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1

AFGHAN OPIATE TRAFFICKING


THROUGH THE SOUTHERN ROUTE

Acknowledgements
The $IJKDQ2SLDWH7UDIFNLQJWKURXJKWKH6RXWKHUQ5RXWH report is an output of the Afghan Opiate Trade Project
in the Statistics and Surveys Section, Research and Trend Analysis Branch, Division for Policy Analysis and Public
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Comments on the report are welcome and can be sent to:


Statistics and Surveys Section
Research and Trend Analysis Branch
Division for Policy Analysis and Public Affairs
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Table of Contents:

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Introduction




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2. Afghanistan
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4. The Islamic Republic of Iran


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5. Middle East and Gulf countries


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6. South Asia
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7. East and South-East Asia


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8. Oceania
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9. Africa
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10. Europe
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11. North America


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12. Responding to the challenges of the southern route



Annexes



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UNODC (2013). World Drug Report 2013, p.30. Vienna: United Nations publication.
5
A subset of opioids comprised of the various products derived from the opium poppy plant, including opium, morphine and heroin.
6
Government of India, Ministry of Shipping, Maritime Agenda: 2010 2020, January 2011, p. 6.
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(2011)

Pakistan
(2011)

Ghana
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UK
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USA
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support from UNODC. What these rapid assessments highlight is that the prevalence of cocaine and heroin use in West Africa is about the



in West Africa, 2013, p.4.
11
UNODC (2014), The Illicit Drug Trade through South-Eastern Europe, p. 74-75. Vienna: United Nations publication.
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UNODC (2010). World Drug Report 2010, p.62. Vienna: United Nations publication.
UNODC (2014), The Illicit Drug Trade through South-Eastern Europe, p.90. Vienna: United Nations publication.

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80 000
70 000

Amount seized (kgs)

60 000
50 000
40 000
30 000
20 000
10 000
0
Pakistan

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

21,265

22,197

32,658

10,989

7,325

1,961

6,064

4,296

1,369

3,754.2

6,939

10,607

9,681

8,977

16,139

8,098

6,811

6,997

10,429

1,967

938

5,019

479

7,686

3,179

64,028

43,519

23,979

Islamic Republic
12,878
of Iran
Afghanistan

85

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70 000
60 000

50 000

Litres

40 000

30 000

20 000

10 000

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

6RXUFH&13$

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33
  
34
  
June 2012.
31
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6 000
5 000
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4 000

South
3 000

West
East

2 000

Central

1 000
0
2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

6RXUFH&13$ XQWLO-XQH 

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UNODC (2011), The global Afghan opium trade: a threat assessment, p.147-152. Vienna: United Nations publication.
 
37
UNODC (2010). World Drug Report 2010, p.45. Vienna: United Nations publication.
35
36

30

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3 000
2 500

2009

2 000

2010
2011

1 500

2012
1 000

2013

500

2014

0
Farah

Hirat

Nimroz

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39

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Turkey
Pakistan
Islamic Republic of Iran
China
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United States of America
Russian Federation
Australia
India
Italy
0

2 000

4 000

6 000

8 000

10 000

12 000

14 000

Amount of heroin seized (kg)


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UNODC (2013). World Drug Report 2013, p.ix. Vienna: United Nations publication.
          
Nations publication.
42
UNODC (2010). World Drug Report 2010, p.59. Vienna: United Nations publication.
40
41

33

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Vienna: United Nations publication.
44
UNODC (2011), The global Afghan opium trade: a threat assessment, p.28. Vienna: United Nations publication.(estimates for 2009)
43

34

14 000

20
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0

Amount seized (kgs)

12 000
10 000
8 000
6 000
4 000
2 000
0
2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

Percentage

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2013

Year
Pakistan

Perentage of global seizures

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Sindh 21%

Punjab 12%
Balochistan 53%
KPK 9%

Islamabad 4%
FATA 1%
Gilgit-Baltistan 0.04%
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45
46

36

Map 10: /RFDWLRQRIKHURLQVHL]XUHVLQ3DNLVWDQDVUHSRUWHGWR812'&SUHVHQWHGLQJRYHUQPHQWUHSRUWV




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48
 
47

37

Figure 16: 2SLXPVHL]XUHVLQ3DNLVWDQ NJ


40 000
35 000
Amount seized (kgs)

30 000
25 000
20 000
15 000
10 000
5 000
0
2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

Year
6RXUFH812'&$QQXDO5HSRUW4XHVWLRQQDLUH $54 DQG'DWDEDVHRQ(VWLPDWHVDQG/RQJWHUP7UHQG$QDO\VLV '(/7$

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6RXUFH812'&'UXJ0RQLWRULQJ3ODWIRUP '03 DQG,QGLYLGXDO'UXJ6HL]XUHV ,'6 

38

Table 2: 1XPEHURIRSLXPVHL]XUHVDQGSURSRUWLRQRIRSLXPVHL]HGLQ3DNLVWDQE\SURYLQFH
Province/Region/Territory

Distribution (%) of no. of seizures

'LVWULEXWLRQ  RIWRWDODPRXQW NJ









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Punjab





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100

100

Balochistan
Sindh

TOTAL
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49
50

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opium, hence the sum of both being greater than the total number of opiate users. 1.6 million people also reported non-medical use of
prescription opioids in the previous year.
51

40

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No. Departing from

Destination

)OLJKWVSHUZHHN

7XUEDW 0DNUDQ'LYLVLRQ%DORFKLVWDQ

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54
 
December 2014)
55
UNODC (2011), The Global Afghan Opium Trade: a threat assessment, p.37. Vienna: United Nations publication.
56
           

57

58

59
 
52
53

41

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Figure 18:0RGHVRIWUDIFNLQJLQ3XQMDE/HIWQXPEHURIFDVHV5LJKW$PRXQWRIKHURLQ

Heroin seized in Punjab


(% distribution of no. of seizures)

Heroin seized in Punjab


(% distribution of amount (kg) of seizures)
5%
17%

22%

44%

34%

78%

Land

Mail

Air

Sea

Land

Air

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42

Figure 19: 0RGHVRIWUDIFNLQJLQ6LQGK/HIWQXPEHURIFDVHV5LJKW$PRXQWRIKHURLQ

Heroin seized in Sindh


(% distribution of no. of seizures)

Heroin seized in Sindh


(% distribution of amount (kg) of seizures)

6%

3%

10%

48%

Air

Land

59%

26%

36%

Sea

48%

Mail

Air

Sea

Land

Mail

6RXUFH812'&'UXJ0RQLWRULQJ3ODWIRUP '03 DQG,QGLYLGXDO'UXJ6HL]XUHV ,'6 

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Table 4: ,QWHQGHGGHVWLQDWLRQVRIVHL]HGKHURLQWKDWWUDQVLWHG3DNLVWDQ
Destination

Number of seizures

Amount seized

Percentage of total (%)


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Africa

(XURSH









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Oceania

South Asia
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30 000
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700 000

Amount seized (kgs)

600 000
500 000
400 000
300 000
200 000
100 000
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2005

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2007

2008
2009
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90
  


53

Table 6: 6HL]HGKHURLQWUDIFNHGIURPWKH,VODPLF5HSXEOLFRI,UDQE\GHVWLQDWLRQLGHQWLHG
Frequency of route
detected

Seizure
DPRXQW NJ

Percentage of total heroin seized


(outside the Islamic Republic of Iran)

0LGGOH(DVWDQG*XOI6WDWHV





Africa





(DVWDQG6RXWK(DVW$VLD



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Oceania



16

1,707

100

Destination region

TOTAL

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1200
1000

United Arab Emirates

800

Syrian Arab Republic


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600
Jordan
400

Israel

200

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0
2004

2005

2006

2007 2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

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100
101

56

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Countries

2004

Bahrain

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013









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State of Palestine





















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759

878

981

1074

503

455

565

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TOTAL

357

481

375

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107
   
  
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109
                       
  
  
 

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112
  
113
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114
 
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115


  


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119
  
120
   
     
121
  
117
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Region of origin/ departure

Number of cases

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Destination
region

Number of Cases

Approx. % of total number


of cases in region

Amount of heroin
VHL]HG NJ

Approx. % of total
amount seized















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45

100

314.5

100

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Africa

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124
   
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126
                       
 
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61

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129

130
   
131
 
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UNODC (2013). World Drug Report 2013, p.33. Vienna: United Nations publication.
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Amount
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Departed From

Intended
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Amount seized (in kgs)

1 600
1 400
1 200
1 000
800
600
400
200
0
2004

2005

2006

2007

Bangladesh

2008
Year
India

2009
Nepal

2010

2011

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144
                   

145
UNODC (2013). World Drug Report 2013, Annex I. Vienna: United Nations publication.
146
UNODC (2013). World Drug Report 2013, p.27. Vienna: United Nations publication.
147

143

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Figure 27: +HURLQDQGRSLXPVHL]XUHVUHSRUWHGLQ,QGLD
4 000
3 500
3 000
2 500
2 000
1 500
1 000
500
0
2004

2005

2006

2007

2008
2009
2010
Year
Heroin
Opium

2011

2012

2013

6RXUFH812'&$QQXDO5HSRUW4XHVWLRQQDLUH $54 DQG'DWDEDVHRQ(VWLPDWHVDQG/RQJWHUP7UHQG$QDO\VLV '(/7$ 1DUFRWLFV&RQWURO%XUHDX ,QGLD


148
According to the 2013 Annual Report of the Indian National Narcotics Control Bureau, regardless of changes in the overall volume of heroin

2010 (note that this does not necessarily correlate to the total amount in circulation).
149
UNODC (2013). World Drug Report 2013, p.31. Vienna: United Nations publication.
150
UNODC (2013). World Drug Report 2013, p.31. Vienna: United Nations publication.
151


 
in Indian context.
152
India, Narcotics Control Bureau, Annual Report 2012, p.18.
153

 
production of drugs in Indian context.

67

7KHYXOQHUDELOLW\RI,QGLDWRVRXWKHUQURXWHWUDIFNLQJEHJLQVZLWKLWVERUGHUZLWK3DNLVWDQZKLFKLVUHSRUWHGO\
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RQZDUGVKLSSLQJWRHDVWHUQDQGZHVWHUQPDUNHWV$PDMRULW\RIWKHKHURLQVHL]XUHVLQ,QGLDLQWRRNSODFH
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65
54

Punjab
Uttar Pradesh
737

West Bengal

236
Haryana
Kerala
60

Delhi
69

6RXUFH$QQXDO5HSRUW1DUFRWLFV&RQWURO%XUHDX,QGLD

India, Narcotics Control Bureau, Annual Report 2013, p. 5.


India, Narcotics Control Bureau, Annual Report 2013, p. 8.
156

 
157


158
Deepali Gaur Singh, Afghan Women in the Diaspora: Surviving Identity and Alienation, Centre for Non-Traditional Security Studies,
NTS - Asia research paper No 4.
159
India, Narcotics Control Bureau, Annual Report 2013, p. 10.
160
UNODC (2011), The global Afghan opium trade: a threat assessment, p.108-109. Vienna: United Nations publication.
154
155

68

Figure 29: 7UXFNVKHDGLQJIURP3DNLVWDQWR,QGLDWKURXJKWKH:DJDKERUGHUFURVVLQJ

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4 500

1 200

4 000
1 000
3 000

800

2 500
600
2 000
1 500

400

1 000
200

Amount seized (in kgs)

Number of seizures

3 500

500
0

0
2009

2010

2011

2012

Year
Heroin cases

Heroin seizures (kg)

6RXUFH$QQXDO5HSRUW1DUFRWLFV&RQWURO%XUHDX,QGLD GDWDIRUZDVXQDYDLODEOHDWWKHWLPHRIZULWLQJ

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163
India, Narcotics Control Bureau, Annual Report 2011, p. 50.
161
162

69

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(DVWDQG6RXWK(DVW$VLDSULPDULO\GHSDUWIURP3DNLVWDQUDWKHUWKDQ,QGLDZKLFKPD\UHHFWVLPSOHUORJLVWLFV
LQDFFHVVLQJDQGGHSDUWLQJIURPWKHFRDVWRUSRUWVRI3DNLVWDQ:HVWHUQDQG&HQWUDO(XURSHDUHDOVRWDUJHWHG
*HUPDQ\LQSDUWLFXODUKDVUHSRUWHG,QGLDDVDGHSDUWXUHFRXQWU\
,QUHFHQW\HDUV,QGLDKDVUHSRUWHGDQLQFUHDVHLQWKHQXPEHURIVHL]HGSDUFHOVFRQWDLQLQJGUXJV6HL]XUHVLQGLFDWH
WKDWWKHSRVWDOV\VWHPERWKFRXULHUVHUYLFHVDQGRUGLQDU\PDLOLVH[SORLWHGWRVPXJJOHKHURLQIURP,QGLDWRD
EURDGFURVVVHFWLRQRIGHVWLQDWLRQVLQ(XURSH1RUWK$PHULFD$VLD$IULFDDQG$XVWUDOLD )LJXUH 7DEOHVKRZV
DQLQFUHDVLQJWUHQGLQVHL]XUHVRIKHURLQWUDIFNHGE\PDLORXWRI,QGLD7KLVPD\EHWKHUHVXOWRIERWKLQFUHDVHG
WUDIFNLQJDQGLPSURYHGODZHQIRUFHPHQWDVQHZPHWKRGVDUHEHLQJGHWHFWHGE\DXWKRULWLHV
Figure 31: ,QWHQGHGGHVWLQDWLRQVRISDUFHOVFRQWDLQLQJGUXJVVHL]HGLQ,QGLD

