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Basics Beverage

In many food service operation, beverage are the most important profit center.
(Specialized establishments, such as bars and night clubs, are supported exclusively
by beverage sales.)Beverage inccrease sales because they can be served at any time,
have a fairly high markup, and do not require much labor.

Basically, beverage can be devided into two catagories: alcoholic and nonalcoholic. These, in turn , are distinguished as ready-to-drink and prepare
beverges.

Ready-to-drink Beverages
Alcoholic
Wines
Sparkling wines
Beers
Spirits
Liqueurs
Aperitifs

Non-alcoholic
Mineral water
Lemonade
Non-alcoholic Beer
Milk
Fruit juices
Soda pops

Prepared Drinks
Alcoholic
Cocktail
Punches
Mulled wine

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Non-alcoholic
Coffee
Tea
Cocoa
Milk shakes
Fruit-juice cocktail

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Wine
Definition
Wine is a beverage made exclusively from totally or partially fermented fresh
grape juice.
The five Basic Wine Types
Red wine
Rose wine
Blush wine
White wine
Sparrkling wine
Wine Making
Red Wine

Red wine is always made from red grapes. The grape solids are
retained in the must during all or part of the fermentation to
extract the pigment from the grapes, giving the wine its red
color.

Rose Wine

Red grapes are used exlusively for rose wine, never a mixture
of red and white grapes, as is commonly though . The solids are
kept in the must for only very short time (Between 12-36
hours) ;thus, the light pink color.

Blush wine

For blush wine, red and white grapes are used.

White wine

White wine is made mostly from white grapes. In rare cases


white wine is also made from red grapes. To make white wine a
mash fermentation, in which the grape must and solids ferment
together, is not necessary. After destemming, the grapes are
pressed immediatelt and the must alone is fermented.

Sparkling Wine

Sparkling wines, the best known of which is Champagne, are


made from white, red or mixed grapes. Making sparkling wine
is a complicated process.First, the wine is made;it is then
saturated with cabondioxide.
The best known styles are:
Brut
Sec
Demi-sec
Doux

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No dosage is added; extra dry


Very little dosage is added; dry (about 2/3ounce
of sugar per bottle)
Little dosage is added; half sweet or mild (about
1 ounce of sugar per bottle)
A large dosage is added; sweet (more than 1
ounces of sugar per bottle)

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Serving Temperatures

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Heavy red wines


Bordeaux, Burgundy, Barolo

16-18C (61-64F)

Medium heavy red wines


Chianti Classico

13-15C (55-59F)

Light red wines


Beaujolais, Roses

10-13C (50-55F)

White wines

9-10C (48-50F)

Sparkling wines

6-8C (43-46F)

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Aperitifs
The word aperitif comes from the French, originally from the Latin aperire, meaning
to open. An aperitif is thus a prelude, an opening to the meal, a before-dinner drink.

Vermouths
Bitters
Anise-based liqueurs
Fortified wines

Vermouths

Vermouths are made from white wine and are fortified and
flavored with herbs. Then adding pure wine alcohol or other
spirits made from wine. The alcohol content is between 16-18
percent. Vermouth may be sweet or dry, white or red.
Vermouth can be served in two ways;
Sec; Served in an aperitif glass without the additional of
soda, mineral water, with or without ice.
Spitzer; Served in an aperitif glass with soda,mineral
water and ice.
Vermouths are served cool, often with a lemon or orange
twist.
Popular Brands of Vermouth

Brand
Cinzano
Cinzano dry
Dubonnet
Gancia
Martini
Martini Dry

Color
Red or White
White
Red or White
Red or White
Red or White
White

Taste
Sweet
Dry
Sweet
Sweet
Sweet
Dry

Origin
Italy
Italy
France
Italy
Italy
Italy

Bitters

Bitters are made from pure alcohol, water, extracts of bitter and
aromatic plants, natural flavorings, and sugar. Bitters can be
artificially colored.
Bitters are served in the same way as vermouth aperitif.
Popular Brands of Bitters
Brand
Campari
Cynar

