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Abstract

This paper presents Power Generation for Permanent Magnet Motor Elevator by Energy Regenerative Unit
(ERU). The study reveals that permanent magnet motors with rated 5.5 kW in elevators which is working by
transferring mechanical energy into electricity when the motor is rotating without power therefore the motor is
capable of producing electrical energy back into the grid system. This situation is call Regenerative mode which is
the wasted energy can be used once again [1]. The study is done by simulation using MATLAB/Simulink program.
This investigated ERU and inverter in this study can be applied for future use of in existing elevator system. The
Proposed ERU is used to convert DC voltage to AC voltage for gird synchronization. The investigated ERU is
operating as three-phase module. From experiment, it is observed that when the motor operates as a generator then
ERU will receive DC voltage from the elevator inverter system then convert to AC voltage that can be fed into the
grid system.

1. Introduction
Currently vehicle lift is important in vertical transport of building, tower, shopping mall, office buildings and
factories, normally part of a building will have an elevator. Elevator equipment is regarded as a very major
consumption machine. Therefore, if the elevator can generate electric energy to the system, this can reduce energy
consumption thus elevator system can be an important device for the conservation of energy. [3]
This paper will study of Power Generation for Permanent Magnet Motor Elevator by Energy Regenerative Unit
(ERU). The paper will describes the functions and components of the elevator system, principle of 4 Quadrant,
principle of DC boost converter, Equations of the permanent magnet motor, and principle of speed control in
section 2, the simulation of the system with Matlab/Simulink in section 3, the results in section 4 and conclusions in
section 5.
2. Theory and Implementation
2.1 System of Elevator
Typically, the structure of the elevator system is composed of 6 main components as shown in Figure 1 [1].

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Control System
Electric Motor
Sheave
Counterweight
Guide Rails
Passenger Car

Figure 1, Components of the elevator system. [4] Figure 2, The comparison between the various state motor
speed and torque.
2.2 Principles of Four Quadrant Operation
Figure 2 shows a graph of the speed and torque control in both the positive and negative directions. From figure
2, progress in Quadrant 1,3 are defined as motor mode which means that the speed and torque is in the same
direction. The progress in Quadrant 2,4 are assigned to be a generator, sometimes called regenerative mode. The
regenerative mode to work on a permanent magnet motor in the elevator system is rotating without power. Or cause
braking of the motor is able to produce electricity for the elevators are located on the elevator. Load must be less
than the weighted pendulum and as the elevator to load than gravity pendulum. Both cases rely on the force of
gravity pulling the motor rotation. Without using electrical energy drive to elevator. Can be divided according to the
mode of operation of the elevator system has the following Table 1.

81

Boonyang Plangklang and Sittichai Kantawong / Energy Procedia 56 (2014) 591 597

Table 1. Operation of the elevator system mode

Elevator

Load > Counterweight

Load < Counterweight

Up

1. Using Energy

2. Using Gravity

Down

3. Using Gravity

4. Using Energy

2.3 Principles of DC Boost Converter


A boost converter (step-up converter) is a DC-to-DC power converter with an output voltage greater than its
input voltage.By the appearance of a Boost Converter looks as shown in Figure 3.

Figure 3, dc boost converter circuit


Equations (1) - (4)
Switch on

diL
L
(t)
dt

vL
vin

[V]

(1)

[A]

(2)

[V]

(3)

[A]

(4)

DTsw

iL (DTsw
Switch off

)
dt
1
I

v
L in

L,min

) L
v (t) (v v
(t)
L

iL (Tsw )

in

1
L

dt

Tsw

(v

in

vo )dt I

L,max
DTsw

vo = Output Voltage

[V]

vin = Input Voltage

[V]

vL =
IL=
D =
Tsw =

Inductor Voltage

[V]

Inductor Current

[A]

Duty Cycle
Switching Time

diL

Gri
d

Invert
er
DC

Three-

phase

Diode

Braki
ng
chopp
er

rectifier

380V
3ph

Permanent Magnet

Synchronous Motor
(PMSM)

AC

PMSM

ER
U

Ca

I verte
C nvert
nr
o er
Controlle
Speed
Speed
Contro
d/d
reference ller
t

Figure 4, Operating power generation controller for permanent magnet motor elevator
2.4 Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor
The characteristics of the permanent magnet motor according to equations (5) - (8), which is applied to test the
program in MATLAB/SIMULINK

di

v
dt
Ld

diq

i
Lq
Ld
Ld d

iq

L
1 vq R iq d p

dt

Lq

T 1.5 p

Lq

q
q

dr
(T
dt

Lq

(
L

(5)

id

(6)

