxva SemTxvevaSi reestris monacemebs kanonmdebeli apriorulad
utyuarobisa da sisrulis niSniT naTlavs. samoqalaqo kodeqsis 312-e muxliT: `1. reestris monacemebis mimarT moqmedebs utyuarobisa da sisrulis prezumfcia e.i. reestris Canawerebi iTvleba sworad, vidre ar damtkicdeba maTi uzustoba. 2. im piris
sasargeblod, romelic garigebis safuZvelze sxva pirisagan iZens romelime uflebas
da es ufleba gamsxviseblis saxelze iyo reestrSi registrirebuli, reestris Canaweri
iTvleba sworad, garda im SemTxvevebisa, roca am Canaweris sawinaaRmdegod Setanilia
saCivari, an SemZenma icoda, rom Canaweri uzustoa~. amgvarad, roca saqme exeba uZravi
qonebis SeZenas, aq sajaro reestris (uflebis registraciis faqtis) sandoobis prezumfcia gvaqvs saxeze, romelic warmoadgens samoqalaqo brunvis garants da emsaxureba
brunvis monawilis interesebis uzrunvelyofas da dacvas. aRniSnuli principis safuZvelze, obieqturad arsebuli faqti _ sajaro reestrSi uflebis registracia, icavs
ndobisa da keTilsindisierebis princips sajaro reestrSi registraciaunarian uflebebis gankargvis dros da misi sisworis prezumfcia exeba rogorc adrindeli mesakuTris, aseve, axali SemZenis uflebebs. mag.: a-m sarCeli aRZra sasamarTloSi b-s mimarT
da moiTxova ukanono mflobelobidan nivTis gamoTxova im safuZvliT, rom sadavo qoneba warmoadgenda mis sakuTrebas, rac dasturdeboda g-sTan dadebuli yidva-gayidvis
xelSekrulebiT, xolo `b~ aRniSnul qonebas flobda ukanonod. b-m sarCeli ar cno,
vinaidan igi sadavo qonebas flobda d-sTan dadebuli qiravnobis xelSekrulebis safuZvelze. sasamarTlom dadgenilad miiCnia, rom sadavo qonebis mesakuTre iyo `a~, vinaidan
misi sakuTrebis ufleba uZrav qonebaze dasturdeboda sajaro reestris monacemebiT,
xolo `b~ ki, flobda qonebas, magram ar gaaCnda misi flobis ufleba, vinaidan man qirav80

nobis xelSekruleba dado d-sTan, romelic ar warmoadgenda aRniSnuli qonebis mesakuTres. sasamarTlom sruliad samarTlianad b-s daakisra sadavo farTobis gamonTavisuflebis movaleoba. dasaxelebuli normebidan naTlad Cans, rom uZravi nivTis
keTilsindisieri SeZena am qonebaze sakuTrebis SeZenis TaviseburebiTaa ganpirobebuli.
uZravi qonebis SeZenisas dapirispirebul mxareebs Soris dgas, uxeSad rom vTqvaT,
`arbitri~, romelic pasuximgeblobis ZiriTad tvirTs Tavis Tavze iRebs. es `arbitri~
sajaro reestria, romlis wyalobiTaa, rom keTilsindisiereba imarjvebs sakuTrebaze.21
Tumca, iuridiul literaturaSi gamoTqmuli mosazrebis Tanaxmad, `is garemoeba, rom
myidveli SeiZleba aRmoCndes keTilsindisieri SemZenis rolSi, romlis mimarTac
kanonmdebeli ar uSvebs vindikacias, ar unda uSlides mesakuTres xels, waradginos
sarCeli baTili (arara) garigebis Sedegebidan gamomdinare,~22 arara garigebebi samarTlebriv Sedegebs ar warmoSobs da Sesabamisad, realurad ar moxdeba amgvari nasyidobis
dros sakuTrebis uflebis gadacema myidvelze, anu aseT SemTxvevebSi, myidvelis
keTilsindisiereba damabrkolebeli garemoeba ar unda iyos titulovani mesakuTrisaTvis. kanonmdeblis aseTi midgoma o.skvorcovis azriT, ganixileba, rogorc xarvezi
vindikaciis maregulirebel normebSi, kerZod, igi aRniSnavs, rom `xarvezebs vindikaciis
wesis konstruirebaSi Tanamedrove civilur modelSi iuridiulad mivyavarT sakuTrebis uflebis usafuZvlo SeZenis legitimaciisaken, iseT xarvezian faqtebze dayrdnobiT, rogoricaa baTili garigebebi.~23
Cvens mier motanil normebSi erTmaneTis pirispir dganan mesakuTre da keTilsindisieri SemZeni. rogorc ukve iTqva, maTi mdgomareoba arsebiTad gansxavebulia moZravi
da uZravi nivTebis SeZenisas. samoqalaqo kodeqsis 186-e muxlidan gamomdinare, moZrav
qonebaze sakuTrebis SeZena xdeba misi gadacemiT. aq iseTi sinamdvile yalibdeba, rodesac erTmaneTis pirispir dganan nivTis mesakuTre da misi SemZeni. maT Soris ar dgas
araviTari sxva iseTi piri, romelic uxeSad rom vTqvaT, TavisTavze aiRebda raime pasuxismgeblobas. nivTis SemZenis bed-iRbali mTlianadaa damokidebuli gamsxviseblis
samarTlebriv mdgomareobaze da sakuTar windaxedulobaze. ar aRmoCndeba gamsxvisebeli mesakuTre _ SemZenis keTilsindisiereba ver gaxdeba yovelTvis misi uflebis dacvis iaraRi. umeteswilad, aq sakuTreba imarjvebs keTilsindisierebaze da amis gamo
orTabrZola mesakuTris sasargeblod mTavrdeba. aseve, samoqalaqo brunvis mniSvnelovani Taviseburebaa, rom yoveli mxare im tvirTis matarebeli SeiZleba iyos, romlis
zidvac mas SeuZlia. roca mtkicdeba, rom igi uZluria zidos es tvirTi, pasuxismgeblobis sakiTxic ixsneba.24 sanivTo samarTalSi moqmedebs principi _ ,,nemo plus iuris ad alium
transferrepotest quam ipsehabet, rac niSnavs, rom aravis SeuZlia imaze ukeTesi ufleba gadasces
sxvas nivTze, rac TviTon mas aqvs. amis Sedegia, rom Tu `a~ usasyidlod gadascems `b~-s
nivTs, romlis mesakuTre aris ara TviTon, aramed `g~, `d~ ver gaxdeba am nivTis mesakuTre. Tu d dauflebulia aRniSnul nivTs, `g~-s SeuZlia, aRZras sarCeli `d~-s mimarT
da gamoiTxovos igi. erTaderTi ufleba, rac `d~-s kanoniT aqvs, aris ufleba, aRZras
sarCeli `a~-s mimarT miyenebuli zianis gamo (meoradi moTxovnis ufleba). sanivTo samarTlis xisti wesebis mixedviT, mniSvneloba ara aqvs d-m icoda Tu ara, rom g iyo
misTvis gadacemuli nivTis mesakuTre da ara `a~. sagulisxmoa, rom moZravi nivTis mflo81

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belis SemTxvevaSi, SesaZeni uflebis namdvilobis da aqedan gamomdinare, sandoobis


varaudi gvaqvs saxeze. es kargad Cans samoqalaqo kodeqsis 158-e muxliT; dadgenilia:
`1. ivaraudeba, rom nivTis mflobeli aris misi mesakuTre. 2. es wesi ar moqmedebs im
SemTxvevaSi, roca nivTze sakuTrebiTi urTierTobis xasiaTi vlindeba sajaro
reestridan. sakuTrebis prezumfcia ar gamoiyeneba arc Zveli mflobelis mimarT, Tu
man es nivTi dakarga, mopares an sxvagvarad gavida igi misi mflobelobidan. sakuTrebis
prezumfcia moqmedebs Zveli mflobelis sasargeblod mxolod misi mflobelobis
periodSi.~25
saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsis danawesebidan gamomdinare, aseve sayuradReboa,
namdvili mesakuTris mflobelobidan moZravi nivTis gamosvlis nebiTi momentis gansazRvra, anu Tu keTilsindisieri SemZenis mier SeZenili moZravi nivTi mesakuTris mflobelobidan gamovida misi nebis gareSe, e. i. mopares, dakarga da a. S. maSin keTilsindisierebis miuxedavad, mesame piri ver gaxdeba misi mesakuTre da igi valdebulia, nivTi
daubrunos namdvil mesakuTres26. Tumca, aseT SemTxvevaSi dgeba restituciis sakiTxi.
sk-is 187-e muxlis 1-li nawilis Tanaxmad, SemZeni xdeba moZravi nivTis mesakuTre maSinac, roca gamsxvisebeli ar iyo uflebamosili piri (nivTis mesakuTre), magram SemZeni
am faqtis mimarT keTilsindisieria. piri keTilsindisieria maSin, roca man ar icoda da
arc movale iyo, scodnoda is garemoeba, rom gamsxvisebeli ar aris mesakuTre (sk-is
187-e muxlis I nawilis me-2 winadadeba), magram yovelTvis, roca saeWvo xdeba gamsxviseblis uflebamosilebis sakiTxi, sakuTrebis SeZena ar miiCneva keTilsindisierad. aseT
SemTxvevaSi dagvexmareba sk-is 158-e muxliT gaTvaliswinebuli mesakuTred yofnis prezumfcia, romlis mixedviT, ivaraudeba, rom wina mflobeli misi flobis periodSi iyo
mesakuTre. urTierTsawinaaRmdego prezumfciaTa konfliqtis SemTxvevaSi, sayuradReboa, sk-is 158-e muxlis me-2 nawilis me-2 winadadeba: sakuTrebis prezumfcia axlandeli mflobelis sasargeblod ar gamoiyeneba Zveli mflobelis mimarT, Tu man es nivTi
dakarga an mopares. es debuleba zemoT aRniSnul sk-187-e muxlis me-2 nawils exmaureba.
amiT navaraudevia uflebamosili piris sakuTreba misi mflobelobis periodSi, radgan
Tu dadgenilia qurdobis faqti, gamoiricxeba Semdgom periodSi sakuTrebis keTilsindisieri SeZena da arc erT amJamindel mflobels ar SeuZlia daeyrdnos sk-158-e
muxlis I nawiliT gaTvaliswinebul prezumfcias.27 `umetesoba samarTlis sistemebSi
zemoT aRniSnuli SeuTavseblobis gadaWra xdeba amgvarad: xelSesaxebi sagnebis SemTxvevaSi mxare, romelic keTilsindisierad SeiZens nivTs _ gaxdeba nivTis kanonieri mesakuTre, xolo Tavdapirveli mesakuTre kargavs sakuTrebis uflebas da rCeba arakeTilsindisieri gamyidvelis winaaRmdeg zianis anazRaurebis moTxovnis amara. magaliTad,
b-m iqirava velosipedi Tavisi axlo megobari a-sgan, raTa gaiseirnos, magram dRis bolos
man es velosipedi mihyida `c~-s, rom iSovos cota fuli da iyidos ludi, radgan mas
Zalian moswyurda mTeli dRe velosipedze seirnobis Semdeg. Tu `c~ keTilsindisierad
moqmedebs, maSin is gaxdeba velosipedis mesakuTre da igi valdebuli ar iqneba daubrunos velosipedi `a~-s. `a~-s ki, rCeba erTaderTi SesaZlebloba, rom ziani ainazRauros
`b~-sgan, romelmac daarRvia Tavisi valdebuleba `a~-s mimarT _ dRis bolos daebru-

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nebina misTvis velosipedi, amasTan, mTlianad daxarja fuli, rac velosipedis gayidviT
moipova, riTac `a~ ugergilo moTxovnis uflebis amara datova.~28
vindikaciuri sarCelis dakmayofilebis meore aucilebel pirobas warmoadgens, rom
mopasuxe unda iyos nivTis mflobeli. aRniSnuli TavisTavad gamomdinareobs moTxovnis
arsidan, vinaidan sasarCelo moTxovna exeba nivTis mflobelobidan gamoTxovas, magram
aqve aRsaniSnavia, rom mflobeloba ar unda iyos kanonieri, vinaidan ssk 172-e muxlis
pirveli nawili mxolod im SemTxvevaSi iZleva mflobelobidan nivTis gamoTxovis
SesaZleblobas, Tu mflobeloba arakanonieria, mflobeli arakeTilsindisieria, Sesabamisad, keTilsindisier mflobels ar SeiZleba CamoerTvas nivTi. mflobeloba wydeba
mxolod maSin, `Tu mesakuTre mflobels wauyenebs dasabuTebul pretenzias~ (sk-168-e
muxli).
`keTilsindisieri mflobelis cneba mocemulia sk-is 159-e muxlSi: keTilsindisieria
mflobeli, romelic nivTs marTlzomierad flobs, an romelic uflebamosil pirad
SeiZleba iqnes miCneuli saqmian urTierTobebSi, saWiro gulmodgine Semowmebis safuZvelze. unda aRiniSnos, rom uflebamosili mflobeli ar warmoadgens keTilsindisieri
mflobelis qvesaxeobas, aramed sruliad sxvas, mis sapirispiros: erTmaneTisgan unda
ganvasxvaoT mflobeli, romelsac faqtobrivad aqvs mflobelobis ufleba (Sead. sk
172-e muxlis pirveli nawilis bolo winadadeba) da mflobeli, romelsac ara aqvs
mflobelobis ufleba, magram saqmian urTierTobebSi saWiro gulmodgine arabraleuli
(bralis xarisxi gamomdinareobs sk-is 395-e da 326-e muxlebidan) Semowmebis safuZvelze,
SeiZleba uflebamosil pirad iqnes miCneuli. mxolod am ukanasknels Seesabameba keTilsindisierebis cneba. sasurvelia, rom 159-e muxlis cnebis amgvari ganmartebis gziT,
erTmaneTisagan gaimijnos uflebamosili da keTilsindisieri mflobelebi~.29
uZrav nivTebTan mimarTebiT sakiTxi martivad wydeba, vinaidan sakuTrebis ufleba
sajaro reestridan dasturdeba, xolo rac Seexeba moZrav nivTebs, am SemTxvevaSi sasamarTlom unda gaiTvaliswinos iseTi mniSvnelovani garemoebebi, rogoricaa mewarmis
gulisxmiereba, sakuTrebis uflebis gadacemis momenti da a.S. magaliTad, `a~-m sarCeli
aRZra sasamarTloSi `b~-s mimarT da moiTxova ukanono mflobelobidan nivTis gamoTxova
Semdegi safuZvlebidan gamomdinare: `a~-m zepiri garigebis Sedegad avtomanqana gadasca
`g~-s, im pirobiT, rom `g~ avtomanqanas gadaiformebda mxolod Rirebulebis gadaxdis
Semdeg. `g~-m isargebla avtomanqanis saregistracio mowmobiT da notariusTan SeTanxmebis gziT, avtomanqana daagirava `b~-sTan 8000 aSS dolaris sesxis uzrunvelsayofad
da miimala. samoqalaqo kodeqsis 186-e muxlis pirveli nawilis Tanaxmad moZrav nivTebze sakuTrebis gadasacemad aucilebelia rom mesakuTrem namdvili uflebis safuZvelze gadasces SemZens nivTi. amrigad moZrav nivTze sakuTrebis gadacemisavTis aucilebelia ori winapirobis arseboba _ namdvili ufleba (am konkretul SemTxvevaSi nasyidobis xelSekrulebidan warmoSobili ufleba myidvelisa moiTxovos nivTis gadacema)
da nivTis faqtobrivi gadacema (am SemTxvevaSi avtomanqanis gadacema myidvelze). samoqalaqo kodeqsis 188-e muxlis pirveli nawilis, pirveli winadadebis Tanaxmad, Tu gamsxvisebelma pirobad daTqva sakuTrebis gadasvla SemZenze mxolod nivTis safasuris

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gadaxdis Semdeg, SemZenze gadacemuli nivTi safasuris srulad gadaxdamde, gamsxviseblis sakuTrebaa. miuxedavad, `a~-sa da `b~-s Soris dadebuli nasyidobis xelSekrulebisa `a~ darCa avtomanqanis mesakuTred da sakuTrebis ufleba avtomanqanaze `b~sTvis ar gadaucia. amitom rogorc mesakuTres mas SeuZlia samoqalaqo kodeqsis 172-e
muxlis pirveli nawilis Sesabamisad moiTxovos sxvisi ukanono mflobelobidan avtomanqanis gamoTxova.30
aRsaniSnavia isic, rom `samoqalaqo brunvis monawileebs yovelTvis ar SeuZliaT,
namdvili uflebebis Sesaxeb zusti da amomwuravi informacia miiRon maSin, rodesac
brunvam ukve upirovno formebi SeiZina. Sesabamisad, isini mudmivi saSiSroebis winaSe
dganan, Tu daujereben faqtobriv viTarebas, magaliTad, rom moZravi nivTis mflobeli
namdvilad misi mesakuTrea (sk-is 158-e muxlis pirveli nawili), sinamdvileSi ki, nivTze
mflobeloba SeiZleba titulovanma mesakuTrem dakarga misi nebis sawinaaRmdegod.
problemas SesaZlebelia sami ukiduresi gadawyveta hqondes: 1. SesaZlo Secdomis yvela
riskis gadatana moxdes mesakuTreze; 2.yvela riski gadatanil iqnes myidvelze; 3.yvela
SesaZlo riskis Tavidan asacileblad, SemoRebul iqnes yoveli uflebis registraciisa
da aRricxvis reestrebi. gasagebia, rom nebismieri maTganisaTvis upiratesobis miniWeba
samoqalaqo brunvis paralizebas gamoiwvevda. mesakuTris nebis ararsebobis SemTxvevaSi, sakuTrebis mkacrad ganusxviseblobis principis dacva dasaSvebia, mxolod sustad ganviTarebuli sasaqonlo brunvis pirobebSi. brunvis swraf ganviTarebas, rac
TavisTavad gulisxmobs upirovno dinamikis zrdas, mivyavarT sagamonakliso wesebis
rigorizmTan Sejaxebamde. gamosavali am dapirispirebis SerbilebaSia da swored amitom,
kanonmdebeli mimarTavs e.w. or borotebas Soris `naklebi borotebis~ arCevanis gzas,
rac keTilsindisieri SemZenis institutis SemoRebas ukavSirdeba (sk-is 185-e da 187-e
muxlebi).31
nivTis ukanono mflobelobidan gamoTxovis ufleba waredgineba mflobels, romelic ar aris uflebamosili nivTis flobaze. Tu mflobeli nivTs flobs gansazRvruli
samarTlebrivi safuZvliT, maSin aRniSnuli moTxovnis wardgena dauSvebelia. samarTlebriv safuZvels warmoadgens, magaliTad, xelSekruleba, romlis pirobis Tanaxmad,
SeiZleba an unda ganxorcieldes nivTze mflobeloba, aseve sanivTo uflebebi, romlebic Tavisi Sinaarsidan gamomdinare, dakavSirebulia gansazRvruli nivTis mflobelobasTan, kerZod, uzufruqti, servituti, giravnoba. aseT mflobels saqarTvelos
samoqalaqo kodeqsi marTlzomier mflobelad miiCnevs da mas icavs agreTve, 162-e
muxliTac, romlis 1-li nawilis 1-li winadadebis Tanaxmad: `dauSvebelia marTlzomier
mflobels moeTxovos nivTis ukan dabruneba.~32 magaliTad: Tu gamqiravebelma nivTi
droebiT sargeblobaSi gadasca damqiravebels (sk muxli 531), mas ara aqvs ufleba SemdgomSi vindikaciuri sarCeliT daibrunos es nivTi, aramed man unda ixelmZRvanelos
mxolod qiravnobis xelSekrulebiT gansazRvruli qonebis gadacemisa da dabrunebis
pirobebiT. am wesis praqtikuli azri aSkaraa: Tu mesakuTres nebismier SemTxvevaSi (rogorc saxelSekrulebo, ise sxva SemTxvevebSic) eqneba vindikaciuri sarCelis wardgenis
ufleba, anu Tu davuSvebT erTdroulad sanivTo da valdebulebiTi sarCelis wardgenis SesaZleblobas, maSin mesakuTre aSkarad privilegirebul mdgomareobaSi aRmoCn84

deba, xolo samoqalaqo brunva ar ganviTardeba da igi mxolod martivi yidva-gayidvebiT


iqneba Semofargluli. `garda aRniSnulisa, kanoniT dadgenilia SemTxvevebi, rodesac
ara marto marTlzomier, aramed aramarTlzomier mflobelsac SeuZlia uari ganacxados nivTis ukan dabrunebaze im pirobiT, rom igi nivTs flobs keTilsindisierad. kerZod saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsis 163-e muxlis Tanaxmad, keTilsindisier mflobels SeuZlia uflebamosil pirs mosTxovos im gaumjobesebisa da xarjebis anazRaureba,
rac man gaiRo nivTze keTilsindisieri mflobelobis dros da rac ar aris kompensirebuli am nivTiT sargeblobiTa da misgan miRebuli nayofiT. mflobelis braliT miuRebeli nayofis Rirebuleba unda gamoiqviTos. igive wesi vrceldeba iseT gaumjobesebebze, romelTa Sedegadac gaizarda nivTis Rirebuleba, Tuki gazrdili Rirebuleba
nivTis dabrunebis momentisaTvis jer kidev arsebobda. swored aRniSnuli moTxovnebis
dakmayofilebamde aris keTilsindisieri mflobeli uflebamosili uari ganacxados
nivTis ukan dabrunebaze.33
rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT vindikaciuri sarCelis dakmayofilebis erT-erT aucilebel pirobas warmoadgens, rom mopasuxe unda iyos nivTis mflobeli. aqve aRiniSna isic,
rom mflobeloba ar unda iyos kanonieri, Sesabamisad, keTilsindisier mflobels ar
SeiZleba CamoerTvas nivTi. mflobeloba wydeba mxolod maSin, `Tu mesakuTre mflobels
wauyenebs dasabuTebul pretenzias~ (sk-168-e muxli). Tumca, rodesac vambobT, rom
prioritetulia mesakuTris uflebebi da vacxadebT, rom mesakuTris ufleba yvela
SemTxvevaSi unda dakmayofildes _ garkveuli sifrTxile gvmarTebs, raTa ukiduresobaSi ar gadavvardeT da mflobelobis aranakleb, mniSvnelovani ufleba ar ugulebelvyoT. mflobelobis uflebas mTeli rigi normebi da institutebi eZRvneba saqarTvelos
samoqalaqo kodeqsSi, sakmaod didi Teoriuli safuZvlebia imisaTvis, rom ganvacxadoT:
`mflobelobis instituti farTo gagebiT moicavs sakuTrebasac.~ miT umetes Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, rom sabazro urTierTobebSi, gansakuTrebiT, samoqalaqo brunvis dros
garkveuli brunvis obieqtebis mesakuTre yvela ver iqneba, magram is, rom brunvaSi Cven
ama Tu im nivTebs viyenebT da ama Tu im moqmedebebs vaxorcielebT, ar unda dagvaviwydes
swored, rom mflobeloba aniWebs brunvis monawileebs imis uflebamosilebas, rom esa
Tu is nivTebi mflobelobis institutis safuZvelze iyos brunvaSi moqceuli. amitom aq
erTgvari sirTulec iqmneba, magaliTad: SesaZlebelia Tu ara nebismier dros, Tu mesakuTres dasabuTebuli pretenzia aqvs, movTxovoT mflobels nivTis ukan dabruneba?
raSi unda gamoixatebodes dasabuTebuli pretenzia? Tumca isic naTeli da calsaxaa,
rom mflobelobac ar unda iyos mudmivi da uwyveti xasiaTis. gulwrfelad unda gvawuxebdes mesakuTris interesebi, mesakuTris bedi, magram aranakleb, mflobelTa interesebi. es sakiTxi dRemde sadavoa da arc sasamarTlo praqtikaSi ar aris srulyofilad
daregulirebuli.

