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: Habib bin Abdul Hafiz


: 5 Bumi

Teachers Name

: Pn. Faridah Esa

Soap and
1.Cleansing agents are chemical substance used to remove grease and dirt.
2.There are two type of cleansing agents :
3.Soaps are sodium or potassium salt of fatty acids that contains 12 to 18
carbon atoms per molecule.
4.Soaps are cleansing agents made from animal fats or vegetable oil by saponification.
Soap is a salt of a compound known as a fatty acid. A soap molecule
consists of a long hydrocarbon chain (composed of carbons and hydrogens) with a
carboxylic acid group on one end which is ionic bonded to a metal ion, usually a
sodium or potassium. The hydrocarbon end is nonpolar and is soluble in nonpolar
substances (such as fats and oils), and the ionic end (the salt of a carboxylic acid) is
soluble in water. The structure of a soap molecule is represented below:
CH3-CH2-CH2- CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2- CH2-CH2- CH2-CH2- CH2-CH2- CH2-CH2- C-ONa+

Non-polar hydrocarbon chain ionic end(Soluble in nonpolar substances) (Soluble

in water)Detergents are structurally similar to soaps, but differ in the watersoluble portion. Three examples of detergents are shown below.

The History of Soap Manufacturing
1. Soap have been used for more than 3000 years. It was recorded that the
Babylonians were making soaps around 2800 B.C.
2. 2. The Purifying Oils were recorded on Hebrew tablets in 4000 B.C.
3. 3. In ancients time, soap made from ashes of plants which contain sodium carbonate
and potassium carbonate. The ashes were boiled with lime (calcium oxide) to
produce caustic potash (potassium hydroxide). Caustic potash is then boiled with the
animal fats to produce soap.

4. Ash +



Caustic Potash

Caustic Potash + Animal Fats



4. In 1861, the Belgian Chemist Ernest Solvay (1838-1922) discovered the

process to make soda (sodium carbonate) from common salt (sodium
chloride) and calcium carbonate.
5. This process is known as the Solvay Process which produces sodium
carbonate cheaply for industrial use. Sodium carbonate (often called soda or
soda ash) is used for making glass, soaps and detergents.

6. Michel Chevreul (1786-1889), a French chemist, was noted for his research in
the composition of animal fats is composed of fatty acids and glycerol.
This discovery contributed to the rapid.

Preparation of soap by saponification

1. Soap is a cleansing agents produced by the reaction between sodium
hydroxide and potassium hydroxide with animal fats or vegetable oils. This
reaction is known as saponification.
2. Fats and vegetable oils are large, naturally occurring ester molecules. When
fats or oils are boiled with concentrated alkalis, such as sodium
hydroxide, saponification occurs and the ester molecules are broken
down into soap and glycerol.
Fats or vegetable oils + concentrated alkalis

soap +glycerol

3. Saponification is the alkaline hydrolysis of ester using alkali solutions. From

the chemist aspect, soaps are sodium salts or potassium salts of long chain
carboxylic acids (with 12 to 18 carbon atoms per molecule).
4. Some examples of soaps are shown below.
a) Sodium palmitate, C15H31COONa
b)Sodium oleate, C17H33COONa
c)Sodium stearate, C17H35COONa
Additives such as perfume, colouring matter and sometimes antiseptics
are added to soaps to enhance their marketability.
5. Glyceryl tristearates are naturally occurring esters commonly found in
animal fats and vegetable oils. When the ester is boiled with
concentrated sodium hydroxide solution, saponification (alkaline
hydrolysis) occurs and mixture of sodium stearate (soap) and glycerol is
6. The soap produced can be precipitated by adding common salt (sodium
chloride) to the reaction mixture.
i. The sodium chloride added reduced the solubility of soap in water. As a result,
precipitation of soap occurs.
ii. The properties of soap depend on :

7. The type of alkali used for saponification 8. The type of animal fats or
vegetable oils used.
9. Soaps produced from sodium hydroxide are hard, whereas soaps produced
from potassium hydroxide are soft.
10.Animal fats (tallow) from cows and vegetable oils (such as palm oil or olive
oil) ae used for making soap.