Other - 23

Denmark - 2

Canada - 27

Indonesia - 3

Australia - 19

China - 13

South Africa - 12
United Kingdom - 18

Spain - 14
United States - 6
Netherlands - 10
6RXUFH1DUFRWLFV&RQWURO%XUHDX 1&% ,QGLD GDWDIRUZDVXQDYDLODEOHDWWKHWLPHRIGUDIWLQJ

Table 11: 3DUFHOVFRQWDLQLQJKHURLQVHL]HGDWPDLOFHQWUHVLQ,QGLD


2009

2010

2011

1XPEHURISDUFHOV







4XDQWLW\RIKHURLQVHL]HG NJ







6RXUFH1DUFRWLFV&RQWURO%XUHDX 1&% ,QGLD'DWDIRUZDVXQDYDLODEOHDWWKHWLPHRIGUDIWLQJ

  
  
165


164

70

Arrests
)LJXUHVKRZVGDWDUHJDUGLQJIRUHLJQQDWLRQDOVDUUHVWHGLQ,QGLDIRUGUXJUHODWHGRIIHQFHV$OWKRXJK1HSDOHVH
QDWLRQDOV IHDWXUH SURPLQHQWO\ WKH\ DUH UHSRUWHGO\ LQYROYHG SULPDULO\ LQ KDVKLVK WUDIFNLQJ ,Q UHODWLRQ WR
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GLVWULEXWLRQ2WKHUQDWLRQDOVRI$IULFDQFRXQWULHVKDYHDOVRDSSHDUHGLQWKHGDWDIRUH[DPSOHLQ-DQXDU\
,QGLDUHSRUWHGRQHFDVHLQYROYLQJD7DQ]DQLDQQDWLRQDODQGDQRWKHULQYROYLQJD6RXWK$IULFDQQDWLRQDO
7KHUHLVQRFRPSUHKHQVLYHRIFLDOGDWDDYDLODEOHRQWKHGHVWLQDWLRQVRIKHURLQVHL]HGGXULQJDUUHVWVRI$IULFDQ
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Figure 32:)RUHLJQHUVDUUHVWHGLQ,QGLDIRUGUXJUHODWHGRIIHQFHV

Number of people arrested

120
100
80
60
40
20
0

2009
Afghanistan

2010
Myanmar

2011
Year
Nepal

Nigeria

2012
South Africa

2013
Tanzania

Others

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LQ%DQJODGHVKWDNHSODFHHLWKHULQPDMRUFLWLHVRULQWRZQVFORVHWRWKHERUGHU7KHFRXQWU\LVERUGHUHGE\,QGLD
LQWKHZHVWQRUWKDQGLQWKHHDVWDQGWUDIFNLQJRFFXUVDFURVVERWKLWVZHVWHUQDQGHDVWHUQERUGHUVDOWKRXJK
WKHZHVWHUQSODLQVDSSHDUWREHIDYRXUHG+RZHYHUWKHUHLVOLWWOHGDWDDYDLODEOHZLWKZKLFKWRDVVHVVZKHWKHU
KHURLQGLVSDWFKHGIURP,QGLDLVSURGXFHGIURP,QGLDQRSLXPFXOWLYDWLRQRUZKHWKHULWLVWKHFDVHRI$IJKDQ
SURGXFWLRQWUDQVLWLQJ,QGLD

India, Narcotics Control Bureau, Annual Report 2012,, p.1


  
offences.
168
India, Ministry of Home Affairs, Narcontrol: a journal of narcotics Control Bureau, March 2014, Issue 1.
169
 
170
Bangladesh, Annual Drug Report 2013, p.24.
171
Bangladesh, Annual Drug Report 2013, p.24.
166
167

71

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FRDVWRI6UL/DQNDRUE\DLUZLWKFRXULHUVHQWHULQJDVWRXULVWV6UL/DQNDQDXWKRULWLHVUHSRUWWKDWPRVWRIWKH
KHURLQZDVVPXJJOHGLQWRWKHFRXQWU\WKURXJK,QGLDRU3DNLVWDQ$VZLWK%DQJODGHVKWKHGHJUHHWRZKLFKKHURLQ
RI,QGLDQRULJLQKDVEHHQSURGXFHGIURPRSLXPFXOWLYDWLRQLQ,QGLDDVRSSRVHGWR$IJKDQRSLXPLVQRW
FOHDU6UL/DQNDUHSRUWHGDOPRVWSHUFHQWRIWKHKHURLQVHL]HGLQDVFRPLQJIURP3DNLVWDQ,WVKRXOGEH
QRWHGKRZHYHUWKDWWKHRYHUDOOYROXPHRIVHL]XUHVHIIHFWHGLQ6UL/DQNDLVUHODWLYHO\VPDOOPDNLQJLWVXVFHSWLEOH
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Table 12: 6HOHFWHGGUXJVHL]XUHVLQ3DNLVWDQGHVWLQHGIRU6UL/DQND
Date

Amount

Location

5HPDUNV



NJKDVKLVK

.DUDFKLVHDSRUW

&RQWDLQHU

-XO

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.DUDFKLVHDSRUW

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VHFRQGVDZDVWURQJLQFUHDVHLQWKHDUUHVWRI,QGLDQVDQGRWKHUQDWLRQDOLWLHVZKLFKKDYHLQFOXGHG,UDQLDQ
DQG0DOGLYLDQQDWLRQDOV

  

173

174
 
175
  

176
  

177


178

Annual Report 2014..
172

72

Number of people arrested

Figure 33: )RUHLJQHUVDUUHVWHGLQ6UL/DQNDIRUGUXJUHODWHGRIIHQFHV


18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
2010

2009
India

Year
Pakistan

2011

2012

Others

6RXUFH+DQGERRNRI'UXJ$EXVH,QIRUPDWLRQLQ6UL/DQND

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International Narcotics Control Strategy Report (INCSR), 2014.


International Narcotics Control Strategy Report (INCSR), 2013.
181

179
180

73

7. East and South-East Asia


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VRPHRIWKHEXVLHVWVHDSRUWVDQGDLUSRUWVLQWKHZRUOGZKLFKKDQGOHDODUJHDPRXQWRILQWHUQDWLRQDOFDUJR
DQGSDVVHQJHUWUDIF&KLQDIRUH[DPSOHZLWQHVVHVDODUJHYROXPHRIDLUSDVVHQJHUWUDIFHDFK\HDU 
PLOOLRQSHRSOHLQ DQGDLUFDUJRWUDIF PLOOLRQWRQVLQ  Airports in Beijing, Shanghai
DQG*XDQJ]KRXDUHFDWHJRULVHGDVWKHEXVLHVWLQWKHZRUOGLQWHUPVRIYROXPHVRISDVVHQJHUDQGRUFDUJR
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FRQQHFWLRQV
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WUDQVODWHVLQWRLPPHQVHSRWHQWLDOUHYHQXHVIRUKHURLQWUDIFNHUV7KHVRXWKHUQURXWHKDVWUDGLWLRQDOO\EHHQD
PDUJLQDOVXSSOLHUDVFRPSDUHGWRGRPLQDQWVXSSOLHUVRIRSLDWHVIURP0\DQPDU+RZHYHUYDULRXVUHSRUWVKDYH
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WUDIFNHGIURP$IJKDQLVWDQ1RWDOORIWKLVLVQHFHVVDULO\VPXJJOHGYLDWKHVRXWKHUQURXWHLWLVTXLWHOLNHO\
WKDWDSRUWLRQLVWUDIFNHGQRUWKIURP$IJKDQLVWDQRYHUODQGYLD&HQWUDO$VLDWR&KLQDWKHSULPDU\FRQVXPHU
LQWKHUHJLRQ,Q&KLQDUHSRUWHGWKHLQWHQVLFDWLRQRIWUDIFNLQJIURP$IJKDQLVWDQZLWKFDVHV
WRWDOOLQJNJ,QWKHUHZDVDVXEVWDQWLDOGHFUHDVHZLWK&KLQDUHSRUWLQJDWRWDORI$IJKDQKHURLQ
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RSLDWHV




184

185

186
Airports Council International (2011), Cargo Volume: Loaded and unloaded freight and mail in metric tonnes.
187

188
UNODC (2014). World Drug Report 2014, Annex 1. Vienna: United Nations publication.
189
UNODC (2014). World Drug Report 2014, p.28. Vienna: United Nations publication..
190
UNODC (2010). World Drug Report 2010, p.50. Vienna: United Nations publication.
191
 

 
IDS database, reported by WCO).
192

2014.
193
Council of the European Union, Report to the Mini-Dublin Group by the Australian Chair, Regional report on South East Asia and China,
October 2013, p.34.
182
183

74

Figure 34: +HURLQVHL]XUHVLQ&KLQD


12 000

Amount of heroin seized (kg)

10 000

8 000

6 000

4 000

2 000

0
2004

2005

2006

2007

2008
2009
Year

2010

2011

2012

2013

6RXUFH812'&$QQXDO5HSRUW4XHVWLRQQDLUH $54 DQG'DWDEDVHRQ(VWLPDWHVDQG/RQJWHUP7UHQG$QDO\VLV '(/7$

Figure 35: 1XPEHUDQGDPRXQWRIDQQXDO$IJKDQKHURLQVHL]XUHVLQ&KLQD


350

1 800
1 600

300

1 200
200

1 000

150

800
600

1 00

Weight (kg)

Number of seizures

1 400
250

400
50

200
0

0
2009

2010
Heroin cases

2011
Year

2012

2013

Heroin seizures (kg)

6RXUFH$IJKDQ2SLDWH7UDIFNLQJRQWKHVRXWKHUQURXWHVWDWLVWLFVVHL]XUHVDQGUHFHQWWUDIFNLQJWUHQGVLQ&KLQDSUHVHQWDWLRQE\&11&&RIFLDO
IRUWKHUHJLRQDOZRUNVKRSHQWLWOHG$IJKDQRSLDWHWUDIFNLQJRQWKHVRXWKHUQ5RXWH9LHQQD$XVWULD0DUFK

$WDUHJLRQDOOHYHOVHL]XUHGDWDVXJJHVWVWKDW$IJKDQKHURLQUHDFKLQJ(6($XVHVERWKVHDDQGDLUWUDQVSRUW
)LJXUHVKRZVWKHQXPEHURIRIFLDOO\UHSRUWHGKHURLQVHL]XUHVLQ(DVWDQG6RXWK(DVW$VLDEHWZHHQ
DQGLQFRPSDULVRQZLWKWKHJOREDOWRWDO$VDSHUFHQWDJHRIWKHJOREDOWRWDOWKHUHJLRQVVKDUHXFWXDWHV
VLJQLFDQWO\EHWZHHQSHUFHQWDQGSHUFHQW,QKHURLQVHL]XUHVLQWKHUHJLRQWRWDOOHGNJHTXDO
WRDSSUR[LPDWHO\SHUFHQWRIWKHJOREDOWRWDO0RVWRIWKHVHL]XUHVZHUHUHSRUWHGLQ&KLQD0DOD\VLD0\DQPDU
7KDLODQGDQG9LHWQDP

75

Figure 36: +HURLQVHL]XUHVLQ(6($FRPSDUHGZLWKJOREDOWRWDO

Amount of heroin seized (kg)

90 000
80 000
70 000
60 000
50 000
40 000
30 000
20 000
10 000
0
2004

2005

2006

2007

2008
2009
Year

East and South East Asia

2010

2011

2012

2013

Global Total

6RXUFH812'&$QQXDO5HSRUWV4XHVWLRQQDLUH $54 DQGGDWDEDVHRQHVWLPDWHVDQGORQJWHUPWUHQGDQDO\VLV '(/7$

0DSVKRZVWKHORFDWLRQRIVHL]XUHVLQYROYLQJKHURLQRULJLQDWLQJLQ$IJKDQLVWDQWKDWFRXOGEHDVVRFLDWHGZLWK
WKHVRXWKHUQURXWH7KHUHSRUWHGVHL]XUHVDUHFRQFHQWUDWHGLQPDLQODQG&KLQD+RQJ.RQJ,QGRQHVLD-DSDQ
0DOD\VLD0RQJROLD6LQJDSRUHDQG7KDLODQG0RVWRIWKHVHVHL]XUHVZHUHPDGHDWRUFORVHWRWUDQVSRUWDWLRQ
KXEVVXFKDVDLUSRUWVDQGVHDSRUWV