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SeniSvnebi:
1

8
9

10

11

saqarTvelos sakonstitucio sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba #2/1-370,


382, 390, 402, 404, 18 maisi, 2007w. (saqmis dasax.: saqarTvelos moqalaqeebi: z. elaSvili, s. maSia, r. gogia da sxvebi da saqarTvelos saxalxo
damcveli saqarTvelos parlamentis winaaRmdeg).
natali frisero, ufleba qonebis pativiscemaze, gamoqveynebulia
wignSi `sakuTrebis ufleba da samarTliani sasamarTlos ufleba~,
saerTaSoriso samecniero-praqtikuli konferenciis masalebi, Tbilisi, 2005 w., gv. 33.
besarion zoiZe, sakonstitucio kontroli da RirebulebaTa wesrigi
saqarTveloSi, Tbilisi, 2007 w., gv. 45.
ix.: saqarTvelos parlamentis 27.12.2001 wlis #1243 dadgenileba _
`adamianis uflebaTa da ZiriTad TavisuflebaTa dacvis evropis konvenciis pirveli oqmis ratificirebis Sesaxeb~. pirveli oqmis mimarT
saqarTvelom gaakeTa rigi daTqmebi. ix.: evropis sabWos saxelSekrulebo samsaxuris veb-gverdi: http://conventions.coe.int.
adamianis uflebaTa evropuli sasamarTlo, meore seqcia, pinkova da
pinki CexeTis respublikis winaaRmdeg (ganacxadi #36548/97), saboloo
versia 05/02/2003 ganCineba, strasburgi, 2002 wlis 5 noemberi, gv. 17.
gaiusi moRvaweobda daaxloebiT qr. Sobis 117/138-180/192 w.w. mis kalams
ekuTvnis: kerZo samarTlis klasikuri saxelmZRvanelo "Institutiones".
uZveles romaul samarTalSi sakuTrebis aRmniSvneli specialuri termini ar arsebobda. vinmes xelisuflebaSi arsebuli raime nivTis aRsaniSnavad, yvela SemTxvevaSi, batonobis aRmniSvneli Zalze Zveli
termini dominium (zmna moTvinierebidan) gamoiyeneboda. civiluri,
kvirituli sakuTrebis uZveles saxes dominium ex iure Quiritium
ewodeboda.
Wolf Manfred, Sachenrecht, 13. Auflage, Mnchen, 1996, gv. 77.
ix.: . . , . . , ,
., 1974, . 79.
giorgi nadareiSvli, romis samoqalaqo samarTali, Tbilisi, 2007, gv.
82-83.
.. , .. ,
, . I., , 2004, . 372; germanul iuridiul literaturaSi vxvdebiT termins `fuladi vindikacia~, aRniSnulTan mimarTebiT farTod ganixileboda sakiTxi _ aucilebeli iyo Tu ara individualizebis moTxovna fuladi vindikaciis SemTxvevaSi. am kiTxvas
uaryofiTi pasuxi gaeca, upirveles yovlisa, h. vestermanis da pingeris mier, radgan fulis gadaxdis SemTxvevaSi, kreditoris interesi
Rirebulebas exeba, xolo (BGB par. 985) sanivTo sarCeli, rogorc
wesi, ganixileboda valdebulebiTi samarTlis mixedviT, amitom germaneli iuristebis azriT, fuladi vindikacia warmoadgens ara sanivTo vindikacias, aramed Rirebulebis vindikacias, radgan igi exeba ara
konkretul kupiurebs, aramed Rirebulebas. Hh. vestermanis es msjeloba fulad vindikaciasTan dakavSirebiT ar iqna aRiarebuli, radgan am interesis dakmayofileba xdeba wminda valdebulebiTsamarTlebrivi moTxovnebiT da ara sanivTosamarTlebrivi miTxovnis gziT...
germaniis samoqalaqo kodeqsis mixedviT vindikacia orientirebulia
ZiriTadad, qonebis gadacemaze, garkveul SemTxvevebSi, igi moicavs
nivTze wvdomis ganxorcielebis SesaZleblobas... ix.: C. H. Beck.
Brgerliches Gesetzbuch Sachenrecht 4. Auflage, gv. 1061-1062.

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15

16
17

18

19
20

21

22
23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32
33

ix.: Zachari von Lingenthal, Karl Salomo: Handbuch des franzsischen


Civilrechts, 8., verm. und verb. Aufl. / bearb. von Carl Crome, Freiburg
i. B. Band 2 - 1894, gv. 610.
.. , .. , , . I., , 2004 , . 373.
.. , .. , dasax. naSromi, gv. 374-375.
. . , , , 2009, . 102-103.
ix.: .. , .. , dasax. naSromi, gv. 375-377.
,
2, . . , ,
, 2001, gv. 187.
www.Supremecourt.ge, ix.: saqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlos erTgvarovani praqtika samoqalaqo saqmeebTan dakavSirebiT.
besarion zoiZe, qarTuli sanivTo samarTali, Tbilisi, 2003, gv. 97.
www.Supremecourt.ge, ix.: saqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlos samoqalaqo, samewarmeo da gakotrebis saqmeTa palatis gadawyvetileba
#as-980-1243-05, q. Tbilisi, 9 marti, 2006 w. gadawyvetileba (kasatori
_ l. suTiZe, mowinaaRmdege mxare _ a. gogSeliZe).
www.Supremecourt.ge, ix.: saqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlos erTgvarovani praqtika samoqalaqo saqmeebTan dakavSirebiT.
. , , , , 1997, . 654.
. . , - ,
, 1998, . 59.
www.Supremecourt.ge, ix.: saqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlos erTgvarovani praqtika samoqalaqo saqmeebTan dakavSirebiT.
www.Supremecourt.ge, ix.: saqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlos erTgvarovani praqtika samoqalaqo saqmeebTan dakavSirebiT.
mesame pirisadmi aRniSnul midgomas aviTarebs kontinenturi evropis
samarTalic, maT Soris, holandiuric, Tumca am ukanasknel SemTxvevaSi, holandielma kanonmdebelma 3.68 muxlis mesame nawilSi gaiTvaliswina gamonaklisis gamonaklisi da Cawera, rom mesame piri, romelic, rogorc momxmarebeli, keTilsindisierad SeiZens xelSesaxeb
nivTs pirisgan, romelic misi Cveulebrivi samewarmeo saqmianobis
farglebSi yidis am nivTs (magaliTad, Tu momxmarebeli SeiZens velosipeds Cveulebriv velosipedebis maRaziaSi), aseTi myidveli daculia da igi xdeba saqonlis mesakuTre (ix.: holandiis samoqalaqo
kodeqsi; agreTve, m. Todua, h. vilemsi dasax. naSromi, gv. 80.).
hain boelingi, peter lutringhausi, saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsis calkeuli moTxovnis safuZvlebis sistemuri analizi, bremeni-Tbilisi, 2004-2009w.w. gv. 63-66.
mzia Todua, huub vilemsi, valdebulebiTi samarTali, nawili I I , Tbilisi, 2006, gv. 79-80.
hain boelingi, lado Wanturia. samoqalaqo saqmeebze sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebaTa miRebis meTodika, Tbilisi, 2004, gv. 126.
www.Supremecourt.ge, ix.: saqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlos erTgvarovani praqtika samoqalaqo saqmeebTan dakavSirebiT.
mzia Todua, huub vilemsi, valdebulebiTi samarTali, Tbilisi, 2006,
gv. 10-11.
zurab WeWelaSvili, sanivTo samarTali, Tbilisi, 2009, gv. 331.
ix.: z. WeWelaSvili, dasax. naSromi, gv. 331.

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VINDICTIVE APPEAL AS
LEGAL MEANS OF
PROTECTING
THE PROPERTY RIGHT

LAURA MIKAVA

Judge, Zugdidi District Court,


Doctoral Candidate of the Law department, Tbilisi Iv. Javakhishvili State University

The article refers to the legal means of protecting the property right
vindictive appeal, its role and importance on all stages of law development
from the point of view of protecting the fundamental right of a person.
This topic is reviewed based on the analysis of the relevant norms from
the Civil Code of Georgia and the developed states back from the time of
Rome law up to present. Special attention is paid to the contradiction between
the legal interests of the proprietor and the property owner from the point
of protection of the property rights; In addition, analysis of the court practice
is presented; challenges related to the movable and immovable property cases
are outlined and the opinions related to their solutions and solution means
are proposed.

88

gaerTianebuli erebis
organizaciis
konvencia
transnacionaluri
organizebuli
danaSaulis winaaRmdeg
daviT mesxiSvili
grigol robaqiZis saxelobis universitetis
iuridiuli fakultetis doqtoranti

aRiarebulia, rom organizebuli danaSauli gvevlineba


kriminalis erT-erT yvelaze rTul da saSiS saxeobad, romelic gavlenas axdens sazogadoebis ekonomikur, politikur, samarTlebriv da zneobriv sferoebze. amasTan,
aseve xazgasasmelia, rom xsenebuli saxis kriminali ufro
da ufro iRebs transnacionalur xasiaTs. Sesabamisad, dRis
wesrigSi dgeba saerTaSoriso doneze organizebuli danaSaulis winaaRmdeg RonisZiebebis ganxorcieleba, rac cxadia, naklebad efeqtiani iqneba Sesabamisi aqtebis arsebobis gareSe, romelTa safuZvelzedac gansazRvruli iqneba
sxvadasxva qveynebis mier, miTiTebuli saxis kriminalis dasamarcxeblad, rogorc erTiani strategiis dasaxvis, aseve,
TanamSromlobis Zireuli principebis SemuSaveba.
organizebuli danaSaulis winaaRmdeg brZolis erTerT umniSvnelovanes saerTaSoriso aqts warmoadgens gaerTianebuli erebis organizaciis konvencia `transnacionaluri organizebuli danaSaulis winaaRmdeg~, romelic
miRebul iqna 2000 wlis 15 noembers da misive 38-e muxlis
Tanaxmad, ZalaSi Sevida 2003 wlis 29 seqtembers. aRniSnuli

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konvencia saqarTvelos saxelmwifos mier xelmoweril iqna 2000 wlis 13 dekembers, xolo misi ratificireba ki, 2006 wlis 7 ivniss moxda.
upirvelesad, aRsaniSnavia, rom miTiTebuli konvencia organizebuli danaSaulis
definicias ar adgens, Tumca, masSi detaluradaa ganmartebuli miTiTebuli saxeobis
kriminalTan dakavSirebuli terminebi da aseve, mkafiod aris gadmocemuli mis winaaRmdeg brZolis meTodebi.
`transnacionaluri organizebuli danaSaulis winaaRmdeg~ gaeros konvenciis me-2
muxliT amave aqtis miznebisaTvis ganmartebulia iseTi terminebi, rogoricaa damnaSaveTa organizebuli jgufi, mZime danaSauli, struqturuli formis mqone jgufi, qoneba, danaSaulebrivi gziT miRebuli Semosavali, yadaRa, amoReba, konfiskacia, kontrolirebadi miwodeba da a.S. konvenciis terminebis ganmartebas aqvs erTi metad mniSvnelovani datvirTva, kerZod, konvencia Tavisi SinaarsiT, daniSnulebiTa da gamoyenebis
sferoebiT erTgvarovnad unda iqnas aRqmuli amave konvenciis monawile yvela saxelmwifos mier, raTa TanamSromlobis periodSi, misi implementaciisa Tu pirdapiri gamoyenebis etapze ar warmoiSvas kiTxvebi konvenciiT gaTvaliswinebuli danaSaulebis SemadgenlobasTan dakavSirebiT, rac, TavisTavad, eWvqveS daayenebs aRniSnuli saerTaSoriso aqtis gamoyenebis efeqtianobas. konvenciiT gaTvaliswinebul danaSaulebis cnebebis ganmartebebTan dakavSirebiT aRsaniSnavia, rom saqarTvelo konvenciis im monawile saxelmwifoebis ricxvs ganekuTvneba, romlebmac organizebuli danaSaulis winaaRmdeg brZolis mizniT erovnul doneze sakanonmdeblo normebis SemuSavebisas aRniSnuli konvenciis cnebebiT ixelmZRvaneles. magaliTisaTvis, saqarTvelos sisxlis
samarTlis kodeqsis 27-e muxlis mesame nawilSi mocemuli organizebuli jgufis ganmarteba konvenciiT gaTvaliswinebuli organizebuli jgufis cnebis identuria.
`transnacionaluri organizebuli danaSaulis Sesaxeb~ gaeros konvenciiT gansazRvrulia misi moqmedebis sfero. kerZod, igi gamoiyeneba, raTa aRikveTos, gamoZiebul
iqnes da sisxlissamarTlebriv devnas daeqvemdebaros:
damnaSaveTa organizebul jgufSi monawileoba;
danaSaulebrivi gziT miRebuli Semosavlebis gaTeTreba;
korufcia;
marTlmsajulebis ganxorcielebisaTvis xelis SeSla.
miTiTebulTan erTad konvenciis moqmedebis sferoSi aseve, eqceva nebismieri mZime
danaSauli, Tu igi atarebs transnacionalur xasiaTs da Cadenilia organizebuli danaSaulebrivi dajgufebis mier. `transnacionaluri organizebuli danaSaulis winaaRmdeg~ gaeros konvenciis mixedviT, mZime danaSauls warmoadgens danaSauli, romlis
CadenisTvisac sasjelis maqsimaluri zRvari warmoadgens aranakleb oTx wels.1 rac
Seexeba kriminaluri qmedebis transnacionalurobas, aRniSnuli ganmartebulia miTiTebuli konvenciiT, romlis Sesabamisadac, danaSaulebrivi saqmianoba transnacionaluria, Tu igi:
Cadenilia erTze met saxelmwifoSi;
Cadenilia erT saxelmwifoSi, magram misi momzadebis, dagegmvis, xelmZRvanelobis
an kontrolis arsebiTi nawili ganxorcielda sxva saxelmwifoSi;
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Cadenilia erT saxelmwifoSi, magram damnaSaveTa organizebuli jgufis monawileobiT, romelic danaSaulebriv saqmianobas eweva erTze met saxelmwifoSi;
Cadenilia erT saxelmwifoSi, magram misi arsebiTi Sedegebi vlindeba meore
saxelmwifoSi.2
rogorc zemoaRniSnulidan Cans, garda konkretulad gansazRvruli danaSaulebebisa, miTiTebuli konvenciis moqmedebis sferoSi aseve, xvdeba nebismieri kriminaluri
qmedeba, romlis CadenisTvisac sasjelis maqsimumi warmoadgens aranakleb oTx wels,
oRond amasTan, igi ganxorcielebuli unda iyos organizebuli danaSaulebrivi jgufis
mier da atarebdes transnacionalur xasiaTs.
imisaTvis, rom detalurad moxdes organizebuli danaSaulis winaaRmdeg gaerTianebuli erebis organizaciis konvenciis iurisdiqciis dadgena, sasurvelia, cal-calke
iqnes ganxiluli TiToeuli danaSaulebrivi qmedeba, romelzedac vrceldeba winamdebare saerTaSoriso aqti.
miTiTebuli konvenciis me-2 muxlis `a~ punqtis Sesabamisad, damnaSaveTa organizebuli jgufi niSnavs erTi an ramdenime mZime danaSaulis an am konvenciis mier aseTad
miCneuli danaSaulis Cadenis mizniT drois gansazRvrul periodSi arsebul da SeTanxmebulad moqmed struqturuli formis mqone, sami an meti pirisagan Semdgar jgufs,
romlis mizania pirdapir an arapirdapir miiRos finansuri an sxvagvari sargebeli.3
amave muxlis `b~ punqtis Sesabamisad, mZimea danaSauli, romlis CadenisTvisac sasjelis
maqsimumi warmoadgens aranakleb oTx wels, xolo rac Seexeba struqturuli formis
mqone jgufs, `c~ punqtis Sesabamisad, miTiTebuls warmoadgens jgufi, romelic ar
aris SemTxveviT Seqmnili danaSaulis dauyovnebliv Casadenad da romelSic aucilebeli
ar aris, formalurad iyos ganawilebuli rolebi mis wevrTa Soris, wevrobas hqondes
uwyveti xasiaTi an Camoyalibebuli iyos ganviTarebuli struqtura.4
zemoT aRniSnulis ganxilvis Sedegad Tamamad SeiZleba iTqvas, rom saqarTvelos
sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsSi organizebul jgufTan dakavSirebuli definiciebi Seqmnilia swored am konvenciis debulebaTa gavleniT. kerZod, saqarTvelos sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis 27-e muxlis me-3 nawili gansazRvravs, Tu ra SemTxvevaSi CaiTvleba danaSauli organizebuli jgufis mier Cadenilad. miTiTebul muxls konvenciisagan ganasxvavebs mxolod is, rom saqarTvelos sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsSi ar aris dakonkretebuli jgufSi wevrebis minimaluri odenoba, kvalifikaciisaTvis mniSvneloba ar eniWeba
Tu ra kategoriis danaSaulebis Casadenad SekavSirdnen kriminalebi, xolo Semosavlis
miRebis saxe ki, dakonkretebulia, kerZod, sargebeli SesaZlebelia miRebul iqnes
mxolod ukanono gziT.
rogorc winamdebare konvenciidan Cans, imisaTvis, rom danaSaulebrivi gaerTianeba
CaiTvalos organizebul jgufad,
igi unda arsebobdes drois gansazRvrul periodSi;
masSi wevrTa odenoba ar unda iyos samze naklebi;
jgufis moqmedeba unda iyos urTierTSeTanxmebuli;
jgufs unda hqondes struqturuli forma;
wevrebi unda gaerTiandnen erTi an meti mZime danaSaulis Casadenad;
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mizans unda warmoadgendes pirdapiri an arapirdapiri, finansuri an sxva saxis


