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ABSTRACT

Air is a basic need in our lives. But as we as humans, move towards globalization,
have neglected the importance of preserving the quality of air for our use. Air pollution is
increasing day by day. Air pollution is commonly referred to as the introduction of
particulates, biological molecules, or other harmful materials into the Earths atmosphere,
possibly causing disease, death to humans, damage to other living organisms such as food
crops, or the natural or humans or even built environment. (What is Air Pollution, n.d). Steps
to contain air pollution is being taken around the world. Through investigation, we have
found out that one of the people that are most exposed to air pollution are people working at
the toll booths on the highway. Therefore, a new method is being introduced here which is to
filter the air that will be going into the toll booth for the inhalation of the toll booth workers.
With this method, it is believed that the toll booth workers will have much purified air that
will improve their health tremendously.

1.0 BACKGROUND STUDY


Air pollution involves pollutants in the form of gaseous or particulate matter
contaminating the air that we breathe in. It has become an international concern as pollutants
generated in one country can be deposited to another. Air pollution comes from various
resources, mainly industrial smoke stacks and motor vehicles. According to United States
Environmental Protection Agency or EPA (2013), particulate matter from diesel- burning
truck or car exhaust has negative effect on the air quality and health of human being.
1.1 Air Pollutant
First of all, air pollutants can be classified into few categories. There are primary
pollutants and secondary pollutants. Primary pollutants consist of sulfur oxides, nitrogen
oxides and hydrocarbon that are emitted to the atmosphere whereas secondary pollutants are
from chemicals that are formed in the atmosphere through photochemical reaction, hydrolysis
or oxidation process. Aside from that, there are particulate pollutants. Particulate include dust,
fumes, smokes, fly ash, mist, and spray (Harrison, 2005).
Air quality can be measured using the Air Quality Index or AQI that calculates the
five major contaminants in air which are ground level ozone, carbon monoxide, nitrogen
dioxide, sulfur dioxide and particulate matter below 10 micrometer diameter (PM10). In our
project, we are trying to cater the problem with particulate pollutants that contaminating the
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air. Various sources can produce particulate pollutants. Fine particulate which ranges from 2.5
micrometer and smaller is usually produced by industrial processes, power plant and vehicle
tailpipe, while coarse particulate that ranges between 2.5 and 10 micrometer is produced by
crushing and grinding operations, road dust and agricultural operations (EPA, 2013).
Particulate matter is the cause of several health problems like reducing lung function
by penetrating into the lungs, asthma attacks, heart attacks and strokes. This type of pollutant
is also highly hazardous when exposed to children. According to the AQI, when the index
measures AQI between 101 and 150, the air is starting to be polluted by the particulate
matters and the sensitive groups will first to be affected. The sensitive groups include people
with asthma or prone to lungs related disease or heart disease. The early symptoms that can
be seen affecting the sensitive groups are coughing and shortness of breath. As the AQI
increases higher than index 150, the air that is polluted by the particulate matter will affect
everyone and worse to the sensitive groups (Air Quality Guide for Particle Pollution, 2013).
1.2 Air Filtration Methods
Based on the design idea that we have come up to counter the problem with the
particulate pollutants, we decided to install the air purifiers at a toll booth. The air purifier
consists of two types of air filtrations. The air filtrations that we are using are the activated
carbon filtration and the High Efficiency Particulate Air filtration or commonly known as
HEPA filter. HEPA filters work by filtering 99.97% of 0.3 micrometer particles and larger
impurities. In dusty surrounding such as the bus surroundings, it is likely for the HEPA filters
to have high efficiency in removing all the impurities and particulate matters without having
to clean or replacing it often. The advantage of using HEPA filters is that it does not generate
ozone or harmful byproducts. However, the HEPA filter is not able to remove chemicals
fumes and smoke cigarette due to their diameters are smaller than 0.3 micrometer. Hence,
activated carbon filter is recommended to be included with the HEPA filter to improve its
drawbacks. Activated carbon filter functions to adsorb volatile chemicals due to the small
absorbent pores designed for the filter that react chemically as pollutants go through the filter.
The activated carbon filter works best by capturing chemicals fumes, gases and cigarette
smoke. However, the filter cannot remove larger particles. Activated carbon must reach
equilibrium in order for the adsorption process to occur therefore it is not easy to remove the
contaminants completely. Activated carbon is a process of changing the contaminants from
gaseous to solid phase. This process helps to remove the contaminants when there is
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aggravated or disturbed contaminants regenerated inside of a vehicle (Different Types of Air