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Origin
Italy
Italy

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Ramazotti
Italy
Suze
Switzerland
Anise-based Liqueurs
Anise is the aromatic base liqueur. Anise liqueurs are between
45 and 50 percent alcohol, and they are sugared.
Anise aperitifs are served in and aperitif glass without ice. Ice
water is served on the side and added by the guest. When water
is added, the tranparant yellow liqueur becomes milky and
cloudy. Anise aperitifs are drunk very cool, but the liqueur
should not be stored in a cold place, or it will discolor and
become cloudy.
Popular Anise Liqueurs
Brands
Patis 51
Pernod
Ricard
Berger
Ouzo
Fortified Wines

Origin
France
France
France
France
Greece

Fortified Wines come from southern Europe (Spain, Portugal,


Italy and Greece). They are strong, alcoholic wines, usually
with an alcohol content of 16-22 percent, obtained by adding
brandy. The taste of fortified wines ranges from dry to sweet;
the color, from light yellow to dark red brown.

The service of Fortified wines


Fortified wines was several served in special wine glasses
designed for them. Dry Fortified wines are served cool, at about
55F; sweet wines, at a temperature of approximately 60F.
Popular Fortified Wines

Reccommended for:

Wine

Origin

Type

Sherry

Spain

Fino
very dry
Manzanilla dry
Amontillado rich, mild
Olorooso
sweet
Olorosso
dry
Cream
strong,sweet

x
x
x
x
x

Pale white
Ruby
Tawny

x
x
x

Port

Portugal

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Attributes

dry or sweet
rich, mild
strong, dry,
Sweet

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Aperitif Dessert Brand Names


Sandeman,
Tio Pepe
x
x
x
x
x

Sandeman
Taylor
Corkburn
Dow

Popular Fortified Wines


Wine

Origin

Reccommended for:

Type

Attributes

Aperitif Dessert Brand Names

Sercial
Verdelho
Boal
Malvasia

dry
semi-dry
mild
sweet

x
x
x
x

Marsala Italy

sweet

Samos

sweet

Madeira Portugal

Greece

Kobke
Dela Force
Sandeman
Cora

Liquors
Under the collective name liquor are grouped all beverages distilled from fruit, grain,
plant, and roots. Brand-name liquors generally contain 40 to 43 percent alcohol.
Liquor Production
Producing Alcohol

For liquor production, the raw materials must first be procesed


to become alcoholic. The process used depends on the material.
Raw materials that contain sugar, such as fruit can be fermented
directly to produce alcohol.
For starch-based raw material such as grain, the starch must be
converted into sugar before fermentation can occur. This
process is called malting. The resulting malt sugar is fermented,
becoming alcohol and cabon-dioxide.

Distillation

The interim product produced by fermentation, the raw material


that contain alcohol, is called mash, cider, wort, or wine.
Distillation, the separation of the alcohol from the fermented
raw material, si the next step.
The fermented product, for example, mash, is now heated in a
still. Alcohol has a lower boiling point than water, and it
therefor evaporates first.
After distillation all spirits are crystal clear, even those that are
enjoyed later as a gold brown beverages, Such as Whisky,
Cognac, and etc.

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Storage

All spirits must mature through storage. Spirit that are


eventually golden brown, such as Whisky and Cognac, obtain
their color through aging in oak casks, some of the spirits
evaporate during the sometimes lengthy aging period. The long
storage and the loss through evaporation are the main reasons
for the high prices of these product.

Refinement

The high alcohol content of the spirits after distillation and


storage (approximately 70 percent) make consumption
impossible.Therefore, disitilled water is blended with the spirits
to produce the appropiate alcohol content. Premium spirits such
as Whisky, Cognac, Calvados require an additional step. To
guarantee standard color and taste quality, the productions of
several years are mixed. This process is called marriage.
Whisky is also refined by mixing grain and malt whisky. This
process is called blending.

