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MEMBRANES

Phospholipids in plasma membrane


Amphipathic, with hydrophobic/philic regions
Results in formation of bilayer in water
Phospholipids move in bilayer
Lateral/flip-flop movement
Temp cool causes membranes to solidify
Material exchange
Selectively permeable
o Lipid bilayer
Hydrophobic mols (nonpolar) pass e.g. O2
Hydrophilic mols (ions/polar) dont e.g. H2O, sugars
o Transport proteins
Channel proteins have hydrophilic channel for mols e.g.
aquaporin, ion channels
Carrier Proteins bind to mols and change shape e.g. glucose
uptake in blood cells

TRANSPORT ACROSS MEMBRANES

Individual ions / small mols


o Passive (concentration grad therefore no metabolic E required)
Bilayer
Passive diffusion
o Down a conc grad
Osmosis
o Water diffuses from hypotonic to hypertonic sol
Transport proteins (facilitated diffusion)
Channel
o Hydrophilic passageways
Carrier
o Change shape
o Active (against conc grad therefore metabolic E (ATP) required; allows
cell to do work)
Carrier/transport proteins
Pumps (primary active transport)
o Carrier protein hydrolyses ATP to power mvment
e.g. sodium potassium pump
Na+ binding stims ATP phosphorylation
Coupled/Co-transport
o Indirectly powered by ATP hydrolysis
Electrochemical gradient created by
pump e.g. H+ grad from proton pump
Bulk substances
o Endocytosis (into cell)

Phagocytosis (solids)
Cell engulfs particle with pseudopodia into phagosome
Pinocytosis (liquids)
Cell engulfs droplets of non-specific extracellular fluid into
tiny vesicles
Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis
Vesicles with protein coating form when specific
substances (ligands) bind to receptors on cell surface
o Exocytosis (out of cell)
Material packed into vesicles and secreted/excreted into
extracellular fluid e.g. nerve cells, epithelial cells
Diffusion is the tendency of molecules to spread out evenly into the available
space
o May exhibit a net mvment
o Dynamic equilibrium occurs when exchange of mols is balanced
o Down a conc grad (no E needed)
o Passive
Osmosis is the diffusion of water across a semi-perm membrane from lowsolute conc sol to high-solute conc sol (hypotonic to hypertonic)
Tonicity is the ability of a sol to cause a cell to lose/gain water
o Isotonic
Same conc therefore no water flux
Animal/plant cells normal/flaccid
o Hypotonic
Lower conc therefore water flows into cell
Animal/plant cells lysed/turgid (normal)
o Hypertonic
Higher conc therefore water flows out of cell
Animal/plant cells shrivelled/plasmolysed
Osmoregulation is the control of water balance
Membrane potential is the voltage difference across membranes
(distribution of negative and positive ions)
Electrochemical grad drives diffusion of ions
o Chemical force (conc grad)
o Electrical force (effect of mem pot on ions mvment
Electrogenic pump is a transport protein that generates voltage across mem
o Sodium-potassium pump (animals)
o Proton pump (plants/fungi/bacteria)

METABOLISM
An emergent property of life that arises from interactions between cell mols

Catabolic (breakdown) pathways release E by breaking down complex mols


into simpler ones e.g. cellular respiration

Anabolic (biosynthetic) pathways consume E to build complex mols from


simpler ones e.g. photosynthesis
Energy is the ability to cause change
o Kinetic (motion)
o Thermal (speed of particles/high entropy)
o Potential (due to location/structure)
o Chemical (potential E available for release in reaction)
First law of thermodynamics states that universal energy remains constant
o Energy can be transferred and transformed, but it cannot be created or
destroyed.
o Principle of conservation of energy
Second law of thermodynamics states that energy becomes unusable
o Every energy transfer or transformation increases the entropy of the
universe
o The number of possible microsystems available in a system given the
systems constraints
o The entropy of the universe cannot decrease
o When an organism creates ordered structures, it decreases its own
entropy, exporting it to the external universe
o Spontaneous processes occur without E input; increase universal
entropy
Free energy is energy that can perform work
o Measure of systems instability
G= HT S
o
o Spontaneous processes have a negative change, as free energy
decreases as stability increases as the system approaches equilibrium
o Exergonic reaction has net release of free energy
o Endergonic reaction absorbs free energy from surroundings and is
non-spontaneous
Cells use energy coupling to do work
o ATP drives endergonic reactions by transferring phosphate group
(bond broken by hydrolysis) to another mol, which becomes
phosphorylated
Transport (against conc grad)
Chemical (endergonic rxns)
Mechanical (movement)
Enzymes lower the activation E required for a rxn to occur
o Orientates substrates correctly
o Strains substrate bonds
o Provides favourable microenvironment
o Directly participates in the rxn
o Enzyme production/activity regulated
Enzyme inhibitors e.g. toxins, poisons, pesticides, antibiotics
Competitive inhibitors bind to the active site and block the
substrate