sargeblis miReba.
axla SesaZlebelia saTiTaod ganxilul iqnes zemoT CamoTvlili niSnebi. imisaTvis,
rom `transnacionaluri organizebuli danaSaulis winaaRmdeg~ gaeros konvenciis konteqstSi jgufi CaiTvalos organizebul jgufad amisaTvis upirvelesad, saWiroa, rom:
igi arsebobdes drois garkveul periodSi, anu jgufis Seqmnidan danaSaulis Cadenamde aris drois gansazRvruli monakveTi. cxadia, jgufuri danaSaulis SemTxvevaSi,
kriminaluri qmedebis Cadenas, yovelTvis win uswrebs adamianTa SekavSireba, romelic
SeiZleba ganxorcieldes, rogorc uSualod qmedebis ganxorcielebisas winaswar SeuTanxmeblad, ise winaswari SeTanxmebiT, magram organizebuli jgufis SemTxvevaSi, igi
garkveuli periodis ganmavlobaSi arsebobs, rogorc danaSaulebrivi ganzraxviT gaerTianebul pirTa erToba, drois aRniSnul periodSi xdeba danaSaulTa detaluri
dagegmva, funqciaTa gadanawileba da a.S.
wevrTa odenoba jgufSi ar unda iyos samze naklebi, anu nebismier SemTxvevaSi, Tu
kriminalur gaerTianebaSi mxolod ori wevria, imisda miuxedavad ra danaSauls Caidenen
isini, an eqneba Tu ara maT ganxorcielebul kriminalur qmedebebs transnacionaluri
xasiaTi, aRniSnuli mainc ar iqneba organizebuli danaSaulebrivi dajgufeba.
jgufis moqmedeba unda iyos urTierTSeTanxmebuli, anu organizebuli jgufis
mier danaSaulis Cadena ar xdeba spontanurad, misi wevrebis TiToeuli nabiji aris
winaswar SeTanxmebuli, kargad dagegmili da yovelive amis Semdeg xdeba qmedebis ganxorcielebaze gadawyvetilebis miReba, rac Zalian efeqturs xdis maT danaSaulebriv
saqmianobas.
jgufs unda hqondes struqturuli forma. winamdebare konvenciis Sesabamisad,
jgufis struqturuli formis mqone jgufad CasaTvlelad aucilebelia, rom igi ar iyos
SemTxveviT Seqmnili danaSaulis dauyovnebliv Casadenad, aucilebeli araa formalurad ganawilebuli iqnes rolebi wevrTa Soris, wevrobas hqondes uwyveti xasiaTi an
Camoyalibebuli iyos ganviTarebuli struqtura. rogorc miTiTebuli punqtidan Cans,
imisaTvis, rom jgufi CaiTvalos struqturuli formis mqone jgufad, misi Seqmna ar
unda moxdes SemTxveviT danaSaulis dauyovnebliv Casadenad, anu miTiTebuli gaerTianebis Camoyalibebas safuZvlad udevs, rogorc wesi, gamocdil kriminalTa myari erToba. ra Tqma unda, miznebi aris danaSaulebrivi, magram am miznebis miRweva xdeba kargad dagegmili da gansazRvruli qmedebebis ganxorcielebiT. organizebul jgufSi
pirTa kavSiri ara marto winaswaria, e.i. danaSaulis Cadenamdea organizebuli, aramed gansakuTrebiT myaria, imdenad mtkicea, rom mis mier danaSaulis Cadenas win araferi udgas.5
aqve aRsaniSnavia isic, rom konvenciis Tanaxmad, ar aris aucilebeli wevrTa Soris
rolebis formaluri gadanawileba, mkacri subordinacia, radgan SesaZlebelia jgufi
Seqmnas erTma pirma, moamzados danaSaulis Casadenad, xolo uSualod danaSaulebrivi
qmedeba jgufma ganaxorcielos meore wevris xelmZRvanelobiT. aseve, araa aucilebeli,
rom organizebuli jgufis wevrobas hqondes uwyveti xasiaTi. erTi mxriv, wevrobis
uwyvetoba savaldebulo araa, radgan miuxedavad imisa, rom organizebuli jgufi, rogorc wesi, iqmneba ramdenime mZime an gansakuTrebiT mZime danaSaulis Casadenad, gamo92

ricxuli araa, rom igi Camoyalibdes mxolod erTi danaSaulis Casadenadac,6 Sesabamisad, am danaSaulis Cadenis Semdeg jgufi daiSleba da wevrobac Sewydeba. meore mxriv,
wevrebis cvalebadoba SesaZlebelia ganxorcieldes organizebul jgufSi, romelic
Seqmnilia araerTi danaSaulis Casadenad, rac SeiZleba ganpirobebuli iyos im faqtiT,
rom TviTon organizebuli jgufis Seqmna miuTiTebs wevrebis mizanze, rom maT ganaxorcielon gansakuTrebiT rTuli danaSaulebi, radgan yoveli kriminaluri qmedeba da
misi Semadgenloba individualuria. maTi ganxorcieleba moiTxovs sxvadasxva xerxebis
SerCevas, Sesabamisad, saWiro xdeba yoveli konkretuli danaSaulis Casadenad specialuri codnis mqone pirebis gamoyeneba. amdenad, maT winaSe arsebuli amocanebidan
gamomdinare, cvlilebebi organizebul jgufSi SeiZleba Seexos pirebs, romlebic specializebulni arian sxvadasxva konkretuli danaSaulebrivi qmedebebis ganxorcielebaSi. Tumca, aRsaniSnavia, is faqtic, rom jgufSi wevrTa cvalebadoba xorcieldeba
mkacri kontrolisa da konspiraciis pirobebSi, raTa am jgufis saqmianoba sxva pirebisaTvis ucnobi darCes, an masSi ar SeaRwion SemTxveviTma pirebma, romlebmac SeiZleba jgufis dezorganizacia gamoiwvion.7
jgufis wevrebi unda gaerTiandnen erTi an ramdenime mZime danaSaulis Casadenad.
rogorc zemoT aRiniSna, winamdebare konvenciis Sesabamisad, mZimea danaSauli, romlisTvisac Tavisuflebis aRkveTis maqsimaluri vada aris aranakleb oTxi wlisa, Sesabamisad, kriminaluri gaerTianebis wevrebs miznad unda hqondeT erTi an ramdenime
danaSaulis Cadena, romelTaTvisac sasjelis maqsimumi oTx welze naklebi ar aris.
mizani unda iyos pirdapiri an arapirdapiri finansuri an sxva saxis sargeblis
miReba. aRniSnuli warmoadgens erT-erT yvelaze mTavar niSans. sabolood, organizebuli jgufis Seqmnis idea da mizani, pirdapiri an arapirdapiri finansuri an sxva materialuri sargeblis miRebaa.8 aqve aRsaniSnavia, rom gansxvavebiT saqarTvelos sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsisagan, romlis Sesabamisadac, organizebuli jgufis mizani Semosavlis ukanono miReba unda iyos, miTiTebuli konvencia ar akonkretebs Semosavlis
saxeobas, mxolod miuTiTebs, rom mizani unda iyos pirdapiri an arapirdapiri finansuri
an sxva saxis sargeblis miReba.
rogorc zemoT aRiniSna, transnacionaluri organizebuli danaSaulis winaaRmdeg
gaeros konvenciis moqmedebis sferoSi eqceva damnaSaveTa organizebul jgufSi monawileoba. organizebuli danaSaulebrivi dajgufebis garkvevis Semdeg, aseve sasurvelia,
detalurad ganvixiloT, Tu ra saxis monawileobaa dasjadi miTiTebuli saxeobis
kriminalur gaerTianebaSi.
upirvelesad, aRsaniSnavia, rom miTiTebuli konvencia yvela monawile saxelmwifos
avaldebulebs miiRos iseTi sakanonmdeblo an sxva zoma, romelTa Sesabamisad, qvemoT
CamoTvlili qmedebebi ganzrax Cadenis SemTxvevaSi, CaiTvleba danaSaulad:
1. qvemoT dasaxelebul qmedebaTagan erT-erTi an orive danaSaulebriv qmedebaTa
ganxorcieleba miuxedavad imisa, Cadenil iqna mcdeloba, Tu dasrulebuli danaSauli:
erT an ramdenime pirTan SeTanxmeba mZime danaSaulis Casadenad, pirdapiri an arapirdapiri gziT, finansuri an sxva materialuri sargeblis miRebis mizniT, da Tu
amas iTvaliswinebs Sida kanonmdebloba, aseve moicavs romelime monawilis mier
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SeTanxmebis sisruleSi mosayvanad garkveuli qmedebis Sesrulebas an organizebuli danaSaulebrivi jgufis saqmianobaSi Cabmas;
piris, romelic acnobierebs damnaSaveTa organizebuli jgufis mizans da saerTo
danaSaulebriv saqmianobas, an am jgufis ganzraxvas, Caidinos Sesabamisi danaSaulebi, aqtiuri monawileoba:
a. organizebuli danSaulebrivi jgufis saqmianobaSi;
b. organizebul danaSaulebriv jgufSi sxvagvari saqmianoba, imis winaswari SecnobiT, rom amgvari monawileoba xels uwyobs gaerTianebis kriminaluri miznis miRwevas.
2. organizebuli danaSaulebrivi jgufis mier mZime danaSaulis Cadenis organizeba,
xelmZRvaneloba, xelSewyoba, waqezeba, daxmareba an rCevis micema.9
rogorc miTiTebulidan Cans, konvencia avaldebulebs xelmomwer saxelmwifoebs, rom
miiRon zomebi, romelTa safuZvelzec, danaSaulad CaiTvleba pirTa SeTanxmeba mZime
danaSaulis Casadenad, pirdapiri an arapirdapiri materialuri sargeblis miRebis mizniT,
am SeTanxmebis sisruleSi mosayvanad garkveuli qmedebis Sesruleba, an danaSaulebrivi
gaerTianebis saqmianobaSi CarTva. aseve unda moxdes organizebuli danaSaulebrivi jgufis saqmianobaSi aqtiuri monawileobis miReba gaerTianebis miznis miRwevaSi dasaxmareblad. Tumca aRsaniSnavia, rom nebismieri zemoT CamoTvlili qmedeba ganxorcielebul unda iqnes ganzrax da damnaSaves gacnobierebuli unda hqondes misi qmedebis arsi,
xolo winaswari Secnobis, ganzraxvis, Canafiqrisa, Tu miznis dadgena unda moxdes saqmis
obieqturi faqtobrivi garemoebebis gamokvlevis Sedegad. aqve xazgasasmelia is faqti,
rom konvenciis Tanaxmad, aseve, dasjadad unda CaiTvalos ara mxolod uSualod monawileobis miReba organizebuli danaSaulebrivi jgufis saqmianobaSi, aramed kriminaluri
gaerTianebis monawileobiT mZime danaSaulis Cadenis xelmZRvaneloba, organizeba, xelSewyoba da a.S.
yovelive zemoaRniSnulidan gamomdinare, SesaZlebelia gakeTdes daskvna, rom gacnobierebulia ra organizebuli danaSaulis didi safrTxe, konvenciiT xdeba sawinaaRmdego zomebis gatareba ara mxolod uSualod organizebul jgufSi CarTul pirTa
mimarT, aramed nebismieris, romelic Tavis qmedebiT xels Seuwyobs kriminaluri gaerTianebis miznis miRwevas.
transnacionaluri organizebuli danaSaulis winaaRmdeg gaeros konvenciis me-6
muxliT xdeba danaSaulebrivi gziT miRebuli Semosavlebis gaTeTrebis kriminalizacia.
miTiTebuli normiT konvenciis yvela wevr saxelmwifos ekisreba valdebuleba miiRos
iseTi sakanonmdeblo an sxva zomebi, romelTa Sedegad danaSaulad iqneba aRiarebuli
Semdegi ganzraxi qmedebebi:
winaswari SecnobiT danaSaulebrivi gziT miRebuli qonebis gardaqmna an gadacema
am qonebis ukanono warmoSobis dafarvis an damalvis mizniT an daxmarebis gaweva
nebismieri pirisaTvis, romelic monawileobda `ZiriTadi samarTaldarRvevis~10
CadenaSi, raTa Tavidan airidos mis mier ganxorcielebul qmedebebze samarTlebrivi pasuxismgebloba;

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winaswari SecnobiT danaSaulebrivi gziT miRebuli qonebis namdvili xasiaTis,


wyaros, adgilmdebareobis, gadaadgilebis, qonebaze uflebis an misi kuTvnilebis
dafarva an Secvla.11
rogorc miTiTebulidan Cans, wevr saxelmwifoebs ekisrebaT valdebuleba, ganaxorcielon sxvadasxva zomebi, romelTa safuZvelzec winaswari SecnobiT danaSaulebrivi
gziT miRebuli qonebisaTvis kanonieri saxis micemis procesSi monawileoba CaiTvleba
danaSaulad. Tumca, aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom konvenciis normebi ufro Sorsac midis
da ukanono qonebis legalizaciis procesSi monawileobis garda, dasjadad acxadebs,
aseve:
winaswari SecnobiT danaSaulebrivi gziT mopovebuli qonebis SeZenas, flobasa
da gamoyenebas;
zemoT miTiTebuli danaSaulebis Casadenad SekavSirebas, Cadenis mcdelobasa da
mis Casadenad daxmarebas, waqezebas, uzrunvelyofasa da rCevis micemas.12
amdenad, konvenciiT gansazRvrulia, rom ara mxolod aqtiuri qmedeba unda daisajos
ukanono Semosavlis gaTeTrebis procesSi, aramed iseTi pasiuri, `umniSvnelo~ qmedebac,
rogoricaa magaliTad, samarTaldamrRvevebisaTvis rCevis micema saqmianobis gansaxorcieleblad.
aqve aRsaniSnavia is faqtic, rom konvenciis Sesabamisad, zemoT miTiTebuli qmedebebi
CaiTvleba dasjadad mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tu isini ganxorcielda ganzrax da winaswari SecnobiT, xolo amave muxlis `f~ punqtiT ganmartebulia, rom danaSaulebrivi
qmedebebis miTiTebuli Semadgeneli elementebi unda dadgindes yovel konkretul
saqmeze garemoebaTa obieqturi gamokvlevis Sedegad.
konvencia monawile saxelmwifoebs avaldebulebs, rom maT sakanonmdeblo zomebis
garda unda ganaxorcielon sxva qmedebebic, romlebiTac aRikveTeba danaSaulebrivi
gziT miRebuli qonebis legalizacia. aRniSnuli mimarTulebiT saxelmwifoTa movaleobas warmoadgens erTiani yovelmxrivi regulaciebis da reJimis SemuSaveba, romelic
mimarTuli iqneba danaSaulebrivi Semosavlis gaTeTrebis winaaRmdeg da gaTvlili iqneba bankebisa da arasabanko finansuri institutebisaTvis, aseve organizaciebisaTvis,
romlebic gansakuTrebiT daucvelni arian ukanono Semosavlis legalizaciis TvalsazrisiT. aRniSnuli reJimis farglebSi unda moxdes klientTa identificireba, aseve,
saeWvo tranzaqciebis dafiqsireba da Setyobineba.
konvenciis Sesabamisad, wevri saxelmwifoebi valdebulebas iReben, xeli Seuwyon
miTiTebuli danaSaulis winaaRmdeg mebrZoli organizaciebisa da dawesebulebebis
urTierTTanamSromlobas, rogorc erovnul, aseve, saerTaSoriso doneze. aRniSnuli miznis srulyofili ganxorcielebisTvis savaldebuloa finansuri dazvervis samsaxuris
Seqmna, romelic fulis gaTeTrebis SemTxvevebSi imoqmedebs, rogorc informaciis Segrovebis, analizisa da gavrcelebis erovnuli centri.
yovelive aRniSnulTan erTad, wevr saxelmwifoebs eZlevaT rekomendacia, rom ganaxorcielon sxvadasxva RonisZiebebi maT sazRvarze naRdi fuladi saxsrebisa da Sesabamisi sabrunavi dokumentebis gadaadgilebis gamovlenisa da kontrolis mizniT. Tum-

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ca, aqve miTiTebulia, rom miRebuli informacia araviTar SemTxvevaSi ar unda iqnes
gamoyenebuli kanonieri kapitalis nebismieri gziT gadaadgilebis xelis SesaSlelad.
rogorc yovelive zemoaRniSnulidan Cans, organizebuli danaSaulebrivi dajgufebis wevrobis garda, miTiTebuli konvencia aseve, avaldebulebs wevr saxelmwifoebs,
miiRon sxvadasxva zomebi, raTa danaSaulebrivi gziT miRebuli qonebis legalizacia
CaiTvalos danaSaulad. aRniSnuls Zalian didi mniSvneloba aqvs, radgan, rogorc cnobilia, organizebuli danaSaulis mizani, upirvelesad, Semosavlis miRebaa, xolo imisaTvis, rom miRebuli resursebi gamoyenebul iqnes, saWiroa misTvis kanonieri saxis
micema, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi, danaSaulebriv saqmianobas azri ekargeba. Sesabamisad,
konvencia adgens valdebulebebs wevri saxelmwifoebisaTvis, rom gansakuTrebiT gaamkacron brZola, rogorc ukanono Semosavlebis legalizaciis, aseve, maTi gadaadgilebis winaaRmdeg.
`transnacionaluri organizebuli danaSaulis winaaRmdeg~ gaeros konvencia aseve,
did yuradRebas uTmobs korufcias. aRniSnuli sworedac rom metad mniSvnelovan mimarTulebas warmoadgens, radgan cnobilia, rom korufcia organizebuli danaSaulebrivi dajgufebis arsebobis erT-erTi berketia. kriminalebis mier xdeba sajaro pirTa
mosyidva, Sesabamisad, damnaSaveebi iReben oficialur moxeleTa mfarvelobas, rac
Zalian arTulebs organizebuli danaSaulis winaaRmdeg brZolas.
konvenciis me-8 muxlis Sesabamisad, TiToeuli wevri saxelmwifo valdebulia miiRos
iseTi sakanonmdeblo da sxva zomebi, romelTa Sedegad danaSaulad CaiTvleba:
sajaro moxelisaTvis, pirdapir an arapirdapir, raime aramarTlzomieri upiratesobis dapireba, SeTavazeba an miniWeba moxelis an sxva iuridiuli Tu fizikuri
piris sasargeblod, imisaTvis, rom am moxelem misi Tanamdebobrivi movaleobis
Sesrulebisas ganaxorcielos raime moqmedeba an Tavi Seikavos misi Sesrulebisgan;
pirdapir an arapirdapir, raime aramarTlzomieri upiratesobis miReba an moTxovna sajaro moxelis mier, piradad am moxelis an sxva iuridiuli Tu fizikuri
piris sasargeblod, rom am moxelem misi Tanamdebobrivi movaleobis Sesrulebisas
ganaxorcielos raime moqmedeba an Tavi Seikavos raime moqmedebis ganxorcielebisagan.13
konvencia aseve, miuTiTebs, rom uSualo Sesrulebis garda, danaSaulad miCneul unda
iqnes miTiTebul qmedebebSi Tanamonawileobac. garda amisa, xazi esmeba saxelmwifoTa
valdebulebebs, rom sisxlissamarTlebrivad dasjad qmedebad miiCnios, rodesac zemoT
miTiTebul qmedebebs axorcielebs ucxo qveynis sajaro moxele an saerTaSoriso samoqalaqo samsaxurSi myofi piri.
rogorc vxedavT, transnacionaluri organizebuli danaSaulis winaaRmdeg gaeros
konvencia did yuradRebas uTmobs korufcias, rac udavod gasaTvaliswinebelia zemoT
aRniSnuli mizezebidan gamomdinare. savaraudod, yovelgvari valdebulebis miuxedavad, romelTac konvencia uwesebs wevr saxelmwifoebs, korufcia isedac dasjadia
yvela qveyanaSi. korufciis kriminalizaciaze aqcentis gakeTebiT, gaerTianebuli erebis organizaciam kidev erTxel gausva xazi miTiTebuli kanonsawinaaRmdego qmedebis
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rols organizebuli danaSaulobis sistemaSi da mis winaaRmdeg ukompromiso brZolis