76

Map 22: /RFDWLRQRIKHURLQVHL]XUHVDVVRFLDWHGZLWKWKHVRXWKHUQURXWHPDGHLQ(DVWDQG6RXWK(DVW$VLDDV


UHSRUWHGWR812'&SUHVHQWHGLQJRYHUQPHQWUHSRUWVDQGWKHPHGLD

6RXUFH812'&'UXJ0RQLWRULQJ3ODWIRUP '03 DQG,QGLYLGXDO'UXJ6HL]XUHV ,'6 

77

7KHPRVWFRPPRQVHDURXWHVVHHPWREHRULJLQDWLQJIURP3DNLVWDQ%\DLUKRZHYHUWKHZHERIWUDMHFWRULHV
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JHQHUDOSDWWHUQV)LUVWKHURLQLVWUDIFNHGWKURXJK6RXWK$VLDQDLUSRUWV6HFRQGWUDIFNHUVXVHDLUFRQQHFWLRQV
IURP3DNLVWDQ$IJKDQLVWDQDQGWKH,VODPLF5HSXEOLFRI,UDQWRWKH0LGGOH(DVWDQG*XOIUHJLRQDVWUDQVLWSRLQWV
WR(6($GHVWLQDWLRQV7KLUGVHYHUDOVHL]XUHVLQGLFDWHWKDW$IULFDQFRXQWULHVDUHDOVRWUDQVLWSRLQWV7KHPRVW
FRPPRQO\ PHQWLRQHG KDYH EHHQ 7DQ]DQLD DQG (WKLRSLD DQG OHVV IUHTXHQWO\ 6RXWK $IULFD /LEHULD DQG 7RJR
7KHVHFRQVLJQPHQWVZHUHHLWKHUWUDIFNHGGLUHFWO\WR(6($RUWUDQVLWHG4DWDURU+RQJ.RQJ6RXWK(DVW$VLDLV
QRWRQO\DGHVWLQDWLRQIRUWKHVRXWKHUQURXWHLWLVDOVRDWUDQVLWSRLQW'DWDSURYLGHGWR812'&VXJJHVWVWKDW
DSRUWLRQRIWKHKHURLQVHL]HGLQ6RXWK(DVW$VLDLVLQWHQGHGIRURQZDUGVKLSPHQWDSULPDU\GHVWLQDWLRQEHLQJ
2FHDQLD&KLQHVHDXWKRULWLHVDOVRREVHUYHWKDW6RXWK(DVW$VLDLVRIWHQXVHGDVDWUDQVLWSRLQWIRUWUDIFNLQJ
LQWR&KLQDSDUWLFXODUO\YLDPDLODQGDLUWUDYHO
,QWKHFDVHRIKHURLQEHLQJWUDIFNHGE\PDLOLWXVXDOO\GHSDUWVIURP$IJKDQLVWDQ3DNLVWDQDQG,QGLDZLWKWKHPRVW
IUHTXHQWO\UHSRUWHGGHVWLQDWLRQEHLQJ&KLQD2WKHUURXWHVIRUKHURLQWUDIFNHGE\PDLOKDYHEHHQIURP$IJKDQLVWDQ
DQG3DNLVWDQWR7KDLODQGIURP,QGLDWR,QGRQHVLDIURP$IJKDQLVWDQWR9LHWQDPDQGIURP3DNLVWDQWR+RQJ.RQJ
7DEOHDQG7DEOHVKRZEUHDNGRZQVRIVHL]XUHGDWDE\UHJLRQVRIGHSDUWXUHDQGGHVWLQDWLRQ
Table 13: 6HL]XUHVRIKHURLQWUDIFNHGDORQJWKHVRXWKHUQURXWHGHVWLQHGIRU(DVWDQG6RXWK(DVW$VLDE\
UHJLRQRIGHSDUWXUH
Origin/departure
region

No. of
seizures

Amount of heroin
VHL]HG NJ

Distribution (%)
of no. of seizures

Distribution (%)
of amount of heroin seized









South Asia other


WKDQ3DNLVWDQ









Africa









0LGGOH(DVWDQG
*XOI6WDWHV









248

2,439

100%

100%

3DNLVWDQ

TOTAL

6RXUFH812'&'UXJ0RQLWRULQJ3ODWIRUP '03 DQG,QGLYLGXDO'UXJ6HL]XUHV ,'6

Table 14: 6HL]XUHVLQYROYLQJKHURLQWUDIFNHGIURP(DVWDQG6RXWK(DVW$VLDDORQJWKHVRXWKHUQURXWHWR


H[WHUQDOPDUNHWVE\GHVWLQDWLRQ
No. of
seizures

Amount of heroin
VHL]HG NJ

Distribution %
of no. of seizures

Distribution %
of amount of heroin seized

South Asia





Africa





Oceania









1RUWK$PHULFD









(urope













58

424

100%

100%

Destination

0LGGOH(DVWDQG
*XOI6WDWHV
TOTAL

6RXUFH812'&'UXJ0RQLWRULQJ3ODWIRUP '03 DQG,QGLYLGXDO'UXJ6HL]XUHV ,'6 


 

195

196

2014.
194

78

7KHVRXWKHUQURXWHDQGWKHHFRQRPLFLQWHJUDWLRQRI$VLD
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&KLQDKDVHVWLPDWHGWKDWSHUFHQWRILWVKHURLQVXSSO\FRPHVIURP$IJKDQLVWDQ7KLVZRXOGURXJKO\
WUDQVODWHLQWRDQHVWLPDWHGPHWULFWRQVRI$IJKDQKHURLQWUDIFNHGLQWRWKHFRXQWU\DFFRUGLQJWRDUHFHQW
&KLQHVHQDWLRQDOVXUYH\
)RUWKHEURDGHUSRSXODWLRQRIRSLDWHXVHUVLQ(6($WKHXLGLW\RIVXSSO\FKDLQVVHHPVOLNHO\WRGHYHORSIXUWKHU
7KHPDQ\WUDMHFWRULHVDQGQRGHVRIWUDIFNLQJURXWHVUHDFKLQJDQGWUDQVLWLQJ(6($HFKRWKHFUHDWLRQRIFRPSOH[
WUDGHVXSSO\FKDLQVLQWKHUHJLRQDQGLWVHFRQRPLFLQWHJUDWLRQERWKLQWHUQDOO\DQGZLWKRWKHUUHJLRQVRIWKH
ZRUOG)RUH[DPSOHLQWKHWHQ\HDUVSULRUWR2FWREHU3DNLVWDQVDZLPSRUWVIURPPDLQODQG&KLQDPRUH
WKDQGRXEOHUHDFKLQJSHUFHQWZKLOHLWVH[SRUWVWR&KLQDTXDGUXSOHGUHDFKLQJSHUFHQW7KLVZDVLQD
SHULRGGXULQJZKLFKWKHRYHUDOOH[SRUWVDQGLPSRUWVRI3DNLVWDQGRXEOHG2QDGLIIHUHQWQRWHWKHYROXPHRIDLU
SDVVHQJHUWUDIFLQ0DOD\VLDDQG7KDLODQGLVFRPSDUDEOHWRWKDWLQ%HLMLQJ
7KH LQWHQVLFDWLRQ DQG GLYHUVLFDWLRQ RI WUDGH DQG WUDYHO URXWHV EHWZHHQ (6($ 6RXWK$VLD WKH 0LGGOH (DVW
DQG$IULFDOLNHO\UHHFWWKHWUDIFNLQJURXWHVWKDWIHHG(6($VRSLDWHPDUNHWV0\DQPDURSLDWHVVWLOOHQMR\DQ
DGYDQWDJHLQWHUPVRISUR[LPLW\KLVWRU\DQGHVWDEOLVKHGUHODWLRQVKLSVZLWKPDQ\KHURLQUHWDLOHUVLQ(6($EXW
VRXWKHUQURXWHWUDIFNHUVPLJKWVWLOOEHQHWIURPLQFUHDVHGRSSRUWXQLWLHVWRGHOLYHUVXSSOLHVWKURXJKRXWWKH
UHJLRQ7UDGHDJUHHPHQWVWKDWIDFLOLWDWHHFRQRPLFJURZWKKDYHDOVREHHQKHOSIXOWRWUDQVQDWLRQDORUJDQL]HG
FULPH7KHUDSLGJURZWKRIDLUFRQQHFWLRQVSURYLGHVORJLVWLFDOHIFLHQF\DQGDQH[SDQGLQJPHQXRIRSWLRQVIRU
WUDIFNHUVZLWKDFRUUHVSRQGLQJFKDOOHQJHIRUGUXJODZHQIRUFHPHQWDJHQFLHV
Table 15: 6LJQLFDQWKHURLQVHL]XUHVUHSRUWHGE\0DOD\VLD
Date

Origin/ transit country

Weight
NJ

Number and nationality of arrestees



3DNLVWDQ



Malaysia

NJ

,UDQLDQQDWLRQDOV



Malaysia

NJ

3DNLVWDQLQDWLRQDOV



3DNLVWDQ

NJ

3DNLVWDQLQDWLRQDOV



Nigeria

NJ

1LJHULDQQDWLRQDO



Thailand

NJ

0DOD\VLDQQDWLRQDOV

NJ

,QGLDQ 0DOD\VLDQ 

NJ

3DNLVWDQLQDWLRQDOV

6RXUFH0LQLVWU\RI+RPH$IIDLUV0DOD\VLD


 
198

 
199
 

200
Including both domestic and international aircraft passengers of air carriers registered in the country. Data obtained from the World
  

201


   
197

79

0DOD\VLDKDVEHHQYHU\RSHQLQVKDULQJGDWDDQGVHHNLQJFRRSHUDWLRQLQFRXQWHUQDUFRWLFVRSHUDWLRQV$VHULHV
RI UHSRUWV IURP 0DOD\VLD SURYLGH H[DPSOHV RI (6($V FRQQHFWLRQV WR WKH VRXWKHUQ URXWH IRU ORFDO XVH DQG
RQZDUGWUDIFNLQJRIKHURLQ8QWLO0DOD\VLDQDXWKRULWLHVEHOLHYHGWKDWKHURLQLQWKHFRXQWU\ZDVDOPRVW
H[FOXVLYHO\RULJLQDWLQJIURP0\DQPDUEXWVLQFHWKHQWKH\EHJDQQRWLFLQJLWZDVEHLQJLQFUHDVLQJO\WUDIFNHGYLD
WKHVRXWKHUQURXWHIURPWKH,VODPLF5HSXEOLFRI,UDQDQGHVSHFLDOO\3DNLVWDQ Malaysia has also reported an
LQFUHDVHLQORRVHO\RUJDQL]HG1LJHULDQJURXSVWKDWGHDOLQDYDULHW\RIGUXJVLQFOXGLQJ$IJKDQKHURLQVPXJJOHG
DORQJWKHVRXWKHUQURXWH
Figure 37:+HURLQVHL]XUHVLQ0DOD\VLD

Amount of heroin seized (kg)

900
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
2004

2005

2006

2007

2008
Year

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

6RXUFH812'&$QQXDO5HSRUWV4XHVWLRQQDLUH $54 DQGGDWDEDVHRQHVWLPDWHVDQGORQJWHUPWUHQGDQDO\VLV '(/7$ 0LQLVWU\RI+RPH$IIDLUV


0DOD\VLD GDWD

'XULQJWZRVHSDUDWHVHL]XUHVLQ$SULONJRIKHURLQZHUHLQWHUFHSWHGLQ0DOD\VLD,QWKHUVWFDVH
NJRIKHURLQZHUHFRQFHDOHGLQIUHLJKWHQURXWHIURP3DNLVWDQWR0DOD\VLD,QWKHVHFRQGVHL]XUHNJRI
KHURLQZHUHFRQFHDOHGLQDER[DQGZHUHSDUWRIVHDIUHLJKWWUDQVLWLQJ3DNLVWDQ/DWHULQ0D\NJRI
KHURLQZHUHVHL]HGDW.DUDFKLVHDSRUWIROORZHGE\DVHL]XUHRINJLQ2FWREHUIURPDZDUHKRXVHLQ
.HODQWDQSURYLQFHLQ0DOD\VLD7KHFRQVLJQPHQWKDGGHSDUWHGIURP3DNLVWDQDQGZDVLQWHQGHGIRUWKHORFDO
0DOD\VLDQPDUNHWD3DNLVWDQLQDWLRQDOZDVDUUHVWHGDVDUHVXOWRIWKLVVHL]XUH
0RUHUHFHQWO\LQ-DQXDU\NJRIKHURLQZHUHVHL]HGDWDVHDSRUWLQ6HODQJRUSURYLQFHWRWKHZHVWRI
.XDOD/XPSXU7KHFRQVLJQPHQWZDVEHLQJWUDQVSRUWHGIURP3DNLVWDQWR0DOD\VLDDQGWKHVHL]XUHUHVXOWHGLQ
WKHDUUHVWRISHRSOHLQFOXGLQJ0RQJROLDQQDWLRQDOVDQGQDWLRQDOVIURP:HVW$IULFDQFRXQWULHV'XULQJWKH
IROORZXSLQYHVWLJDWLRQDIXUWKHUNJRIKHURLQZDVUHFRYHUHGWKURXJKDVHL]XUHLQ0DUFKDQG1LJHULDQ
QDWLRQDOVZHUHDUUHVWHG0DOD\VLDQDXWKRULWLHVKDYHDOVRQRWHGWKHFROODERUDWLRQEHWZHHQ1LJHULDQDQG3DNLVWDQL
RUJDQL]HGFULPHJURXSVLQVPXJJOLQJKHURLQIURP$IJKDQLVWDQWR0DOD\VLDZLWKDYLHZWRWUDIFNLQJLWRQZDUGWR
$XVWUDOLDDQG&KLQD0HDQZKLOHLQ3DNLVWDQNJDQGNJRIKHURLQZHUHVHL]HGLQWZRVHSDUDWHLQVWDQFHV
LQ-DQXDU\DQGLGHQWLHGDVFRQWDLQHUVKLSPHQWVGHVWLQHGWR0DOD\VLD,Q$SULORIWKDWVDPH\HDUDQ
DGGLWLRQDONJRIKHURLQZHUHVHL]HGIROORZLQJDFRQWDLQHUSUROLQJDW.DUDFKLVHDSRUW)LQDOO\LQNJ
RIKHURLQGHVWLQHGIRU0DOD\VLDZHUHVHL]HGDW.DUDFKL,QWHUQDWLRQDOFRQWDLQHUSRUW