The Service of Liquors


Because of their high alcohol content, all liquors are served in
small amounts:1 fluid ounce for single servings. To mention
every serving portion has no propose, since measures differ
from country to country, and sometime even within country. It
is important that shot glasses are of standard measure.
High-proof beverages are recommended as accompaniments
(for example, Cognac with Coffee or Aquavit with Beer) ;they
can also drunk alone. Liquors are often used as ingridients in
mixed drinks as well.
The Age of Liquors
The Age of a Liquor can rarely be determined exactly for three
reasons.
1. Lables almost never list a year.
2. Only the year in the cast, not in the bottle, are
significant.
3. Many liquors are mixtures of several years productions
to ensure consistent quality.

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Criteria for Cognac Cognac lables usually contain abrivations or designations that
indicate the age of the Cognac. As a member of the service
staff, we must know the meanings of these abrivations.
Descrition

Minimum Storage
(Times in Oak Casks)

*** (Three Star Cognac)


Cognac
Cognac authentique

3 Years

VO (Very old)
VSOP (Very Superior old pale)
Reserve

5 Years

Extra
Napoleon
Vieille Reserve

6 Years

The age given is determined by the youngest distillant in the


Cognac.
Designations for Whiskey
Every Whiskey that is sold must have been aged for at least
three years in an Oak cask.
In addition to their standard liquors that have been aged for the
minimum period, most whisky producer also sell much older
and, therefor, much more expensive whiskey. T he age given,
for example 12 years old is always based on the youngest
distllant in the blend.
Liqueurs

Liqueurs are sweet or bitter, strongly aromatic, and often very


alcoholic beverages that are a combination of brandy, or pure
alcohol, sugar, flavoring agents. The flavoring agents may be
fruits, aromatic plant, or herbs. Liqueurs may be almost any
color; pratically every color of the spectrum is represented.

Sweet Liqueurs

Like other spirit, liqueurs can be served as an accompaniment


to the coffee. They are, however, especially popular for mixing.
The alcohol content of Liqueurs varies from 20 to 55 percent,
while the sugar content must be at least 10 percent.

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Service of Liqueurs Liqueurs are served only small potions; the standard of measure
differs from country to country. In many cases liqueurs are
served in a small snifters, but establishments often have special
liqueur glasses.
Name
Base
Herb-based
Bndictine D.O.M.
Sundry herbs
Liqueues
Bndictine B.B.
Sundry herbs and Cognac
Galliano
Sundry herbs
Goldwasser
Sundry herbs
Strega
Sundry herbs
Citrus-based
Liqueurs

Cointreau
Curacao orange
Curacao blue
Curacao red
Curacao green
Grand Manier
Mandarine

Bitter-orange peel
Curacau orange
Curacau orange
Curacau orange
Curacau orange
Orange paste and Cognac
Mandarine orange

Stone-fruit based
Liqueurs

Apricot Brandy
Cherry Heering
Marashino
Peach Brandy
Rteli

Apricots
Cherry
Marasca Cherry
Peaches
Cherries

Seed-fruit based
Liqueurs

Williamine

Pears

Berry-based
Liqueurs

Brombeere
Cassis
Fraisa
Sambuca

Blackberries
Black currant
Strawberries
Elderberries

Cream Liqueurs

Crme de banana
Crme de cacao
Crme de menthe
Crme de mokka
Crme de noisette
Crme de vanille

Bananas
Cocoa
Peppermint
Coffee
Hazelnuts
Vanilla

Other Liqueurs

Amaretto
Anisette
Drambuie

Almonds
Anise
Scotch Wishky and Honey

Eierlikor
Irish Mist
Kmmel

Egg powder
Irish Whisey and Honey
Caraway seeds

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Scotch Wishky and Honey

Lochan Ora
Parfait Amour
Bitter Liqueurs

Violets

Bitter liqueurs (also called stomach bitters or bitters for short) are
usually drunk as digestifs ,therefor, after the meal. Bitter liqueurs aid
the digestion and help when one has eaten too much or eaten food
that is hard to digest. Bitters liqueurs are made from herb bases, and
therefor are similar in principal to herb liqueurs. The only significant
difference is in the composition, because bitter liqueurs have no or
very little sugar.
The alcohol content of the difference digestifs varies between 45 and
49 percent. Therefoe they are,like spirits and liqueurs, served in small
portions. They are always served in a short glass with a glass of ice
water on the side.

Common Brands
Fernet Branca
Jgermeister
Underberg

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