Non-competitive inhibitors bind to another part of the


enzyme, causing shape change that makes the active
site less effective
In feedback inhibition the end product shuts down the process
Allosteric regulation occurs when mol binds to protein at one
site and affects protein function at another site
Activator stabilises active form
Inhibitor stabilises inactive form

PHOTOSYNTHESIS
Ability to photosynthesize evolved in prokaryotic cyanobacteria, which were then
incorporated into eukaryotes by endosymbiosis
Nutrition
Photoautotroph
Chemoautotroph
Photoheterotroph
Chemoheterotroph

Energy source
Light
Inorganic chemicals
Light
Organic compounds

Carbon source
CO2
CO2
Organic compounds
Organic compounds

Photosynthesis occurs in chloroplasts in the mesophyll cells


Light E is absorbed by chlorophyll in the membrane of the thylakoid
Stomata allow CO2 in and O2 out
Light reactions (thylakoids)
o Split H2O
o e- enter sugar mols
o Release O2
o Reduce NADP+ to NADPH
o Generate ATP from ATP by photophosphorylation
o Linear electron flow, produces ATP and NADPH using light energy
o Cyclic electron flow, produces only ATP (C4 plants)
Calvin cycle (stroma)
o Forms sugar from CO2 using ATP and NADPH
Visible light rays used, with specific wavelengths that determine type of
electromagnetic energy
o Leaves appear green because chlorophyll reflects green light, and
absorbs violet-blue/red light
o Absorbed photon raises electron to excited state; e- is captured by
electron transport chain or it falls back down, releasing energy
Linear e- flow:
o Photon hits pigment in PSII and E and is passed along pigment mols
until special chlorophyll P680
o Electron transferred from P680 to primary e- acceptor
o H2O split by enzymes and electrons replace those lost
o O2 from water diffuses out and H+ ions lower pH in thylakoid space

o Electrons in e- transport chain release energy on the way to PSI,


through cytochrome complex, which pumps H+ ions into thylakoid
o Diffusion of H+ across membrane into stroma allows ATP synthesis
o Transferred light E in PSI excites P700, losing e- to acceptor
o Lost e- is replaced by PSII
o Electron falls from PSI to ferredoxin protein (Fd)
o NADP+ reductase uses e- to reduce NADP+ to NADPH
o NADPH chemical E available for Calvin cycle
Calvin Cycle
o Anabolic process using ATP and NADPH
o Carbon enters as CO2; leaves as sugar, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate
o Carbon fixation (C3 photosynthesis)
3x CO2 attached to RuBP
Catalysed by rubisco
6-carbon product = two 3-carbon products
o Reduction
3-carbon mol phosphorylated (ATP ADP)
Mol reduced (NADPH NADP+)
Forms G3P sugar
o Regeneration of RuBP
5x G3P 3x RUBP (15 C atoms)
o 3x C atoms in, 3x C atoms out
o Costs 9x ATP and 6x NADPH
o 6x G3P produced, 5x reused 1x G3P
Carbon fixation
o On dry days plants close stomata to conserve H2O, limiting photosyn.
o CO2 conc decreases, O2 conc increases, causing photorespiration
Rubisco adds O2 instead of CO2, synthesising
phosphoglycolate and releasing CO2
No ATP or sugar produced
Plant can lose up to 50% of its carbon
C4 plants min. photorespiration by increasing CO2 at site of CC
PEP carboxylase fixes CO2 into 4-carbon compounds in
mesophyll cells high affinity for CO2 which diffuse to
bundle-sheath cells that release CO2
CAM plants open stomata at night, incorporating CO2 into
organic acids, which is used during the day with stomata closed

CELL COMMUNICATION

Mating types a and exchange mating factors, which bind to receptors on the
opposite cell
Factor binding induces fusion of cells
Nucleus of new fused cell has a and genes
The signal transduction pathway is a series of steps by which a surface
signal is converted into a response

o As proteins activated, signal transduced into different form, changing


protein shape e.g. phosphorylation by protein kinase
Evolved in prokaryotes and were modified later in eukaryotes
o Bacteria secrete small mols that allow them to detect population
density, thereby coordinating activity
o Individuals aggregate into a fruiting body to survive
Communicating cells are close/far apart in local/long-distance signalling
o Local regulators travel short distances
Paracrine signalling mols discharged into ECF to target cells
Synaptic signalling neuron releases neurotransmitter into
synapse, stimulating target cell
o Hormones travel long distances
Target cells have hormone receptors
Cell junctions is communication by direct contact
o Animal cells have gap junctions
o Plant cells have plasmodesmata
Cell-cell recognition is interaction between protruding mols, by direct contact
Cell signalling undergoes three processes
o Reception
Signalling mol (ligand) binds to signal receptor (mem protein)
G protein-coupled receptors
o Helped by guanine nucleotide
Receptor tyrosine kinases
o Attach phosphates to tyrosines
o Triggers multiple STPs
Ligand-gated ion channel receptors
o Ligand opens channel that allows specific ions
o Transduction
Receptor undergoes shape change
Relay through STP
o Response
Intracellular proteins found in cytosol/nucleus of target cells
o Hydrophobic messengers cross mem and activate receptor proteins
o Hormone-receptor complex acts as transcription factor for genes
DNA + mRNA new protein
STPs regulate synthesis of enzymes/proteins, by turning genes on/off in
nucleus, leading to changes to RNA transcription
Other STPs regulate enzyme activity, resulting in cytosol activity changes
Multiple pathways advantageous
o Amplify a signal (few mols large cellular response)
o Provide more opportunities for coordination and regulation
Enzyme cascades amplify cell response, increasing no. activated products
Pathway branching and cross-talk assist coordination
When signal mols leave receptor, it reverts to its inactive state

