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HIGH SCHOOL ''SVETI SAVA'' POEGA

FINAL EXAMINATION IN ENGLISH

CLAUSES

Date
Candidate
May 2013.
Katarina Radosavljevi
Mentor
Duica Sineli

Final Examination In English

Clauses

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION
2. NOUN CLAUSES
2.1.
NOUN CLAUSES DERIVED FROM STATEMENTS
2.2.
NOUN CLAUSES DERIVED FROM QUESTIONS
2.3.
NOUN CLAUSES AS SUBJECT
2.4.
NOUN CLAUSES AS OBJECT
2.5.
NOUN CLAUSES IN APPOSITION TO THE SUBJECT
2.6.
NOUN CLAUSES IN APPOSITION TO THE OBJECT
2.7.
NOUN CLAUSES AS COMPLEMENT
2.8.
NOUN CLAUSES AS OBJECT OF A PREPOSITION
2.9.
NOUN CLAUSES USED WITH A NUMBER OF PREDICATIVE
ADJECTIVES SUCH AS: CERTAIN, GLAD, SORRY, AFRAID AND POSSIBLE
3. ADVERBIAL CLAUSES
3.1.
ADVERBIAL CLAUSES OF TIME
3.2.
ADVERBIAL CLAUSES OF PLACE
3.3.
ADVERBIAL CLAUSES OF MANNER
3.4.
ADVERBIAL CLAUSES OF REASON OR CAUSE
3.5.
ADVERBIAL CLAUSES OF CONCESSION (CONTRAST)
3.6.
ADVERBIAL CLAUSES OF PURPOSE
3.7.
ADVERBIAL CLAUSES OF RESULT
3.8.
ADVERBIAL CLAUSES OF COMPARISON
3.9.
ADVERBIAL CLAUSES OF CONDITION
4. ADJECTIVE CLAUSES
4.1.
RELATIVE PRONOUNS AND CLAUSES
5. BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. INTRODUCTION

A clause is a part of a sentence. There are two main types: independent (main
clauses), dependent (subordinate clauses).
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An independent clause is a complete sentence; it contains a subject and verb and


expresses a complete thought in both context and meaning.
Independent clauses can be joined by a coordinating conjunction to form complex or compound
sentences: and, but, for, or, nor, so, yet.
A dependent (subordinate) clause is part of a sentence; it contains a subject and
verb but does not express a complete thought. They can make sense on their own,
but, they are dependent on the rest of the sentence for context and meaning. They
are usually joined to an independent clause to form a complex sentence.
Dependent clauses often begin with a subordinating conjunction (after, although,
as, because, before, even if, even though, if, in order that, once, provided
that, rather than, since, so that, than, that, though, unless, until, when,
whenever, where, whereas, wherever, whether, while, why) or relative
pronoun (that, which, whichever, who, whoever, whom, whose, whosever,
whomever) that makes the clause unable to stand alone.
Example:
I got a good grade even though I didn't study much.
Dependent (Subordinate) clause
(even though - subordinating conjunction)
Independent (Main) clause

2. NOUN CLAUSES

A noun clause is a clause that has a function of a noun in a sentence. They answer
questions such as 'whom?' or 'what?'.
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2.1 NOUN CLAUSES DERIVED FROM STATEMENTS

Examples:
1. I knew that she is going to say that. (derived from the sentence: She is going to
say that.)
2. I see that he is running late for the meeting. (derived from the sentence: He is
running late for the meeting.)
We often use Noun clauses after ''reporting verbs'' such as: say, tell, know ..
We can leave out that:
I know (that) he is going to cinema.

2.2 NOUN CLAUSES DERIVED FROM QUESTIONS

a) Yes/ No questions
To change a yes/no question to a noun clause, use if or whether after the reporting
words such as: tell me, ask, want to know.
Have you done your homework?
your homework.

I wanted to know whether you have done

b) Wh- questions
To change a wh-question to a noun clause, use the wh-word:
When does the show start?

I don't know when the show starts.

2.3 NOUN CLAUSES AS SUBJECT

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What you concluded is very substantial.


Main clause
Noun clause
The clause "what you proposed'' has the function of subject.
The Main clause cannot stand alone.
Examples:
That Jonas found his shoe is a lucky coincidence.
Where Maria goes on Saturdays is a secret to all of us.
How long will the conference last is unknown to the press.

2.4 NOUN CLAUSES AS OBJECT

I have always thought that Mike is Sarah's brother.


Noun clause
Main clause
The clause ''that Mike is Sarah's brother'' has the function of object.
Examples:
I know that you will be late for your appointment.
My friend said that Anna has cut her hair.
I hate putting other people in front of myself.

