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ARCHITECTURAL HISTORY I(ASSIGNMENT)

CENTRAL UNIVERSITY COLLEGE


DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE

3D PRINTING RESEARCH

What is 3D printing?
3D printing or additive manufacturing is a process of making three dimensional solid objects from a
digital file. The creation of a 3D printed object is achieved using additive processes. In an additive
process an object is created by laying down successive layers of material until the entire object is created.
Each of these layers can be seen as a thinly sliced horizontal cross-section of the eventual object.
How does 3D printing work?
3d printing starts with making a virtual design of the object the designer wants to create. The virtual
design is made in a Computer Aided Design file using a 3d modeling software to create the new design or
object. A 3d scanner can also be used to copy an existing object. A 3d scanner makes a 3d digital copy of
an object.
The 3d scanners use a different kind of technology to generate a 3d model such as time-of-flight,
structured / modulated light, volumetric scanning and many more.
Recently, many IT companies like Microsoft and Google enabled their hardware to perform 3d scanning,
a great example is Microsofts Kinect. This is a clear sign that future hand-held devices like smartphones
will have integrated 3d scanners. Digitizing real objects into 3d models will become as easy as taking a
picture.

Processes and technologies


Not all 3D printers use the same technology. There are several ways to print and all those
available are additive, differing mainly in the way layers are built to create the final object.
Some methods use melting or softening material to produce the layers. Selective laser sintering
(SLS) and fused deposition modeling (FDM) are the most common technologies using this way
of printing. Another method of printing is when we talk about curing a photo-reactive resin with
a UV laser or another similar power source one layer at a time. The most common technology
using this method is called stereolithography (SLA).
According to 3dprinting.com, since 2010, the American Society for Testing and
Materials (ASTM) group ASTM F42 Additive Manufacturing, developed a set of
standards that classify the Additive Manufacturing processes into 7 categories according
to Standard Terminology for Additive Manufacturing Technologies. These seven processes
are:
1.

Vat Photopolymerisation

2.

Material Jetting

3.

Binder Jetting

4.

Material Extrusion

5.

Powder Bed Fusion

6.

Sheet Lamination

7.

Directed Energy Deposition

Application of 3d printing
One of the most important applications of 3d printing is in the medical industry. With 3d printing,
surgeons can produce mockups of parts of their patients body which needs to be operated upon. 3d
printing makes it possible to make a part from scratch in just hours. It allows designers and developers to
go from flat screen to exact part.
Nowadays, almost everything form aerospace components to toys are getting built with the help of 3d
printers. 3d printing is also used for jewelry and art, architecture, fashion design and interior design.

Advantages Of 3d Printing Over The Traditional Method.


1. Quick Production
The speed of 3D printing as compared to the other traditional methods is like comparing a sports cars top
speed to cart of the horse. They both take you were you want to go but the time speed differs
considerably. With industrial 3D printers being able to manufacture most objects in a matter of hours,
whiles the classical manufacturing methods take up to several days or even weeks. The traditional
methods are now becoming obsolete.
2. Sustainable / environmentally friendly
3d printing is also emerging as an energy-efficient technology that can provide environmental efficiencies
in terms of both the manufacturing process itself. It is able to utilize up to 90% of standard materials. 3d
printing creates less waste but also throughout an additively manufactured products operating life, by

way of lighter and stronger design that imposes reduced carbon footprint compared with traditionally
manufactured products.
Furthermore, 3s printing is showing great signs of prospects in terms of fulfilling a local manufacturing
model, where the products being produced are on a great demand in the fields where they are neededeliminating huge inventories and unsustainable logistics for shipping high volumes of products around the
world.
3. Cheap manufacturing
3d printing helps companies save up to 70 percent of the manufacturing cost. This is attained through
lower packaging and shipping costs related to more reliable and cheaper raw materials and lesser
workforce needed, as well as overseas parts suppliers. This technology makes progressive companies
more profitable.
4. New combination of materials
Mixing different raw materials is not always possible with mass-manufacturing methods due to the
sometimes high costs involved and to their physical and chemical properties that make them difficult to
combine through traditional methods. 3d printing has removed many of these boundaries not only because
of the initial dependency on plastic but also because of a continuous innovation fed by enthusiast who
believe that additive manufacturing potential has not been reached yet. Companies as a result now offer
diverse materials with different finishes giving the look and feel of metal, ceramics or glass with various
strengths and temperature resistance,
5. New shapes and structures

Traditional manufacturing methods rely on molds and cutting technologies to produce all finite number of
shapes and structures, with more complex hollow ones having to be created from several parts and
assembled together. But the 3d printing changes this altogether. The 3d printers nozzle could build an
infinite number of complex figures, being limited only by human imagination; this method gives them
more durability and higher structural integrity. From medical implants that resemble bone to aerodynamic
parts for the space industry and from unique-shaped furniture to 3d printed jewelry, the opportunities are
just endless.

What Is The Most Recently 3d Printed Building?.


WinSun China builds world's first 3D printed villa and tallest 3D printed apartment
building.

On March 29, 2014, ten 3d printing houses, each measuring 200 square meters, appeared in shanghai,
China. The buildings were entirely out of concrete using a gigantic 3d printer, and each costs only
30,000,RMB ($4,800). Today, just ten months after initial project, the company behind these 3d printing
buildings-ShanghaiWinSun Decoration Design Engineering Co, made a new announcement that will
take 3d printed buildings to a whole new level: they have built the highest 3d printed building, a 5-storey
residential house and the worlds first 3d printed villa. The villa measures 1,100 square meters and even
comes complete with internal and external decorations.
Using a machine which measures a staggering 20 feet tall, 33 feet wide and 132 feet long, the team at
WinSun started with a basic CAD drawing which they fed to the massive 3D printer that was able
to fabricate the structure piece-by-piece using a specially formulated and patented ink.
The ink, which includes construction waste such as concrete, fiberglass, sand, and a special hardening
agent, is an incredible way to recycle general construction materials not to mention it is flexible, selfinsulating, and resistant to strong earthquakes. The walls and other components of the structure were
fabricated offsite with a diagonal reinforced print pattern and then shipped in and pieced together. The
company then placed beam columns and steel rebar within the walls, along with insulation, reserving
space for pipe lines, windows and doors.

FIGS-3d printed 5-storey apartment

The printer used to build the house is 6.6 meters tall and 10 meters wide and 150 meters long. This is the
worlds first continuous printing 3d printer and the largest 3d printer in the world. The 3d printer is able to
save between 30 to 60 percent of building materials and it shortens the production time by 50 to 70
percent, while decreasing labor costs by 50 percent up to 80 percent.
The company also uses architectural design software to integrate different design and to meet the needs of
various building structures, so that they are not limited to just printing basic houses.

References:
http://www.3dprinterprices.net
http://www.augmentedtomorrow.com
http://www.hhglobal.com
http://3dprint.com/38144/3d-printed-apartment-building/