warmoebis saWiroebas.
konvencia transnacionaluri organizebuli danaSaulis winaaRmdeg brZolis procesSi erT-erT umniSvnelovanes faqtorad miiCnevs marTlmsajulebis ganxorcielebisaTvis xelis SeSlis kriminalizacias. wevr saxelmwifoebs valdebuleba ekisrebaT
gaataron RonisZiebebi, romelTa Sedegad danaSaulad CaiTvleba ganzrax Cadenili
Semdegi qmedebebi:
fizikuri Zalis, muqaris an daSinebis gamoyeneba an aramarTlzomieri upiratesobis dapireba, SeTavazeba an miniWeba, yalbi Cvenebis micemaze dayoliebis an Cvenebis micemaSi an mtkicebulebis wardgenaSi Carevis mizniT, miTiTebuli konvenciiT gaTvaliswinebul danaSaulebTan dakavSirebul samarTalwarmoebis procesSi;
am konvenciiT gaTvaliswinebul danaSaulebTan dakavSirebul samarTalwarmoebis
procesSi sasamarTlo an sxva samarTaldamcavi organos Tanamdebobis piris
samsaxurebrivi movaleobis ganxorcielebaSi Carevis mizniT fizikuri Zalis, muqaris an daSinebis gamoyeneba. Tumca, aRniSnuli ar zRudavs saxelmwifos uflebas,
Seqmnas kanonmdebloba samarTalwarmoebis sxva monawileTa dasacavadac.14
rogorc aRniSnulidan Cans, konvencia zemoT miTiTebul qmedebas imdenad mniSvnelovnad miiCnevs, rom mas iseTi mZime danaSaulebis gverdiT ayenebs, rogoricaa organizebul danaSaulebriv dajgufebaSi monawileoba, ukanono Semosavlis legalizacia
da korufcia, rac safuZvels moklebuli namdvilad ar unda iyos, radgan organizebuli
danaSaulis winaaRmdeg brZolis warmoebisas, rogorc samarTaldamcavi organoebis
warmomadgenelTaTvis, aseve, mowmeTaTvis metad mniSvnelovania, rom maT Tavi usafrTxod igrZnon. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi, isini Tavs Seikaveben samarTalwarmoebaSi aqtiurad monawileobis miRebisagan, rac mniSvnelovanwilad Seasustebs organizebul
danaSaulTan brZolis efeqtianobas.
zemoT aRniSnulis paralelurad, konvencia avaldebulebs wevr saxelmwifoebs, rom
uzrunvelyon sxvadasxva zomebis miReba mowmeTa (sacxovrebeli adgilis Secvla, pirovnebisa da adgilsamyofelis Sesaxeb informaciis gasaidumloeba da a.S.) da dazaralebulTa dasacavad da samarTalwarmoebis procesSi monawileobis misaRebad.
garda danaSaulebrivi qmedebebisa, romelTac yvelze didi yuradReba unda mieqces
organizebuli danaSaulis winaaRmdeg brZolis saqmeSi, winamdebare konvencia aseve,
adgens rekomendaciebs saerTaSoriso TanamSromlobis TvalsazrisiT, rac aRniSnul
saerTaSoriso aqts kidev ufro met Rirebulebas aniWebs. wevr saxelmwifoebs saSualeba
aqvT ganaxorcielon samarTlebrivi daxmareba, awarmoon erToblivi gamoZieba da damnaSaveTa eqstradicia miuxedavad imisa, aqvT Tu ara maT urTierTSoris raime sxva SeTanxmeba. amasTan, aRsaniSnavia is faqtic, rom konvencia did mniSvnelobas aniWebs, rogorc wevri qveynebis samarTaldamcavTa Soris praqtikis gaziarebas, aseve, erTmaneTis
kadrebis profesiul momzadebasa da gadamzadebas, rac metad mniSvnelovania, radgan
transnacionaluri organizebuli danaSauli, TviT definiciidan gamomdinare, scildeba erTi konkretuli qveynis teritoriis farglebs. Sesabamisad, msgavs dajgufebaSi
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SeiZleba monawileobdnen sxvadasxva qveynis kriminalebi, romelTac saqmianobis sakuTari meTodebi aqvT. cxadia, aseT dros fasdaudebelia kriminalis warmoSobis qveynis
samarTaldamcavi sistemis rogorc gamocdileba, aseve, momzadebisa da gadamzadebis
kursebi, sadac kargadaa gaanalizebuli da Seswavlili adgilobrivi danaSaulebis
Taviseburebani.
aseve metad mniSvnelovania, rom konvenciis Sesabamisad, saxelmwifoebi valdebulebas iReben, ganixilon sasjelis Semcirebis SesaZlebloba im pirisaTvis, romelic arsebiTad TanamSromlobs gamoZiebasTan. miTiTebuli garemoebis aucilebloba gamowveulia imiT, rom umetes SemTxvevaSi, tradiciuli transnacionaluri danaSaulebrivi
dajgufebebis saqmianoba, maTi wesebi da wevrTa Semadgenloba gasaidumloebulia. Sesabamisad, samarTaldamcavi organoebisaTvis ukiduresad Zneli xdeba maT winaaRmdeg
brZola, radgan ar gaaCniaT informacia maTi Sida saqmianobisa Tu struqturis Sesaxeb.
miTiTebuli danawesi gansakuTrebiT Rirebuli da efeqtiania Tanamedrove kriminaluri
dajgufebebis struqturis pirobebSi. kerZod, gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom liderebi
maqsimalurad arian izolirebulni rigiTi wevrebisagan da uSualod, isini araviTar
danaSaulebriv qmedebas ar axorcieleben. Tumca, swored maT mier xdeba danaSaulebrivi
sindikatis saqmianobis politikis SemuSaveba da swored maTi davalebis Sedegad xdeba
kanonsawinaaRmdego moqmedebebis ganxorcieleba. aqedan gamomdinare, erTi mxriv, saxezea piri, romelic warmarTavs danaSaulebrivi dajgufebis saqmianobas, xolo meore
mxriv ki, mis mimarT sisxlissamarTlebrivi devnis ganxorcieleba TiTqmis SeuZlebelia,
radgan uSualod igi danaSaulebriv qmedebas ar Cadis. Sesabamisad, aseT dros didi
mniSvneloba eniWeba kriminaluri gaerTianebis wevris mier mowodebul informacias,
romelsac cxadia, amgvari informaciis gamJRavnebis motivi unda hqondes. sasjelis
Semcireba ki, amgvari motivaciis Sesaqmnelad aprobirebuli meTodia, romelic Tu gaviTvaliswinebT saerTaSoriso praqtikasa da saqarTvelos gamocdilebas, danaSaulTan
brZolis saqmeSi sakmaod efeqtianad muSaobs.
yovelive zemoaRniSnulidan gamomdinare, SesaZlebelia gamotanil iqnes daskvna, rom
`transnacionaluri organizebuli danaSaulis winaaRmdeg~ gaeros konvencia erT-erTi
yvelaze mniSnvelovani saerTaSoriso aqtia miTiTebuli saxis kriminalTan brZolaSi.
metad mniSvnelovania, rom winamdebare konvencia akonkretebs, Tu romel qmedebebze
unda gamaxvildes yuradReba transnacionaluri kriminaluri dajgufebebis winaaRmdeg
brZolisas. aseve mniSvnelovania, rom konvenciis wevri saxelmwifoebi iReben valdebulebas, moaxdinon gansazRvruli qmedebebis kriminalizacia Sida kanonmdeblobaSi,
rac xels Seuwyobs transnacionalur danaSaulTan erTobliv brZolas, radgan cxadia,
romelime qmedeba Tu danaSaulia erT qveyanaSi, xolo meoreSi ki, ara, isini ver iTanamSromleben aseTi saxis kriminalis winaaRmdeg. amasTan, didi mniSvneloba eniWeba rekomendaciebs, romelic Seexeba TanamSromlobas wevr saxelmwifoTa Sesabamis organoebs
Soris. aRniSnuli momenti gadamwyvetia transnacionaluri organizebuli danaSaulis
winaaRmdeg brZolis procesSi, radgan rogorc zemoT aRiniSna, msgavsi xasiaTis
kriminalis ganmaxorcielebli organizebuli dajgufeba arasdros moqmedebs erTi
qveynis teritoriaze. Sesabamisad, Tu ar iqneba am qveynebs Soris mWidro urTierTTa98

namSromloba, misi bolomde damarcxeba SeuZlebeli iqneba. aseve xazgasasmelia, rom


winamdebare xelSekrulebiT mxareebs eZlevaT saSualeba ganaxorcielon samarTlebrivi
urTierTdaxmareba da damnaSaveTa eqstradicia, rac aseve, mniSvnelovania, radgan rig
SemTxvevaSi, SeiZleba qveynebs ar gaaCndeT SeTanxmeba msgavs sakiTxebSi TanamSromlobis
Sesaxeb. am dros, saWiro xdeba konkretul faqtTan dakavSirebiT SeTanxmebis gaformeba,
rasac xangrZlivi dro sWirdeba, xolo organizebul danaSaulTan brZolaSi operatiulobas gadamwyveti mniSvneloba eniWeba. amasTan, aucileblad unda aRiniSnos wevri
saxelmwifoebis movaleoba erTmaneTis kadrebis momzadebis Sesaxeb. vinaidan, specialuri codnis gareSe, rac ar unda aqtiurad ganxorcieldes qmedebebi kriminalTan
sabrZolvelad, igi efeqtiani ver iqneba, radgan yovel konkretul dajgufebasTan warmatebis misaRwevad gansxvavebuli midgomaa saWiro. Sesabamisad, swored am meTodebisa
da wesebis Sewavla iqneba SesaZlebeli partniori qveynis samarTaldamcavTa specialur
saswavleblebSi.

SeniSvnebi
1

10

11

12

13

14

United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime, Article


2, Sec. (b).
United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime, Article
3, Sec.2.
United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime, Article
2, Sec. (a).
United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime, Article
2, Sec. (c).
avtorTa koleqtivi, sisxlis samarTlis zogadi nawili, Tbilisi, 2007
weli, gv. 225.
merab turava, sisxlis samarTali _ zogadi nawilis mimoxilva,
Tbilisi, 2008 weli, gv. 297.
avtorTa koleqtivi, sisxlis samarTlis zogadi nawili, Tbilisi, 2007
weli, gv. 225.
oTar gamyreliZe, saqarTvelos sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis ganmarteba, Tbilisi, 2008 weli, gv. 210.
United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime, Article
5, Sec. 1.
nebismieri samarTaldarRveva, romlis Sedegadac miRebuli iqna Semosavali, romelic Semdgom SeiZleba gaxdes e. w. `gaTeTrebis~ obieqti.
United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime, Article
6, Sec. 1 (a).
United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime, Article
6, Sec. 1 (b).
United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime, Article
8, Sec. 1.
United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime, Article
23.

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UNITED NATIONS
CONVENTION AGAINST
TRANSNATIONAL
ORGANIZED CRIME
DAVIT MESKHISHVILI
Doctoral Candidate of the Law department, Grigol Robakidze University

It is well know that the organized crime is one of the most complicated
and dangerous for of crime that is effects all spheres of public life. Besides,
the mentioned crime, is almost never the problem of one sole country. It is
becoming more and more transnational. Baring this in mind, it is even more
important to facilitate the mutual legal assistance between the states at the
international level and this without the relevant legal framework would be
impossible to implement. The Article reviews one of the most important
international act in this field UN Convention against the Transnational
Organized Crime.
This Article analysis the general principles of the above-mentioned Convention. Specifically, it reviews the definitions provided in the Convention,
like: organized group, heavy crime, structured group, property and income
obtained through the criminal ways. In accordance with the Criminal Code,
as a result of comparison with the norms, the Article concludes that the
norms in Georgian legislations regulated the above mentioned issues in compliance with the Convention.
Besides that, the Article is focused on the methods of fighting against
organized crime and the commitments of the member states in this regard.
At the end, it is concluded that the UN Convention against Transnational
Organized Crime is one of he most important international act while fighting against this crime, and envisages effective provisions to ensure mutual
cooperation between the states at the international level.
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kriminaluri
miznobrivi dajgufebis
- JOINT CRIMINAL
ENTERPRISE doqtrinis
Seqmnisa da gamoyenebis
aucilebloba
saerTaSoriso sisxlis
samarTalSi
giorgi dgebuaZe
saqarTvelos universitetis doqtoranti

saerTaSoriso sisxlis samarTliT gaTvaliswinebuli


danaSaulebis Cadena xasiaTdeba adamianTa didi jgufis,
saerTo mizniT gamsWvaluli gaerTianebebis TanamoqmedebiT, sadac pasuxismgebeli piris gansazRvra SedarebiT
rTulia, vidre nacionalur samarTlebriv sistemaSi. aRniSnuli individualuri pasuxismgeblobis sakiTxs ufro
metad bundovans da Znelad dasadgens xdis. am Temis irgvliv sainteresoa yofili iugoslaviis sisxlis samarTlis
saerTaSoriso tribunalis saapelacio palatis mier SemuSavebuli kriminaluri miznobrivi dajgufebis doqtrina,1 kerZod, Tu ram ganapiroba misi Seqmnisa da gamoyenebis
aucilebloba.

1. Sesavali
saerTaSoriso sisxlis samarTliT dadgenili danaSaulebis maxasiaTebeli erT-erTi mTavari niSania makrokri101

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minaluri garemo. braldebuli pirebi praqtikulad, yvela SemTxvevaSi moqmedeben


erTiani gegmiTa da ganzraxviT, amoZravebT saerTo mizani, organizebuli formiT iyeneben Zalismier meTodebs msxverplis winaaRmdeg. magaliTisaTvis gavixsenoT holokosti, iugoslaviis (srebrenica), ruandis SemTxvevebi, sadac uamravi adamiani gaxda
ramdenime dReSi ganxorcielebuli Zaladobis msxverpli. adgili hqonda masStaburi
xasiaTis danaSaulebs, sadac mtkicebulebebis moZieba, Tu vin Caidina ukanono qmedeba
Tu aqti, faqtobrivad SeuZlebeli iyo.
zemoT aRniSnulidan gamomdinare, saerTaSoriso sisxlis samarTali iTvaliswinebs
individualur da koleqtiur Seracxvis formas. pirveli saxezea, rodesac mcire teritoriul monakveTze Cadenilia ukanono qmedeba, sadac konkretuli damnaSavis dadgena da mtkicebulebebis mopoveba SesaZlebelia, romlebic pirdapir kavSirSia braldebulis braleulobasTan. meores ki, adgili aqvs sistemuri, did geografiul regionze
gavrcelebuli danaSaulebis dros. garda amisa, SegviZlia visaubroT aseve SemTxvevebze, romlebic exeba rogorc individualur, ise koleqtiur Seracxvis formas. isini
saerTaSoriso sisxlis samarTalSi gamoiyeneba ara erTdroulad, aramed erTmaneTis
monacvleobiT. aris ormagi perspeqtiva. Tu naTeli gaxda, konkretulad vis mier aris
Cadenili danaSauli, gamoiyeneba individualuri Seracxvis modeli, Tu ara, maSin _
koleqtiuri2.
saerTaSoriso sisxlis samarTlSi konkretuli qmedebis kvalifikaciis procesSi gaTvaliswinebul unda iqnes individis wvlili danaSaulis CadenaSi, Sedegis dadgomaSi.
sruli pasuxismgebloba, upirveles yovlisa, daekisreba imas, vinc iyo gadawyvetilebis
mimRebi dajgufebis, gaerTianebis, organizaciis farglebSi.
zemoT aRniSnuli sakiTxis irgvliv, did yuradRebas ipyrobs yofili iugoslaviis
tribunalis saapelacio palatis mier precedentul samarTalze dayrdnobiT Seqmnili
doqtrina, kriminaluri miznobrivi dajgufeba _ Joint Criminal Enterprise (JCE). is ufro
da ufro gamoiyeneba saerTaSoriso sisxlis samarTlSi, rogorc `jadosnuri iaraRi~
saerTaSoriso danaSaulebTan sabrZolvelad3 da xSirad, bralmdeblebisaTvis `sayvarel
cnebadac~ moiazreba.4

2. kriminaluri miznobrivi dajgufebis doqtrina


kriminaluri miznobrivi dajgufebis doqtrina siaxles warmoadgens rogorc saerTaSoriso, aseve, nacionalur samarTlebriv sistemaSi. is aris mniSvnelovani iaraRi im
pirebis gasasamarTleblad, romlebmac danaSauli Caidines Tanaamsruleblobisa da
saerTo miznis principebze dayrdnobiT. is emsaxureba mizans, rom individis mier Cadenili ukanono qmedeba, an misi jgufur danaSaulSi monawileobis Sedegi miaweros `gaerTianebis~ farglebs. kriminaluri miznobrivi dajgufebis doqtrina SegviZlia ganvmartoT, rogorc danaSaulSi monawilis mxridan pirdapiri, an iribi Tanxmoba, romelic
mimarTulia kriminaluri aqtis aRsrulebisaken, an daumTavrebeli danaSaulebrivi miznis sisruleSi moyvanisaken.
102

kriminaluri miznobrivi dajgufebis doqtrinis gamoyeneba yovelTvis iyo kamaTis


sagani. braldeba umetesad mas iyenebda, rodesac ar iyo sakmarisi mtkicebuleba pirovnebis gasasamarTleblad. aseve, diskusiis obieqti iyo misi gaurkveveli definiciac.
mas xSirad uwodeben pasuxismgeblobis `uvargis Teorias~ da `nadirs~, romelic eZebs
msxverpls.5 yofili iugoslaviis mosamarTle fer-johan lindholmi werda, rom JCE
iyo arasasargeblo tribunalis saqmianobisaTvis.6 miuxedavad amisa, doqtrina gamoiyeneboda da ganagrZobs kidevac arsebobas saerTaSoriso sisxlis samarTlis farglebSi.
JCE-is saSualebiT bralmdebels SeuZlia, sisxlissamarTlebrivi pasuxismgebloba
daakisros adamianTa farTo wres. dajgufebis gegmasTan mimarTebaSi ar aris aucilebeli, rom is iyos danaSaulis Cadenamde momzadebuli.7 is SeiZleba formirebuli iqnes,
aseve, danaSaulis Cadenis procesSi. yvela SemTxvevaSi, doqtrinis farglebSi Tanaamsrulebloba arsebobs, rodesac erTi amsruleblis qmedeba Seesabameba sxva amsruleblis mizans da yvela moqmedebs erTdroulad erTi da igive adgilas xangrZlivi drois
ganmavlobaSi.8 mniSvnelovania, rom gegma, mizani, Tavisi SinaarsiT iyos aramarTlzomieri, iTvaliswinebdes danaSaulis Cadenas.9
kriminaluri miznobrivi dajgufebis doqtrina Seqmnil iqna braldebis mxarisaTvis,
maRali Tanamdebobis pirebis, serbi politikosi da samxedro Cinovnikebis samarTalSi
micemis mizniT,10 romlebic farul organizebasa da marTvas uwevdnen danaSaulebs, romlebsac adgili hqonda yofili iugoslaviis teritoriaze.11 yvelaze cnobili da gamorCeuli pirovneba, vinc iugoslaviis tribunalma gaasamarTla, iyo slobodan miloSeviCi.
sabraldebo aqtSi is iyo cnobili damnaSaved kriminalur miznobriv dajgufebaSi monawileobisaTvis bosniaSi, xorvatiasa da kosovoSi ganxorcielebuli qmedebebisaTvis.12
maRali Tanamdebobis pirebis gasamarTleba doqtrinis meSveobiT ufro intensiur xasiaTs atarebda, vidre sxva pirebisa. aRsaniSnavia, rom tribunalze braldebis mxare
doqtrinas umetesad iyenebda, rodesac braldebulebs Segnebuli monawileoba da Semxebloba hqondaT danaSaulTan.
saerTo mizani, es aris JCE-is doqtrinis elementi da mas warmoadgens, rogorc
jgufuri pasuxismgeblobis Teorias.13 dajgufebis wevrebis makavSirebeli rgoli aris
maTi erTiani ganzraxva, miaRwion saerTo mizans. is Cadenil unda iyos erToblivad an
urTierTSeTanxmebiT.14 JCE SeiZleba Sedgebodes, aseve patara, subsidiuri qvegaerTianebebisagan.15 es SeiZleba moxdes, Tu is farTo xasiaTis matarebelia. magaliTad, genocidis danaSaulis SemTxvevaSi.

3. kriminaluri miznobrivi dajgufebis doqtrinis Seqmnis aucilebloba


JCE, rogorc saerTo sisxlissamarTlebrivi pasuxismgeblobis sistemuri Seracxvis
forma, damkvidrda yofili iugoslaviis saapelacio palatis mier tadiCis saqmeze, sadac ganisazRvra kidevac pirvelad, doqtrinis gamoyenebis aucilebloba.16
yofili iugoslaviis tribunalis saapelacio palata eZebda Teoriul komponents,
romelic gamoyenebuli iqneboda jgufuri danaSaulebis mimarT, romelic daexmareboda
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sasamarTlos mZime winaRobebis gadalaxvaSi, mtkicebulebebis mopovebis saqmeSi, romelic, umeteswilad, Znelad mosaZiebeli an rTulad dasanaxi iqneboda. magaliTad,
individebis Semxebloba da kavSiri saerTaSoriso danaSaulSi. JCE-is sqemis Tanaxmad,
dajgufebis erT-erTi wevris mier Cadenili qmedeba sxva wevrs danaSaulad Seefardeba,
Tu es iyo kriminaluri gegmis gonivruli winaswarganWvretadi Sedegi.17
yofili iugoslaviis tribunalamde, kriminaluri miznobrivi dajgufebis doqtrinas
adgili hqonda saerTaSoriso tribunalebSi, rogoricaa niurnbergi da tokio.18 aRniSnuli gamoiyeneboda individebis dasasjelad, romlebsac brali miuZRodaT dajgufebebis mier Cadenil genocidis, omisa da adamianurobis winaaRmdeg mimarTul danaSaulebSi. im dros, rodesac adamianebi pasuxismgebelni iyvnen danaSaulis dagegmvasa da
aRsrulebaSi, faqtobrivad SeuZlebeli iyo sxva saSualebiT sisxlissamarTlebriv pasuxisgebaSi maTi micema, gamomdinare im mtkicebulebebis mopovebis sirTulidan, romlebic konkretul danaSaulSi maT pirdapir monawileobaze miuTiTebda.

