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Timothy L Puccetti
Sleep Project Outline

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Why do we sleep? Why do we dream? (3rd person)


Historical theories on causes of sleep -- theories categorized into four main groups:
Pollak (2010).
Vascular (mechanical, anemic, congestive) Based upon Alcmaeon from 5th century
Greece. Blood filling the brain led to sleep while blood moving away from brain led to
awake. Hippocrates believed the opposite. Blood going from brain led to sleep.
Congestion theory was promoted in 19th century
Anemia theory proposed in 1854 by William A Hammond an American physician.
Chemical (humoral) theories began with Aristotle. He believed that fumes were taken in
with food which led to drowsiness.
In the 19th century the oxygen hypothesis was developed in which the accumulation of
lactic acid led to a deficiency of oxygen in the brain
Neural (histological) Understanding of the central nervous system during the end of the the
19th century led to new theories and abandonment of vascular and congestive theories.
Neorospongium hypothesis was developed by Rabl Ruckhardt.
Behavioral (psychological, biological) which explains the reason for sleep rather than the
physiological cause of sleep. They proposed that sleep was due to a loss of peripheral
sensory stimulation.
20th century Theories: The advances in neurochemistry, electrophysiology, neurophysiology,
chronobiology, pathology of sleep, sleep disorders medicine, and the development of sleep
societies are too
Two categories of modern theories of why we sleep: Restoration and Adaptive.
Moorcroft (2013). Understanding Sleep and Dreaming, P236.
Restoration theory relies on the idea of bodily inactivity during sleep. So, the body is
restored and energy is conserved during sleep. Sleep may have evolved out of the periods
of rest and activity that is present in most animals and humans. Growth hormone levels
are highest in sleep. P237 Studies have shown that sleep is necessary for bodily functions
to remain normal and healthy. P237
Adaptive theories suggest that it is safer to be dormant at night when mammals cant see
as well and might be injured.
Sleep is for the cognitive and biological benefit of the brain and mind. There are
cognitive and biological benefits of sleep to the brain. Moorcroft p240.
Why do we dream?
Historical answers to why we dream: Moorcroft (2013) p171
Dreamer travels to another world. Spirit leaves the body

1. Timothy L Puccetti
Sleep Project Outline

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Dreamer is visited by other spirits or beings who are harbingers of the future and who
deliver omens
Meaningless artifacts of the brain activity
Modern theories of why we dream. Prevailing western view of dreams is that dreams are
creation of the brain using everyday life experiences -- there are cultural, personal waking
events, emotional and current events that influence dreams. Moorcroft (2013)
There are three functions that dreams serve according to Moorcroft (2013).
Dreams benefit the emotions of the dreamer
Dreams generate creative solutions to problems
Dreams play a role in consolidating memories
Additionally, Freud proposed specifically that dreams release psychic tension and keep
sleep from being interrupted. Freud (1923). These seem to be the most obvious and
compelling functions of dreaming.
1. According to Domhoff (2013) some of the most typical dreams are dreams of
flying, dreams of meeting a recently deceased loved one, and dreams of
inappropriate dress. Dreams of inappropriate dress are usually accompanied
by feelings of embarrassment. These types of dreams may signify waking life
concerns about social norms, conformity and peer acceptance.

1. Timothy L Puccetti
Sleep Project Outline

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What is the dream analysis theory?