The structure of soap molecule

1. When soap is dissolved in water, it will dissociate and produce sodium ions and
carboxylate ions (RCOO).
2. For example, sodium stearate dissolves in water to form sodium ions and stearate
3. consist of two parts : the head and the tail. The head id negatively charged and
the tail is a long hydrocarbon chain.
4. The head contains the -C-O ions which dissolves readily in water (hydrophilic)
but does not dissolve in oil. Conversely, the tail contains a long hydrocarbon
chain which is insoluble in water (hydrophobic) but dissolves readily in oil.4. Soaps
made from palmitic acid are known as sodium palmitate. Figure 5.2 shows the
structure of the palmitate ion in soaps.

1. Detergents are synthetic cleansing agents made from hydrocarbons obtained
from petroleum fractions. Thus, detergents are petrochemicals.
2. Detergents can be classified into three main types, depending on the charge on the
detergent ion.a) Anionic detergents where the head of the detergent particle
contains a negatively charged ion.
Example: R O SO3-Na+ (Sodium alkyl sulphate)
Cationic detergents where the head of the detergent particle contains a
positively charged ion.Example: R N (CH 3)3+BR-

c)Non ionic detergents

Example: R O CH2CH2OH3

There are two types of anionic detergents :

1. Detergent molecule with a benzene ring such as sodium alkylbenzene sulphonate.
2. Detergent molecule without a benzene ring such as sodium alkyl sulphate.We can
represent the detergent ion, alkyl sulphate ion as:


Preparation of detergents
1. The detergent, sodium alkyl sulphate can be prepared from alcohols with chain
lengths of 12 to 18 carbon atoms in two steps.
Step 1: Reaction with concentrated sulphuric acid.
Step 2: Neutralisation with sodium hydroxide solution.

2. An example of a long chain alcohol is didecan 1 ol, CH3(CH2)10CH2OH.

3. The detergent prepared from dodecan -1 ol is called sodium dodecyl sulphate
(IUPAC name) or sodium lauryl sulphate (common name). CH 3(CH2)10CH2O-SO3-Na+.
4. Sodikum alkylbenzene sulphinates, were first used in 1940s. It can be prepared in
three steps. The starting materials for making this detergents in a long chain alkene,
RCH = CH, obtained from the cracking of petroleum.

1. Step 1 : Alkylation
Alkylation is the introduction of the alkyl group to an organic molecule.
2. Step 2 : SulphonationAlkylbenzene produced the react
sulphuric acid acid to form alkylbenzene sulphonic acid.



Sulphonation is the introduction of the sulphonic acid group, -SO 3H to an

organic molecule to form sulphonic acid.
3. Step 3 : NeutralisationAlkylbenzene sulphonic acid produced reacted with sodium
hydroxide to form sodium alkylbenzene sulphonate, the detergent.

The cleansing of soap and detergent

1. The cleansing action of soap or detergent depends on their chemical
bonding and structures.a) The ionic head (negatively charged) is soluble
in water (hydrophilic) but insoluble in oily layer.b) The long hydrocarbon
tail (neutral) is insoluble in water (hydrophobic) but soluble in oily layer.

Oil cannot be washed away from clothing with water because oil (a
covalent molecult0 is insoluble in water.

3. Lifting greasy dirt from the surface cloth. When soap or detergent is added
to the dirty surface of a piece of cloth covered with a layer of oil or grease.
a) The negatively charged head (hydrophilic) of soap ions or detergent ions dissolves
in water.
b) The hydrocarbon tail (hydrophobic) of soap or detergent ions dissolves in the layer
of grease.
4. The water is agitated slightly, the grease begins to be lifted off the surface. This
cause by the forces of attraction between the water molecules and the negatively
charged heads.
5. On further agitation during washing, the greasy dirt is lifted from the surface.
6. Emulsifying dirt in water
a) Soaps and detergents can act as emulsifying agents to emulsify oils and grease.
b) The process of emulsification breaks large drops of grease into smaller
droplets that floats in water. The greasy droplets repel on another because they
carry the same charge. As a result, the grease is suspended in the solution.
c) When the cloth is rinsed with the water, the droplet will be carried away.
d) The cleaning process become more efficient in the water containing the soap or
detergent solution is stirred.