2014.
203

2014.
204
   
205
   
206

207
  
208
   
209

2014.
210

211
             

202

80

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&DQDGDDQGKDYLQJWUDQVLWHGWKH8QLWHG6WDWHV$XVWUDOLDDQG(XURSHDQFRXQWULHVKDYHDOVREHHQGHVWLQDWLRQV
IRUKHURLQWUDIFNHGE\PDLOIURP0DOD\VLDZLWKFRQVLJQPHQWVRIWHQWUDQVLWLQJ*HUPDQ\DQGWKH5HSXEOLFRI
6LQJDSRUH

6XPPDU\
7KHODUJHVWSRWHQWLDOUHYHQXHVIRUVRXWKHUQURXWHWUDIFNHUVLQ(6($DUHWREHIRXQGLQ&KLQD7KHODVWGHFDGH
KDVVHHQDQLQFUHDVHLQWKHSURPLQHQFHRI$IJKDQVXSSOLHVLQ&KLQHVHKHURLQPDUNHWVZLWKFRQFUHWHH[DPSOHV
RIWKHVHEHLQJGHOLYHUHGYLDWKHVRXWKHUQURXWH7KURXJKRXW(6($WKHUHDUHSUHVXPDEO\WUDGHRIIVEHWZHHQ
VRXWKHUQ URXWH VXSSOLHV DQG VXSSOLHV IURP 0\DQPDU 6R ORQJ DV 0\DQPDU FRQWLQXHV WR SURGXFH RSLDWHV LW
LV UHDVRQDEOH WR H[SHFW WKDW VRXWKHUQ URXWH VXSSOLHV ZLOO EH FRPSOHPHQWDU\ WR VXSSOLHV IURP 0\DQPDU QRW
YLFHYHUVD1HYHUWKHOHVVWKLVVWLOOOHDYHVRSSRUWXQLWLHVIRUWKRVHLPSRUWLQJDQGWUDQVVKLSSLQJVRXWKHUQURXWH
KHURLQWKURXJKWKHUHJLRQ'HYHORSLQJFRRSHUDWLRQZLWK3DNLVWDQLVWKHPRVWSUHVVLQJSULRULW\LQUHODWLRQWRWKLV
SUREOHPZLWKDQDGGLWLRQDOQHHGWRVWUHQJWKHQFRRSHUDWLRQZLWK,QGLDDQGFRXQWULHVLQWKH*XOIUHJLRQWRGHDO
ZLWKVRXWKHUQURXWHWUDIFNLQJE\DLU

  

212

81

8. Oceania
$VPDOOSURSRUWLRQRIRSLDWHVWUDIFNHGDORQJWKHVRXWKHUQURXWHDUHGHVWLQHGWR2FHDQLDSULPDULO\$XVWUDOLD'DWD
IURPWKH$XVWUDOLDQ)HGHUDO3ROLFH $)3 VXJJHVWVWKDWWKHEDODQFHDPRQJVRXUFHVRIRSLDWHVXSSO\WR$XVWUDOLD
LVVXSSOHDQGFDSDEOHRIVKLIWLQJTXLWHUDSLGO\,QDGGLWLRQWKHUHLVHYLGHQFHRIGRPHVWLFDOO\SURGXFHG heroin
RQWKHPDUNHW$VVKRZQLQ7DEOHWKHFRXQWU\LVDPL[HGPDUNHW%HJLQQLQJLQWKHSURSRUWLRQ
RI KHURLQ IURP 6RXWK:HVW$VLD JUHZ UHODWLYH WR WKDW RULJLQDWLQJ LQ 6RXWK(DVW$VLD 7KLV EDODQFH WKHQ VHH
VDZHGLQDQGWKHODWHVWGDWDVHHPVWRKHDYLO\IDYRXU6RXWK(DVW$VLD7KHVRXWKHUQURXWHFHUWDLQO\
DSSHDUVFDSDEOHRISURYLGLQJDVLJQLFDQWSURSRUWLRQRIWKH$XVWUDOLDQKHURLQPDUNHWEXWFDQEHFURZGHGRXWE\
6RXWK(DVW$VLDQVXSSOLHV,WDOVRDSSHDUVWKDWERWKVRXUFHVRYHUODSLQ6RXWK(DVW$VLDQWUDQVLWSRLQWVVXFKDV
0DOD\VLD,WLVXQFOHDUZKHWKHUVKLIWVEHWZHHQVRXUFHVRIVXSSO\DUHWKHUHVXOWRIFKDQJLQJLPSRUWHUSUHIHUHQFHV
RUSHUKDSVGXHWRGLVFRUGDPRQJSURPLQHQWLQGLYLGXDOVLQFKDUJHRILPSRUWLQJZKREULQJGLIIHUHQWFRQQHFWLRQV
WRRYHUVHDVVXSSOLHUV
Table 16: *HRJUDSKLFDORULJLQRIKHURLQERUGHUVHL]XUHVLQ$XVWUDOLD
Proportion of heroin originating in
South-East Asia (%)

Proportion of heroin originating in


South-West Asia (%)

8QNQRZQ
origin (%)

-DQ-XQ



































































Year

6RXUFH$XVWUDOLDQ)HGHUDO3ROLFH)RUHQVLF'UXJ,QWHOOLJHQFH7KHSHUFHQWDJHVDUHFDOFXODWHGDVSURSRUWLRQVRIWRWDOEXONZHLJKWRIKHURLQ
VHL]XUHVDQDO\VHGE\$)3

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246
   
242
243

90

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6RXUFH&RPELQHG0DULWLPH)RUFHV &0)

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Date

Amount

Method

Route

5HPDUNV

$SULO


NJ

'KRZ

3DNLVWDQ7DQ]DQLD

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91

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Table 20: &RPSRVLWLRQRIKHURLQVHL]HGLQWKH,QGLDQ2FHDQ
Date

Amount

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$SU

NJ

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(Austria), 24 March 2014.
248
  
Opium Trade and the Coping Strategies of Opium Traders, p. 18.
249
  
Asian Republics. Vienna: United Nations publication.
250
Monitoring the supply of heroin to Europe, EMCDDA, 2008, p.5
251
 

252
 
247

92

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Table 21:+HURLQVHL]XUHVLQ6RXWKHUQDQG(DVW$IULFDJUHDWHUWKDQNJ
Date

$PRXQW NJ

Country

Location

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300

250

Kg

200
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150

Kenya
100

50

0
2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

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Table 22: 5HFRUGKHURLQVHL]XUHDW0RPEDVD
Date
-XO\


Amount

Method

Route

5HPDUNV

NJ

ship

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254

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257
 
258
Namibia, International Narcotics Control Strategy Report (INCSR), 2010.
259
 
259

260

255
256

95

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DUULYDOSRUWVWRQDOGHVWLQDWLRQLVDOPRVWQRQH[LVWHQW7KHUHDUHDQHFGRWDOUHSRUWVWKDWGUXJWUDIFNHUVXVHWKH
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Table 23: +HURLQVHL]XUHLQ6RXWK$IULFDGHVWLQHGWRWKH8QLWHG.LQJGRP
Date
October


Amount
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Method

Route

5HPDUNV

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263


 

264
  
265
  
266
Department of State, INCSR (2006), Volume I, p.504.
261
262

96

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WKHKLJKHVWLQ$IULFD7KLVZRXOGUHSUHVHQWDSSUR[LPDWHO\XVHUV,IHDFKXVHUZHUHDEXVLQJDQ
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269
 


270

271

272
  
273
UNODC (2014), World Drug Report 2014, Annex 1, p.x. Vienna: United Nations publication.
274
UNODC (2014), World Drug Report 2014, Annex 1, p.x. Vienna: United Nations publication.
275
UNODC (2005), World Drug Report 2005, p. 133. Vienna: United Nations publication.
267
268

97

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800

Amount seized (kgs)

700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

Year
West and Central Africa

Africa

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276

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Table 24: 0DULWLPHKHURLQVHL]XUHVLQ1LJHULD
Date

Amount

Method

Route

5HPDUNV





&RQWDLQHU

,VODPLF5HSXEOLFRI
,UDQ1LJHULD

7KHGUXJZDVGHVWLQHGWR(XURSHDQGZDV
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WKUHH RWKHU SRUWV  6DODODK LQ 2PDQ 9DOHQFLD LQ 6SDLQ DQG /RP LQ7RJR EHIRUH UHDFKLQJ WKH 5HSXEOLF RI
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%HQLQHVHSURWLQJIURPLWRQDVHFRQGDU\EDVLV7KDWVDPH\HDU  NJRIKHURLQERXQGIRU%HQLQZHUH


 

 
279
 
280

281
International Narcotics Control Strategy Report (INCSR), 2013.
282
UNODC (2014). World Drug Report 2014, p. 31. Vienna: United Nations publication.
283
  
284

 
277
278

99

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Year

$PRXQW NJ

Transportation

From

Seized in

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air

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1RY



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,VODPLF5HSXEOLFRI,UDQ

Nigeria

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6RXUFH812'&


 

287

288


285
286

100

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Amount of heroin seized (kg)

250
200
150
100
50
0

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

Year
Benin

Nigeria

6RXUFH812'&$QQXDO5HSRUW4XHVWLRQQDLUH $54 DQG'DWDEDVHRQ(VWLPDWHVDQG/RQJWHUP7UHQG$QDO\VLV '(/7$

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LQ&WHG
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DXWKRULWLHVUHFRYHUHGNJRIKHURLQDW$ELGMDQ
Figure 45: +HURLQVHL]XUHVLQ&WHG,YRLUH
50
45

Amount seized (kg)

40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

6RXUFH812'&$QQXDO5HSRUW4XHVWLRQQDLUH $54 DQG'DWDEDVHRQ(VWLPDWHVDQG/RQJWHUP7UHQG$QDO\VLV '(/7$ ,QWHUPLQLVWHULDO&RPPLWWHH


IRU'UXJV&RQWURO &,/$'
  
  
291

292
   
289
290

101

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VHL]XUHRINJRIKHURLQDWDQDLUSRUWLQ0LODQ,WDO\KDGGHSDUWHGZLWKDFRXULHUIURP0DOLDQGWUDQVLWHG
YLD%UXVVHOV,WLVLQWHUHVWLQJWRQRWHWKDWZKLOH0DOLKDVQHYHUVHL]HGPRUHWKDQNJRIKHURLQDQQXDOO\
REVHUYHUVDVVHVVWKDWLQ%DPDNRWKHFDSLWDOFRFDLQHDQGKHURLQXVHDSSHDUVWREHJURZLQJDWDQDODUPLQJUDWH
6HL]XUHVRIKHURLQIURPDLUURXWHVLQ:HVW$IULFDSDLQWDVLPLODUSLFWXUHWRWKDWRI(DVW$IULFDZLWKWKUHHPDLQ
W\SHVRIPRYHPHQWV)LUVWWKHUHDUHLJKWVIURP6RXWK:HVW$VLD3DNLVWDQWKH,VODPLF5HSXEOLFRI,UDQDQG
,QGLDDVZHOODVWKH0LGGOH(DVWPRYLQJKHURLQIURPWKHSURGXFWLRQDUHDVWR:HVW$IULFDSULPDULO\1LJHULD
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United States 18%

Spain 10%
Unknown 63%
South Africa 2%

Cameroon 7%

6RXUFH1'/($

 
   
048d5554ca16aeb780682f008)
294
UNODC Database on Estimates and Long-term Trend Analysis (DELTA), 1990-2011
295
         
           
  
296
  

 

 
West Africa, October 2014.
297

298

 
   
299
 




 
  
300

301

302

303
  
293

102

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FRQVLVWHGRILQFRPLQJKHURLQ:KLOHWKLVPD\HQWDLOWKDWPRVWRIWKHKHURLQLVGLVSDWFKHGIURP1LJHULDZLWKRXW
being detected,LWDOVRPHDQVWKDWWKHVDPSOHVL]HIRUGHWHUPLQLQJGHVWLQDWLRQVLVVPDOO

 6XPPDU\
7KHSURPLQHQFHRI$IULFDQVXEUHJLRQVDVSRWHQWLDOO\LPSRUWDQWPDUNHWVDQGWUDQVLW]RQHVIRUWKHWUDIFNLQJ
RI$IJKDQKHURLQDORQJWKHVRXWKHUQURXWHLVDPDMRUQGLQJRIWKLVUHSRUW7KHFRQWLQHQWVJURZLQJHFRQRPLF
G\QDPLVPLQWHUQDOLQWHJUDWLRQDQGH[WHUQDOWUDGLQJUHODWLRQVKLSVDUHPLUURUHGLQWKHGLYHUVLW\RIFRQQHFWLRQVWR
$IJKDQRSLDWHWUDIFNLQJ7KHZLGHDUUD\RIFDUJRDQGDLUOLQNVWKDWKDYHRSHQHGXSWRDQGWKURXJK$IULFDRIIHU
PDQ\RSSRUWXQLWLHVIRUWUDIFNHUV:KLOHWKHYROXPHDQGGHWDLORIGDWDUHPDLQVOLPLWHGDZRUU\LQJSLFWXUHLV
FHUWDLQO\HPHUJLQJ7KHLQIRUPDWLRQDYDLODEOHDWSUHVHQWVXJJHVWVWKDWGLIIHUHQWUHJLRQVRI$IULFDDUHGHYHORSLQJ
LPSRUWDQWUROHVLQIDFLOLWDWLQJWKHWUDQVLWRIVRXWKHUQURXWHKHURLQDQGQHWZRUNVIURPWKRVHUHJLRQVKDYH
WDNHQFRQWURORIVRPHWUDIFNLQJURXWHV