Sigmund Freud believed that dreams contained disguised content. He believed that the same
methods used in psychoanalysis could also be applied to the study of dreams. Freud believed that
dreams contain both manifest content (symbolized content the dreamer recalled) and latent
content (actual wishes the dream symbolized). He used the term dream-work to describe the
process of the mind which converted forbidden wishes into non-threatening dream images which
usually appear nonsensical and absurd. Freud (1922) (1923). The unconscious repressed wish
forms the nucleus of the dream. The process of dream-work consists of the mechanisms of
transformation, condensation and displacement. The contents of the days activities are
transferred into the unconscious. The material is condensed into a compact form incorporating
multiple ideas into a smaller symbol. And the psychic energy is displaced into a harmless,
inoffensive symbolic form by the unconscious mind. The task of dream formation is to overcome
the inhibition of a part of our mind called the censor. Freud (1921)(1923).
What are the stages of sleep? What happens in each stage?
Moorcroft (2013) Scientists agree that during different stages of sleep a persons
brain operates at different frequencies. So, the stages of sleep are primarily
determined by the use of a machine called an electroencephalogram or EEG. This
machine allows researchers to measure the frequency of the persons brain waves at
that moment in time. An electrooculogram or EOG is used to additionally measure
REM rapid eye movements. REM is another indicator of a particular type of sleep
stage.
While a person is awake their brain is operating at beta wave frequencies. This is
characterized by small, irregular, rapidly oscillating waves on an EEG. As a person
gets tired and begins sleep the brain wave pattern gets slower, stronger and more
regular in rhythm. This stage is the drowsy beginning stage just prior to sleep. The
next stage begins as the brain waves trace out a more jagged and slower pattern on
the EEG. These are an indication of theta waves being present. During this time the
eye movements are slowly rolling. This stage of sleep is called NREM for non-rapid
eye movement sleep stage one. It is a light sleep. Next, changes begin as the eyes
become still and there is a transition to even slower brain waves that are still jagged.
This stage is called N2. During this time periodic large surges in brain wave activity
occur for a few seconds at a time that resume to the previous level. This stage lasts
about ten minutes.
Next, a person enters the N3 stage with slower delta wave brain waves becoming
present. Delta waves are recognized as recording slow sonorous movement on the
EEG.

1. Timothy L Puccetti
Sleep Project Outline

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After about an hour and a half the EOG electrodes record rapid eye movements
staring to take place. This sleep is the beginning of REMS sleep rapid eye
movement sleep. The REMS stages begin as short bursts lasting only a few minutes
at a time. But, they increase in length as sleep progresses. This process is reversed as
a person begins to awaken going back through N2 and N1 stages until they are
fully awake. Moorcroft (2013)
What are my sleep habits? How do I wake up in the morning? First Person Point of View.
My sleep habits are fairly consistent. I deliberately try to get to sleep around 11pm each
evening and awaken at 7am on weekdays. On weekends the routine is almost the same
except that I awaken at 7:30am. I do occasionally awaken in the middle of the night to go
to the bathroom. When that happens it takes me about 30 minutes to stop thinking and to
go back to sleep. I often utilize slow counting techniques to get my mind to stop
excessive thinking and roaming that would otherwise keep me awake too long.
Is there a correlation between the amount of sleep I get and my daily energy level, mood,
ability to concentrate and focus? Think quickly?
There is definitely a strong correlation between the amount of sleep I get and
my ability to concentrate. I definitely feel more mentally focused when I get
seven to eight hours sleep a night. When I get less than six hours I will have
trouble staying focused. There will exist a nagging feeling in the background
that recalls I want to sleep more.

I. How does sleep affect my memory?


1 Sleep affects my memory in that I cannot concentrate as well and so have
trouble recalling things as a result.

References (hanging indent)


Domhoff, G.W. (1996). Finding Meaning In Dreams: A Quantitative Approach. New
York: Springer Media.
Domhoff, G.W. (2003). The Scientific Study of Dreams: Neural Networks,
Cognitive Development and Content Analysis. Washington DC: American
Psychological Association.

1. Timothy L Puccetti
Sleep Project Outline

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Freud, Dr. S. (1921). Dream Psychology: Psychoanalysis For Beginners. New York:
James Mc Cann Company.
Freud, Dr. S. (1923). The Interpretation of Dreams. New York: McCann Company.
Freud, Dr. S. (1922) Wit And Its Relationship To the Unconscious. New York: James
McCann Company.
Gackenbach, Dr J., Bosveld, J. (1989). Control Your Dreams: How Lucid Dreaming
Can Help Uncover Your Hidden Desires, Confront Your Hidden Fears and
Explore Frontiers of Human Consciousness. New York: Harper and Row.
Golbin, A., Kravitz, H.M., Keith, L.G. (2004). Sleep Psychiatry. London: Taylor &
Francis Group.
Griffin, Joe, & Tyrrell, Ivan (2006). Why We Dream: The Definitive Answer. East
Sussex, United Kingdom: HG Publishing.
Moorcroft, William H. (2013). Understanding Sleep and Dreaming. New York:
Springer Science Media.
Pollak, C.P., Thorpy, M.J., Yager, J. (2010). The Encyclopedia of Sleep and Sleep
Disorders. New York: Infobase Publishing.
Rosner, R.I., Lyddon, W.J., Freeman, A. (2004). Cognitive Therapy and Dreams.
New York: Springer Publishing.
Formatting
Use APA writing format with Times New Roman 12pt font. Title page on a separate
page with ONLY the following contents (centered L-R on page near upper third of
page, double spaced, upper and lowercase letters) on page:
2. Name of Paper
3. Timothy L Puccetti
4. Harrington College of Design
5. Reference list is on a separate page. References are ideas referred to in my paper and
attributed to authors last name (year) ie According to Miller (2013), dreams are
important to our waking life. Then list Millers book/ paper in reference list.
6. References:

1. Timothy L Puccetti
Sleep Project Outline

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7. Reference Format:
8. All lines after the first line of each entry in your reference list should be indented one-half
inch from the left margin. This is called hanging indentation.
9. Authors' names are inverted (last name first); give the last name and initials for all
authors of a particular work for up to and including seven authors. If the work has more
than seven authors, list the first six authors and then use ellipses after the sixth author's
name. After the ellipses, list the last author's name of the work.
10. Reference list entries should be alphabetized by the last name of the first author of each
work.
11. If you are referring to an idea from another work but NOT directly quoting the material,
or making reference to an entire book, article or other work, you only have to make
reference to the author and year of publication and not the page number in your in-text
reference. All sources that are cited in the text must appear in the reference list at the end
of the paper.
12. Examples:
13. Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Subtitle. Location: Publisher.
14. Moorcroft, William H. (2013). Understanding Sleep and Dreaming. New York: Springer
Science Media.
15. Short quotations
16. If you are directly quoting from a work, you will need to include the author, year of
publication, and the page number for the reference (preceded by "p."). Introduce the
quotation with a signal phrase that includes the author's last name followed by the date of
publication in parentheses.
17. According to Jones (1998), "Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially
when it was their first time" (p. 199).
18. Jones (1998) found "students often had difficulty using APA style" (p. 199); what
implications does this have for teachers?
19. If the author is not named in a signal phrase, place the author's last name, the year of
publication, and the page number in parentheses after the quotation.

1. Timothy L Puccetti
Sleep Project Outline

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20. She stated, "Students often had difficulty using APA style" (Jones, 1998, p. 199), but she
did not offer an explanation as to why.
21. Long quotations
22. Place direct quotations that are 40 words, or longer, in a free-standing block of
typewritten lines, and omit quotation marks. Start the quotation on a new line, indented
1/2 inch from the left margin, i.e., in the same place you would begin a new paragraph.
Type the entire quotation on the new margin, and indent the first line of any subsequent
paragraph within the quotation 1/2 inch from the new margin. Maintain double-spacing
throughout. The parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark.
23. Jones's (1998) study found the following:
24. Students often had difficulty using APA style,
25. especially when it was their first time citing sources. This difficulty could be attributed
to the fact that many students failed to purchase a style manual or to ask their teacher for
help. (p. 199)
26. Summary or paraphrase
27. If you are paraphrasing an idea from another work, you only have to make reference to
the author and year of publication in your in-text reference, but APA guidelines
encourage you to also provide the page number (although it is not required.)
28. According to Jones (1998), APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners.
APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners (Jones, 1998, p. 199).
29. References (samples only):
30.
Wegener, D. T., & Petty, R. E. (1994). Mood management across affective states: The
hedonic contingency hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 1034-1048.
(for journals)
31.
Wegener, D. T., & Petty, R. E. (1994). Mood management across affective states: The
hedonic contingency hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 1034-1048.
32. Calfee, R. C., & Valencia, R. R. (1991). APA Guide to Preparing Manuscripts for Journal
Publication. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. (for book)
33. Presentation in PowerPoint (preferred) discussing stages of sleep and my findings
with my sleep log and dream interpretation to the class. Sleep log can be in PowerPoint.

1. Timothy L Puccetti
Sleep Project Outline

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