Filters, 2013).
1.3 Air Curtain
An air curtain or commonly known as air door is a device that functions to prevent air
contaminants moving from one space to another. The most common use is a downwardfacing blower fan usually installed over the entrance of a building or the openings of two
space conditioned at different temperatures. Air curtain consists mainly a fan and nozzle
system that can generate a jet of high velocity air that reaches the floor of the opening,
providing an air shield. The air curtain pulls in air and pass through the fan and nozzle
system, creating a wall of air. The fan adds in kinetic energy which provides resistance
against unwanted air or dust particles. Aside from that, the kinetic energy from the discharged
air contributes in resisting penetration of outside air causing by the wind or insect invasion
(Design and Application Guide : Air Curtain, 2014).
For this project, we are trying to separate two different space with different type of
environment; one is with clean air while one is otherwise. We want to filter the air that goes
into the toll booth so that the personnel that works in the booth will be provided with clean
air. However, given the fact that the personnel will be exposed to outside air due to the
frequency of the personnel dealing with customer outside the booth will make the objective
of this project difficult to achieve. The vehicle that driven by the customer will start to
exhaust smoke and dust once the vehicle accelerates after stopping to pay for the toll (Toll
Collectors, 2013). Therefore, the air curtain is installed to repel the undesirable contaminants
from mixing with the clean air that will be filtered into the toll booth. The air curtain is
mounted on the clean side of the space as to ensure the contaminants are not circulated
through the unit. It is also to prevent from blowing the contaminants to the clean side (Air
Curtain Guide, n.d.).
In order to achieve our objective in saving the environment, we have chosen to install
the air filtration system at toll booth considering of several reasons. One of the reason mainly
is because the person that works in the toll booth is at risk of exposing him/herself to air
pollutants that may harm his/her health. This is due to the amount of vehicles that stop by the
booth to pay for the toll, the vehicles will emit combusted gases once it accelerates. These
gases consist of particulate matters (Toll Collectors, 2013). We decided to use air curtain as

an alternative to prevent the contaminant from the environment to be circulating with the
clean air that will be filtered into the booth.

2.0 PROBLEM STATEMENT


The problem of air pollution seems to be getting more and more concerning these
days, with the advancement of transportations resulting in the increase of contamination of
the air due to their harmful emissions (Pollution Issues, n.d). Emission from most vehicles
are major contributors to the current air pollution issue because they release dangerous gases
to the atmosphere such as carbon monoxide, sulfur oxide, and nitrogen oxides which are
harmful to human health. According to Amir Sapkota, PhD, lead author of the study and a
post-doctoral fellow in the Bloomberg School of Public Healths Department of
Environmental Health Sciences, toll booth facilities represent one of the potentially worst
case situation for exposure to pollution from vehicle emission.
Toll plazas play an important role in managing the highway operation. In most of the
countries such as Malaysia, manual toll collection is still widely used even though electronic
toll collection is being implemented. At the toll plazas, vehicles decelerate, stop to pay the
bill and accelerate away from the toll booth. These are the moments when the engines are
operating in their most inefficient state. Lots of emission are released into the air. The
situation becomes worse when the traffic is heavy (He et al., 2011). The group of people that
are mostly seriously affected by this is toll booth operators. They spend their day being
confined in a booth, potentially exposed to high levels of vehicle toxic pollutants due to the
closeness to the source and intensity of the source. As the result, they face substantial health
hazards and have high possibility of developing lung cancer and other chronic respiratory
illnesses (Toll Collectors, 2013). Result had shown that the toll booth operators have higher
rate of incidence of upper respiratory tract diseases than those of other people because of the
poor air quality caused by toxic pollutant from vehicle emission (Huang et al., 2006).
However, little effort has been done to provide protection to these workers from air pollution.
Therefore, filtration system is needed to be implemented in toll booth to reduce air pollution
for the health concern of the workers.

3.0 PROJECT OBJECTIVES

The purpose of this project is to reduce air pollution and maintain clean air in the toll
booth to protect the health of the toll collector. Objectives that we wish to achieve by doing
this project are:
a.
b.
c.
d.

To reduce concentration of particulate matter in the toll booth.