Additives in detergents
1. Modern detergents used for washing clothes usually contains a few types of
additives to :a) Increase their cleaning power.b) Make them attractive and saleable.
2. Only about 20% of the substances in a detergent are cle4ansing agents (sodium
alkyl sulphate or sodium alkylbenzene sulphonate). The other substances are
additives. The examples of addictives and their functions are described as follows :
3. Builders : Sodium tripolyphosphate (Na 5P3O10)
a)Sodium tripolyphospathe is usd to soften hard water. In the presence
of sodium tripolyphosphate, Ca2+ ions and Mg2+ions are removed.
b) Sodium tripolyphosphate increases the pH value of water. In this way,
muddy dirt can be removed.
4. Whitening / bleaching agents : sodium perborate
a) Bleaches (bleaching agents) remove coloured stains by oxidation
process. When coloured stanis are oxidized, the colour will disappear.
b)The whitening (bleaching) agents commonly used in detergent are
sodium perborate
Sodium perborate decomposes in hot water to release oxygen
oxidising agent) which is responsible for the whitening (bleaching) action.


c)Unlike chlorine, oxygen does not bleach the colour of dyes are not damaging
to fabrics. When properly used, the perborate bleaches make fabrics whiter
than chlorine bleaches and the colourful dyes of the fabrics do not fade when
dirty stains are removed.
d)Besides sodium perborate, sodium hypochlorite, (NaCIO) can also be used
as bleaches in detergents.
The IUPAC name of sodium hypochlorite is sodium chlorate (I).
e)Sodium hypochlorite releases chlorine that bleaches with dirty stains.
However, high concentrations of chlorine can be quite damaging to fabrics.
These bleaches do not work well on synthetic fabrics (polyster fabrics),
often causing a yellowing rather than the desire whitening. Also chlorine
causes the dyes on fabrics to fade.
5. Biological enzymes : Amylase, lipase, and protease
a)Protein stains such blood, milk, and tomato sauce cannot be removed
by the ordinary detergents because these types of stains are insoluble in

b)Biological enzymes in detergents can break down fat and protein

molecules in food stains. The fatty acids, glycerol and amino acids produced
are soluble in water and are removed during washing.
6. Brighteners
Brighteners make fabrics appear whiter and brighter because the blue light
can hide any yellowing on the fabrics. Blue light added to the yellow
light reflected on old fabrics make them look white.
7. Drying agents ; Sodium sulphate and sodium silicate
Anhydrous sodium sulphate and sodium silicate (Na 2S2O3) are used as
drying agents to ensure that the detergent in powdered firm is always in a
dry condition.
8. Stabilisers
a) The functions of stabilizers is to prevents the formation of foam.
b) In an automatic washing machine, excessive foam can stop the pump
working. So, washing powders for automatic washing machine are made
using detergents that are good at removing and emulsifying grease, but do
not produced foam.
9. Perfumes
Perfumes are added to make clothes smell fresh and clean.

Effectiveness of soaps and detergents as cleansing agents

Advantages of soaps
1.Soaps are effective cleansing agents in soft water, that is water does not contain
and Ca2+ ions.
2.Soaps do not cause pollution problems to the environment. This is because soaps
are made from chemical found in animals and plants. This means that soaps are
biodegradable, that is they can be composed by the action of bacteria.

Disadvantages of soaps
1. Soaps are ineffective in hard water, that is, water that contains magnesium and
calcium salts.
2.In hard water, soaps will react with Mg 2+ and thus, soaps do not lather in hard
3.Scum is grey solid that is insoluble in water. It consists of magnesium
stearate and calcium stearate.

4.Soaps are not also effective in acidic water, for example rainwater containing
dissolves acids. H+ ions from acids will react with soap ions to produce
carboxylic acids molecular size that are insoluble in water.
5. Stearic acids and other carboxylic acids do not act as cleansing agents because
they exist mainly as molecules and do not anionic hydrophilic ends (head) that
dissolves in water.

