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Transient studies

Presentation
2011-12-06

1 | Transient studies | Peter Olsson | 2011.12.06

Peter Olsson
Staffanstorps Energi AB
Electrician
Lund Technical University
Electrical engineering
Vattenfall Eldistribution AB
Protection, control room, calculations and analysis and transformers
Vattenfall Research and Development AB
Simulation and analysis of power systems
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Agenda
Why transient studies
Methods
Some examples

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Need for transient studies


Insulation coordination
- Resonance
- Switching surges
- Fault initiating or clearing
- Induction between systems
- Lightning induced voltages
Power quality
- Transformer or reactor energising
- Cable or over head line energising
- Harmonics
New configurations of grid layout
- Extreme values of RLC
- Wind power towers and lightning
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Method
Mainly PSCAD/EMTDC but also Matlab - SimPowerSystems
Using models
- In the PSCAD/EMTDC library
- From PSCAD/EMTDC support
- Developed by Vattenfall
- Developed by suppliers
- Developed by Universities
Using theory described in
- Literature
- Papers
- PhD and Master thesis
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Simulating frequencies in the range


from 50 Hz up to MHz - high frequency
models are needed.
Simulation time steps of 10 ns can
sometimes be necessary.
PSCAD/EMTDC is a simulation tool
for electromagnetic transients.
PSCAD/EMTDC is a flexible tool that
gives the user large freedom to
implement that of interest.
EMTP Theory book (from 1970-th)
Papers

Method

Cable model in PSCAD/EMTDC


Mathematical model of
the cable by using the
physical parameters

Cable # 4

0 [m]

Cable # 5

0.6 [m]

0.82 [m]
0.82 [m]

Cable # 2

The user defines the


physical layout of the
conductors.

0.33 [m]

0.948 [m]

Conductor
Insulator 1

Conductor
Insulator 1

Only one phase cables


can be modelled.

0.003 [m]
0.3 [m]
Cable # 1

Frequency dependant
cable impedance.
Cable models are
validated in others work

Conductor
Insulator 1
Sheath
Insulator 2
0.3 [m]
0.009 [m]
0.017 [m]
0.01735 [m]
0.023 [m]

1 [m]

Conductor
Insulator 1
Sheath
Insulator 2

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Cable # 3

0.36 [m]

1 [m]

Conductor
Insulator 1
Sheath
Insulator 2
0.009 [m]
0.017 [m]
0.01735 [m]
0.023 [m]

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0.003 [m]
0.3 [m]

0.009 [m]
0.017 [m]
0.01735 [m]
0.023 [m]

Method

Transformer model in PSCAD/EMTDC


Mathematical model of
the transformer using
electrical design
parameters

At higher frequencies the


transformer capacitances
has to be added
externally
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0.001 [uF]

Remaining flux is not


internally modelled but
can be added by an
external DC current
source

0.001 [uF]

Saturation is available in
the model

0.001 [uF]

umec
#2

#1

Examples of transient studies made by Vattenfall


Resonant over voltages during faults
Lightning currents in cable and earthing system

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Resonance model and simulation

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Resonance
Simulation study made in
PSCAD/EMTDC with a 130 kV
feeding grid connected to a 30
kV wind power cable grid

Cable

OH-lines

Feeders
130/30 kV

Tower

Cables

Changing the capacitance by


adding and removing cables.
Changing the inductance by
adding and removing Over
Head line
Simulations of wind power grid indicating that
high over voltage occurs in the connected
underlying 30 kV grid during fault initiation
and fault clearing
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Electrical equivalent
130 kV short circuit
impedance
LSC

130 kV

~
130 kV cables

130/30 kV
transformer
RSC

L30

R130

R30

C130

C30

130 kV fault

30 kV cables

Resonance
Simulation results of fault in 130 kV grid
130 kV phase to earth voltages
200

Ea130

Eb130

Ec130

30 kV phase to earth voltages

E0130

150

Ea

Eb

Ec

150

100

100
50

50
V (kV)

V (kV)

0
-50
-100

-50

-150

-100
-200

-150

-250
0.0300

0.0310

0.0320

130 kV voltage
during the fault
Fault is cleared

0.0330

0.0340

0.0350

0.0360

0.0370

0.0380

0.0390

0.0400

...
...
...

Time ...

0.0300

0.0310

0.0320

0.0330

130 kV voltage after


fault clearance.
Oscillating frequency
is ~800 Hz
Cable

Feeders
130/30 kV

11 | Transient studies | Peter Olsson | 2011.12.06 Cables


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0.0350

0.0360

0.0370

0.0380

0.0390

0.0400

...
...
...

Max voltage is 130 kV, that is


about 4.5 p.u.

OH-lines

0.0340

Tower

Frequency of the
oscillations is ~800 Hz.
The rise time of the voltage
from zero to the maximum
value is about 300 s.

Resonance
Grid impedance at different frequencies
10000000

Impedance from 130 kV


towards 30 kV grid.
The series LC-circuit have
a minimum at the resonant
frequency

130 kV: |Z+|(Ohm)


30 kV: |Z+|(Ohm)

Impedance(|Ohm|)

1000000
100000
10000
1000

The impedance at the


resonant frequency is:
Z=R+j(XL-XC)~R

100
10
1
10

100

1000

10000

Only the resistance limits the


current, and voltage.

f(Hz)

130 kV impedance without


the 30 kV grid connected.
The parallel LC-circuit have
a maximum at a resonant
frequency

LSC

130 kV

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RSC

The resistance can be low in


these cable networks

L30

R130

R30

C130

C30

The 130/30 kV transformer


and 30 kV grid acts like a
consuming filter for this
frequency.