4. kriminaluri miznobrivi dajgufebis doqtrinis gamoyenebis aucilebloba


dusko tadiCi iyo im SeiaraRebuli dajgufebis wevri, romelic Sevida prijedoris
(Prijedor) regionis sofel jaskiSi (Jaskici), ganacalkeva mamakacebi qalebisa da bavSvebisagan da umowyalod scema isini. soflidan dajgufebis gasvlis Semdgom, xuTi mokluli
mamakaci iqna napovni.19
yofili iugoslaviis tribunalis sasamarTlo procesze ramdenime mowmem amoicno
dusko tadiCi, rogorc erT-erTi SeiaraRebuli piri, romelic Sevida dasaxlebaSi,
magram arc erTs ar SeeZlo Tqma, rom mas raime kavSiri hqonda mkvlelobasTan. ar iyo
araviTari mtkicebuleba, vin ganaxorciela danaSaulebrivi qmedeba, kerZod, mkvleloba,
vin esrola TavSi oTx maTgans. sasamarTlo palatam ar gamoricxa faqti, rom qmedebebi,
romelsac adgili hqonda dasaxlebaSi, ganxorcielebuli yofiliyo im pirebis mier,
romlebic Sevidnen sofelSi, magram braldebuli ver iqneboda pasuxismgebeli aseTi
qmedebebisaTvis.20 gaTvaliswinebul iqna is garemoebac, rom zustad im dRes, mezobel
sofel sivCSi (Sivci) Sevida didi SeiaraRebuli serbuli dajgufeba da iq eTnikur
wmendas axorcielebda. faqti, rom ar yofila msxverpli sofel sivCSi, iZleoda varaudis saSualebas, rom mkvleloba ar iyo ori soflis eTnikuri wmendis ganxorcielebis
gegmis nawili, romelSic braldebulma miiRo monawileoba.21
braldebis mxarem gaasaCivra sasamarTlo palatis gadawyvetileba, vinaidan darwmunebuli iyo, rom tadiCi monawileobda jaskiSi ganxorcielebul TavdasxmebSi, romlis
mizani iyo prijedoris regionis gawmenda araserbi mosaxleobisagan arahumanuri da
ZaladobiTi aqtebiT. mkvleloba braldebulisaTvis iyo warmosadgeni, winaswargaTvaliswinebadi movlena, romelic braldebis azriT, mas gacnobierebuli unda hqonoda.
sabolood, tadiCi unda yofiliyo cnobili damnaSaved yofili iugoslaviis tribunalis statutis me-7(1) muxliT, miuxedavad imisa, Tu vin mokla xuTi mamakaci.22

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dacvis mxare ar eTanxmeboda braldebis mosazrebas da ambobda, rom unda damtkicebuliyo, moicavda Tu ara Tavis TavSi Tavdasxmis gegma, romelSic tadiCi savaraudod
monawileobda, mkvlelobas da CaTreul iqna Tu ara is masSi mkvlelobis gegmiT.23
mas Semdeg, rac aRmoCnda, rom SeiaraRebulma dajgufebam, romelSic iyo braldebuli, mokla 5 mamakaci jaskiSi, saapelacio palatam dasva sakiTxi _ SeiZleboda Tu ara
saerTaSoriso sisxlis samarTlis mixedviT, piri damnaSaved yofiliyo cnobili, miuxedavad imisa, rom ar moipoveboda araviTari mtkicebuleba, rom man mokla erT-erTi
mainc.24
yofili iugoslaviis tribunalis saapelacio palata, tadiCis saqmis kvalifikaciis
procesSi dadga Teoriuli komponentis Seqmnis aucileblobis winaSe, raTa saerTaSoriso sisxlissamarTlebriv pasuxismgeblobaSi mieca jgufur danaSaulSi braldebuli
pirebi. amiT is gaaiolebda im pirTa dasjas, romlebsac brali miuZRodaT danaSaulebSi,
romlebSic isini monawileobas Rebulobdnen aramarto pirdapiri monawileobis formiT. tribunalis wesdeba ar gansazRvravs kriminalur miznobriv dajgufebas, rogorc
pasuxismgeblobis SesaZleblobas, Sesabamisad konkretul muxlSi. is iqna moZiebuli
ukve dafuZnebul saerTaSoriso CveulebiT samarTalSi meore msoflio omis precedentuli samarTlis analizis Sedegad.25 aseve, Seswavlil iqna rigi qveynebis nacionaluri
kanonmdebloba, magram ver iqna moZiebuli Tanmimdevruli, gamarTlebuli praqtika.
saapelacio palatam dasZina, rom saerTo gegmis doqtrina, rogorc Tanaamsruleblobis
pasuxisgeblobis forma, mkafiod iyo Camoyalibebuli saerTaSoriso CveulebiT samarTalSi da misi gamoyeneba tribunalis wesdebis farglebSi SesaZlebeli iyo.26
yofili iugoslaviis saerTaSoriso tribunali doqtrinas sxvadasxva terminebiT
moixseniebda. magaliTad, saerTo gaerTianeba, saerTo mizani da a.S. mogvianebiT, precedentulma samarTalma gansazRvra, rom yvela es termini pasuxobda pasuxismgeblobis
erT saerTo formas, romelic unda yofiliyo moxsenebuli, rogorc kriminaluri
miznobrivi dajgufeba (Joint Criminal Enterprise).27
tadiCis pasuxismgebloba dafuZnebuli iyo swored kriminaluri miznobrivi dajgufebis doqtrinaze. mas aqvs sami kategoria. samive exeba danaSaulis Casadenad saerTo
mizniT gamsWvalul adamianTa dajgufebas, romelic garkveuli TaviseburebebiT xasiaTdeba. gaaCnia ra, samive kategorias saerTo obieqturi mxaris niSnebi, yvelas gansxvavebuli subieqturi mxaris forma aqvs.28
pirveli kategoria, romelsac ZiriTad JCE-s uwodeben, xasiaTdeba SemTxveviT, rodesac yvela braldebuli monawileobs saerTo gegmis farglebSi da amoZravebs erTi da
igive saerTo ganzraxva. aq yvela monawile aris pasuxismgebeli jgufis mier Cadenili
danaSaulisaTvis, ganurCevlad maTi monawileobis xarisxisa.29 imisaTvis, rom qmedebis
kvalifikacia moxdes pirveli kategoriiT, unda dadgindes dajgufebis erT-erT aspeqtSi mainc, braldebulis mxridan monawileobis survili da danaSaulebrivi ganzraxva, gaziarebuli sxva jgufis wevrebTan erTad.30
meore kategorias, sistemur JCE-s, adgili aqvs, rodesac saxezea `sistemuri sisastike, Zaladoba~, upirveles yovlisa, rogoricaa sakoncentracio banaki.31 kriminaluri

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miznobrivi dajgufebis meore kategoriiT pasuxismgeblobisaTvis unda damtkicdes


organizebuli represiuli sistemis arseboba, braldebulebis mxridan masSi aqtiuri
monawileoba, misi bunebis codna da SemdgomSi monawileobis ganzraxva.32
mesame kategoria, gavrcobili JCE, es aris SemTxveva, sadac saerTo gegmis farglebSi
adamianTa jgufi sCadis qmedebas, romelic araa gaTvaliswinebuli gegmiT.33 mesame kategoriis dros braldebis mxridan unda damtkicdes, winaswarganWvretadi iyo Tu ara,
rom danaSauli Cadenili iqneboda jgufis erT-erTi wevris mier da braldebulma icoda
ra, rom aseTi danaSauli SesaZlebeli iyo momxdariyo gaerTianebis farglebSi, nebayoflobiT `aiRo riski Tavis Tavze.~34
saapelacio palatam tadiCis saqmeze miiCnia, rom mesame kategoria iyo yvelaze axlos
braldebulis mier gamoxatul qmedebebTan. jgufs hqonda araserbi mosaxleobis gawmendis saerTo mizani. mkvleloba ar iyo maT gegmaSi mocemuli, magram moiazreboda,
rom araserbebi iqnebodnen mokluli qmedebaTa sisruleSi moyvanis procesSi. palatam
gamoiZia, rom tadiCma icoda aRniSnulis SesaZleblobis Sesaxeb da man nebayoflobiT
`aiRo riski Tavis Tavze.~35
gavrcobilma JCE-m Camoayaliba doqtrinis pasuxismgeblobis subieqturi da obieqturi kriteriumebis axali saxe, romlis saSualebiTac, arsebuli mtkicebulebis done
damakmayofilebeli gaxada. yofili iugoslaviis tribunalis saapelacio palatam daadgina, rom sasamarTlo palatam dauSva Secdoma,36 braldebuli iyo serbuli warmomavlobis SeiaraRebuli dajgufebis wevri, romelmac miznad daisaxa Zalismieri formiT
soflis gawmenda mamakacebisagan. mkvleloba iyo warmosadgeni, winaswargaTvaliswinebadi movlena, romelic, braldebis azriT, unda yofiliyo gacnobierebadi. braldebuli
gasamarTlebul iqna omisa da adamianurobis winaaRmdeg mimarTuli araerTi danaSaulisaTvis. mravali braldebidan, romelic mas wayenebuli hqonda, erT-erTi iyo xuTi mamakacis mkvleloba sofel jaskiSi.37

5. daskvna
miuxedavad mravali problemisa, romelic arsebobs individualuri pasuxismgeblobis sferoSi, aSkaraa warmatebebi, romelic droTa ganmavlobaSi iqna miRweuli saerTaSoriso sisxlis samarTlis ganviTarebis procesSi.
yofili iugoslaviis saapelacio palata tadiCis saqmeze, kriminaluri miznobrivi
dajgufebis doqtrinis Camoyalibebis dros daeyrdno niurnbergis sasamarTlo praqtikas, iuridiuli normebis simwiris gamo. ar arsebobda Camoyalibebuli dispozicia,
romelic saSualebas miscemda braldebis mxares gamoeyenebina igi qmedebis kvalifikaciis procesSi. Tu braldebis mxare, zemoT aRniSnul doqtrinaze dayrdnobiT, daamtkicebda, rom braldebulebi imyofebodnen danaSaulis Cadenis procesSi, miuxedavad maTi
monawileobis xarisxisa, daawesebda sisxlissamarTlebriv pasuxismgeblobas maTze.
kriminaluri miznobrivi dajgufebis doqtrinam braldebis aqtebi ufro ioli gaxada.
is saSualebas aZlevs braldebas masSi Seitanos ufro meti braldebebi, vidre sxva
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formis pasuxismgeblobebi, vinaidan mesame kategorias aqvs subieqturi mxaris ufro


dabali moTxovnilebebi, rom piri micemul iqnes samarTalSi. mesame kategoria mxolod
iTxovs, rom umaRlesi Tanamdebobis pirisagan moxdes nebismieri qmedebis Cadena, romelic SeiZleba Sors iyos dajgufebis saerTo gegmisagan. gavrcobili JCE-iT braldebam
unda daadginos, rom braldebuls hqonda codna im varaudis Sesaxeb, romelmac gamoiwvia damatebiTi danaSauli, anu qmedeba, romelic iyo winaswargaTvaliswinebadi. is, rom
kriminalur miznobriv dajgufebas aqvs ufro dabali subieqturi mxaris niSnebi, vidre
pasuxismgeblobis sxva saxes, xdis mas ufro Zlier iaraRad braldebis mxarisaTvis.
nebismieri axali Teoriuli komponenti, doqtrina, romelic daexmareba marTlmsajulebas problemuri sakiTxebis gadalaxvaSi, ra Tqma unda, misaRebi unda iyos saerTaSoriso sisxlis samarTlis dogmatikisaTvis. magaliTad, Tu meTauris pasuxismgebloba
srulad Tavs ver arTmevda Tavis daniSnulebas, JCE-is mesame kategoriiT, ukve SesaZlebeli gaxda pasuxismgeblobis sxvagvarad dakisreba. saerTaSoriso danaSaulebi xasiaTdeba ra, adamianTa TanamoqmedebiT, marTlac, am procesSi, rodesac maTi konkretul
qmedebebTan pirdapiri Semxeblobis dadgena SeuZlebelia, kriminaluri miznobrivi dajgufebis doqtrina sakiTxis regulirebis Sesabamisi safuZvelia. is qmnis prevencias
momavalSi im danaSaulTa aRsakveTad, romelic SeiZleba Cadenil iqnes kacobriobis
mimarT. globalizaciis sakiTxi, komunikaciis saSualebebis ganviTareba, saerTaSoriso
sisxlis samarTliT gaTvaliswinebul danaSaulebSi mizezobrivi kavSiris dadgenas qmedebasa da Sedegs Soris ufro da ufro Znelad dasadgens xdis. kriminaluri miznobrivi
dajgufeba, gansakuTrebiT ki, doqtirinis mesame kategoria, subieqturi mxaris
minimaluri moTxovniT idealuri variantia aRniSnuli sakiTxis dasaregulireblad,
aseve, maRali Tanamdebobis pirebis gasasamarTleblad, romlebic arapirdapiri formiT
marTaven `organizacias~.
miuxedavad imisa, rom kriminaluri miznobrivi dajgufebis doqtrinis mimarT arsebobs garkveuli uaryofiTi damokidebuleba, man saTanado adgili daimkvidra saerTaSoriso sisxlis samarTlis iurisprudenciaSi.

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SeniSvnebi:
1

2
3

6
7

10

11

12
13

14

15

16

17

18

19
20

21
22

23
24
25

ix.: Joint Criminal Enterprise terminTan mimarTebaSi; merab turava,


sisxlis samarTlis zogadi nawilis mimoxilva, me-8 gamocema, 2010,
gv. 281; aseve, aRniSnuli wignis me-7 gamocema, 2008, gv. 234.
ix.: Kai Ambos, Internationales Strafrecht, 2 Auflage, 2008, gv. 151-152.
ix.: Kai Ambos, Joint Criminal Enterprise and Command Responsibility,
Journal of International Criminal Justice, 2007, www.oxfordjournals.org.
ix.: Antonio Cassese, The Proper Limits of Individual Criminal Responsibility Under the Doctrine of Joint Criminal Enterprise, Journal of International Criminal Justice, 2007, www.oxfordjournals.org.
ix.: Ciara Damgaard, Individual Criminal Responsibility for Core International Crime, 2008, gv. 128.
ix.: iqve.
ix.: Kriangsak Kittichaisaree, International Criminal Law, 2002, gv. 238;
aseve, Gerhard Werle, Principles of International Criminal Law, Second
Edition, 2009, gv. 173; Prosecutor v Vasiljevic (saqme IT-98-32-A) saapelacio
palatis 2004 wlis 25 Tebervlis gadawyvetileba, par. 100.
ix.: Otto Triffterer, Commentary on the Rome Statute of the International
Criminal Court, Second Edition, 2008, gv. 749-751.
ix.: William A. Shabas, The Un International Criminal Tribunal-The former
Yugoslavia, Rwanda and Sierra Leone, 2006, gv. 309-314.
ix.: Allison Marston Danner and Jenny S. Martinez, Guilty Associations:
Joint Criminal Enterprise, Command Responsibility, and the Development
of International Criminal Law, 2004, www.ssrn.com.
ix.: Elies van Sliedregt, JCE as a Pathaway to Convicting Individuals for
Genocide, Journal of International Criminal Justice, 2007, www.oxfordjournals.org.
ix.: Prosecutor v Milosevic (saqme IT-02-54).
ix.: Kai Ambos, Joint Criminal Enterprise and Command Responsibility,
Journal of International Criminal Justice, 2007, www.oxfordjournals.org.
ix.: Prosecutor v Krajisnik (saqme IT-00-39-T) sasamarTlo palatis 2006
wlis 27 seqtembris gadawyvetileba, par. 884.
ix.: Prosecutor v Kvocka et all. (saqme IT-98-30/1) sasamarTlo palatis
2001 wlis 2 noembris gadawyvetileba, par. 307.
ix.: Prosecutor v Tadic (saqme IT-94-1-A) saapelacio palatis 1999 wlis
15 ivlisis gadawyvetileba, par. 172.
ix.: William A. Schabas, An Introduction to the International Criminal
Court, Third Edition, 2009, gv. 215-216.
ix.: Allison Marston Danner and Jenny S. Martinez, Guilty Associations:
Joint Criminal Enterprise, Command Responsibility, and the Development
of International Criminal Law, 2004, www.ssrn.com.
ix.: iqve, par. 178.
ix.: Prosecutor v Tadic (saqme IT-94-1-T) sasamarTlo palatis 1999 wlis
7 maisis gadawyvetileba, par. 373.
ix.: iqve, par. 373.
ix.:Prosecutor v Tadic (saqme IT-94-1-A) saapelacio palatis 1999 wlis
15 ivlisis gadawyvetileba, par. 175.
ix.: iqve, par. 176, 177.
ix.: iqve, par. 185.
ix.: Allison Marston Danner and Jenny S. Martinez, Guilty Associations:
Joint Criminal Enterprise, Command Responsibility, and the Development
of International Criminal Law, 2004, www.ssrn.com.

108

ix.: Prosecutor v Tadic (saqme IT-94-1-A) saapelacio palatis 1999 wlis


15 ivlisis gadawyvetileba, par. 220.
27
ix.: Prosecutor v Brdjanin (saqme IT-99-36) sasamarTlo palatis 2001
wlis 26 ivnisis gadawyvetileba, par. 26.
28
ix.: Robert Cryer, Hakan Friman, Darryl Robinson, Elizabeth Wilmshurst,
An Introduction to International Criminal Law and Procedure, 2007, gv.
305-310.
29
ix.: Antonio Cassese - International Criminal Law, Second Edition, 2008, gv.
191.
30
ix.: Prosecutor v Simic, Tadic and Zaric (saqme IT-95-9) 2003 wlis 17
oqtombris gadawyvetileba, par. 157; aseve, Prosecutor v Stakic (saqme
IT-97-24-T) 2003 wlis 31 ivlisis gadawyvetileba, par. 436; aRniSnul
saqmeebSi monawileebs amoZravebT saerTo ganzraxva miznis gansaxorcieleblad.
31
ix.: Prosecutor v Tadic (saqme IT-94-1-A) saapelacio palatis 1999 wlis
15 ivlisis gadawyvetileba, par. 202.
32
ix.: iqve, par. 203; ix. aseve, Prosecutor v Krnojelac (saqme IT-97-25-A)
saapelacio palatis 2003 wlis 17 seqtembris gadawyvetileba, par. 96.
33
ix.: Prosecutor v Tadic (saqme IT-94-1-A) saapelacio palatis 1999 wlis
15 ivlisis gadawyvetileba, par. 204.
34
ix.: iqve, par. 220, 228; ix. aseve, sam kategoriasTan dakavSirebiT Jennifer Trahan, Genocide, War Crimes, Crimes Against Humanity - A Topical
of the Case Law of International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, Human Rights Watch Organization, 2006, gv. 417-427; Prosecutor v
Vasiljevic (saqme IT-98-32) saapelacio palatis 2004 wlis 25 Tebervlis
gadawyvetileba, par. 101.
35
ix.: Prosecutor v Tadic (saqme IT-94-1-A) saapelacio palatis 1999 wlis
15 ivlisis gadawyvetileba, par. 231-232.
36
ix.: iqve, par 233.
37
ix.: tadiCis sxva braldebebTan dakavSirebiT konkretulad Prosecutor
v Tadic (saqme IT-94-1).
26

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NEED FOR CREATION


AND USAGE OF
THE JOINT CRIMINAL
ENTERPRISE DOCTRINE
IN THE INTERNATIONAL
CRIMINAL LAW
GEORGE DGEBUADZE
Doctoral Candidate, The University of Georgia

The following article is dedicated to the issue of personal liability in International Criminal Law, in other words the doctrine of Joint Criminal Enterprise. According to the International Criminal law joint crime involves coperpetration by a large group of people with common goal, where compared
to the national law system, it is more difficult to identify the responsible
persons. This makes the issue of personal liability even more vague and difficult to determine. One of the tools for solving this legal issue is the doctrine of the Joint Criminal Enterprise developed by the Appeals Chamber of
the International Criminal Tribunal of the former Yugoslavia. This doctrine
enables to apply criminal liability to a large group of people.
The article reviews the Dusko Tadics Case. During the qualification of the
mentioned case, the Appeals Chamber of International Criminal Tribunal
for the Former Yugoslavia used the doctrine of Joint Criminal Enterprise
for the first time and formulated 3 categories of it: 1. I category basically
referred as JCE deals with the situation when all the defendants are acting
in the framework of the common plan and according to the common goal;
2) II Category systemic JCE is characterized with systemic cruelty, violence, primarily a phenomena such as a concentration camp. 3), III category
extended/advanced JCE when the group of people in the framework of
the common goal are committing an act not envisaged ender the plan.
Though there is some negative attitude towards the doctrine of JCE, it
has still found relevant place in the common international criminal law.
110

sasjelis daniSvnis
sakiTxisaTvis
TanamonawileobiT
Cadenil danaSaulSi

adam maxaraZe
rusTavelis saxelmwifo universitetis sruli profesori

Tanamonawileobisas, sisxlis samarTlis pasuxismgeblobis sirTules warmoadgens, rom danaSauli ramdenime


piris erToblivi moqmedebiT xorcieldeba. erToblivi
moqmedeba momdinareobs organizatoris, wamqezeblis da
damxmaris, aseve, amsruleblis moqmedebidan. TanamonawileobiT Cadenili danaSauli, ramdenime piris Zalisxmevis
nayofs warmoadgens, romelic danaSaulis amsruleblis
moqmedebaSi da amis safuZvelze, saerTo danaSaulebriv SedegSi gaerTiandeba. Tanamonawileebs pasuxismgebloba erTiani danaSaulisaTvis daekisrebaT. Tumca, es ar niSnavs,
rom yvela Tanamonawiles erTi zomis erTgvarovani sasjeli unda Seefardos. Tanamonawileobisas unda ganxorcieldes sasjelis individualizacia. samarTlianadaa aRniSnuli iuridiul literaturaSi, rom araindividualizebul sasjels ar SeuZlia warmatebiT ganaxorcielos
Tavisi funqciuri daniSnuleba. Tu sasjeli ar aris individualizebuli, is usamarTloa. usamarTlo sasjeli ar
iwvevs sazogadoebaSi da msjavrdebulSi im reaqcias, romelic aucilebelia zogadi da specialuri prevenciis amocanaTa gadawyvetisaTvis.1
TanamonawileobiT Cadenil danaSaulSi sasjelis individualizacia mniSvnelovnadaa damokidebuli im kriteri111