Advantages of detergents
1.Detergents are cleansing agents that are effective in soft water as well as
hard water. This is because detergents do not form scum with Mg + and Ca2+ ions
found in hard water.
2.The detergents ions (R O SO 3- and R SO 3-)react with Mg+ and Ca2+
ions in hard water. However, the magnesium salts and calcium salts which are
formed are soluble in water. Hence, the scum is not formed and the detergents
are still active in hard water and lathers easily.
gents are synthetic cleansing agents.
hydrocarbon chain can be modified
properties. Nowadays, different types
specific uses such as shampoos and dish

This means that the structure of the

to produce detergents with specific
of detergents have been synthesised for

4.Furthermore, detergents are also effective in acidic water because H + ion is acidic
water do not combined with detergents ions.

Disadvantages of detergents
1. Most
nonbiodegradable, that is, they cannot decomposed by bacteria. As a result, nonbiodegradable detergents cause water pollution.
2. Phosphates in detergents act as fertilizers and promote the growth of water
plants and algae. When the plants die and decay, they will used up the
oxygen dissolves in water. This will decrease the oxygen content in water and kill
fishes and other aquatic lives.


3. Detergents produce a lot of foam in water. The layer of foam that covers the water
surface will prevents oxygen from dissolving in water. This condition will cause fish
and other aquatic life till die from oxygen starvation.
4. Additives such as sodium hydrochlorite (bleaching agents) releases chlorine gas in
water that is acidic. Chlorine gas is highly toxic and kills aquatic life.


1. Food additives are chemicals that are added to food in small quantities for
specific purpose such as protection against bacterial attack or restoring the
colour of the food destroyed during food processing.
2. Food additives are used to:
a) Retard food spoilage.
b) Make food taste better or smell better.
c) Add colouring to food.

Food additives

preservatives and antioxidants

flavouring agents, stabilisers,
thickening agents and dyes

Type of food additives


Flavouring agents
Stabilizers and
thickening agents

Sodium nitrite; sodium nitrate; benzoic acid;
sodium benzoate; sulphur dioxide; sodium
sulphite; sorbic acid
Ascorbic acid (Vit. C); BHA; BHT; citric acid;
sodium citrate
Monosodium glutamate (MSG); aspartame
Gelatin; acacia gum (agar)
Azo compounds; triphenyl compounds



Functions of food additives

1. Preservatives :
Chemicals that are added to food to retard or to prevent the growth of
microorganisms, so that the food can be stored for a long time.
2. Antioxidants :
Chemicals that are added to foods to prevent the oxidation of fats and oils
by oxygen in the air.
3. Flavouring agents :
To make food taste better.

Flavouring agents

Flavour enhancers

Artificial flavours

4. Stabilizers :
Chemicals that are added to enable oil and water in the food to mix
together properly in order to form emulsion of water and oil.
5. Thickening agents :
Chemicals that are added to food to thicken the liquid and to prevent the
food from becoming liquid.
6. Dyes :
Chemicals that are added to food to give them colour so as to improve their
Effects on

: NaNO2

Brain damage



1. Medicine is a substance used to prevent or cure diseases or to reduce pain and
suffering due to illnesses.
2. Traditional medicine are medicine derived from natural sources such as plants
and animals without being process chemically.
Modern Medicine
2. Can be classified as follows :
a) Analgesics
b) Antibiotics
c) Psychotherapeutic drugs

Type of modern



Aspirin, paracetamol, codeine


Penicillin, streptomycin


Stimulants, antidepressants,


1. Analgesics:
Medicine that relieve pain.

Analgesics sometimes called painkillers.

Aspirin and paracetamol are mild painkillers whereas codeine is a powerful painkiller. Analgesics relieve pain but do not cure the disease.

3. Antibiotics: antibacterial medicine.

Chemical that destroy or prevent the growth of infectious organisms.
Used to treat disease caused by bacteria.
Not effective against disease caused by viral infections such as influenza, measles, or
small pox.


4. Psychotherapeutic medicine.
- A group of drugs for treating mental or emotional illnesses.






Naturally occurring or synthetic
drugs that stimulate (excite) the
activity of the brain and central
nervous system.
Increase the brains level of
neurotransmitters, thus
improving mood.
Make person fell calm and
Do not cure mental illness, but
can reduce some of the
symptoms to help the person
live a more normal life.