 

304

103

10. Europe
(XURSHKDVEHHQDOXFUDWLYHPDUNHWIRUWUDIFNHUVRI$IJKDQKHURLQIRUPRUHWKDQ\HDUV7KHODWHVW812'&
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(XURSH/DWHVWGDWDDYDLODEOHVXJJHVWWKDWWZRWKLUGVRIWKHKHURLQPDUNHWLQ:HVWDQG&HQWUDO(XURSHZRXOG
EHDFFRXQWHGIRUE\RQO\IRXUFRXQWULHVWKH8QLWHG.LQJGRP,WDO\)UDQFHDQG*HUPDQ\LQWHUPVRIQXPEHURI
XVHUV,QWKH8QLWHG.LQJGRPDORQHODZHQIRUFHPHQWDJHQFLHVHVWLPDWHWKDWWRQVRIKHURLQDUHLPSRUWHG
DQQXDOO\DYDVWPDMRULW\RIZKLFKFRPHVIURP$IJKDQRSLDWHV
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RUODWHVW\HDUDYDLODEOH

Rest of Western
and Central
Europe 31%

United Kingdom
(England and
Wales) 25%

Italy 17%
Germany 15%
France
12%
6RXUFH812'&$QQXDO5HSRUW4XHVWLRQQDLUHV $54V :RUOG'UXJ5HSRUW

Table 26: (VWLPDWHGQXPEHURIRSLDWHXVHUVLQWKHPDLQPDUNHWVRI:HVWHUQDQG&HQWUDO(XURSHRU


ODWHVW\HDUDYDLODEOH
Estimated
number of users

From

Seized in

8QLWHG.LQJGRP
(QJODQGDQG:DOHV



2SLDWHV PD\LQFOXGH
PHWKDGRQHXVHUV

ARQ and World Drug Report 2014


HVWLPDWHGLQEHVWHVWLPDWHV
DYDLODEOH 

,WDO\



Opiates

ARQ and World Drug Report 2014


HVWLPDWHGLQEHVWHVWLPDWHV
DYDLODEOH

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ARQ and World Drug Report


Opiates HVWLPDWHGLQEHVWHVWLPDWHV
DYDLODEOH

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Opiates

ARQ and World Drug Report 2014


HVWLPDWHGLQEHVWHVWLPDWHV
DYDLODEOH

TOTAL

774,810
812'&:RUOG'UXJ5HSRUW
 HVWLPDWHV

812'&EHVWHVWLPDWH:RUOG'UXJ
5HSRUW DQQH[

Country

:HVWHUQDQG&HQWUDO
(XURSH



6RXUFH812'&$QQXDO5HSRUW4XHVWLRQQDLUHV $54V 812'&:RUOG'UXJ5HSRUW


UNODC (2011), The global Afghan opium trade: a threat assessment, p.57. Vienna: United Nations publication.


305
306

104

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(XURSHLVLQFUHDVLQJO\DGHVWLQDWLRQIRUKHURLQWUDIFNHGIURP$IJKDQLVWDQDORQJWKHVRXWKHUQURXWH
8QWLO WKH HDUO\ V 7XUNLVK RUJDQL]HG FULPH JURXSV ZHUH YHU\ DFWLYH LQ KHURLQ WUDIFNLQJ WRJHWKHU ZLWK
JURXSV LQ 6RXWK(DVWHUQ (XURSH /DZ HQIRUFHPHQW DFWLYLW\ KDV LPSDFWHG7XUNLVK GRPLQDQFH ZKLOH 3DNLVWDQL
QHWZRUNVKDYHEHFRPHLQFUHDVLQJO\DFWLYH)XUWKHUPRUHWKHXVHRIWKHVRXWKHUQURXWHKDVEURXJKWZLWKLW
QHZWUDIFNLQJPRGXVRSHUDQGLLQFOXGLQJWKHXVHRIQHZUHJLRQVVXFKDVWKH0LGGOH(DVWDQG*XOIFRXQWULHV
SDUWLFXODUO\'XEDL DQG(DVWDQG:HVW$IULFDDVWUDQVLWSRLQWV
1RWDEOH WDUJHWV IRU WUDIFNLQJ YLD WKH VRXWKHUQ URXWH KDYH EHHQ WKH 8QLWHG .LQJGRP %HOJLXP DQG WKH
1HWKHUODQGV 7KHUH DUH JRRG UHDVRQV WR EHOLHYH WKDW D SDUW RI WKH KHURLQ WUDIFNHG WR %HOJLXP DQG WKH
1HWKHUODQGVLVDOVRGHVWLQHGIRUWKH8QLWHG.LQJGRP(XURSROKDVDOVRVXJJHVWHGWKDWVRPHJURXSVZRUNLQJ
ZLWKVRXWKHUQURXWHVXSSOLHVDSSHDUWREHWU\LQJWRDYRLG7XUNLVKJURXSVDQGOLNHO\DOVRODZHQIRUFHPHQW
DORQJWKH%DONDQURXWHE\VHQGLQJGLUHFWVKLSPHQWVE\VHD
)LJXUHVXJJHVWVWKHSRWHQWLDOQDQFLDOLQFHQWLYHVIRUWKLVNLQGRIWUDIFNLQJNJRIKHURLQFRVWVDURXQG
86LQ3DNLVWDQEXW86LQWKH8QLWHG.LQJGRP'LVLQWHUPHGLDWLRQE\JURXSVZRUNLQJGLUHFWO\
ZLWKVXSSOLHVIURP3DNLVWDQFXWWLQJRXWWKHIDFLOLWDWRUVLQWKH,VODPLF5HSXEOLFRI,UDQ7XUNH\DQGWKH%DONDQV
PD\JHQHUDWHDGGLWLRQDOSURW7KLVPD\DOVRUHVXOWLQJUHDWHUVSHFLDOL]DWLRQRIVXSSO\URXWHVVLQFHLWZRXOG
LPSO\ WKDW VRPH RI WKH RSLDWHV WUDQVLWLQJ WKURXJK WKH ,VODPLF 5HSXEOLF RI ,UDQ DUH LQWHQGHG VROHO\ IRU GUXJ
PDUNHWV FORVHU WKDQ (XURSH $ORQJ WKH %DONDQ URXWH VKLSPHQWV QHHG WR FURVV EHWZHHQ YH DQG WHQ ERUGHUV
EHIRUHUHDFKLQJWKHLUQDOGHVWLQDWLRQ2QWKHVRXWKHUQURXWHGHVSLWHOHVVGLUHFWLWLQHUDULHVVKLSPHQWVFDQEH
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Figure 48: 86SHUNJRIKHURLQZKROHVDOHLQ3DNLVWDQ  DQGWKH8QLWHG.LQJGRP 
50 000

Wholesale Price of heroin (US$)

45 000
40 000
35 000
30 000
25 000
20 000
15 000
10 000
5 000
0
Pakistan (2011)

UK (2012)

6RXUFH812'&$QQXDO5HSRUW4XHVWLRQQDLUH $54  8QLWHG.LQJGRP 812'&$QQXDO5HSRUW4XHVWLRQQDLUH $54  3DNLVWDQ 1RWH


JXUHVDUHURXQGHGSULFHVDUHQRWSXULW\DGMXVWHG

UNODC (2014), The Illicit Drug Trade through South-Eastern Europe, p.14. Vienna: United Nations publication.

309

310


311

307
308

105

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GLUHFWO\IURP3DNLVWDQ2IFLDOUHSRUWVIURP3DNLVWDQDOVRDSSHDUWRLQGLFDWHWKDWWKH8QLWHG.LQJGRPLVD
PDLQGHVWLQDWLRQ
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ERUGHULQLQYROYHGKHURLQWUDIFNHGIURP3DNLVWDQ,WVKRXOGEHQRWHGKRZHYHUWKDWDVRIWKH8QLWHG
.LQJGRPDVVHVVHVWKDWZKLOHKHURLQFRQWLQXHVWREHLPSRUWHGIURP3DNLVWDQLWDSSHDUVWKDW7XUNLVKFRQWUROOHG
WUDIFNLQJLVLQFUHDVLQJZKLFKZRXOGVXJJHVWDUHYLYDORIWKHXVHRIWKH%DONDQURXWH
Figure 49: 'HSDUWXUHFRXQWU\IRU8QLWHG.LQJGRPERUGHUVHL]XUHV NJRUPRUH
2011

2012

Unknows 7%

Czech republic 5%
Netherlands 2%

Belgium 4%

Belgium 9%

Netherlands 27%
Pakistan 61%

Pakistan 84%

Kosovo
(territory) 1%
6RXUFH,OOLFLWGUXJWUHQGVWKURXJK6RXWK(DVWHUQ(XURSH812'&0DUFK%DVHGRQVHL]XUHVRINJ

2WKHUFRXQWULHVWKDWZRXOGWUDGLWLRQDOO\UHSRUWEHLQJVXSSOLHGIURPWKH%DONDQURXWHKDYHUHFHQWO\UHSRUWHG
VXSSOLHVIURPWKHVRXWKHUQURXWH6SDLQWUDGLWLRQDOO\FLWHGWKH%DONDQURXWHDVEHLQJGRPLQDQWXSWR
7KLVDSSHDUHGWRFKDQJHDVRIZKHQIRUWKHUVWWLPHWKHPDLQGHSDUWXUH WUDQVLW FRXQWULHVIRUKHURLQ
PHQWLRQHGLQRIFLDO6SDQLVKUHSRUWVZHUH3DNLVWDQ%HOJLXPDQGSHUKDSVXQH[SHFWHGO\8JDQGD,Q

312
                     



313

314

315

316


 


317

318


 
    
319


106

3DNLVWDQFRQWLQXHVWREHDPDMRUFRXQWU\RIGHSDUWXUH WUDQVLW IRUKHURLQIRXQGLQ6SDLQZKLOH)UDQFHUHSRUWV


LW DV D GHSDUWXUH WUDQVLW  FRXQWU\ LQ  6LPLODUO\ UHSRUWLQJ IURP SUHYLRXV \HDUV VDZ WKH %DONDQ URXWH
FRPSOHWHO\ GRPLQDWLQJ KHURLQ VWDWLVWLFV LQ ,WDO\ +RZHYHU WKH  $QQXDO 5HSRUW E\ WKH ,WDOLDQ QDWLRQDO
DQWLGUXJVHUYLFHWKH'LUH]LRQH&HQWUDOHSHUL6HUYL]L$QWLGURJD '&6$ DVVHVVHVWKHJURZLQJQXPEHURIKHURLQ
VHL]XUHVOLQNHGWRWKH(DVW$IULFDUHJLRQDVFRQUPLQJWKHUHOHYDQFHRIWKHVRXWKHUQURXWHIRUWKHFRXQWU\WKH
FRQVROLGDWLRQRIWKHVRFDOOHG$IULFDQURXWHKHURLQOHDYLQJSURGXFLQJDUHDVPDLQO\IURPDLUSRUWVDQGSRUWV
HVSHFLDOO\WKHRQHLQ.DUDFKL LQ3DNLVWDQUHDFKHV:HVWHUQPDUNHWVWKURXJKWKH(DVWHUQSDUWRIWKH$IULFDQ
FRQWLQHQW :HVW$IULFD PD\ DOVR EH XVHG DV D WUDQVLW DUHD EXW OHVV SURPLQHQWO\ 2QH QRWHZRUWK\ VHL]XUH
PDGHLQLQYROYHGWKHLQWHUFHSWLRQRINJRIKHURLQWUDYHOOLQJIURP0DOLDQGWUDQVLWLQJ%HOJLXPEHIRUH
UHDFKLQJ,WDO\
)LJXUH  LOOXVWUDWHV WKLV QHZ VRXWKHUQ URXWH FRQQHFWLRQ IRU ,WDO\ ZLWK DSSUR[LPDWHO\ DV PDQ\ LQWHUGLFWLRQV
RIKHURLQFRPLQJWKURXJK(DVW$IULFDDVFRPLQJWKURXJK6RXWK(DVWHUQ(XURSH7KLVLVDOOWKHPRUHVWULNLQJ
JLYHQWKHSUR[LPLW\RI,WDO\WRWKH%DONDQURXWHLQ6RXWK(DVWHUQ(XURSH7KH8QLWHG.LQJGRPDOVRUHSRUWHG
LQFUHDVLQJWUDIFNLQJIURP(DVW$IULFDLQGXEELQJLWDNH\QH[XVSRLQWIRUKHURLQGHSDUWHGIURP WUDQVLWLQJ
LQ 3DNLVWDQ7KLVLVVXSSRUWHGE\GDWDIURP:&2ZKLFKUHFRUGHGFDVHVZRUOGZLGH WRWDOOLQJNJ LQ
ZKLFK7DQ]DQLDZDVDGHSDUWXUH WUDQVLW FRXQWU\
812'&LVQRWDZDUHRISURSRUWLRQDOO\VLJQLFDQWDPRXQWVRIKHURLQEHLQJWUDIFNHGIURP$IULFDWR:HVWDQG
&HQWUDO(XURSHDQPDMRUPDUNHWVRI)UDQFH*HUPDQ\RUWKH8QLWHG.LQJGRPEXWLQDOOFDVHVZKHUH$IULFDLV
FRQFHUQHGWKHUHJLRQRI(DVW$IULFDIHDWXUHVSURPLQHQWO\)RUH[DPSOHEDVHGRQWKHGDWDRQGUXJVHL]XUHVLQ
3DULV&KDUOHV'H*DXOOH$LUSRUWEHWZHHQDQGRQO\NJRIKHURLQRULJLQDWLQJLQ&DPHURRQ%HQLQ
DQG1LJHULDZHUHVHL]HGDWWKHDLUSRUWFRPSDUHGZLWKPRUHWKDQNJIURP(DVW$IULFD'DWDIURP%HOJLXP
VHHPVWRVKRZWKHVDPH(DVW$IULFDQSURPLQHQFH
Figure 50: +HURLQWUDQVLWLQJIURP$IULFDDQGLQWHUFHSWHGDW&KDUOHV'H*DXOOH$LUSRUW
Benin 6%
Cameroon 4%
Nigeria 9%