2.5 NOUN CLAUSES IN APPOSITION TO THE SUBJECT

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Example:
It seems unlikely that she would hurt him in such a terrible way.

subordinate clause
Here, the subordinate clause can be replaced by 'it' in the main clause. That makes
it a noun clause in apposition to a subject.

Example of non-finite noun clauses in apposition to a subject:


It is so interesting reading a book that you like.

2.6 NOUN CLAUSES IN APPOSITION TO THE OBJECT

Example:
I didn't like the idea that John would be dismissed.
The main clause 'I didn't like the idea' is complete because it contains subject, verb
and object. The subordinate clause only describes the idea subject didn't like and
that makes it an aposition to the object.

2.7 NOUN CLAUSES AS COMPLEMENT

Example:

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Kelly's suggestion was that we should stick to the plan.

Subordinate clause
Subordinate clause 'that we should stick to the plan' completes the predicate 'was'
and that makes it a complement of the verb.
Examples of non-finite noun clauses as a complement:
Her plan was to make him embarrassed.
Our mistake was not finishing the test.

2.8 NOUN CLAUSES AS OBJECT OF A PREPOSITION

Nelly is not responsible for Mike failing the test.

Subordinate clause

Clause 'Mike failing the test is the object of the preposition 'for'.

2.9 NOUN CLAUSES USED WITH A NUMBER OF PREDICATIVE ADJECTIVES


SUCH AS: CERTAIN, GLAD, SORRY, AFRAID AND POSSIBLE

Examples:
I'm glad that you found a job.
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She is sorry that he messed your pants.


I am very afraid that you will screw things up.

3 ADVERBIAL CLAUSES

Adverbial clauses show relationships such as time, cause and effect, contrast, and
condition. An adverbial clause is a subordinate clause that has the function of an
adverb. It contains subject and predicate. It modifies a verb.
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3.1 ADVERBIAL CLAUSES OF TIME

The Adverbial Clauses of time answer the question when? and we can also call
them Temporal Clauses. We use these clauses to refer to a past time or to another
event.
The conjunctions we use with these clauses are: after, before, when, while, as,
by the time, whenever, since, until, as soon as, once, as long as, etc.

After (After that moment):


After takes the present tense for future events and the past tense for past events.
She wrote her assignment after she realized the due is tomorrow.
You shall eat after you wash your hands.

Adverbial Clauses
Before ( Before that moment) :

Before takes either the simple past or the present tense.


Johnny noticed me before I was about to scare him.

When:
When takes either the simple past or the present tense. The dependent clause
changes tense in relationship to the adverbial clause with -when- conjunction.

I was about to go home when Jenna finally arrived.


Susie says that she will wash the dishes when we are done eating lunch.

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While, as:
These two conjunctions have the same meaning and it is 'during that time'. They
are both usually used with the past continuous tense.

I have considered his offer while I was having breakfast yesterday.


As I was slowly beginning to fall asleep, she took my glasses and put them next to
the bed.

By the time:
"By the time" expresses the idea that one event has been completed before another
and the idea of something happening up to a certain point in time.

By the time the catering arrives, we will have eaten all the snacks.
I had had my essay done by the time my mom fell asleep.

Whenever:
"Whenever" means "every time something happens". It is used with the simple
present tense to express present time and with past simple tense to express past
time because it is related to a habitual action.

Whenever I go visit my parents, they make a dinner party for our relatives and
ourselves.

Since:
The meaning of "Since'' is "From that time" . It can be used to express a certain
point in time. It is used with the present perfect continuous tense.

Melissa has been attending dance classes since she was a young girl.
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Until:
The meaning of "Until" is "Up to a certain time". We use the simple present tense or
simple past tense to express either present or past time.

As soon as:
The meaning of "As soon as" is "Immediately after something happens" . It is very
similar to the "when" conjunction.

Please, let us know as soon as the results arrive.

3.2 ADVERBIAL CLAUSES OF PLACE

The adverbial clauses of place answer the question "where?". The conjunctions
often used with these clauses are: where, wherever, anywhere, everywhere, etc.

The boys look at her wherever she goes.


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I wish I could go on vacation anywhere I liked.


You should consider going to a place where somebody really knows how to repair a
car.

3.3 ADVERBIAL CLAUSES OF MANNER

The Adverbial Clauses Of Manner answer the question "how?'' . They describe the
way something is done.
Conjunctions are usually : as, the way that, the same way, as if, etc.

You should listen to me and do this the way I explained to you.


She is acting as if she was depressed.