Lq
d

(7)

L )i i
q

(8)

F T )
e

Where:
Ld ,
Lq

be Inductance of the d and q

[H]

be Resistance of Stator

[]

id ,iq be current of d and q

[A]

Vd ,Vq be voltage of d and q

[V]

be angular velocity of the rotor

[rad/s]

be magnetics flux of motor

[Wb]

be number of pole pairs

Te

be electromagnetic torque

[Nm]

Tm
J
F

be shaft mechanical torque

[Nm]

be combined inertia of rotor and load


be combined viscous friction of rotor and load

[kg/m ]
[N]

Figure 5, Energy Regenerative Unit (ERU) by Matlab/Simulink


2.5 Principle of Speed Control Using a PI Controller
The system will measure the speed of the motor that is compared with speed Reference, the response of the
system is controlled by a PI controller. Therefore, the design of PI controller system is very important part. The PI
controller is designed and to find the parameters Kp and Ki for this simulation, both the Software Tool GUI, a tool
called SISOTOOL in Matlab/Simulink is used to help in the transfer function as follows. [1]

PI sK p
K i

1
s

(9)

3. Simulation of the System


In this paper, a simulation system of Power Generation for Permanent Magnet Motor Elevator by Energy
Regenerative Unit is done by Matlab/Simulink, from Figure 4, 5, input section of motor drive, set. Rectifier series
are used to flow power in one direction. The generated power is restored back to the system grid when the motor
works as a generator [2]. When motor works as a generator, the ERU serves to convert the voltage from the DC Bus
to AC using IGBT.

geV
o
l
t
a

M
ot
ori
ng
m
od
e

TGe
4
iner
0
m
ati
eV

ng
d
c
mo
de

Figure 6, Input Voltage of ERU


Figure 6 is the simulation results of Vdc. Before entering the ERU when the voltage is increased under
generating mode can be restored to grid. When elevator finished its generating mode and begin to motor, the ERU
will stop its feedback and enter idle mode.
Figure 7 is the graph of the simulation result of the three-phase power and voltage output of the ERU. Negative
power represents the power back to Grid. As Figure 4, ERU serves to convert the DC voltage to three phase AC
voltage.

4. Results
By simulation program using Matlab/Simulink of power generation for permanent magnet motor elevator by
energy regenerative unit. The results of the simulation are shown in Table 2.
Table 2. Parameter on ERU
Input of ERU
(DC Bus)

530 - 540 Vdc

Output of ERU
Power 3

Voltage 3

13kW

380 Vac

From table 2 shows the input voltage of ERU from regenerative of permanent magnet synchronous motor and the
output. The DC voltage output from the inverter is the input of ERU, and then transferred to DC boost converter
device that converts voltage DC to AC. The output voltage of the ERU is characterized by square wave and finally
through a series of filtering therefore the voltage waveform is sine wave, after this point we can be connected to grid
system.
5. Conclusions
ERU is a concept that can be connected to the existing elevator system using permanent magnet motors. This
investigated ERU can be applied for future use of existing elevator system. They are able to generated electric output
energy from the elevator when the elevator motors work force of gravity therefore ERU will receive DC voltage
from the elevators inverter system then converts to AC voltage therefore this power can be fed into the grid system.
Thus power output can be fed back to the system for replacement of the energy that has been used.
References
[1] Thanit Punprayoong and Boonyong Plangklang , energy saving elevators by in Building a case study:
RMUTT, Conference on Energy Network of Thailand 8. 2-4 May 2555, Maha Sarakham : 4, 2555.
[2] H. Inaba, S. T. Nara, H. Takahashi$M. Nakazato, High speed elevators controlled by current source inverter
system with sinusoidal input and output
[3] http://www.danahermotion.com/education_training/motor/four-quadrant operation (August, 2012).
[4] Rajamangala of Physics, Department of Physics Faculty of Science Rajamangala, University of Technology
Thanyaburi.
[5] Pirote Brikapkul., The design of the feedback controller in integral self-adjusting for permanent magnet
synchronous motors, Master degree thesis, Electrical Engineering, KMUTNB Thailand, 2546.
[6] Ashok B.Kulkarni , Hien Hguyen and E.W.Gaudet A Comparative Evaluation of line Regenerative and
Non-Regenerative Vector Controlled Drives for AC Gearless Elevator ,IEEE 1431 1437
[7] Masaki Nomura , Hiroyu Ikejima , Shigetaka Morita and Eiki Watanabe, Regenerative Power Control For
VVVF Motor Drive (Critical Braking Method Applied To The Elevator) , IEEE 97 105