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# Class#6

## - Step response (2.8)

- Differential and difference equation representations of LTI systems (2.9)

## # The arrangement of recitation classes

# Property of doublet (1.72) in P50

Slide 1

Chengbin Ma

## Review of Previous Lecture (1)

Interconnections of LTI systems:
Distributive property

Associative property

Commutative property

Slide 2

Chengbin Ma

## Review of Previous Lecture (2)

Impulse Response and Properties:
Memoryless: h[n]=cd[n], h(t)=cd(t)
Causal: h[n]=0 with n<0, h(t)=0 with h(t) with t<0

h(t ) dt

inv
inv
h
[
n
]
*
h
[
n
]

d
[
n
]
,
h
(
t
)
*
h
(t ) d (t )
Invertible:

## The input-output behavior (i.e., dynamics) of an LTI

system is completely characterized by its impulse
response.

## UM-SJTU Joint Institute

Slide 3

Chengbin Ma

This Class
Step response (2.8)
Discrete-time and continuous-time systems

## Differential and difference equation

representations of LTI systems (2.9)
Physical meanings
Examples: mechanical and electrical systems
z-transfer function

## UM-SJTU Joint Institute

Slide 4

Chengbin Ma

Class#6
- Step response (2.8)
- Differential and difference equation representations of LTI systems (2.9)

Slide 5

Chengbin Ma

## Step Responses (1)

Characterize the response of an LTI system to
sudden changes in the input.
For a discrete-time system, its step response
s[n] is the running sum of the impulse
function.

n
s[n] u[n] * h[n] h[n] * u[n]

## h[n] s[n] s[n 1]

y[n] x[n] h[n]

x[k ]h[n k ]

x[0]h[n] x[1]h[n 1]
UM-SJTU Joint Institute

Slide 6

Chengbin Ma

## Step Responses (2)

Derive the step response of a continuous-time
system with impulse response of h(t).
d
s (t ) h( )d and h(t ) s (t )

dt
t

## Example 1.21 (p66) &2.14 (p139): the impulse

and step responses of a RC circuit.

y(t ) x( )h(t )d

## UM-SJTU Joint Institute

Slide 7

Chengbin Ma

Class#6
- Step response (2.8)
- Differential and difference equation representations of LTI systems (2.9)

Slide 8

Chengbin Ma

## Representations of LTI Systems

Another representation for the input-output
characteristics of LTI systems.
Difference equations (discrete-time system):
a0 y[n] a1 y[n 1] aN y[n N ] b0 x[n] b0 x[n 1] bM x[n M ]

## Differential equations (continuous-time system):

d
dN
d
dM
a0 y(t ) a1 y(t ) a N N y(t ) b0 x(t ) b1 x(t ) bM M x(t )
dt
dt
dt
dt

## Order: bigger one between N and M

Connection:
UM-SJTU Joint Institute

d
x[n] x[n 1]
x(t )
dt
Ts
Slide 9

Chengbin Ma

Difference/Differential Equations
Basic elements in electrical and mechanical
systems
Electrical (current vs voltage): Resistance,
Capacitors, Inductance
Mechanical (position, speed or even
acceleration and jerk vs torque/force):
Translational/Rotary motion: mass/inertia, spring
and damper

## More complex systems are composed by those

basic elements.
UM-SJTU Joint Institute

Slide 10

Chengbin Ma

Mass-spring-damper System
x

..

m x c x kx 0
k = 0.4, c = 0.2, m = 1
..

c .
k
x x x
m
m
Exponentially Damped Sinusoidal Signals (class#2)
Velocity

integral

## UM-SJTU Joint Institute

Position

integral

Slide 11

class6_massSprin
gDamper.mdl

Chengbin Ma

RLC Circuit
d
1 t
Ri (t ) L i (t ) i ( )d v(t )
dt
C
1
d
d2
d
i (t ) R i (t ) L 2 i (t ) v(t )
C
dt
dt
dt
Suppose v(t ) u (t ), i (0) i0

## The 2nd-order differential equation

An oscillatory system as the previous mass..
.
spring-damper system
m x c x kx 0

k = 0.4, c = 0.2, m = 1
UM-SJTU Joint Institute

Slide 12

Chengbin Ma

Difference Equations
The difference equations are abstract because
real systems are continuous-time systems.
Example: trapezoidal approximation of
integral.
xk
xk-1

x[k ] x[k 1]
y[k ] y[k 1]
T
2
2 y[k ] 2 y[k 1] Tx[k ] Tx[k 1]

yk-1

(k-1)T

## UM-SJTU Joint Institute

kT

Slide 13

Chengbin Ma

z-transfer Function
An efficient tool to represent and analyze
discrete-time systems.
Example 2.16, p143 (initial condition: y[-1]=1
and y[-2]=2):
Y [ z ] 1.143Y [ z ]z 1 0.4128Y [ z ]z 2
0.0675 X [ z ] 0.1349 X [ z ]z 1 0.675 X [ z ]z 2
Y [ z ] 0.0675 0.1349 z 1 0.675 z 2

X [ z]
1 1.143z 1 0.4128 z 2
class6_zTransfer.m
UM-SJTU Joint Institute

Slide 14

Chengbin Ma

Homework
Problem 2.50(b)(c)(e)(f)
Problem 2.52(a)(b)

Slide 15

Chengbin Ma