Kenya 43%

Tanzania 38%

6RXUFH'DWDSURYLGHGE\&KDUOHV'H*DXOOH$LUSRUW3DULV)UDQFH812'&5HJLRQDO2IFHIRU:HVW$IULFD


 
322
UNODC (2014), The Illicit Drug Trade through South-Eastern Europe, Vienna: United Nations publication.
323
DCSA, Annual Report 2012.
324
              
   
048d5554ca16aeb780682f008)
325

 
via large goods vehicles and Ro-Ro ferries.
326
 
326

320
321

107

Table 27: +HURLQVHL]XUHV NJ LQ%HOJLDQDLUSRUWVLGHQWLHGDVGHSDUWLQJIURP$IULFD


Year

4W\ NJ

Departure

Transit

Destination

Arrests

Route





Uganda

%HOJLXP

Spain

&DPHURRQQDWLRQDO

(QWHEEH%UXVVHOV





7DQ]DQLD

(WKLRSLD

%HOJLXP

(VWRQLDQQDWLRQDO

.LOLPDQMDUR$GGLV$EHED
%UXVVHOV





Benin

QD

%HOJLXP

Nigerian national

&RWRXQRX%UXVVHOV





.HQ\D

%HOJLXP

Slovenia

7DQ]DQLDQQDWLRQDO

1DLUREL%UXVVHOV
/MXEOMDQD





Burundi

%HOJLXP

,WDO\

British national

%XMXPEXUD%UXVVHOV
,WDO\





.HQ\D

QD

%HOJLXP

7DQ]DQLDQQDWLRQDO

1DLUREL%UXVVHOV





.HQ\D

%HOJLXP

,WDO\

7DQ]DQLDQQDWLRQDO 1DLUREL%UXVVHOV5RPH

6RXUFH%HOJLDQ)HGHUDO3ROLFH

$OWKRXJKWRRHDUO\WRWHOOZKHWKHUWKLVLVDWUHQGVRXWKHUQURXWHWUDIFNLQJKDVDOVRDIIHFWHG(DVWDQG&HQWUDO
(XURSHZKLFKLVXQSUHFHGHQWHG,Q6ORYHQLDUHSRUWHGLWVUVWVHL]XUHVRIKHURLQWUDYHOOLQJIURP(DVW$IULFD
E\DLUDQGGHVWLQHGIRU,WDO\7ZRRIWKHVHL]XUHVZHUHRIKLJKSXULW\ SHUFHQW DQGFXWZLWKFDIIHLQH$Q
DGGLWLRQDONJRIKHURLQWUDYHOOLQJIURP1DLURELDQGGHVWLQHGIRU6ORYHQLDZDVVHL]HGLQ%UXVVHOVRQ-XQH
,WLVDOVRLQWHUHVWLQJWRQRWHWKDW.HQ\DQDXWKRULWLHVUHSRUWHGDVHL]XUHRINJRIKHURLQLQ-DQXDU\
GLUHFWHGWR+XQJDU\E\DLU
Table 28: +HURLQVHL]XUHVLQ6ORYHQLDOLQNHGWR(DVW$IULFD
Date

Amount



J



J



J

Method

Route

5HPDUNV
+HURLQK\GURFKORULGHSHUFHQW
SXULW\FXWZLWKFDIIHLQH

Air

1DLUREL6ORYHQLD,WDO\

+HURLQK\GURFKORULGHSHUFHQW
SXULW\ FXWZLWKFDIIHLQH
+HURLQK\GURFKORULGHSHUFHQW
SXULW\FXWZLWKFDIIHLQH

6RXUFH*HQHUDO3ROLFH'LUHFWRUDWH&ULPLQDO3ROLFH'LUHFWRUDWHRIWKH0LQLVWU\RIWKH,QWHULRURI6ORYHQLD)HEUXDU\

327
 
  
2013.
328
Information provided by the Central Drug Service of Belgium, July 2013.
329
  

108

)XUWKHU HDVWZDUG LQ 1RYHPEHU  WKH 8NUDLQLDQ SROLFH LQ .KDUNLY VHL]HG  NJ RI KHURLQ 7KH FDUJR ZDV
WUDIFNHGE\VHDWR8NUDLQHIURP3DNLVWDQLQDVKLSSLQJFRQWDLQHU)URPWKHVHDSRUWRI2GHVVDWKHFRQWDLQHU
ZDVGHOLYHUHGWR.KDUNLYDQGZDVGHVWLQHGIRU,WDO\8SVWUHDP3DNLVWDQKDVUHSRUWHGDVLQJOHVHL]XUHRINJ
DW.DUDFKLGHVWLQHGIRU8NUDLQHE\PDULWLPHWUDIFNLQJ -XQH 
:KLOHLWLVXQZLVHWREDVHEURDGFRQFOXVLRQVRQWKHVHVLQJOHHYHQWVWKHVHLQFLGHQWVPD\LQGLFDWHWKDW(DVWHUQ
DQG&HQWUDO(XURSHDUHLQFUHDVLQJO\ZLWKLQWKHUHDFKRIWKHVRXWKHUQURXWH8QWLOQRZQRVHL]XUHVKDYHEHHQ
UHSRUWHGLQWKH5XVVLDQ)HGHUDWLRQVXJJHVWLQJWKDW$IJKDQKHURLQPD\EHLPSRUWHGYLDWKHVRXWKHUQURXWH
Figure 51:'HSDUWXUHFRXQWULHVIRUKHURLQVHL]HGLQ,WDO\
2011

2012

Benin 3% Ghana 2%

France 3% Belgium 2%
Spain 2%
Germany 3%
Turkey 5%

Belgium 1%
Cameroon 3%
Kenya 4%
Pakistan 8%

Pakistan 6%
Greece 29%

Greece 31%
Kenya 11%

Albania 13%

Uganda 16%

Tanzania 21%

Netherland 13%

Tanzania 25%

6RXUFH$QQXDO5HSRUW'LUH]LRQH&HQWUDOHSHUL6HUYL]L$QWLGURJD '&6$ %DVHGRQQVHL]XUHVRINJ  NJ  DQGNJ 

,QWKH%DONDQURXWHVHHPVWRUHDVVHUWLWVHOILQ,WDO\ VHH)LJXUH ZLWKQHDUO\WZRWKLUGVRILGHQWLHG


VHL]XUHVFRPLQJIURP*UHHFHDQG$OEDQLDWZRNH\VWRSRYHUVFRXQWULHVDORQJWKH%DONDQURXWHWKURXJK6RXWK
(DVWHUQ(XURSH
Figure 52: 'HSDUWXUHFRXQWULHVIRUKHURLQVHL]HGLQ,WDO\
Pakistan 2%

Turkey 1%

West Africa 3%
South and South East Asia 4%
West and Central Europe 4%

East Africa 23%

South Eastern Europe 63%

6RXUFH'LUH]LRQH&HQWUDOHSHUL6HUYL]L$QWLGURJD '&6$ %DVHGRQVHL]XUHVRINJ 




331

332

330

109

7KDWVDLGLWDSSHDUVWKDWLWZLOOEHFRPHLQFUHDVLQJO\GLIFXOWWRGLVHQWDQJOHWKH%DONDQURXWHIURPWKHVRXWKHUQ
URXWH7KHODUJHVWKHURLQVHL]XUHLQ*UHHNKLVWRU\ZDVHIIHFWHGLQ-XQH,WFRQVLVWHGRIRYHUWRQVRI
KHURLQWKDWZHUHWUDQVSRUWHGDERDUGDPDULWLPHRLOWDQNHUYHVVHOWKDWDOOHJHGO\WUDYHOOHGIURPWKH*XOIRI2PDQ
YLDWKH6XH]&DQDOLQWRWKHSRUWRI(OHIVLQD*UHHFH*UHHNODZHQIRUFHPHQWUHSRUWWKDWWKHKHURLQRULJLQDWHGLQ
$IJKDQLVWDQDQGWUDQVLWHGWKH,VODPLF5HSXEOLFRI,UDQRU3DNLVWDQEHIRUHEHLQJSODFHGRQWKHPDULWLPHYHVVHO
LQWKH*XOIRI2PDQ$YDLODEOHLQIRUPDWLRQLQGLFDWHVWKDWWKHKHURLQZDVGHVWLQHGIRU:HVWHUQ(XURSHPDLQO\
WR %HOJLXP DQG WKH SXULW\ RI WKH KHURLQ EDVH  ZDV UHSRUWHG DW RYHU  SHU FHQW 7KDW VDPH\HDU VHYHUDO
LPSRUWDQWVHL]XUHVRIKHURLQWUDIFNHGGLUHFWO\IURP3DNLVWDQZHUHUHSRUWHGLQ*UHHFH,WLVVLJQLFDQWWRQRWH
WKDWVXFKVHL]XUHVFRXOGVLPSO\EHWKHUHVXOWRIPRUHWDUJHWHGVFUHHQLQJE\WKH+HOOHQLFDXWKRULWLHVKRZHYHU
LQWKHFRQWH[WRIRWKHUVRXWKHUQURXWHVHL]XUHVDFURVV(XURSHLQFUHDVHGWUDIFNLQJIURP3DNLVWDQYLD*UHHFH
FDQQRWEHH[FOXGHG
Table 29: 6HOHFWHGVHL]XUHVLQ*UHHFHZLWK3DNLVWDQDVDGHSDUWXUH WUDQVLW FRXQWU\
Date

