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The ICAM Guide:

Putting Theory into Practice

Mark Stevenson a, Simon Firestone a Karma Rinzin b and Andrea Britton c

a Faculty

of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Parkville Victoria 3010
b National Centre for Animal Health, Department of Livestock, Bhutan
c Vets

Beyond Borders, 40 Gloucester St, The Rocks NSW 2000

Roadmap
Why monitor and evaluate?
What are the indicators?
What tools are available to help us?
Where to get help

Roadmap
Why monitor and evaluate?
What are the indicators?
What tools are available to help us?
Where to get help

Why monitor and evaluate?


Monitoring
systematic gathering of information about defined project
indicators
time specific

Evaluation
a judgement around whether a project has reached its goals
and delivered what was expected according to its original
plan

Why monitor and evaluate?


Funding agencies expect [demand?] this information
An opportunity to learn
no out of the box solutions for dog control
monitoring and evaluation provides opportunity to identify
successes and failures, and the reasons for those success
and failures

Successes and failures should be reported to our


peers

Roadmap
Why monitor and evaluate?
What are the indicators?
What tools are available to help us?
Where to get help

Anonymous, 2014. Are we making a difference? A Guide to Monitoring and Evaluating Dog
Population Management Interventions. International Companion Animal Management Coalition,
London, UK.

What are the indicators?


Indicators vary according to what were trying to
achieve
Outcome

Recommended indicators

dog welfare

BCS, skin condition score, :ratio, # dogs culled

dog care

Care behaviours in adults, care behaviours in children

population turnover

# lactating pregnant , # litters per , age structure

risks to public health

# dog bites, # dog rabies cases, # human rabies cases

public perception

Adoption of dogs, attitudes towards dogs

rehoming

Annual live release rates, intake, time in shelter

impact on wildlife

Presence of dogs in wildlife areas, # predation events

impact on livestock

# predation events

Roadmap
Why monitor and evaluate?
What are the indicators?
What tools are available to help us?
Where to get help

What tools are available?


Questionnaire delivery
face-to-face interviews
record responses onto questionnaire forms
many app solutions
our favourite: EpiInfo

EpiInfo: http://wwwn.cdc.gov/epiInfo/

EpiInfo: http://wwwn.cdc.gov/epiInfo/

EpiInfo: http://wwwn.cdc.gov/epiInfo/

EpiInfo Android app: https://epiinfoandroid.codeplex.com/

EpiInfo Android app: https://epiinfoandroid.codeplex.com/

EpiInfo Android app: https://epiinfoandroid.codeplex.com/

EpiInfo Android app: https://epiinfoandroid.codeplex.com/

What tools are available?


Population monitoring
recommended indicators:
number of lactating and pregnant females
number of litters per female
age structure

AMRRIC dog enumeration tool

AMRRIC dog enumeration tool

AMRRIC dog enumeration tool

What tools are available?


Dog enumeration
provides a snap-shot estimate of dog counts, gender and
age structure in communities
capture-mark-recapture techniques can be used to estimate
size of community dog populations
distribution of dog population estimates useful for making
predictions of dog numbers in un-monitored communities
a valuable resource in the event of a rabies incursion

What tools are available?


Mapping tools
many open source digital mapping applications available
detailed digital maps freely available
seemless integration with Google Earth

GRASS Open Source GIS (http://grass.osgeo.org/)

GRASS Open Source GIS (http://grass.osgeo.org/)

GRASS Open Source GIS (http://grass.osgeo.org/)

GRASS Open Source GIS (http://grass.osgeo.org/)

GRASS Open Source GIS (http://grass.osgeo.org/)

Quantum GIS Open Source GIS (http://www.qgis.org/en/site/)

http://download.geofabrik.de/

Quantum GIS Open Source GIS (http://www.qgis.org/en/site/)

http://download.geofabrik.de/

Quantum GIS Open Source GIS (http://www.qgis.org/en/site/)

http://download.geofabrik.de/

Density of free-roaming dog sightings as a function of distance (metres) from: (a) garbage bins, and
(b) take away food outlets, University of So Paulo, Brazil, 2010.

Roadmap
Why monitor and evaluate?
What are the indicators?
What tools are available to help us?
Where to get help

Where to get help


Robust reporting requires a fair bit of work
clear outcomes
defined target population; clarity around source and eligible
populations
defined time frames
clarity re study design
defined sampling strategy
robust data collection methods
robust analytical methods
energy to write the study up in preparation for peer review

Where to get help

The sin is not in doing the research nor even in


publishing the results. The sin is in believing your
results
Sander Greenland

Where to get help


Universities a logical partner
What helps to make a university engage?
well-defined, achievable projects for a given time frame
strong collaborative links with those in the field [theory to
practice]
funding for post graduate students, post-docs

Roadmap
Why monitor and evaluate?
What are the indicators?
What tools are available to help us?
Where to get help

Master of Veterinary Public Health

A degree program that prepares veterinarians, animal health officers and


scientists to contribute effectively in Emergency Animal Disease
responses

Australian Animal
Health Laboratory

vet-publichealth@unimelb.edu.au
www.vet.unimelb.edu.au/mvph

Copyright The University of Melbourne 2014