To maintain a cleaner environment inside the toll booth.
To ensure that the air filtration system works well and efficient and can release clean air.
To further enhance our skill base in dealing with environmental problem with

engineering approach.
e. To create a fast in effect, convenient and easy to install product so that it could be
commercialized and widely used in incompletely enclosed small building such as
residential guardhouse and parking lot toll booth.

4.0 DESIGN APPROACH/METHODOLOGY


4.1 Procedures
Based on our problem statement of our topics, Save the Environment, we decide to
focus on reduction of air pollution at toll booth. The cause of air pollution, source of air
pollution, and health effect to toll booth operator are identified (Toll Collectors, 2013). After
researching and brainstorming, we come up with an idea, toll booth air purification system.
This system is meant to filter and purify the air and maintain clean air inside the toll booth.
Figure 1 shows the design of prototype.

Figure 1: Design of prototype

Vehicles especially emit a lot of exhaust gas that contains nitrogen oxides, carbon
monoxide, carbon dioxide and particulate matter (PM) when the vehicles stop to make
payment at the booth (Toll Collectors, 2013). The air outside the toll booth is highly polluted
with exhaust gas. Moreover, the breathing air for the operator inside the toll booths is
supplied directly from the external environment outside the toll booth. To reduce pollutant
level in the air in the toll booth, filtration system will be installed to filter the internal air,
leaving clean air with low concentration of particulate matter flowing inside the toll booth.
An exhaust vent will be installed near the ground inside the toll booth to absorb air
inside the toll booth. Fan is installed to suck the air into the duct. The air will then flow up the
duct with help of fan and enter the filtration system. The filtration system will contain two
layers which can reduce concentration of particulate matter (PM) in the air. Activated carbon
filter and High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter were chosen as the purification
system. Activated carbon filter can remove odour, smoke and harmful gases and can reduce
concentration of carbon dioxide. HEPA filter is used to reduce particular matter, dust and
contaminant with size larger than 0.3 microns (Different Types of Air Filters, 2013). After
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being filtered through HEPA filter and activated carbon filter, cleaner air will then be released
into the toll booth through the outlet.
Air curtain mechanism will be installed at the window of the toll booth. The air
curtain will form a wind screen, which control transfer of dust and particulate matter from car
exhaust through the toll booth through window (Air Curtain Guide, n.d.). This mechanism
will isolate the toll booth inside space from outdoor space, maintaining clean environment
inside the tool booth. Figure 2 shows the flow of air inside the filtration system.

Air
inside
toll

Exhaust
vent

Filtration
system
Figure 2: Air flow in the filtration system

4.2 Plan and Schematic Flow Process of the Project


START

Select a topic
Define the problem
Brainstorm for ideas and analyse feasibility of the idea
Select an idea and name the idea

NO

Consult supervisor
and get approval
YES
Complete project proposal
Design Prototype
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Outlet

Design specification

Prototype fabrication
Quality of prototype
Good?
YES

NO

Improve the fabrication


prototype

Testing
Troubleshoot the
prototype

NO

YES
Is the prototype function well?

Complete progress
report

YES
Presentation and Exhibition
Final report

4.3 Hardware/Tools and Software

END

4.3.1 List of Hardware


No

Name

Description

Cost (RM)

.
1.

Activated Carbon Filter

To remove odours, chemical fumes, gases

50

2.

HEPA filter

and cigarette smoke


To remove dust and contaminant that are

90

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Fan
Battery
Plastic
Aluminium bar
Connection wires
Motor

larger than 0.3 micron


To suck in the air
To power up the fan
To build the air duct
To build the frame of the toll booth
To connect electronic parts
To rotate the fan blade

15
30
40

4.3.2 List of Tools


No

Name

Description

.
1.

Multi Meter

To measure the voltage of the system and for

Soldering tool
Hand tools, cutting

troubleshooting purpose
To make wire connection
Used to build prototype model, such as saw, measuring

tools and other

tape, knife and etc

2.
3.

mechanical tools
4.3.3 List of Software
8

No

Name

Description

.
1.
2.
3.

AutoCAD
Microsoft Excel
Microsoft Word

Used for 3D modelling.