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umTa Tu midgomaTa Sinaarsze, romelic sasamarTlom kanonmdeblis miTiTebiT unda


gaiTvaliswinos. sxvadasxva qveynebis sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsTa gaTvaliswinebiT,
aRniSnuli problemis gadawyvetis ramdenime mimarTuleba SeiniSneba.
pirvel maTgans unda mivakuTnoT is qveynebi, sadac danaSaulis Tanamonawilis saxis
mixedviT dadgenilia sasjelis Semcireba. amis naTeli magaliTia germaniis sisxlis
samarTlis kodeqsi, romlis 26-e paragrafis mixedviT danaSaulis wamqezebeli amsruleblis msgavsad isjeba, magram damxmaresaTvis (par. 27) sasjeli Semcirebulia par.49,
I abzacis mixedviT. masSi dadgenilia sasjelis Semsubuqebis Semdegi wesebi:
1. Tavisuflebis uvado aRkveTa icvleba vadiani Tavisuflebis aRkveTiT aranakleb
sami wliT.
2. danaSaulisaTvis gansazRvruli vadiani Tavisuflebis aRkveTisas gaTvaliswinebuli
sasjelis maqsimaluri vada mcirdeba sam meoTxedamde. igive wesi moqmedebs fuladi
jarimis drosac.
3. minimaluri vada sasjelisa Tavisuflebis aRkveTis saxiT mcirdeba: im SemTxvevaSi,
Tu minimaluri vada aTidan an xuTi wlidan aris gansazRvruli ori wliT; Tu minimaluri vada samidan an ori wlidan aris _ eqvsi TviT; Tu minimaluri vada aris erTi
wlidan _ sami TviT; sxva SemTxvevebSi ki, kanoniT dadgenili minimaluri vadiT.2
zogierTi saxelmwifos sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsebi damxmaris mimarT aweseben zogadad, sasjelis fakultatiuri Semcirebis SesaZleblobas. ase, magaliTad, Sveicariis
1938 wlis sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis 25-e muxli adgens, rom `is vinc ganzrax Seuwyobs
xels sxvas danaSaulis CadenaSi an gadacdomaSi SeiZleba daisajos msubuqad~. sasjelis
fakultatiur Semcirebas aseve, iTvaliswinebs daniis 1933 wlis sisxlis samarTlis
kodeqsic (23-e mux.) da sxv.
calkeuli qveynis sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsebi ar gansazRvraven sasjelis savaldebulo an fakultatiur Semcirebas, aramed saerTo saxelmZRvanelo sawyisebis saxiT
aweseben Tanabar pasuxismgeblobas yvela TanamonawilisaTvis. am gziT midis, magaliTad,
safrangeTis 1992 wlis sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsi, romlis 121-6 muxlSi naTqvamia, rom
erToblivi danaSaulebrivi qmedebis Tanamonawile iseve daisjeba, rogorc danaSaulis
amsrulebeli.3 analogiur pozicias icavs iaponiis 1907 wlis sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsic, romlis 63-e muxli adgens, rom damxmares sasjeli unda Seumsubuqdes amsruleblis
sasjelis Sesabamisad.4
sagulisxmoa is faqti, rom iaponiisa da safrangeTis sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsebi
TanamonawileTa dasjis SesaZleblobas zRudaven mcire mniSvnelobis mqone danaSaulebrivi qmedebis dros. ase magaliTad, iaponiis sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis 64-e muxlis Tanaxmad, iseTi danaSaulis damxmare an wamqezebeli, romelic sasjelis saxiT patimrobas an mcire fulad jarimas iwvevs, mxolod im SemTxvevaSi daisjeba, Tu amis Sesaxeb
specialuradaa miTiTebuli kanonSi. safrangeTis sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis mixedviT,
danaSaulebrivi qmedebebi Tavisi simZimis mixedviT sam nawilad iyofa: danaSaulad,
gadacdomad da darRvevad, magram Tanamonawileoba mxolod danaSaulSi da gadacdomaSia (111-1; 121-6 da 121-7 mm.) dasjadi.

112

iaponiisa da safrangeTis kanonmdeblobis msgavsad, saqarTvelos moqmedi sisxlis


samarTlis kodeqsi ar zRudavs im ganzrax danaSaulTa wres, romlisTvisac SesaZlebelia sisxlis samarTlis pasuxismgebloba TanamonawileobisaTvis. Tumca, es ar niSnavs,
rom Cveni kanonmdeblobiT Tanamonawileebs pasuxismgebloba yvela mcire mniSvnelobis
mqone nebismieri qmedebisaTvis daekisrebaT. Tanamonawileobis institutis aseTi gageba
winaaRmdegobrivi da usafuZvlo iqneboda. Tanamonawileobis institutis debulebebi
sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis sxva normebTan erTianobaSi unda gaviazroT. es konkretuli SemTxveva me-7 muxlis I I nawilTan organul kavSirSi unda warmovidginoT. masSi naTqvamia, rom qmedeba SesaZlebelia kodeqsiT gaTvaliswinebul niSnebs Seicavdes Tumca,
mcire mniSvnelobis gamo aucilebeli ar iyos misi Camdenis sisxlis samarTlis pasuxisgebaSi micema. maSasadame, Tanamonawileebi ssk-is me-7 muxlis I I nawilis safuZvelze,
SesaZlebelia gaTavisufldnen sisxlis samarTlis pasuxismgeblobisagan an kidev, romelime Tanamonawiles, magaliTad, msubuqi danaSaulis Cadenis SemTxvevaSi, danaSaulSi
monawileobis mcire xarisxis gamo ar daekisros pasuxismgebloba.5
moqmedi sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsi ar iTvaliswinebs Tanamonawilis romelime saxis
mimarT sasjelis savaldebulo an fakultatiur Semcirebas. igi istoriuli warsulis
msgavsad, potenciurad yvela TanamonawilisaTvis sasjelis Tanabar farglebs awesebs.
amitom erTi SexedviT, iqmneba STabeWdileba, TiTqosda moqmedi kanonmdeblobisaTvis
ar aris aucilebeli TanamonawileTa saxeebad dayofa. Tumca, amgvari daskvna ar Seesabameba moqmedi sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis zogad principebsa da dadgenilebebs TanamonawileebisaTvis sasjelis daniSvnis Taobaze.
sasamarTlom TanamonawileobiT Cadenil danaSaulSi sasjelis individualizaciis
principis dacvis mizniT unda ixelmZRvanelos, rogorc sasjelis daniSvnis zogad sawyisebSi gansazRvruli debulebebiT (53-e mux.) aseve, im specialuri kriteriumebiT,
romelic danaSaulSi TanamonawileobisaTvis da danaSaulSi amsruleblobisaTvis aris
dadgenili (57-e mux.). magaliTad, sasjelis daniSvnis zogad sawyisebSi miTiTebuli
debuleba, rom `sasamarTlo damnaSaves samarTlian sasjels dauniSnavs am kodeqsis
kerZo nawilis Sesabamisi muxliT dadgenil farglebSi da amave kodeqsis zogadi nawilis
debulebaTa gaTvaliswinebiT~ Tanabrad vrceldeba, rogorc erTpirovnuli, aseve, Tanamonawileobis gamovlenili danaSaulis mimarTac. erTpirovnulad Cadenili danaSaulis msgavsad, TanamonawileobiT Cadenili danaSaulis drosac, sasamarTlos ar SeuZlia damnaSaves sasjelis zomad dauniSnos Cadenili danaSaulisaTvis gansazRvruli
sanqciis minimalur zRvarze naklebi da maqsimalurze meti.
garda amisa, kanonmdebeli amave normaSi gansazRvravs, rom sasamarTlom sasjelis
daniSvnisas unda ixelmZRvanelos am kodeqsis zogadi nawilis debulebaTa gaTvaliswinebiT. es miTiTeba sakmaod farTo da tevadi cnebaa. masSi igulisxmeba rogorc zogadi,
aseve is specialuri normebi, romlebic konkretul viTarebaSi dakavSirebulni arian
sasjelis daniSvnasTan da zegavlenas axdenen am procesze. magaliTad, moqmedi kodeqsi
iTvaliswinebs sasjelis daniSvnis wesebs daumTavrebeli danaSaulisaTvis (56-e mux.)
da danaSaulSi Tanamonawileobisa Tu TanaamsruleblobisaTvis (57-e mux.). im

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SemTxvevaSi, Tu TanamonawileobiT ganxorcieldeba danaSaulis mcdeloba, sasamarTlom


sasjelis daniSvnisas mxedvelobaSi unda miiRos ara marto 57-e, aramed 56-e muxlSi
gansazRvruli debulebebic, cxadia, im danaSaulTan erTad, romlis ganxorcielebasac
Tanamonawileebi cdilobdnen.
53-e muxlis meore nawiliT, kanonmdebeli adgens iseT SemTxvevebs, rodesac SeiZleba
dainiSnos kodeqsis kerZo nawilis Sesabamisi muxliT gaTvaliswinebulze ufro mkacri
an ufro msubuqi sasjeli. ufro mkacri sasjeli SeiZleba dainiSnos danaSaulTa da
ganaCenTa erTobliobiT (59-e mux.), xolo ufro msubuqi 55-e muxlis safuZvelze. kerZod, maSin Tu mxareebs Soris dadebulia saproceso SeTanxmeba, sasamarTlos eZleva
ufleba daniSnos kodeqsis Sesabamisi muxliT dawesebuli zomis umdables zRvarze naklebi sasjeli an sxva ufro msubuqi saxis sasjeli. es debulebebi sasamarTlom mxedvelobaSi unda miiRos TanamonawileobiT Cadenili danaSaulis drosac. Tu, magaliTad,
sasamarTlo daadgens, rom gansakuTrebiT mZime danaSaulis Tanamonawilem, romelsac
misjili hqonda 15 wliT Tavisuflebis aRkveTa, sasjelis moxdamde, man kvlav Caidina
TanamonawileobiT (an erTpirovnulad) araerTi mZime an gansakuTrebiT mZime danaSauli,
aseT pirobebSi sasamarTlos aqvs ufleba, ganaCenTa erTobliobiT (59-e mux.), sasjelis
Sekrebis gziT, danaSaulSi monawile pirs, saboloo sasjelad mTlianobaSi Seufardos
ormoc wlamde Tavisuflebis aRkveTa. maSasadame, sasjelis daniSvnis zogad sawyisebSi
miTiTebas, rom sasamarTlom sasjelis gansazRvrisas unda ixelmZRvanelos zogad
nawilSi gansazRvruli debulebebiT, `jaWvur reaqciaSi mohyavs~ zogad nawilSi gansazRvruli is normebi, romlebic dakavSirebuli arian sasjelis daniSvnasTan an zegavlenas axdenen am procesze.
amasTan, am normebidan zogierTi maTgani specialuri xasiaTisaa da maT sasjelis
daniSvnis dros sasamarTlo mxolod konkretuli sisxlis samarTlis saqmeTa ganxilvisas iyenebs, xolo zogierT maTgans zogadi xasiaTi aqvs da isini sasamarTlos mier,
Cadenili danaSaulisaTvis sasjelis daniSvnisas, mxedvelobaSi miiReba nebismieri
kategoriis sisxlis samarTlis saqmeze. magaliTad, 56-e muxliT sasamarTlom unda
ixelmZRvanelos mxolod daumTavrebeli danaSaulisaTvis sasjelis daniSvnisas. magram
53-e muxlis me-3 nawiliT gansazRvruli debuleba, pasuxismgeblobis Semamsubuqebeli
da damamZimebel garemoebebis Sesaxeb, kerZod, miTiTeba danaSaulis motivze da mizanze,
qmedebaSi gamovlenil marTlsawinaaRmdego nebaze, movaleobaTa darRvevis xasiaTze,
damnaSavis warsul cxovrebaze Tu a.S. sasamarTlom mxedvelobaSi unda miiRos nebismieri saxiTa Tu formiT gamovlenili danaSaulis SemTxvevaSi sasjelis daniSvnisas,
iqneba es damTavrebuli Tu daumTavrebeli an kidev erTpirovnuli Tu TanamonawileobiT Cadenili danaSauli da sxv.
kanonmdeblis moTxovna sasjelis daniSvnis dros pasuxismgeblobis Semamsubuqebeli
da damamZimebeli garemoebebis, agreTve, damnaSavis pirovnebis gaTvaliswinebis Taobaze, warmoadgens sasjelis individualizaciis principis realurad ganxorcielebas.
erTpirovnulad Cadenili danaSaulis dros sasamarTlos SesaZlebloba aqvs da amasTan,
valdebulic aris garegnulad Tundac erTnairi, ori sxvadasxva danaSaulis Cadenis
SemTxvevaSi, konkretuli garemoebebis dadgenis gziT, muxlis sanqciis farglebSi da114

niSnos mkacri an naklebad mkacri sasjeli anda ufro msubuqi sasjelis saxe Tu zoma,
anu ganaxorcielos sasjelis realuri individualizacia.6
kanonmdeblis moTxovna sasjelis daniSvnis dros Semamsubuqebeli da damamZimebeli
garemoebebis gaTvaliswinebis Sesaxeb, cxadia, TanamonawileobiT Cadenil danaSaulsac
Seexeba, Tumca, am ukanasknels garkveuli specifikac axasiaTebs. kerZod, erTpirovnulad Cadenili danaSaulis dros, nebismieri saxis Semamsubuqebeli da damamZimebeli
garemoeba, am erTi pirisaTvis aris damaxasiaTebeli da Sesabamisad, saqmis yvela konkretuli garemoebebis dadgena da maTi gaTvaliswineba sasamarTlos mier, sasjelis
daniSvnis dros, am erTi piris mimarT xdeba. Tanamonawileobisas ki, es sakiTxi ramdenadme gansxvavebulad da SedarebiT rTulad wydeba.
Tanamonawileobis SemTxvevaSi, Semamsubuqebeli da damamZimebeli garemoebebis diferencirebuli Sefaseba unda ganxorcieldes. es garemoebebi unda daiyos or nawilad:
personalur da arapersonalur garemoebebad. personaluri niSani, romelic danaSaulSi monawile romelime piris mxares aris mocemuli, igi sasamarTlom sasjelis individualizaciis dros mxedvelobaSi mxolod im piris mimarT unda miiRos visac igi uSualod axasiaTebs. igive unda iTqvas bralis niSanzec, romelic zrdis an amcirebs bralis
xarisxs. arapersonaluri garemoeba ki, romelic amsruleblis mier ganxorcielebul
marTlsawinaaRmdego qmedebas axasiaTebs, man sasjelis gansazRvrisas zegavlena unda
iqonios ara marto amsrulebelze, aramed danaSaulSi monawile sxva pirebzec. cxadia,
Tu maT Secnobili hqondaT es garemoebebi.7 magaliTad, danaSaulis amsruleblis uaryofiTma an dadebiTma warsulma cxovrebam an misma piradma Tu ekonomikurma pirobebma,
asakma, orsulobam Tu sxva personaluri xasiaTis garemoebebma ar unda gaamkacron an
Seamsubuqon sxva TanamonawileTa sasjeli. magram arapersonalurma garemoebebma, rogorebicaa, magaliTad, danaSaulis Cadena gansakuTrebuli sisastikiT, danaSauliT mZime Sedegebis gamowveva, danaSaulis Cadena sayovelTaod saSiSi saSualebebiT da a.S.
msgavsi xasiaTis obieqturi niSnebi sasamarTlom sasjelis individualizaciis dros
unda gaiTvaliswinos, rogorc amsruleblis mimarT, aseve, danaSaulis TanamonawileTa
mimarTac, Tu maT Secnobili hqondaT es niSnebi. Tanamonawileobisas sajelis daniSvnis
Semamsubuqebeli da damamZimebeli garemoebebis zegavlenis amgvar specifikaze, sxvaTa
Soris pirdapir miuTiTebs moqmedi sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis 57-e muxli, romelic
danaSaulSi TanamonawileobisaTvis sasjelis daniSvnis specialur kriteriumebs gansazRvravs. aRniSnuli muxlis meore nawilSi naTqvamia, rom `Semamsubuqebeli an damamZimebeli garemoeba, romelic erT-erTi Tanamonawilis an amsruleblis pirovnebas Seexeba, mxedvelobaSi miiReba mxolod am TanamonawilisaTvis an amsruleblisaTvis sasjelis daniSvnis dros~. maSasadame, personaluri niSani, romelic axasiaTebs romelime
Tanamonawiles, ar SeiZleba pasuxismgeblobaSi Seeracxos sxva Tanamonawileebs.
zemoT aRniSnulidan gamomdinare, SeiZleba gavakeToT daskvna, rom TanamonawileobiT Cadenil danaSaulSi sasjelis individualizaciis principis dacvisaTvis 53-e
muxlis mesame nawiliT da 57-e muxlis meore nawiliT gansazRvruli debulebebi erTian,
ganuyofel nawils warmoadgenen. pirveli maTgani Tu sasamarTlos sasjelis individualizaciis zogad principze miuTiTebs, romlis gamoyenebac nebismieri saxiTa Tu
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formiT Cadenili danaSaulisaTvis aris aucilebeli, meore, ukve akonkretebs im specifikas, romelic am normis gamoyenebis dros TanamonawileobiT Cadenil danaSauls axasiaTebs. TanamonawileobiT Cadenili danaSaulis dros danaSaulSi monawile pirebis
mimarT sasjelis daniSvnisas sasamarTlom unda ganxorcielos am debulebaTa sinTezuri gamoyeneba.
danaSaulSi Tanamonawileobisas sasjelis individualizaciisaTvis specialuri mniSvneloba aqvs ara marto, zemoT ganxilul 57-e muxlis meore nawiliT gansazRvrul
debulebas sxvadasxva niSnebis Seracxvis Taobaze, aramed amave muxlis pirvel nawiliT
dadgenil debulebas danaSaulSi monawileobis xasiaTze da xarisxze, kerZod: `danaSaulSi TanamonawileobisaTvis da amsruleblobisaTvis sasjelis daniSvnis dros mxedvelobaSi miiReba piris faqtobrivi monawileobis xasiaTi da xarisxi, am monawileobis
mniSvneloba danaSaulis miznis misaRwevad, misi gavlena gamowveuli an SesaZlebeli
zianis xasiaTze da xarisxze.~
monawileobis xasiaTi da xarisxi mWidrod dakavSirebuli da urTierTganpirobebuli
cnebebia, Tumca, araerTgvarovani. monawileobis xasiaTi Tvisebrivi maxasiaTebelia da
masSi Tanamonawilis mier Sesrulebuli roli _ misi funqciis Taviseburebebi igulisxmeba erTobliv danaSaulebriv qmedebaSi. monawileobis xarisxi raodenobrivi maCvenebelia da igi piris aqtiurobis zomas, misi monawileobis intensiurobasa da efeqturobas asaxavs, rogorc danaSaulis momzadebaSi, aseve danaSaulebrivi Sedegis miRwevaSi.
danaSaulSi monawileobis xarisxi, samarTlianad aRiniSneba iuridiul literaturaSi,
rom arsebiTi zomiT ganisazRvreba moqmedebis im xasiaTiT, romelsac esa Tu is piri
asrulebs danaSaulis CadenaSi.8 am TvalsazrisiT, danaSaulis organizatoris intensiuroba da maSasadame, misi monawileobis xarisxi ufro maRalia vidre, magaliTad, danaSaulis damxmaris, romelic mxolod xels uwyobs danaSaulis Cadenas, aiolebs mis ganxorcielebas. amitom, Tu sxva pirobebi Tanabaria _ organizatori, rogorc wesi, ufro
mkacrad unda daisajos, vidre damxmare.
amasTan, monawileobis xarisxi asaxavs ara mxolod im moqmedebebis intensiurobas,
romlebic danaSaulSi monawileobis xasiaTiT gansxvavdebian, aramed intensiurobas
calkeuli Tanamonawileebis moqmedebebis, romlebic erToblivad Cadenil danaSaulSi
erTi da igive xasiaTis funqciebs asruleben. aviRoT, magaliTad, SemTxveva, sadac
mkvlelobis damxmaris roli gamoixata mxolod imaSi, rom man urCia amsrulebels, Tu
sad da rodis ukeTesia msxverplisaTvis Casafreba da SemTxveva, sadac damxmaris moqmedeba garda aRniSnuli xelSewyobisa gamoixata mkvlelobis Casadenad iaraRis micemaSi,
dabrkolebaTa acilebaSi, winaswar SepirebaSi, rom miscemda amsrulebels TavSesafars
da a.S. orive SemTxvevaSi moqmedebebis xasiaTi erTgvarovania. Sesrulebuli moqmedebebi
funqciuri TvalsazrisiT, damxmaris moqmedebis sferos miekuTvneba, Tumca, sxvadasxvagvaria maTi danaSaulSi monawileobis xarisxi. amasTan, damxmaris intensiuroba, anu
misi monawileobis xarisxi, rac ar unda didi iyos, is ar SeiZleba organizatorad
gadaiqces. amisaTvis ukve aucilebelia aseTma pirma Secvalos moqmedebis xasiaTi. man
organizeba unda gaukeTos an uxelmZRvanelos TanamonawileTa moqmedebebs.