Resonance
Frequency components in the 130 kV voltage

Amplitude (kV)

Hn=16
fn=800 Hz

200

Ea130

Eb130

Ec130

E0130

150
100
50

V (kV)

0
-50
-100
-150
-200
-250
0.0300

0.0310

0.0320

0.0330

0.0340

0.0350

0.0360

0.0370

0.0380

0.0390

0.0400

...
...
...

Frequency (Hn)
Frequency component of
the oscillating 130 kV
voltage after the fault is
cleared when the 30 kV
grid is disconnected.

130 kV

30 kV not connected

LSC

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RSC

30 kV connected

L30

R130

R30

C130

C30

Frequency component of
the oscillating 130 kV
voltage after the fault is
cleared when the 30 kV
grid is connected.

Resonance
Insulation coordination
Mainly three tests are performed to verify
the degree of insulation of equipment

Test voltage level for 36 kV is 70 kV (IEC)

Frequency of the calculated over


voltages in the example is ~800 Hz. The
rise time of the voltage from zero to the
maximum value is about 300 s.
Voltage withstand test at this frequency
may therefore be verified by SI test.

- Lightning Impulse tests, LI, to verify the


withstand level against lightning induced
voltages.

SI(36 kV) ~ 0.83*LI(36 kV) = 120/141 kV


This shall be compared with the
calculated voltage of 130 kV

- Nominal frequency tests, AC, to verify this


frequency voltage withstand level.

Rise time of the test voltage is 1.2 s


Test voltage level for 36 kV is 145 or 170 kV (IEC)

- Switching Impulse tests, SI, to verify the


withstand level against switching induced
voltages.
Rise time of the test voltage is 250 s
Not defined for 36 kV but the level is assumed to
be in the order of 80-85 % of the LI-level.

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This can lead to that higher insulation


level for the equipment is needed.

Lightning model and simulation

15 | Transient studies | Peter Olsson | 2011.12.06


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Lightning
Wind power tower model developed by using a the frequency dependant
phase cable model in PSCAD/EMTDC
Conductor
Insulation

Injected
current

Inner conductor, first insulation and second


conductor represent a cable within the tower

Screen
Tower

Second insulation represent the air between


the cable and steel tower
Third conductor represent the steel tower

Cable conductor
Screen

16 | Transient studies | Peter Olsson | 2011.12.06


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Earth wire modelled as a


distributed parameter line

Lightning
Calculated voltage
difference of 400 kV

Voltage in the figure is calculated 90 m from A, in


C. Blue curve is the voltage in the earth wire and
green curve is the induced voltage in the cable
screen.
Practical implication: Have large physical distance
between parallel different earth systems?

400

EE7

300

200

V(kV)

Conductor

EE6

100

Insulation
0

Screen
Tower

-100

-200
0.100m

300 m

30 m

0.101m

30 m

0.102m

0.103m

0.104m

30 m

0.105m

0.106m

100 m

0.108m

0.109m

0.110m

100 m
0m

C
A

0.107m

Parallel earth wire


and cable not
connected at the
same potential
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...
...
...

Lightning
EE4

1 .2 k

100 m

100 m

100 m

100 m

100 m

100 m
0m

EE3

1 .0 k

EEC 2

All voltages are the


same at 0 m

0 .8 k

V (kV)

0 .6 k

0 .4 k

0 .2 k

0 .0

- 0 .2 k
0 .0 9 m

The red curve is the voltage in the earth wire and the
green/blue curve is the voltage in the cable
screen/phase.

700

0 .1 0 m

0 .1 1 m

0 .1 2 m

EE2 4

0 .1 3 m

0 .1 5 m

0 .1 6 m

E E1 4

0 .1 7 m

0 .1 8 m

0 .1 9 m

0 .2 0 m

...
...
...

0 .2 0 m

...
...
...

E E1 3

600

500

Different damping
gives different
amplitude after some
distance

V (kV)

400

The figures shows the calculated voltage at [0 100 1000]


meters

0 .1 4 m

300

200

100

-100

The injected current in the screen and the earth wire is 50


kA with 1 s rise time

0 .0 9 m

150

0 .1 0 m

0 .1 1 m

0 .1 2 m

EE3 0

0 .1 3 m

0 .1 4 m

0 .1 5 m

0 .1 6 m

EE3 1

0 .1 7 m

0 .1 8 m

0 .1 9 m

EE3 2

100

50
V(kV)

The soil resistivity is 1000 Ohm*m. At other soil resistivity


the damping is different.

It seems like the positive influence of an earth wire is


practically gone at a certain distance, determined by the
soil resistivity!
18 | Transient studies | Peter Olsson | 2011.12.06
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-5 0

-1 00
0 .0 9 m

0 .1 0 m

0 .1 1 m

10 s

0 .1 2 m

0 .1 3 m

0 .1 4 m

0 .1 5 m

0 .1 6 m

0 .1 7 m

0 .1 8 m

0 .1 9 m

0 .2 0 m

...
...
...

Lightning
The figure is showing the
voltage at the beginning of the
wire as a function of total wire
length, soil resistivity and rise
time of the injected lightning
current, of 100 kA

As expected, different
soil resistivity gives
different efficient length
of the wire
100 Ohm*m, 1/50
1000 Ohm*m, 1/50
10000 Ohm*m, 1/50
10000 Ohm*m, 2 // wires, 1/50
100 Ohm*m 8/20
1000 Ohm*m 8/20
100000 Ohm*m 8/20

5
Conductor

Tower

Voltage (MV)

Insulation
Screen

Two earth wires are


more efficient than
increase length

0
1

10

100

1000

Length (m )

Different rise time also


gives different efficient
length of the wire
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10000

Thank you for your attention


Questions?

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