Used to tabulate and analyse data
Used for documentation and report preparation

5.0 PROJECT MANAGEMENT


5.1 Organization Chart

Supervisor
Dr. Nurul Izma
Mohammed

Project Manager
Eileen Wong Wee Chin

Treasure
Nur Shahira Bt.
Samsudin

Secretary
Arevind Chelvin A/L
Malaichelvan

5.2 Job Scope


Group Members

Descriptions
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Design Department
Luqman Bin Md Saad
Muhamad Iman Elhasan
Firdaus Munasir Putra

Eileen Wong Wee Chin (ME)

Arevind Chelvan A/L Malaichelvan


(CHE)

Nur Shahira Bt. Samsudin (CV)

Luqman Bin Md Saad (CHE)

Muhamad Iman Elhasan Firdaus


Munasir Putra (PE)

Week
Seminar 1 (ETP
Briefing)
Group Organization
& Brainstorming

1
24/
9

1. Planning and managing details of the weekly


tasks
2. Monitoring the task given.
3. In charge in direct communication with
supervisor
4. Responsible in conducting test and
experiment on prototype.
1. Giving assistance to the project manager.
2. Documentation.
3. Recording of all group activities.
4. Providing support in Chemical Engineering
related field and beyond.
1. Managing the project accounts and
settlement of the project claim.
2. Make the budget and made sure the
prototype is within the budget.
3. Applying the knowledge of Civil
Engineering on the prototype.
4. Ensuring the team does not miss any
requirement of the project.
1. Prototype designing and construction.
2. Researching on the effect of movement to
the connection of the prototype.
3. Performing stress and strength analysis
4. Providing logistics for the project.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Prototype designing and construction.


Providing logistics for the project.
Recording data and any errors in experiment.
Executing additional research on advantages
and disadvantages of materials and project.

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GANTT CHART
5
6
7

10

11

12

13

Research on topic
Consult Supervisor
Seminar II
Data Collection for
Proposal
Literature Review
Draft Proposal
Submission
Finalize Proposal
Project Proposal
Submission
Lab Safety Briefing

1/1
0

10
/1
0
15/
10

Work on Progress
Report
Design Solution
Cost Analysis
Fabrication of
Prototype
Purchase Required
Tool & Material
Construction of The
Prototype
Progress Report Due

5/1
1

Seminar IV

12/
11
12/
11

Submission of Form
03
Prototype Testing
Poster Designing
Consult Supervisor
Final Check On The
Prototype
Poster & Product
Demo( Pre- SEDEX)
SEDEX

26/
11
3/1
2
1011/
12

Submission Peer
Evaluation Form
Submission of Claim
Form & Receipts
Submission of Final
Report

17/
12
17/
12

5.3 Gantt Chart

6.0 APPENDIX

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6.1 Reference
[1] What is Air Pollution? 11 October 2014, from http://www.conserve-energyfuture.com/causes-effects-solutions-of-air-pollution.php
[2] Research
in
Action,
2014,
10
October

2014,

from

http://www.epa.gov/heasd/research/air_pollution.html
[3] Harrison, R. M., 2005, Sources of air pollution, 10 October 2014, from
http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0005/78638/E90038.pdf
[4] Air Quality Guide for Particle Pollution, 2013, 10 October 2014, from
http://www.epa.gov/airnow/air-quality-guide_pm_2013.pdf
[5] Different
Types
of
Air
Filters,
2013,
10

October

2014,

from

http://www.freedrinkingwater.com/general-health/air/diff-types-of-air-filters.php
[6] Design and Application Guide : Air Curtain , 2014, 10 October 2014, from
http://www.marleymep.com
[7] Toll
Collectors,
2013,

11

October

2014,

from

http://www.asbestos.com/occupations/toll-collectors.php
[8] Air
Curtain
Guide,
11
October

2014

from

http://www.feta.co.uk/uploaded_images/files/HEVAC/hevac-air-curtain-guide.pdf
[9] Pollution Issues, 11 October 2014, from http://www.pollutionissues.com/NaPh/Petroleum.html
[10] He, J., Qi, Z.G., Hang, W., King, M. and Zhuo, C.H., 2011, Numerical evaluation of
pollutant dispersion at a toll plaza based on system dynamics and Computational Fluid
Dynamics models, Transportation Research Part C Emerging Technologies 19(3):
510-520
[11] Huang, Z.N., Pan, J.C., Wu, Y.J. and Huang, C.Y., 2006, Investigation on health
effect of indoor air pollution in the toll-gates, Occupational Health and Emergency
Rescue 24: 43-44

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