3.4 ADVERBIAL CLAUSES OF REASON OR CAUSE

This type of clauses answer the question "why?". They are used to express the
reason for something. They are introduced with following words/expressions:
because, as/since, the reason for/why, because of, on account on, due to,
now that, for etc.

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Examples:

She proposed the meeting to be canceled because she couldn't be there on time.
The reason for breaking the agreement is that the clients found a better offer.
The President of The USA was upset, for the people were about to start a riot. (For
is used in formal written style)
They bought a new car since the old one stopped working.

3.5 ADVERBIAL CLAUSES OF CONCESSION ( CONTRAST)

Clauses of concession are used to express a contrast. That is why we can call them
Clauses Of Contrast. They are introduced with the following conjunctions: but,
although, though, even though, in spite of, despite, however, while, yet,
nevertheless, on the other hand.
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Examples:

It was raining heavily but she wasn't using an umbrella.

Even though is more empathic than although. Though is informal and is often
used in everyday speech.
Even though it was winter, the temperature was above 15 degrees.

In spite of his qualifications, he couldn't get a job.


However hard he tried, he couldn't get a job.
They were fond of white roses while the other half of the bridesmaids were more in
the mod for the red ones.
The rain was awfully heavy, yet no flood has appeared.
Katie and James didn't love each other. On the other hand, Miles and Jenna did.

3.6 ADVERBIAL CLAUSES OF PURPOSE

Clauses of purpose is used to describe the purpose of an action. they are introduced
with the following conjunctions: to, in order to, so that, in case, etc.

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Examples:
He went to a mechanic to repair his car.
I haven't had lunch in order to be able to eat at my grandma's house.
She has her beauty sleep every day so that she doesn't get wrinkles.
Take your shirt in case it gets too hot.

3.7 ADVERBIAL CLAUSES OF RESULT

Adverbial Clauses of Reason are used to express the result of something. They are
introduced with the following conjunctions: as a result, therefore, so, etc.

Examples:

I was going swimming and as a result I returned home all wet and tired.
I have finished high school, therefore I'm going to apply for college.
She doesn't eat chocolate so she always orders vanilla ice-cream.

3.8 ADVERBIAL CLAUSES OF COMPARISON

Adverbial clauses of degree or comparison answer the questions How much? , How
many? and How little?. The conjunctions that are used to introduce these clauses
are : as, as...as, so..as and than.

Examples:

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He is not as fat as I am.


The popsicle is twice as expensive as the lollipop.

3.9 ADVERBIAL CLAUSES OF CONDITION

Full conditional sentences in English consist of a condition clause specifying a


condition or hypothesis, and a consequence clause specifying what follows from that
condition. The condition clause is a dependent clause, most commonly headed by
the conjunction if, while the consequence is contained in the main clause of the
sentence. Either clause may appear first.

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Different types of conditional sentences (depending largely on whether they refer to


a past, present or future time frame) require the use of particular verb forms (tenses
and moods) to express the condition and the consequence. In English language
teaching the most common patterns are referred to as first conditional, second
conditional and third conditional; there is also a zero conditional and mixed
conditional.

Zero conditional (general truth)


Zero conditional refers to conditional sentences that express a fact, rather than
describing a hypothetical situation or potential future circumstance . The term is
used particularly when both clauses are in the present tense.

If + Present Simple ... Present Simple

Examples:
If you heat ice, it melts.
If you go out when it's raining, you get wet.
If the weather is good, I go swimming.

First Conditional (real present)


We use the First Conditional to talk about a future situation that is possible. The verb
in the if-clause is in the present tense; the verb in the main clause is in the Future
Simple. It doesn't matter which comes first. There is usually a comma between the
two clauses.

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If + Present Tense ... Future Tense/Imperative/Can/May/


Might/Must/Should/Could+ Present Bare Infinitive

If you study, you will get good grades.


If the climate keeps warming, the Arctic might be warm enough for swimming.
If it stops raining, we can go out.

Second Conditional (unreal past)


We use the Second Conditional to give advice or to talk about a future situation that
is unlikely to happen. The verb in the if-clause is in the past tense; the verb in the
main clause is in the conditional tense.

If + Past Simple/ Continuous ... Would/Could/Might + Perfect Bare


Infinitive

If someone stole my bag, I would immediately contact the police.


If I were you, I would plant some trees in your garden.
If you tried again, you would succeed.

Third Conditional (unreal past)


We use The Type 3 Conditional when talking about a past condition that cannot be
fulfilled, because the action in the if-clause didn't happen.