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maSasadame, danaSaulSi monawileobis xarisxiT erTmaneTisagan SeiZleba gansxvavdebodnen, ara mxolod is Tanamonawileebi, romlebic sxvadasxva saxelis mqone _ amsruleblis, organizatoris, wamqezeblis da damxmaris funqciebs asruleben, aramed
isinic, romlebic erTi da igive saxelis mqone funqciebs asruleben. iseve, rogorc
Tanaamsruleblobis dros SeiZleba TiToeuli amsruleblis monawileobis xarisxi
gansxvavdebodes, zustad aseve, SeiZleba gansxvavebuli iyos erTmaneTisagan monawileobis xarisxi im damxmareebis, an wamqezeblebis, romlebic xels uwyoben an aqezeben
erTi da igive danaSaulis Casadenad.
rogorc ukve vTqviT, danaSaulSi monawileobis xasiaTi da xarisxi mWidrod dakavSirebuli cnebebia da monawileobis xarisxi arsebiTi zomiT ganisazRvreba danaSaulSi
monawileobis xasiaTiT. am mxriv, danaSaulis organizatoris moqmedebas amsruleblis
msgavsad, xSirad ganmsazRvreli mniSvneloba eniWeba danaSaulebrivi qmedebis ganxorcielebaSi da Sedegis miRwevaSi. erTobliv qmedebaSi danaSaulis organizators
dominirebuli funqcia ukavia. praqtikis Seswavla cxadyofs, rom organizatori, rac
ufro gamWriaxi, Ronieri da mizanswrafulia, miT ufro efeqturia TanamonawileobiT
Cadenili danaSaulis dros miRweuli Sedegi. zogadad, organizators sxva TanamonawileebTan SedarebiT da gansakuTrebiT damxmaris figurasTan SedarebiT, danaSaulSi
monawileobis gaTvaliswinebiT, prevalirebuli mniSvneloba unda mivaniWoT. amitom,
amsruleblis msgavsad, marTalia organizatori uSualod (ar klavs, ar Zarcvavs da a. S.)
ar sCadis danaSauls, magram igi amsruleblis Tanabrad, rig SemTxvevebSi ki, masze mkacradac SeiZleba daisajos.
wamqezeblis moqmedebis xasiaTidan gamomdinare, sakmaod maRalia misi monawileobis
xarisxi. wamqezebeli danaSaulis ganxorcielebis iniciatori da misi ideuri sulisCamdgmelia. Sesabamisad, misi monawileobis xarisxic ufro mniSvnelovania, vidre damxmarisa. danaSaulis wamqezeblis sasjelic sxva Tanabari pirobebis arsebobisas SesaZlebelia gauTanabrdes amsruleblis sasjels.
yvelaze nakleb rols danaSaulis CadenaSi, rogorc wesi, damxmare asrulebs, igi
wamqezeblis msgavsad, ar aris danaSaulis sulisCamdgmeli, aramed mxolod xels uwyobs
mis ganxorcielebas, uiolebs Tanamzraxvelebs dasaxuli miznis miRwevas. amitom, sworad unda CaiTvalos iuridiul literaturaSi erTob myarad gabatonebuli pozicia,
rom im SemTxvevebSi, rodesac sxva garemoebebi, romlebic zegavlenas axdenen sasjelis
gansazRvraze _ Tanabaria da sasjelis zomis sxvaoba danaSaulSi Sesrulebuli xasiaTiT
da xarisxiT unda ganisazRvros. am SemTxvevaSi, danaSaulis damxmares naklebad mkacri
sasjeli unda daeniSnos, vidre danarCen Tanamonawileebs.9
aRniSnul Tvalsazriss, arsebiTad adasturebs sasamarTlo praqtikis Seswavlac.
Cvens mier ganzrax mkvlelobis sisxlis samarTlis saqmeTa SerCeviTi Seswavlisas, magaliTad, im SemTxvevebSi, rodesac damxmaris moqmedebis kvalifikacia amsruleblis moqmedebis kvalifikacias emTxveva da amasTan, pasuxismgeblobis Semamsubuqebeli da damamZimebeli garemoebebi mocemuli amsruleblis da damxmaris mxares metnaklebad
Tanabaria, amsrulebelisaTvis daniSnulis sasjelis saxe vadiani Tavisuflebis aRkveTa
saSualod 3-4 wliT aRemateba damxmaris sasjelis zomas.

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danaSaulis damxmaris mimarT SedarebiT mkacri sasjelis daniSvna gamarTlebulad


SeiZleba CaiTvalos maSin, rodesac damxmare Tavisi piradi TvisebebiT ufro mkacr
sasjels imsaxurebs, vTqvaT, aris warsulSi araerTjer nasamarTlevi, an rodesac amsruleblis mxares mocemulia imdenad mniSvnelovani Semamsubuqebeli garemoeba, romelic sasamarTlos sasjelis daniSvnis dros aiZulebs ZiriTadi yuradReba gadaitanos
ara TviT moqmedebis xasiaTze, aramed damnaSavis pirovnebaze. Tu davuSvaT, danaSaulis
amsrulebeli aris arasrulwlovani, romelic ufrosi damxmaris garkveuli zegavlenis
qveS moeqca, aseT pirobebSi SesaZlebelia sasamarTlom SedarebiT msubuqi sasjeli
dauniSnos arasrulwlovan amsrulebels. magram, Tu danaSaulSi daxmarebis dros amsruleblis mxareze mocemulia iseTi piradi Semamsubuqebeli garemoeba, romelic Tavisi
arsiT principul zegavlenas ver axdens sasjelis zomis gansazRvraze, magaliTad, rogorebicaa dadebiTi daxasiaTebis arseboba, garkveuli waxaliseba, kmayofaze yofna da
a.S. aseT garemoebaTa arsebobisas, vinaidan amsrulebeli uSualod Cadis danaSauls da
maSasadame, misi moqmedeba ufro qmediT pirobas warmoadgens danaSaulis Casadenad,
samarTlianobis principi moiTxovs, rom aseT SemTxvevaSi amsrulebels ufro mkacri
sasjeli daeniSnos, vidre damxmares.
amasTan, aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom aseTi wesi ar SeiZleba dogmad vaqcioT. vinaidan,
iSviaTad, Tumca mainc, damxmaris danaSaulSi faqtobrivi xelSewyoba da misi monawileobis intensiurobis xarisxi zogjer imdenad mniSvnelovania, rom igi danaSaulis
miznis miRwevis gzaze ar CamorCeba danaSaulis amsruleblis Tu sxva TanamonawileTa
moqmedebebis xarisxs. aseTi viTareba gansakuTrebiT maSin SeiniSneba, rodesac damxmaris
moqmedeba droisa da adgilis mixedviT amsruleblis moqmedebas emTxveva da misi xelSewyoba erT-erT umniSvnelovanes pirobas warmoadgens danaSaulis Casadenad. amgvar
SemTxvevebSi, sasamarTlo zogjer mniSvnelovnad uaxloebs erTmaneTs amsruleblis
da damxmaris sasjelis zomas, xolo zogjer, kidevac aTanabrebs maT.
pirveli maTganis dasadastureblad SesaZlebelia mivuTiToT saqarTvelos uzenaesi
sasamarTlos mier ganxiluli saqme s. kvaracxelias, j. saxokias, m.saxokias da sxvaTa
mimarT. sadac damxmareebma j. saxokiam, m. saxokiam da sxva pirebma, romlebic urikaze
moTavsebul msxverpls gars Semoertynen, adgilze misul policiis muSakebs, msxverplis daxsnas rom cdilobdnen, gauwies medgari winaaRmdegoba. amiT, amsrulebel s.
kvaracxelias aaciles dabrkoleba, am ukanasknels misces saSualeba danis gamoyenebiT
Caedina mkvleloba. sasamarTlom amsrulebels 12 wliT Tavisuflebis aRkveTa dauniSna,
xolo damxmareebs _ 10-10 wliT.
rac Seexeba amsruleblis da damxmaris sasjelis gaTanabrebis sakiTxs, es garemoeba
iSviaTad, Tumca, mainc SeiniSneba sakuTari xeliT Casaden deliqtebSi, sadac damxmare
Tavisi faqtobrivi monawileobis mixedviT, arsebiT rols asrulebs danaSaulis CadenaSi. Cvens mier 7 wlis winaT Seswavlili iqna baTumis saqalaqo sasamarTloSi da
aWaris avtonomiuri respublikis umaRles sasamarTloSi sazRvris ukanonod gadakveTaSi xelSewyobis aRmoCenis 12 faqti. ZiriTadad, maTi Sinaarsi Semdegi saxis iyo: danaSaulis amsrulebeli, romelsac ar hqonda pasporti, winaswar uTanxmdeboda sarfis
sabaJo sakontrolo gamSvebi punqtisaken momavali avtobusis mZRols, rom mas, gark118

veuli Tanxis safasurad, daemala misi marTvis qveS myofi avtobusis salonSi an winaswar
mowyobil saidumlo saTavsoSi da am gziT ukanonod gadaeyvana saxelmwifos sazRvarze.
amgvari Sinaarsis 12 sisxlis samarTlis saqmidan sasamarTlom sam SemTxvevaSi, amsrulebelsac da damxmare-mZRolsac Seufarda or-ori wliT Tavisuflebis aRkveTa, xolo
erT SemTxvevaSi _ erTi wliT da eqvsi TviT. amasTan, sasamarTlom erT-erTi saqmis
ganxilvisas damxmaresTan mimarTebaSi xazi gausva im garemoebas, rom `misi moqmedeba
aris erT-erTi efeqturi piroba, romelic danaSaulis CadenaSi monawileobis xarisxiT
ar CamorCeba amsruleblis moqmedebas~10 maSasadame, sasamarTlom gaiTvaliswina amsruleblis da damxmaris danaSaulSi monawileobis SefardebiTi xarisxi, aseve, damxmaris
xelSewyobis faqtobrivi mniSvneloba danaSaulis Casadenad, damxmaresac sasjelis igive
zoma dauniSna, rac danaSaulis amsrulebels.
amrigad, daskvna, rom damxmares ufro naklebad mkacri sasjeli unda daeniSnos vidre
sxva Tanamonawileebs, aseTi daskvna ar SeiZleba yovelTvis gakeTdes mxolod formalurad danaSaulSi Sesrulebuli moqmedebis xasiaTis gaTvaliswinebis safuZvelze. moqmedi kanonmdeblobis dadgenileba, romelic ar avaldebulebs sasamarTlos yvela Tanamonawiles erTnairi sasjelis zoma dauniSnos an dauniSnos erT Tanamonawiles ufro
mkacri, vidre meores, maT mier Sesrulebuli moqmedebis xasiaTze damokidebulebaSi,
principSi sworad unda CaiTvalos. vinaidan igi sasamarTlos aZlevs SesaZleblobas
calkeul SemTxvevebSi, Tavi daaRwios formalur midgomas TanamonawileTa moqmedebebis SefasebaSi da mTeli moculobiT gaiTvaliswinos sasjelis daniSvnisas misi faqtobrivi roli mocemuli danaSaulis CadenaSi, realuri mniSvneloba moqmedebisa sxva
TanamonawileTa moqmedebebisaTvis da danaSaulebrivi Sedegis miRwevisaTvis.
amasTan, ar unda daviviwyoT, rom sasamarTlo TanamonawileTa dasjisas saboloo
daskvnas ara mxolod danaSaulSi faqtobrivi monawileobis xasiaTisa da xarisxis safuZvelze akeTebs, aramed Semamsubuqebeli da damamZimebeli garemoebebis safuZvelzec,
romelic ara marto Cadenil marTlsawinaaRmdego qmedebas Seexeba, aramed danaSaulSi
monawile pirebsac. am kriteriumTa gamoyenebam cxadia, maqsimalurad unda uzrunvelyos sasjelis individualizaciis principis ganxorcieleba.
TanamonawileTa mimarT sasjelis daniSvnis kriteriumebze msjelobisas aqve unda
SevCerdeT sakmao mniSvnelobis mqone erT saintereso faqtze, romelic sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis kerZo nawilSi ganxorcielebuli cvlilebebis tendencias Seexeba. kerZod, es ukavSirdeba konkretuli danaSaulebisaTvis sanqciiT gansazRvruli sasjelebis
zomis Seviwroebas, anu sasjelis minimaluri zomis maRla awevas da maqsimaluris dabla
dawevas. aseTi midgoma, sadac xSir SemTxvevebSi, sasjelis minimalur da maqsimalur
zRvars Soris aris gansxvaveba ori wliT Tavisuflebis aRkveTa, arc Tu iSviaTad, xels
uSlis sasjelis individualizaciis principis gatarebas. nimuSisaTvis aviRoT moqmedi
ssk-is 137 muxlis (gaupatiureba) pirveli nawili, romelic sasjelis zomad iTvaliswinebs 4 dan 6-wlamde Tavisuflebis aRkveTas. sasamarTlom sasjelis individualizaciis principis ganxorcielebisas Semamsubuqebeli da damamZimebeli garemoebebis gaTvaliswinebiT amsrulebels, vTqvaT, Seufarda 5 weli. magram ibadeba kiTxva: ramdeni
weli unda Seufardos sasamarTlom damxmares? romlis xelSewyobac gamoixata mxolod
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rCevis micemaSi, Tu rogor mietyuebina SerCeuli msxverpli Tavis binaSi. amasTan, warmovidginoT, rom damxmaris mxareze aris araerTi Semamsubuqebeli da arc erTi damamZimebeli garemoeba. aseT SemTxvevaSi, sasamarTlos SeuZlia sasjelis minimalur vadad
ganusazRvros 4 wliT Tavisuflebis aRkveTa. sasjelis aseTi daniSvna, vfiqrobT, rom
ar iqneba samarTliani. Cveulebriv pirobebSi, roca Tanabaria amsruleblis da damxmaris mxareze arsebuli piradi Semamsubuqebeli da damamZimebeli garemoebebi, Sesrulebuli rolis gaTvaliswinebiT, mocemuli sasjelis zomaSi gansxvaveba unda iyos minimum erTi wlis vadiT. aqedan gamomdinare, sasamarTlos ar eZleva SesaZlebloba gaiTvaliswinos sxva piradi Semamsubuqebeli garemoebebi da amis mixedviT, realurad ganaxorcielos sasjelis individualizacia.
aRniSnulidan gamomdinare, vfiqrobT, sasurveli iqneboda sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis zogadi nawilis 57-e muxlSi, sadac TanamonawileobisaTvis sasjelis daniSvnis specialuri kriteriumebia dadgenili, mesame nawilSi Camoyalibebuliyo norma, romelic
sasamarTlos miscemda SesaZleblobas msgavs SemTxvevebSi, damxmarisaTvis ufro naklebi sasjeli Seefardebina. es norma SeiZleba aseTi saxiT Camoyalibdes: `sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis kerZo nawiliT Tavisuflebis aRkveTis saxiT gansazRvruli sasjelis
minimaluri zRvari, damxmaresTan mimarTebaSi SeiZleba Semcirdes ori wlis vadiT,
magram aranakleb sisxlis samarTlis zogadi nawiliT sasjelis mocemuli saxisaTvis
gansazRvruli minimaluri zRvarisa.~ vfiqrobT, aseTi miTiTeba xels Seuwyobs sasamarTlos ganaxorcielos sasjelis realuri individualizacia, rogorc faqtobrivad
ganxorcielebuli obieqturi rolis mixedviT aseve, personaluri Semamsubuqebeli Tu
damamZimebeli garemoebis gaTvaliswinebiT.

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SeniSvnebi:
1

3
4
5

10

. . , . . , ,
., 1959, . 184; . . ,
, . . . . ., 1962,
. 292.
, (, , ,
, ) . . , ., 1999, . 258.
iqve, gv. 197.
iqve, gv. 344.
aRniSnuli sakiTxebis garSemo sworad msjeloben p. telnovi, p. griSaevi, g. krigeri. ix.: . . ,
, ., 1978, .58; . . , . . ,
, ., 1959, . 170-171.
ix.: z. goTua, sisxlis samarTali, sasjeli, leqciebis kursi, Tb., 2001,
gv. 36-53.
am sakiTxze vrclad ixileT, a. maxaraZe, sisxlis samarTlis pasuxismgebloba danaSaulSi daxmarebisaTvis, Tb., 2006, gv.229-252; o. gamyreliZe, danaSaulis SualobiTi amsrulebloba da Tanaamsrulebloba, Tb., 1974, gv. 165-171.
. . , . . , ,
., 1959, . 189; . . ,
, . . . .,
1962, . 312; . . , . . , . . ,
, -, 1981, . 115-1 1 .
T. wereTeli, Tanamonawileoba danaSaulSi, Tb., 1965, gv. 229-231; sisxlis samarTlis zogadi nawili, red. g. tyeSeliaZe, g. naWyebia, Tb.,
2004, gv. 304; , , , , ,
, 1962, . 153-154 .
aWaris avtonomiuri respublikis uzenaesi sasamarTlos arqivi, 1998,
saqme #1-13.

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THE PUNISHMENT
INDIVIDUALIZATION
MATTER IN COMMITTING
CRIME WITH ACCEESSARY
ADAM MAKHARADZE

Full Professor of Rustaveli State University

The article deals with analyses of accessarial punishment individualization matter of executor, organizer, instigator, and helpmate in accessarial crime.
The author reviews penal legislation of different countries, which anticipating accessory sometimes establish reduction of compulsory or facultative
punishment. On the other hand, independently from accessarial nature establish equal punishment based on common initial directions.
The article also deals with general or special criterions based on current
Georgian Criminal Code, which impact punishment individualization of accessory. The author discusses factual participation nature and quality, personal or non-personal signs existed on accessarys side, that influence on other
accessarys responsibility and on defining individualization process.