CELLULAR RESPIRATION

1x C6H12O12 + 6x O2 6x CO2 + 6x H2O + 32x ATP + heat (aerobic)


Anaerobic respiration produces ethanol or lactate
Involves exergonic and endergonic rxns
Electron transport chain carries eo Released E pumps H+ from matrix into intermembrane space
o H+ conc grad created
o O2 is the final e- acceptor
Catabolic
Functions:
o Drives chemical rxns
o Transport across membranes
o Mechanical work
o Thermal energy
Electrons from organic compounds transferred to NAD+, a coenzyme, which
acts as an e- shuttle
o Redox rxn transfers e- and H+
NADH (reduced NAD+) is stored energy used to synthesise ATP
Three main stages:
o Glycolysis
Oxidation of glucose 2x pyruvate (G3P)
Catalysed by adolase
No O2 required
Cytosol
Substrate-level phosphorylation 2x ATP + 2x NADH + 2x H+
NADH carries eo Citric acid cycle
Pyruvate dehydrogenase catalyst
CO2 released
NAD+ reduced to NADH
CoA attached to 2C mol forming acetyl coenzyme
Oxidation of organic mols 4x NADH + 1x FADH2 + 1x ATP
Matrix
NADH and FADH2 carry eo Oxidative phosphorylation
NADH + FADH2 donate e- to ETC synthesis of 28x ATP
Chemiosmosis
Each NADH generates enough proton motive force for 2.5x ATP
1x FADH2 1.5x ATP
32 ATP produced by cell resp.
Fermentation is anaerobic respiration
o Absence of O2
o No ATP produced
o Coupled with glycolysis, which only requires glucose
o Electrons transferred from NADH to pyruvate, regenerating NAD+
o Alcohol fermentation

Pyruvate CO2 acetaldehyde


NADH oxidised + acetaldehyde reduced ethanol + NAD+
o Lactic acid fermentation
NADH+ e- + pyruvate lactic acid + NAD+
Aerobic Respiration
Fermentation
O2 final e- acceptor
Pyruvate/ acetaldehyde final e- acceptor
32x ATP
2x ATP
O2 required
No O2 required
Both use glycolysis to oxidise glucose to pyruvate
IMMUNE SYSTEM

Innate immunity (rapid and broad range)


o External
Skin
Mucous membranes
Secretions e.g. tears, saliva, sweat
o Internal
Phagocytic cells
Macrophages (engulf microbe with pseudopodia into
vacuole where it is digested by enzymes in lysosome)
Dendritic cells
Antimicrobial proteins
Attack/inhibit reprod of microbes
Inflammation
Histamine released from mast cells in conn tissue
Blood vessels widen and become more permeable
Heat, swelling, clotting
Chemokines attract phagocytes
Natural killer cells
Non-phagocytic
Patrol body and attack infected cells
Release chemicals that trigger apoptosis (prog death)
Acquired immunity (slow and specific)
o Humoral response
Antibodies
o Cell-mediated response
Cytotoxic lymphocytes
Produce antibodies (must have immunological memory)
Destroy infected cells, cancer cells, foreign tissue
B-cell receptors bind intact antigens
T-cell receptors bind antigen fragments that are bound to
cell-surface proteins MHC mols
o and chains

Major histocompatibility complex


o MHC I
Binds infected cells containing Ag fragments to cytotoxic T-cells
Cytotoxic T-cell CD8 surface protein binds to MHC I complex on
infected cell, activating secretion of proteins that destroy it
o MHC II
Found on dendritic cells, macrophages, B-cells
Bind infected cells to helper T-cells
Assist B-cells and cytotoxic T-cells
Helper T-cell CD4 binds MHC II mol to infected cell, causing
release of cytokines, which stimulate other lymphocytes
HIV latches onto CD4 and chemokine receptors
Activated helper T-cells bind to B-cells, aided by cytokines, which form clones
o Memory B-cell clones (long-lived for next invasion)
o Plasma cell clones (short-lived for immediate response)
Secrete antibodies(soluble form of B-cell antigen receptors)
Immunoglobins
Binding of antibodies to antigens inactivates antigens
o Viral neutralization blocks binding to host
o Agglutination of antigen-bearing particles
o Precipitation of soluble antigens