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If+ Past Perfect Simple/ Continuous ... Would/ Could/ Might +Perfect
Bare Infinitive

If I hadn't missed the train, I wouldn't have been late for the meeting.
If I had been able to change the past, I would have never been miserable.
If you had obeyed orders this disaster would not have happened.

Mixed Conditionals
Mixed conditionals are those unreal conditional sentences whose time in the ifclause is different than the time in the main-clause. They refer to the present, the
future or the past. If we mix the sentences, we get mixed conditionals.

Past and Present


If my father hadn't lost his job, we wouldn't have to worry about the bills. (But my
father lost his job and therefore we have to worry about the bills.)
Past and Future
If our house had located by the sea, we wouldn't have to travel to get to the beach.
(But our house isn't located by the sea and we have to travel to get to the beach.)
Present and Past
If I were more friendly, I would have had a lot of friends.( But I am not more friendly
and therefore I don't have a lot of friends.)

Present and Future


If you had more time, I would go to the beach with you.(But you don't have more
time and I won't go to the beach with you.)

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4.1 ADJECTIVE CLAUSES

Adjective clauses perform the same function in sentences that adjectives do: they
modify nouns.

The maid has a pen. (Pen is a noun.)


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Its a blue pen. (Blue is an adjective which modifies pen.)


The pen that she is writing with is not hers.
(That she is writing with is an adjective clause which modifies pen. Its a clause
because it has a subject (she) and a predicate (is writing); its an adjective clause
because it modifies a noun.)
Note that adjectives usually precede the nouns they modify; adjective clauses
always follow the nouns they modify.

The subordinators in adjective clauses are called relative pronouns.


These are the most important relative pronouns: who, whom, that, which.
These relative pronouns can be omitted when they are objects of verbs. When they
are objects of prepositions, they can be omitted when they do not follow the
preposition.

WHO replaces nouns and pronouns that refer to people. It cannot replace nouns and
pronouns that refer to animals or things. It can be the subject of a verb. In informal
writing it can be used as the object of a verb.

WHOM replaces nouns and pronouns that refer to people. It cannot replace nouns
and pronouns that refer to animals or things. It can be the object of a verb or
preposition. It cannot be the subject of a verb.

WHICH replaces nouns and pronouns that refer to animals or things. It cannot
replace nouns and pronouns that refer to people. It can be the subject of a verb. It
can also be the object of a verb or preposition.

THAT replaces nouns and pronouns that refer to people, animals or things. It can be
the subject of a verb. It can also be the object of a verb or preposition (but that
cannot follow a preposition; whom, which, and whose are the only relative pronouns
that can follow a preposition).

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The following words can also be used as relative pronouns: whose, when, where.

WHOSE replaces possessive forms of nouns and pronouns. It can refer to people,
animals or things. It can be part of a subject or part of an object of a verb or
preposition, but it cannot be a complete subject or object. Whose cannot be omitted.
Example:
The man is satisfied. + I found the mans wallet. =
The man whose wallet I found is satisfied.

WHEN replaces a time (in + year, in + month, on + day,...). It cannot be a subject.


It can be omitted.
Example:
I will never forget the day. + I graduated on that day.=
I will never forget the day when I graduated.

WHERE replaces a place (in + country, in + city, at + school,...). It cannot be a


subject. It can be omitted but a preposition (at, in, to) usually must be added.
Example:
The building is yellow. + He works in the building. =
The building where he works is yellow.

Adjective clauses can be restrictive or nonrestrictive.

A restrictive adjective clause contains information that is necessary to identify the


noun it modifies. A restrictive adjective clause is not separated from the main clause
by a comma.
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Example:
The man whose shirt is blue shouldn't have came to the funeral.

A nonrestrictive adjective clause gives additional information about the noun it


modifies but is not necessary to identify that noun. A nonrestrictive adjective clause
is separated from the main clause by a comma or commas. The relative pronoun
that cannot be used in nonrestrictive adjective clauses. The relative pronoun cannot
be omitted from a nonrestrictive clause.
Example:
Meggy, whose father works in a bank, wears a blue shirt.

5 BIBLIOGRAPHY

A.J. Thomson, A.V. Martinet: A Practical English Grammar, Oxford University


Press, Oxford, 1986.

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Simon Haines, Barbara Steward: First Certificate ( Student's book), Oxford


University Press, Oxford, 1998.

Virginia Evans, Bob Obee: Upstream (Student's book), Express Publishing, 2008.

www.wikipedia.com

www.eslbee.com

Datum predaje: ________________

Komisija:

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Predsednik

__________________________

Ispitiva

___________________________

lan

Clauses

___________________________

Komentar:

Datum odbrane: ________________

Ocena: ____________ ( __ )

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