Amount

Method

Route



NJ

$LUWUDIFNLQJIDOVHERWWRPOXJJDJH
3DNLVWDQLQDWLRQDODUUHVWHG

/DKRUH3DNLVWDQ,VWDQEXO$WKHQV
8QLWHG.LQJGRP



NJ

The arrested person had reached


$LUWUDIFNLQJIDOVHERWWRPOXJJDJH
$WKHQVE\\LQJIURP/DKRUH3DNLVWDQ
3DNLVWDQLQDWLRQDODUUHVWHG
YLD,VWDQEXO 7XUNLVK$LUOLQHV 



NJ

$LUWUDIFNLQJIDOVHERWWRPOXJJDJH
3DNLVWDQLQDWLRQDODUUHVWHG

/DKRUH'RKD$WKHQV



NJ

$LUWUDIFNLQJOXJJDJH3DNLVWDQL
national arrested

.DUDFKL'RKD$WKHQV

6RXUFH1DUFRWLFV6XEGLYLVLRQJHQHUDOLQYHVWLJDWLRQRIFH+HOOHQLF3ROLFH JXUHVKDYHEHHQURXQGHG

7UDIFNHUV EDVHG LQ 3DNLVWDQ DOVR DSSHDU WR KDYH WDUJHWHG 7XUNH\ IRU FRQWDLQHU WUDIFNLQJ )RU H[DPSOH LQ
$XJXVW   NJ RI KHURLQ GHVWLQHG IRU7XUNH\ ZHUH VHL]HG DW 4DVLP ,QWHUQDWLRQDO &RQWDLQHU7HUPLQDO
SHUKDSVLQGLFDWLQJWKDWFRRSHUDWLRQDQGFRPSHWLWLRQEHWZHHQ3DNLVWDQEDVHGDQG7XUNH\EDVHGWUDIFNHUVFDQ
RFFXUVLPXOWDQHRXVO\
%HWZHHQDQGKHURLQVHL]XUHVDVVRFLDWHGZLWKWKHVRXWKHUQURXWHZHUHUHSRUWHGLQVHYHUDO(XURSHDQ
FRXQWULHV $XVWULD %HOJLXP WKH &]HFK 5HSXEOLF 'HQPDUN )LQODQG )UDQFH *HUPDQ\ *UHHFH ,UHODQG ,WDO\
/LWKXDQLD1HWKHUODQGV3RUWXJDO6HUELD6ORYHQLD6SDLQ6ZHGHQ6ZLW]HUODQG8NUDLQHDQGWKH8QLWHG.LQJGRP
,WLVQRWFOHDUZKHWKHUWKLVLVVLPSO\DUHVSRQVHWRRSSRUWXQLWLHVSUHVHQWHGE\ORZHUSHUFHLYHGOHYHOVRIODZ
HQIRUFHPHQWDORQJWKHVRXWKHUQURXWHRUDVLJQLFDQWGXUDEOHFKDQJHLQWKHLOOLFLWWUDIFNLQJRIRSLDWHV
7KLUW\VLJQLFDQWVHL]XUHV RINJDQGDERYH ZHUHUHSRUWHGWR812'&E\WKHVHFRXQWULHVRYHU
LQYROYLQJDWRWDORINJRIKHURLQVRPHRIZKLFKDUHOLVWHGLQ7DEOH,QSDUWLFXODUDQXPEHURIODUJH
VHL]XUHVZHUHPDGHDWVHDSRUWVLQ%HOJLXP6SDLQDQGWKH1HWKHUODQGVLQFOXGLQJDVHL]XUHDW5RWWHUGDPRI
NJRIKHURLQLQDQGDVHL]XUHRINJLQ$QWZHUS%HOJLXPDOVRLQ 7DEOH 7KLVODVWFDVH
GLGQRWVLPSO\LQYROYHVHQGLQJVKLSPHQWVWRDFRQWDLQHUSRUWLQWKHKRSHWKDWWKH\ZRXOGEOHQGLQWROLFLWWUDGH
RZV 7UDIFNHUV KDG UHFUXLWHG KDFNHUV WR EUHDN LQWR FRPSXWHUV WKDW WUDFNHG DQG PRQLWRUHG WKH PRYHPHQW
DQGORFDWLRQRIVKLSSLQJFRQWDLQHUVDUULYLQJDW$QWZHUSVHDSRUW6LPLODUWRRWKHUVHL]XUHVGLVFXVVHGLQWKLV
UHSRUWWKHKHURLQZDVRIKLJKSXULW\ RYHUSHUFHQW EXWDOUHDG\FXWZLWKDGXOWHUDQWV GH[WURPHWKRUSKDQDQG
FDIIHLQH 

                   
provided by the US DEA, 7 January 2015.
334
 
335
    
336
Information provided by Belgian Customs, March 2013.
333

110

Table 30: 5HFRUGVHL]XUHRINJRIKHURLQDW$QWZHUSVPXJJOHGYLD0R]DPELTXHWRWKH1HWKHUODQGV


0DUFK
Date

Amount

Method

Route

5HPDUNV



NJ

&RQWDLQHU

0DODZL0R]DPELTXH%HOJLXP
the Netherlands

3XULW\FXWZLWK
caffeine

6RXUFH%HOJLXP&XVWRPV

6HYHUDO VPDOOHU VHL]XUHV ZHUH DOVR PDGH DW DLUSRUWV LQ FRXQWULHV LQFOXGLQJ 'HQPDUN )UDQFH *HUPDQ\ ,WDO\
3RUWXJDO 6SDLQ DQG WKH 8QLWHG .LQJGRP RYHU  )RU VPDOOHU VHL]XUHV WKH PRVW FRPPRQ PRGHV RI
WUDIFNLQJKDYHEHHQDLUDQGPDLO2IWKHVHDOPRVWSHUFHQWRIFRQVLJQPHQWVOLVWHG3DNLVWDQDVWKHFRXQWU\
RIGHSDUWXUH WUDQVLW 
Table 31: 6HOHFWHGVRXWKHUQURXWHKHURLQVHL]XUHVLQ6SDLQ%HOJLXPDQGWKH1HWKHUODQGV NJ
Country of
seizure

Date

Transportation
method

Departure
(transit).country

Destination

Amount

%HOJLXP

'HF

&RQWDLQHU

,VODPLF5HSXEOLFRI,UDQ

Netherlands



%HOJLXP

$SU

&RQWDLQHU

3DNLVWDQ

Netherlands



%HOJLXP

)HE

&RQWDLQHU

3DNLVWDQ

Netherlands



%HOJLXP

0DU

&RQWDLQHU

0R]DPELTXH

Netherlands



Netherlands

$XJ

&RQWDLQHU

3DNLVWDQ

8QLWHG.LQJGRP



Netherlands

0D\

&RQWDLQHU

,VODPLF5HSXEOLFRI,UDQ
YLD8QLWHG$UDE(PLUDWHV

Netherlands



Spain

6HS

&RQWDLQHU

3DNLVWDQ

QD



Spain

-DQ

&RQWDLQHU

3DNLVWDQ

QD



6RXUFH62&$%HOJLDQ&XVWRPV:&2812'&&&3<HDU(QG5HSRUWS2IFLDOZHEVLWHRIWKH0LQLVWU\RI,QWHULRURI6SDLQ./3'&HQWUDO
8QLW&HQWUDO,QWHOOLJHQFH'LYLVLRQ GDWDIRUZDVXQDYDLODEOHDWWKHWLPHRIZULWLQJ 

0DSLOOXVWUDWHVKHURLQVHL]XUHVDFURVV(XURSHIRUDOOURXWHVDQGFRXQWULHVRIRULJLQIURPWR7KH
PDMRULW\ RI ODUJH LQWHUFHSWLRQV RFFXUUHG DW VHDSRUWV ZLWK KHURLQ RULJLQDWLQJ IURP VRXWKHUQ URXWH GHSDUWXUH
SRLQWV

337
  
stop in Spain. Information provided by Spanish Customs, April 2013.

111

Map 29: /RFDWLRQ RI KHURLQ VHL]XUHV DVVRFLDWHG ZLWK WKH VRXWKHUQ URXWH PDGH LQ (XURSH DV UHSRUWHG WR
812'&DQGSUHVHQWHGLQJRYHUQPHQWUHSRUWV

6RXUFH812'&'UXJ0RQLWRULQJ3ODWIRUP '03 DQG,QGLYLGXDO'UXJ6HL]XUHV ,'6 

0DMRUURXWHVDQGPHWKRGV
$QDO\VLVRIVHL]XUHFDVHGDWDFRQFHUQLQJKHURLQHQURXWHWR(XURSHYLDWKHVRXWKHUQURXWHVKRZV
WKDWFRQVLJQPHQWVZHUHVHQWLQFRQWDLQHUVDQGKLGGHQDPRQJVWGLIIHUHQWZDUHVRUZLWKLQWKHFRQWDLQHUZDOOV
RUERDUGV:LWKUHJDUGWRKHURLQWUDIFNHGE\DLULWZDVKLGGHQLQGLIIHUHQWW\SHVRIKDQGDQGFKHFNHGOXJJDJH
2QO\DVPDOODPRXQWRIWKHKHURLQVHL]HGZDVLQJHVWHG2IWKHFRQVLJQPHQWVVHQWE\PDLOKHURLQZDVRIWHQ
FRQFHDOHGLQSDUFHOVFRQWDLQLQJSHULVKDEOHIRRGLWHPVRULQPHUFKDQGLVHVXFKDVDMHZHOOHU\ER[HV6RPHWLPHV
KHURLQFRQVLJQPHQWVZHUHVLPSO\JURXSHGLQWRVPDOOSDFNHWVDVSDUWRIDSDUFHO
%DVHGRQWKHLQIRUPDWLRQDYDLODEOHDERXWSHUFHQWRIWKHVRXWKHUQURXWHKHURLQVHL]HGLQ(XURSHEHWZHHQ
DQGZDVWUDIFNHGIURP3DNLVWDQSHUFHQWIURP(DVW$IULFDSHUFHQWIURP6RXWK$VLDDQGSHU
FHQWIURP6RXWKHUQ$IULFD

112

Table 32: +HURLQ WUDIFNHG LQWR DQG VHL]HG LQ (XURSH YLD WKH VRXWKHUQ URXWH E\ UHJLRQ RI RULJLQWUDQVLW

No. of
seizures

Distribution (%) of
no. of seizures

6RXWK:HVW$VLD
$IJKDQLVWDQ
3DNLVWDQ
,VODPLF5HSXEOLFRI,UDQ

















South Asia









(DVW$IULFD









:HVWDQG&HQWUDO$IULFD









Southern Africa







North Africa







(DVWDQG6RXWK(DVW$VLD









0LGGOH(DVWDQG*XOI6WDWHV









762

100

6348.5

100

Origin/transit region

TOTAL

Quantity of heroin
Distribution (%) of
VHL]HG NJ quantity of heroin seized

6RXUFH812'&'UXJ0RQLWRULQJ3ODWIRUP '03 DQG,QGLYLGXDO'UXJ6HL]XUHV ,'6 

0DSVXPPDUL]HVGHPRQVWUDWHGRUVXVSHFWHGURXWHVWKDWKDYHEHHQXVHGWRWUDIFKHURLQDORQJWKHVRXWKHUQ
URXWHWR(XURSH

113

Map 30: ,QGLFDWLYHKHURLQWUDIFNLQJURXWHVWRDQGIURP(XURSH

1RWH 7KH ERXQGDULHV VKRZQ RQ WKLV PDS GR QRW LPSO\ RIFLDO HQGRUVHPHQW RU DFFHSWDQFH E\ WKH 8QLWHG 1DWLRQV 'DVKHG OLQHV UHSUHVHQW
XQGHWHUPLQHGERXQGDULHV7KHGRWWHGOLQHUHSUHVHQWVDSSUR[LPDWHO\WKH/LQHRI&RQWUROLQ-DPPXDQG.DVKPLUDJUHHGXSRQE\,QGLDDQG3DNLVWDQ
7KHQDOVWDWXVRI-DPPXDQG.DVKPLUKDVQRW\HWEHHQDJUHHGXSRQE\WKHSDUWLHV7KHQDOERXQGDU\EHWZHHQWKH6XGDQDQG6RXWK6XGDQKDV
QRW\HWEHHQGHWHUPLQHG
6RXUFH812'&EDVHGRQVHL]XUHGDWDIURP'UXJ0RQLWRULQJ3ODWIRUP '03 ,QGLYLGXDO'UXJ6HL]XUHV ,'6 DQG$54VXSSOHPHQWHGE\QDWLRQDO
JRYHUQPHQWUHSRUWVDQGRWKHURIFLDOUHSRUWV

7KHQXPHURXVVWRSRYHUVLQWKH0LGGOH(DVWLQYROYHGWUDIFNLQJE\DLULQSDUWLFXODU7KHUHKDYHDOVREHHQPDQ\
DWWHPSWVWRVPXJJOHKHURLQYLD$IULFDVRPHDSSDUHQWO\GHVWLQHGWR(XURSHDQGVRPHLQWUDQVLWWR&DQDGD7KH
PRVWFRPPRQURXWHVIRUWKHVHWZRWUDMHFWRULHVDUHVKRZQLQ7DEOH

114

Table 33:0RVWIUHTXHQWDLUDQGPDLOKHURLQWUDIFNLQJURXWHVIURPWKH0LGGOH(DVWDQG*XOIFRXQWULHVDQG
IURP$IULFDWR(XURSH

From the Middle East and Gulf countries


Origin

Destination

,UDT/HEDQRQ4DWDU6\ULDQ$UDE5HSXEOLF

'HQPDUN*HUPDQ\,WDO\6ZLW]HUODQG8NUDLQH

From Africa
Origin
(WKLRSLD.HQ\D0DGDJDVFDU
7DQ]DQLD8JDQGD
0R]DPELTXH6RXWK$IULFD
%HQLQ*KDQD&WHG,YRLUH
Mali, Nigeria

Destination
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%HOJLXP1HWKHUODQGV

&DQDGD

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&DQDGD

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Netherlands

&DQDGD

Morocco

,WDO\1HWKHUODQGV

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LQ6ORYHQLDDQG8NUDLQHVKRZLQJWKHQHHGWRFORVHO\PRQLWRUGHYHORSPHQWVLQWKLVUHJDUG

Some have also stopped in West Africa see Chapter 10.