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fulis gaTeTreba
ofSoruli zonebis
gamoyenebis gziT

nino osaZe
hamburgis universitetis samarTlis magistri,
Teusu-s samarTlis fakultetis doqtoranti

ofSoruli centrebis zogadi mimoxilva


bankebi an sxva finansuri institutebi, romlebic axorcieleben ofSorul operaciebs, gaTavisuflebulebi arian
im farTo speqtris regulaciebisagan, romelic Tan sdevs
qveynis SigniT arsebul finansur institutebs. ofSoruli
bankebis mier ganxorcielebuli tranzaqciebi, rogorc wesi,
Tavisufalia gadasaxadebisagan, amavdroulad, ofSoruli
bankebi Tavidan icileben yovelgvar dadgenil moTxovnebs,
romlebic kapitalis finansur brunvas Tu uZravi qonebis
flobas axlavs. aseve, xSirad, magram ara yovelTvis,
Tavisufldebian maregulirebeli organoebis mier kapitalze dawesebuli kontrolisa da likvidaciisagan.
arsebobs mosazreba, rom ofSorul centrebs pirvelad
safuZveli Caeyara maSin, rodesac aSS-sgan SeSinebulma sabWoTa kavSirma, rom ar gayinuliyo misi qoneba, daiwyo britanul bankebSi Tavisi anabrebis dabandeba dolaris valutaSi, ris Sedegadac grZelvadiani anabrebis (ucxour valutaSi) Senaxvis winapiroba `civi omi~ gaxda. omis Sedegad
is bankebi, romlebsac hqondaT sabWoTa kavSiris mier miRebuli anabrebi, ar gaTavisufldnen gadasaxadebisa da
fulis tranzaqciasTan dakavSirebuli moTxovnebebisagan.
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aqedan gamomdinare, SegviZlia vivaraudoT, rom ofSoruli bankebis istorias did


britaneTSi daedo safuZveli.1
aRsaniSnavia is faqtoric, rom ofSoruli bankebis aRzevebis xana daiwyo 1970-1980
wlebSi. 1960 wels, aSS-ma mis bankebze kapitalis kontroli daawesa, maSin roca umetesi
bankebi arRvevdnen maTTvis dadgenil wesebs da axdendnen sxvadasxva safinanso sistemidan izolirebas. amave wels investorebis mosazidad bankebma daiwyes grZelvadiani
anabrebis gacema, ramac xeli Seuwyo pirdapir konkurencias kerZo korporaciebsa da
xelisuflebas Soris. 1970 wels, dasavleTis umravlesma bankebma sesxis gacema sxvadasxva suverenul saxelmwifoebze daiwyes, romlebic saWiroebdnen sesxebs sazRvargareT, rac TavisTavad, am ukanasknelTa aqtiur monawileobas gulisxmobda ofSorul
centrebSi.2
dRevandel periodSi dawesebulma sxvadasxva moTxovnebma Tu kanonebma, ofSorul
centrebze nawilobriv iqonia zegavlena. kanonmdeblobisa Tu sxva maregulirebeli
organos moTxovnebis Tanaxmad, maT unda SeinarCunon TavianTi mniSvneloba, magram unda
gaxdnen gamWvirvaleni, raTa aRmoifxvras yovelgvari sabanko maqinaciebi. Tumca, aqve
aRsaniSnavia, rom amgvari centrebis Camoyalibebas mxolod kriminaluri safuZveli ar
udevs, magaliTad, ekonomikurad dasustebuli e.w. Raribi qveynebi aRniSnul finansur
centrebs ayalibeben, raTa moizidon investorebi qveynis ekonomikuri mdgomareobis
gasaumjobeseblad.
interesmoklebuli ar iqneba yuradReba SevaCeroT, Tu ratom xdeba kriminaluri
samyaros mier danaSaulebrivi gziT mopovebuli fulis udidesi nawilis ofSorul
centrebSi dabandeba misi gaTeTrebis mizniT, kerZod:
ofSoruli centrebi klients sTavazobs e.w. Tavisufleba, momsaxureba da SesaZleblobas~ (freedom, service and opportunity). TavisuflebaSi igulisxmeba gadasaxadebisagan Tavisufleba; Tavisufleba sarezervo aqtivebis Tanafardobis moTxovnisagan; Tavisufleba informaciis gamoaSkaravebisagan; momsaxureba gulisxmobs
klientis personalur da korporatiul momsaxureobas; ofSoruli kapitalis
menejmentsa da globalur meurveoba-mzrunvelobas.
individualuri mewarmeebi Tu transnacionaluri korporaciebi ofSorul zonebs
iyeneben, rogorc TavianTi konfidencialobisa da biznes garemoSi konkurentunarianobis SesanarCuneblad.
ofSorul centrebs aqvT moZravi angariSi~. xSir SemTxvevaSi kriminalebi angariSs erT iurisdiqciaSi myof bankSi xsnian, magram sabanko operacias sxva iurisdiqciaSi axorcieleben. kerZod ki, erTi iurisdiqciis bankSi angariSis gaxsnis
SemTxvevaSi, xdeba meore bankis gafrTxileba, raTa am ukanasknelma transferi
ganaxorcielos sxva iurisdiqciis bankSi. aRsaniSnavia, rom aRniSnuli moZravi
angariSi~ samarTaldamcavebs did problemas uqmnis e.w. Savi fulis konfiskaciisas.
umetesi ofSoruli centrebi pirdapir kavSirSi imyofebian kazinoebTan. kerZod
ki, aRniSnuli kavSiris meSveobiT, fulis gaTeTreba xdeba Semdegi sqemiT: fulis

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gaTeTrebis mesveurebi gasaTeTrebeli fuliT yiduloben saTamaSo Cipebs da


TamaSoben kazinoSi. Semdgom abruneben Cipebs da iReben qviTars, riTic midian
romelime bankSi mogebuli Tanxis gasanaRdeblad. aRniSnuli procesis dros,
aravin interesdeba Tu saidan gaCnda gasaTeTrebeli fuli, romelic sabolood,
mogebul Tanxad ubrundebaT.
ofSorul centrebs mWidro kavSiri aqvT e.w. xelSemwyob agentebTan romlebic
Suamavloben klientebTan. xelSemwyobi agentebis SeTavazeba iTvaliswinebs finansur konsultaciebs/rCevebs da klientis darwmunebas finansuri centriT sargeblobis upiratesobaSi.
arsebobs uamravi e.w. iatakqveSa sabanko sistema (Underground banking system), romelic
Tavis mxriv, kompleqsuri ofSoruli zonaa. aseTi tipis bankebia Cinuri Chip system
an Chop system, pakistanur-induri Hundi system igive Hawalah system. aRniSnuli
sistemebiT klientis kapitalis tranzaqcia xdeba telefonis, faqsis an eleqtronuli
fostis saSualebiT. iseTi saxis simdidre, rogoricaa oqro da Zvirfasi qvebi erTi
qveynidan meore qveyanaSi gadadis yovelgvari savaldebulo finansuri dokumentaciis
gareSe. iqidan gamomdinare, rom e.w. iatakqveSa sabanko sistema finansur tranzaqcias
axorcielebs saerTaSoriso qselis (Network) meSveobiT, samarTaldamcavi organoebi
ver uweven kontrols aRniSnul process, rac Tavis mxriv, aadvilebs kriminalebis mier
fulis gaTeTrebis SesaZleblobas.3

gadaxdis axali meTodebis ofSoruli uzrunvelyofa


potenciuri risk-faqtori, romelic SeiZleba saerTo iyos gadaxdis axali meTodebis
yvela saxisaTvis, aris iurisdiqcia. zog SemTxvevaSi, gadaxdis axali meTodebis Semqmnelebi an momsaxurebis mimwodeblebi SeiZleba imyofebodnen ofSorul finansur centrSi, sadac rogorc aRvniSneT, kanonebisa da normatiuli aqtebis naklebad saimedo
sistemebia. amasTan, procesebi, romlebic gadaxdis axal meTodebTanaa dakavSirebuli,
xSirad ramdenime iseT iurisdiqcias gaivlis, romelTa gavleniTac ufro kompleqsuri
produqti iqmneba. ramdenime iurisdiqciis monawileoba qmnis tranzaqciebis dafarvas,
romelic Tavis mxriv, arTulebs gadaxdis axali meTodebis zedamxedvelobis efeqtianobas samarTaldamcavi organoebis mxridan. rodesac gadaxdis axali meTodebi internetiT vrceldeba, iurisdiqciasTan dakavSirebuli problemebi matulobs. kerZod, Tu
romel iurisdiqciebs miekuTvnebian momsaxurebis provaiderebi, sad arian isini CarTulebi, xelisuflebis romeli organoebi ageben pasuxs maT kontrolze da fulis gaTeTrebasa da terorizmis dafinansebasTan brZolis romeli reJimi gamoiyeneba maT
winaaRmdeg. am SemTxvevaSi, nebismieri im iurisdiqciisaTvis, sadac rigiTi klientebisaTvis gadaxdis axali meTodebis gamoyeneba daSvebulia, gansakuTrebiT rTuli xdeba
aRniSnul ukanono qmedebebSi Careva da maTi SeCereba. problemis naTlad warmoCenisaTvis, warmogidgenT gadaxdis axali meTodebis sqemas.

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a) gadaxdis axali meTodebis riskebi fulis gaTeTrebisas4


gadaxdis meTodi

winaswari gadaxdis baraTebi:


Ria sistema
(Prepaid cards: open-system)

potenciuri
risk-faqtorebi
baraTis anonimuri
mflobeli;

baraTis mflobelis
identifikacia;

anonimuri dafinanseba
(Semodineba) da Tanxebis
anonimuri gatana (gadineba);

dafinansebis SezRudvis
variantebi;

sabaraTe Tanxis maRali


limiti da/an
aralimitirebuli baraTebis
raodenoba, romelic kerZo
pirs SeuZlia SeiZinos;

winaswari gadaxdis baraTebi:


daxuruli sistema
(Prepaid cards: closed-system)

mimdinare da potenciuri
riskebis Semamcireblebi

baraTis Sevsebis limiti da/


an baraTebis raodenoba,
romelic kerZo pirs
SeuZlia SeiZinos;
erTi tranzaqciis
Rirebuleba;

naRdi fulis gatana yvela


bankomatidan;

naRdi fulis sazRvargareT


aRebis SezRudva;

ofSorulma emitentebma
yvela iurisdiqciaSi
SesaZloa kanonebi ar
daicvan.

tranzaqciebis monitoringi
da saeWvo aqtivobebis Sesaxeb
angariSebis warmodgena;

baraTis anonimuri
mflobeli;

baraTis mflobelis
identifikacia;

anonimuri dafinanseba;
sabaraTe Tanxis maRali
limiti;

baraTis Sevsebis limiti da/


an baraTebis raodenoba,
romelic kerZo pirs
SeuZlia SeiZinos;

naRdi fulis masis


Canacvleba;
aralimitirebuli baraTebis
raodenoba, romelic kerZo
pirs SeuZlia SeiZinos.

baraTis/angariSis dablokva;
arasasurveli movaWreebis
qselisa da bankomatebis
mimwodeblebis/qselis
SezRudva

dafinansebis SezRudvis
variantebi;
tranzaqciebis monitoringi
da saeWvo aqtivobebis Sesaxeb
angariSebis warmodgena;
pirdapir bankomatidan naRdi
fuli moxsnis SezRudva;
baraTis/angariSis dablokva.

eleqtronuli safule
(Electronic Purse)

baraTis anonimuri mflobeli


anonimuri dafinanseba da
Tanxebis anonimurad miReba
sabaraTe Tanxis maRali limiti
tranzaqciis Sesaxeb
Canawerebis ararseboba

126

baraTis mflobelis
identifikacia;
baraTidan baraTze
gadaricxvis SesaZleblobis
ararseboba;
daxarjuli/Senaxuli fulis
raodenobis SezRudva;

sazRvargareT
funqcionirebis SezRudva;
dafinansebis SezRudvis
variantebi;
tranzaqciebis monitoringi
da saeWvo aqtivobebis Sesaxeb
angariSebis warmodgena;
baraTis/angariSis dablokva;

mobiluriT gadaxdebi
(Mobile payments)

anonimuri angariSebi;
anonimuri dafinanseba da
Tanxebis anonimurad miReba;
maRali an ararsebuli
angariSis dafinansebis
SezRudva.

angariSis mflobelebis
identifikacia telefonebis,
rogorc sabanko an sakredito
baraTis angariSTan damakavSirebeli mowyobilobis,
gamoyenebisas an satelefono
kompaniis mier telefonis
mflobelis identifikacia;
sazRvargareT
funqcionirebis SezRudva
angariSis an tranzaqciis
Tanxis SezRudva;
dafinansebis SezRudvis
variantebi;
tranzaqciebis monitoringi
da saeWvo aqtivobebis Sesaxeb
angariSebis warmodgena;
baraTis/angariSis dablokva;
qselis gamoyenebis SezRudva.

Zvirfasi liTonebi
(Precious metals)

anonimuri angariSebi;
anonimuri dafinanseba da
Tanxebis anonimurad miReba;
ofSoruli momsaxurebis
provaiderebma sxva
iurisdiqciebSi SeiZleba
kanonebi ar daicvan.

angariSis mflobelis
identifikacia;
gadamxdelisa da mimRebis
mier tranzaqciis Sesaxeb
Canawerebis Senaxva;
tranzaqciebis monitoringi
da saeWvo aqtivobebis Sesaxeb
angariSebis warmodgena;
baraTis/angariSis dablokva;
momsaxurebis miRebis SezRudva.

internetiT gadaxdis
sistemebi
(Internet payment system)

anonimuri angariSebi;
anonimuri dafinanseba da
Tanxebis anonimurad miReba
(bankomatiT);
maRali an ararsebuli
angariSis dafinansebis
SezRudva;

angariSis mflobelis
identifikacia;
gadamxdelisa da mimRebis
mier tranzaqciis Sesaxeb
Canawerebis Senaxva;
tranzaqciebis monitoringi
da saeWvo aqtivobebis Sesaxeb
angariSebis warmodgena;

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ofSoruli momsaxurebis
provaiderebma sxva
iurisdiqciebSi SeiZleba
kanonebi ar daicvan.

dafinansebis SezRudvis
variantebi;
baraTis/angariSis
dablokva;
momsaxurebis miRebis
SezRudva.

xelisuflebis organoebs Soris saerTaSoriso TanamSromloba SesaZloa mniSvnelovani instrumenti aRmoCndes am situaciebis gadawyvetisaTvis, gansakuTrebiT iq, sadac
informaciis gacvlis efeqturi da qmediTi sistemebi arsebobs. amasTan dakavSirebiT,
germaniis mier 2003 wlis bolos berlinSi Catarebul ASEM-is simpoziumze SemoTavazebuli iqna `adreuli gafrTxilebisa da informaciis gaziarebis sistema.~5

adreuli gafrTxilebisa da informaciis gaziarebis sistema


ofSoruli centrebisa da gadaxdis servisebis emitentebi, romlebic e.w. xelSemwyobi
agentebis an internetis saSualebiT moqmedeben, yovelTvis rodi icaven kanons im qveynebSi, sadac TavianTi biznesis ganviTareba surT. 2003 wlis oqtomberSi, berlinSi Catarebul ASEM-is simpoziumze germaniam warmoadgina `adreuli gafrTxilebisa da informaciis gaziarebis sistema~ fulis gadaricxvis alternatiuli sistemebisa da iatakqveSa
sabanko saqmianobis konteqstSi, iurisdiqciebs Soris koordinaciisa da informaciis
gacvlis gasaaqtiureblad. ASEM-is6 eqspertebi `SeTanxmdnen, rom ASEM-is yovel qveyanaSi samarTaldamcavi an sazedamxedvelo organosagan, anu finansuri dazvervis samsaxurisagan (FIU) koordinaciis gaaqtiurebis mizniT, sakontaqto punqti SeeqmnaT, rac
moicavs informaciis gacvlas da, SeZlebisdagvarad, erToblivi RonisZiebebis gatarebas Sesabamis adgilobriv da ucxouri xelisuflebis organoebs Soris ukanono saqmianobis an borotmoqmedebis Cadenis Tavidan asacileblad. ASEM-is qveynebis eqspertebi
aseve, SeTanxmdnen, rom adreuli gafrTxilebis aseTi sistema xels Seuwyobs ukanono
saerTaSoriso tranzaqciebis CaSlas erTdroulad yvela dazaralebul qveyanaSi da
saSualebas miscems samarTaldamcav da sazedamxedvelo organoebs TavianTi iurisdiqciis farglebSi aucilebeli koordinirebuli muSaoba ganaxorcielon. eqspertebi miesalmnen sxva qveynebis am procesSi monawileobas.~7
adreuli gafrTxilebisa da informaciis gaziarebis sistema mogvianebiT moiwona
FATF-is ramdenime wevrma, romlebic am sistemas SeuerTdnen. maTTvis es sistema gansaxilvelad warmoadgines FATF-is seminarze terorizmis dafinansebis Sesaxeb parizSi,
2004 wlis TebervalSi.8
aRsaniSnavia, rom adreuli gafrTxilebis sistema Tavdapirvelad gamiznuli iyo
iatakqveSa sabanko saqmianobasTan sabrZolvelad, Tumca mas aseve SeuZlia Zalze efeqtiani instrumenti gaxdes gadaxdis axali sistemebis borotad gamoyenebis winaaRmdeg
brZolaSi.
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gadaxdis aRniSnul axal meTodebs, gansakuTrebiT ki, maTTvis, vinc internets


iyenebs, TavisTavad Zalian hgavs iatakqveSa sabanko qselebs. gadaxdis axali meTodebi
SeiZleba gamoyenebuli iqnas Tanxebis gadasaricxad mTeli msoflios masStabiT. ase,
rom adreuli gafrTxilebis sistema Zalian sasargeblo da efeqtiani instrumentia ara
marto koordinirebuli muSaobisaTvis, aramed gadaxdis aseTi axali sistemebis borotad gamoyenebis Tavidan asacileblad.

gamoyenebuli literatura:
1. fulis gadaricxvis alternatiuli servisebisa da iatakqveSa sabanko
saqmianobis Sesaxeb berlinis simpoziumis saboloo daskvnebi, 2003
wlis 30-31 oqtomberi, IV paragrafi;
2. FATF-GAFI Financial Action Task Force, money laundering and terrorist
financing vulnerabilities of commercial websites and internet payment systems, 2008;
3. FATF-GAFI Financial Action Task Force, Report on New Payment Methods
2006;
4. Global Financial Crime Terrorism, Money Laundering and Offshore Centres,
Donato Maciandaro 2004;
5. Financial havens, banking secrecy and money-laundering Double issue 34
and 35 of the crime prevention and criminal justice newsletter Issue 8 of the
UNDCP technique series UNITED NATIONS, New York 1998.

SeniSvnebi:
1

Financial havens, banking secrecy and money-laundering Double issue 34 and


35 of the crime prevention and criminal justice newsletter Issue 8 of the UNDCP
technique series UNITED NATIONS, New York 1998.
Financial havens, banking secrecy and money-laundering Double issue 34 and
35 of the crime prevention and criminal justice newsletter Issue 8 of the UNDCP
technique series UNITED NATIONS, New York 1998.
Global Financial Crime Terrorism, Money Laundering and Offshore Centres,
Donato Maciandaro 2004.
FATF-GAFI Finacial Action Task Force, Report on New Payment Methods
2006.
FATF-GAFI Financial Action Task Force, Report on New Payment Methods 2006.
abreviatura ASEM iSifreba, rogorc azia-evropis Sexvedra (AsiaEurope Meeting), araformaluri forumi evropul da aziur iurisdiqciebs Soris dialogisaTvis. damatebiTi informacia ASEM-is da misi
wevrebis Sesaxeb ixileT, saitze www.aseminfoboard.org
fulis gadaricxvis alternatiuli servisebisa da iatakqveSa sabanko
saqmianobis Sesaxeb berlinis simpoziumis saboloo daskvnebi, 2003
wlis 30-31 oqtomberi, IV paragrafi.
FATF-GAFI Financial Action Task Force, money laundering and terrorist
financing vulnerabilities of commercial websites and internet payment systems, 2008.

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MONEY LAUNDERING
THROUGH OFFSHORE
ZONES

NINO OSADZE
Master of Law of the Hamburg University
Doctoral Candidate of the Law Department, TEUSU

The article outlines an acute problem such as offshore financial centers


that are extremely popular worldwide. They are used for illegal money
laundering and large amount of capital investing, which on their side represent
to be the international economic crime.
It should be noted, that these types of centers are used not only in big
industrial states, but in the ones with developing market economy, where
cash flow, short-term loans, or currency exchange rates are unsteady. Offshore
centers encourage the state capital to become less transparent, which naturally
results in exploitation of the ownership system and make different jurisdictions
contradictory to each other. Offshore zones, that are also frequently referred
as offshore banks, envisage keeping assets in the framework of one legal
jurisdiction, but at the same time these assets are circulated using the other
jurisdictions as well.

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axali wignebi
gamomcemloba `meridianma~ gamosca samarTlis doqtoris, levan darbaiZis monografia `aleqsandre amilaxvris
samarTlebrivi Sexedulebebi~, romlis samecniero redaqtoria iuridiul mecnierebaTa doqtori, profesori, iakob futkaraZe.
naSromi kompleqsuri gamokvlevis Sedegad Seiqmna. monografiis Teoriul, meTodologiur da wyaroTmcodneobis mTavar baziss warmoadgens zogad-samecniero meTodebi. mecnieruli kvlevisas gamoyenebul iqna SedarebiTsamarTlebrivi, logikuri da istoriuli meTodebi.
wigni qarTuli samarTlis istoriis im ZiriTadi sakiTxebis mecnieruli analizis Sedegia, romelTac Tanamedrove sakonstitucio, administraciuli Tu sisxlis samarTlis saWirboroto problemebis gadasaWrelad mniSvnelovani roli eniWeba. monografiuli naSromis kvlevis ZiriTadi mizania aleqsandre amilaxvris samarTlebriv SexedulebaTa aqtualurobis mecnierulad dasabuTeba da imis
warmoCena, Tu rogor hqonda mas Camoyalibebuli Tavisi
mosazrebani sazogadoebisa da saxelmwifos mowyobis samarTlebrivi safuZvlebis, saxelmwifo xelisuflebis `sazogadoebrivi xelSekrulebis~ Sedegad Camoyalibebis, samefo xelisuflebis bunebisa da samarTlebrivi farglebis, mefis arCevis, xelisuflebis danawilebis, sazogadoebis sxvadasxva socialuri fenis uflebaTa dacvis, saxelmwifosa da eklesiis urTierTdamokidebulebis, religiuri konfesiebis warmomadgenelTa uflebebis dacvis, sakanonmdeblo da sisxlis samarTlis sakiTxebis, samarTliani sasamarTlos Seqmnis aucileblobis, sasjelis umaRlesi zomis _ sikvdiliT dasjis, adamianis bunebiTi uflebebis da kanonis winaSe Tanasworobis Sesaxeb.

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saqarTvelos mosamarTleTa asociacia

JUDGES ASSOCIATION OF GEORGIA


tel-faqsi/Tel-Fax: (+995 32) 92 34 90

saqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlo

THE SUPREME COURT OF GEORGIA


tel-faqsi/Tel-Fax: (+995 32) 99 70 01

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