  

338
339

115

11 . North America
*HRJUDSKLFDOSUR[LPLW\DQGWKHVXSSRUWRIWUDIFNLQJFRQQHFWLRQVGHYHORSHGIRUWKHFRFDLQHWUDGHPDGH/DWLQ
$PHULFDWKHWUDGLWLRQDOVRXUFHRIKHURLQIRURSLDWHXVHUVLQ1RUWK$PHULFD*HRJUDSKLFDOO\LWLVKDUGWRQGDQ\
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WULXPSKIRUWUDIFNHUVLQZHDYLQJZHEVDURXQGWKHZRUOG1RUWK$PHULFDLVXQOLNHO\WREHFRPHDSULPDU\PDUNHW
IRU$IJKDQKHURLQLQWKHQHDUIXWXUHEXWFDQSURYLGHDOXFUDWLYHQLFKHIRUVRPHWUDIFNLQJJURXSV
2IDWRWDOHVWLPDWHGPLOOLRQKHURLQXVHUVLQWKH$PHULFDVPLOOLRQZHUHORFDWHGLQWKH86$DQG
LQ&DQDGD

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DVUHJDUGVWKHLPSRUWDQFHRI$IJKDQLVWDQDVDKHURLQVXSSOLHU$FFRUGLQJWRWKH5R\DO&DQDGLDQ0RXQWHG3ROLFH
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VHL]HGLQ&DQDGDRULJLQDWHGIURP$IJKDQLVWDQ2XWVLGHRIWKHWUDGLWLRQDOGUXJPDUNHWVRI$IJKDQLVWDQ, it is
UDUHWRQGLWGRPLQDWLQJDFRXQWU\VVXSSO\LQWKLVZD\2IWKHVHL]XUHVHIIHFWHGLQ&DQDGDWKHVRXWKHUQURXWH
LVUHSRUWHGO\DPDMRUFRQGXLWZLWKQHDUO\SHUFHQWKDYLQJWUDQVLWHG3DNLVWDQ,QGLDDQGWKH,VODPLF5HSXEOLF
RI,UDQ$VRI6RXWK$IULFDLVDOVROLVWHGDVDPDLQGHSDUWXUHFRXQWU\E\&DQDGLDQDXWKRULWLHVZLWKWKH
8QLWHG$UDE(PLUDWHVDQG*HUPDQ\OLVWHGDVWUDQVLWORFDWLRQV
Figure 53:+HURLQVHL]XUHVLQ&DQDGD NJ 

Amount seized (kgs)

250
200
150
100
50
0
2004

2005

2006

2007

2008
Year

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

6RXUFH812'&$QQXDO5HSRUW4XHVWLRQQDLUH $54 DQG'DWDEDVHRQ(VWLPDWHVDQG/RQJWHUP7UHQG$QDO\VLV '(/7$

,QDQG86DXWKRULWLHVVXJJHVWHGWKDWWKHDYDLODELOLW\RI6RXWK:HVW$VLDQKHURLQZDVJURZLQJEXW
HVWLPDWHVRILWVVKDUHRIWKHKHURLQPDUNHWVKRZLWUHPDLQLQJEHORZSHUFHQWRIWKHWRWDOPDUNHWLQ
7KH86$UHSRUWVWKDW:HVW$IULFDQJURXSVDUHWKHSULPDU\WUDIFNHUVLQKHURLQIURP6RXWK:HVW$VLDRSHUDWLQJ
LQPDQ\PDMRUFLWLHVDGHYHORSPHQWQRWHGLQVHYHUDOPDUNHWVVHUYHGE\WKHVRXWKHUQURXWH,WLVLPSRUWDQW
WRQRWHWKDWWKLVLVRFFXUULQJLQWKHFRQWH[WRILQFUHDVLQJJHQHUDOXVHRIKHURLQDVVRPH86SUHVFULSWLRQRSLRLG
XVHUVPD\EHWXUQLQJWRKHURLQGXHWRORZHUSULFHDQGHDVLHUDFFHVV
UNODC (2011), The global Afghan opium trade: a threat assessment, p.73. Vienna: United Nations publication.
 
342
   
343
 
344
 
345
US Drug Enforcement Administration, National Drug Threat Assessment Summary 2014.
346

347

348
US Drug Enforcement Administration, National Drug Threat Assessment Summary 2014.
340
341

116

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6WDWHVDVUHSRUWHGWR812'&DQGSUHVHQWHGLQJRYHUQPHQWUHSRUWV

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&DQDGDLQYROYLQJNJRIKHURLQ,QDGGLWLRQDQXPEHURIHIIRUWVWRVPXJJOHKHURLQDORQJWKHVRXWKHUQURXWH
WR1RUWK$PHULFDKDYHEHHQLQWHUGLFWHGLQRWKHUUHJLRQV)RUH[DPSOHNJRIKHURLQZDVVHL]HGLQ0DUFK
DW3RUW4DVLPLQ.DUDFKL3DNLVWDQZLWKDQLQGLFDWHGGHVWLQDWLRQRI7RURQWR&DQDGD This is echoed in
WKHPRVWUHFHQWRIFLDOUHSRUWVLVVXHGE\3DNLVWDQZKHUH&DQDGDIHDWXUHVDVDPDLQGHVWLQDWLRQIRUKHURLQ



 
  
National Drug Threat Assessment, 2014, p.8.
350
 
351

349

117

Table 34: 6HOHFWHGKHURLQVHL]XUHVLQ1RUWK$PHULFDRYHUNJDVVRFLDWHGZLWKWKHVRXWKHUQURXWH


Amount
NJ

Mode of
7UDIFNLQJ

Seized In

Departed From

Intended
Destination

Information Source





0DULWLPH

&DQDGD

3DNLVWDQ

&DQDGD

0$5,1)2





Air

&DQDGD

3DNLVWDQ

&DQDGD

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Services Agency





Air

&DQDGD

3DNLVWDQ

&DQDGD

01&3DNLVWDQ





Mail

USA

3DNLVWDQ

&DQDGD

:&2





Air

&DQDGD

3DNLVWDQ

8QNQRZQ

&DQDGD%RUGHU
Services Agency





Mail

&DQDGD

3DNLVWDQ

&DQDGD

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Services Agency





0DULWLPH

USA

8QLWHG$UDE(PLUDWHV

USA

:&2





Air

USA

3DNLVWDQ

USA

:&2





Air

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3DNLVWDQ

&DQDGD

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Services Agency





Air

USA

*KDQD

USA

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Air

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3DNLVWDQ

8QNQRZQ

&DQDGD%RUGHU
Services Agency





Air

&DQDGD

3DNLVWDQ

&DQDGD

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Services Agency

Date

6RXUFH812'&'UXJ0RQLWRULQJ3ODWIRUP '03 DQG,QGLYLGXDO'UXJ6HL]XUHV ,'6 

7UDIFNLQJURXWHVDQGPHWKRGV
,Q&DQDGDUHSRUWHGWKDWDSSUR[LPDWHO\SHUFHQWRIKHURLQVHL]XUHVKDGDUULYHGE\DLUDQGSHUFHQW
E\PDLO'HVSLWHWKLVSURPLQHQFHRIDLUDQGPDLOWUDIFNLQJWKH&DQDGLDQVHDSRUWVKDYHEHHQDVVHVVHGDV
YXOQHUDEOH WR RSLDWH WUDIFNLQJ IURP 3DNLVWDQ WKH ,VODPLF 5HSXEOLF RI ,UDQ DQG$IJKDQLVWDQ As previously
PHQWLRQHGDODUJHVHL]XUHRINJRIKHURLQZDVPDGHLQLQ3DNLVWDQGHVWLQHGIRU&DQDGDE\VHD7DEOH
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Table 35: 6HOHFWHGKHURLQVHL]XUHVDW&DQDGLDQPDULQHSRUWV
Quantity
NJ

Point of Origin/ Transit

Smuggling /
Concealment Methods

Source

-XO\



,QGLD

&RQWDLQHU
$PRQJEDJVRIULFH

5&03D

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8QLWHG$UDE(PLUDWHV

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5&03

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3DNLVWDQ

Date of Seizure

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0RQWUDO3ROLFH
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RIZULWLQJ



 

352
353

118

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4DWDU7DQ]DQLD0DOLWKH8QLWHG$UDE(PLUDWHVDQG(XURSH,Q2FWREHU&DQDGLDQODZHQIRUFHPHQWRIFLDOV
reportedlyVHL]HGNJRIKHURLQVPXJJOHGE\DLUIURP3DNLVWDQLQDER[)RUWUDIFNHUVWKLVKDQGVRIIPHWKRG
FDQDJJUHJDWHLQWRVLJQLFDQWYROXPHVZLWKORZSHUVRQDOULVNDQGDWWUDFWLYHSURWPDUJLQV7KHDIRUHPHQWLRQHG
VHL]XUHKDGDQHVWLPDWHGYDOXHRIDOPRVW86PLOOLRQ,WVKRXOGEHQRWHGWKDWDWOHDVWRQH&DQDGLDQVHL]XUH
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WKHVRXWKHUQURXWH
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RWKHUVRXUFHFRXQWULHVLQFOXGH.HQ\DDQGWKH8QLWHG$UDE(PLUDWHV)RU&DQDGD,QGLDKDVDOVREHHQDVRXUFH
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,QWHUHVWLQJO\&DQDGLDQDXWKRULWLHVUHSRUWHGWKDWEHWZHHQDQG2FWREHUERUGHUVHUYLFHVRIFHUVDW
DPDLOSURFHVVLQJFHQWUHLQ4XHEHFPDGHYHVLPLODUVHL]XUHVWRWDOOLQJVRPHJUDPVRIVXVSHFWHGKHURLQ
7KHYHSDFNDJHVRULJLQDWHGLQ7DQ]DQLD
2YHUDOOVHL]XUHGDWDUHFRUGHGLQWKH812'&'UXJ0RQLWRULQJ3ODWIRUP '03 DQG,QGLYLGXDO'UXJ6HL]XUHV ,'6 
VXJJHVWVWKDWWKHPDMRULW\RIWKHKHURLQTXDQWLW\LQWHUGLFWHGDORQJWKHVRXWKHUQURXWHGHVWLQHGWR1RUWK$PHULFD
ZDVWUDIFNHGE\PDLOYLDWUDQVLWFRXQWULHVVXFKDV)UDQFH*HUPDQ\,QGLD1LJHULD3DNLVWDQDQG6ZLW]HUODQG
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DUHWKHPRVWFRPPRQIRU&DQDGDZKHUHDV6RXWK:HVW$VLDDQG$IULFDDUHPXFKPRUHUHOHYDQWIRUWKH86$,W
UHPDLQVXQFOHDUZK\WKHUHZRXOGEHGLVWLQFWOLQNVIRUHDFKFRXQWU\LQ1RUWK$PHULFDWKLVPD\VXJJHVWSDUDOOHO
DQGSHUKDSVORFDOL]HGFRQQHFWLRQVIRFXVLQJRQ&DQDGDDQGWKH86$UDWKHUWKDQVWURQJFRRUGLQDWLRQRIVRXWKHUQ
URXWHWUDIFNLQJWR1RUWK$PHULFD
2XWVLGHRI1RUWK$PHULFDKHURLQWUDIFNHUVDUUHVWHGLQDWWHPSWVWRWDUJHW&DQDGDRUWKH86$ZHUHLGHQWLHG
DVSHUFHQW1LJHULDQQDWLRQDOVSHUFHQW3DNLVWDQLQDWLRQDOVSHUFHQW,QGLDQQDWLRQDOVDQGSHUFHQW
Dutch nationals7KHODUJHSURSRUWLRQRI1LJHULDQVLVOLNHO\H[SODLQHGE\WKHREVHUYDWLRQE\WKH86$WKDWLWV
6RXWK:HVW$VLDQKHURLQLVSULPDULO\LPSRUWHGDQGGLVWULEXWHGE\:HVW$IULFDQJURXSV




356
Canada Border Services Agency.
357

354
355

119

Table 36: +HURLQWUDIFNHGLQWRDQGVHL]HGLQ1RUWK$PHULFDYLDWKHVRXWKHUQURXWHE\FRXQWU\RIGHSDUWXUH



Region of departure/ transit

No. of cases

Distribution
(%) of cases

Quantity of heroin
seized

Distribution (%) of
quantities seized

Canada
3DNLVWDQ









0LGGOH(DVWDQG*XOI6WDWHV





Africa



















(XURSH









TOTAL

119

100%

1453.065

100%





0LGGOH(DVWDQG*XOI6WDWHV









Africa























(XURSH









TOTAL

236

100%

360

100%

South Asia
(DVWDQG6RXWK(DVW$VLD

USA
3DNLVWDQ

South Asia
(DVWDQG6RXWK(DVW$VLD

6RXUFH812'&'UXJV0RQLWRULQJ3ODWIRUP '03 DQG,QGLYLGXDO'UXJ6HL]XUHV ,'6 

6XPPDU\
1RUWK$PHULFDLVJHRJUDSKLFDOO\DPRQJVWWKHIDUWKHVWPDUNHWVIRU$IJKDQKHURLQ7KHJURZWKRIRSLDWHURXWHV
RXWRIWKHVRXWKHUQURXWHWRWKH86$DQG&DQDGDPD\WKHUHIRUHEHVHHQDVDQLOOXVWUDWLRQRIWKHEHQHWVRI
JOREDOL]DWLRQEHLQJXWLOL]HGE\GUXJWUDIFNHUV1RUWK$PHULFDLVXQOLNHO\WREHFRPHDSULPDU\XVHURI$IJKDQ
KHURLQ LQ WKH QHDU IXWXUH EXW FDQ SURYLGH D OXFUDWLYH QLFKH IRU VRPH WUDIFNLQJ JURXSV 7KLV LV HVSHFLDOO\
SRVVLEOHIRU&DQDGDZKHUHDWOHDVWSHUFHQWRIWKHKHURLQVHL]HGEHWZHHQDQGRULJLQDWHGIURP
$IJKDQLVWDQ

120

121

12. Responding to the challenges of the


southern route
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LWVDQDO\VLVKDVKLJKOLJKWHGDQXPEHURILVVXHVDQGVSHFLFQHHGVVRPHUHOHYDQWWRWKHVRXWKHUQURXWHDV
DZKROHZKLOHRWKHUVDUHPRUHQDUURZO\DGGUHVVHGDWVSHFLFWUDMHFWRULHVDQGLQSDUWLFXODU
7UDIFNLQJPRVWO\RYHUODQGDQGWRDOHVVHUH[WHQWE\VHDWRWKH,VODPLF5HSXEOLFRI,UDQ3DNLVWDQ
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Resolution 1244 (1999).

365

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128

129

130

131

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