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Unit 5(Pt1)

CEMENT CONCRETE (Part A)


(Also including Parts of Unit 6)
Presentations
by
PV ESWAR

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CONCRETE

Concrete a Composite Man-made Material, is the most


widely used building material in the construction
industry. It consists of a rationally chosen mixture of

binding material such as Lime or Cement


Well Graded Fine and Coarse Aggregates,
Water
Admixtures (to produce Concrete with Special properties).

In a concrete mix, Cement and Water form a paste or


Matrix which
Fills the Voids of the FA
Coats the surface of FA and CA and binds them together.
The matrix is usually 22-34% of the total volume.

Wet or Green Concrete. Freshly mixed concrete before


set
Hardened or Set Concrete. After setting and
hardening
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CONCRETE (Contd)

Moulded Concrete Mix, after sufficient Curing becomes


hard like Stone due to Chemical action between Water
and Binding material.
With the advent of Cement, the use of lime concrete
has been confined to making bases for Concrete
Foundations and Roof Terracing.
Major Factors responsible for wide usage of cementconcrete are

Mouldability,
Early Hardening
High Early Compressive Strength
Development of desired properties with Admixtures to be
used in Adverse Situations
Suitability for Guniting
Pumpability
Durability.
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Reason for its extensive use.properties can be


controlled within a wide range by using
Appropriate ingredients and
by special Mechanical, Physical and Chemical
Processing Techniques.

Some Examples of use of CC


Buildingsfrom single storey to multi storey
Bridges, Piers, Dams, Weirs, Retaining Walls, Liquid
Retaining Structures
Reservoirs, Chimneys, Bins, Silos
Runways, Pavements
Shells, Arches
Railway Sleepers
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Various ingredients
of
cement concrete
and
their Importance

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WATER

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Introduction
PURPOSE. of using Water with Cement is
to cause Hydration of the Cement.
Lubricant between coarse and fine aggregates, producing a
Workable and Economical concrete.

W/C Ratio. Optimum water requirement for a particular


Concrete and Mortar.
EXCESS WATER
(along with Cement) comes to the surface by Capillary action,
forms Laitance, a thin layer over surface
Laitance weakens bond between the successive lifts of concrete.
excess water may leak through the form work, resulting in
Honeycombed concrete; and on Evaporation makes the
concrete Porous.

LESSER WATER
Workability decreases.
Non-Uniform mixing results in Weaker Concrete

Water is also used for Washing Aggregates and Curing.


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Quality of Water

Almost any Natural Potable Water that has no pronounced taste or odour
is acceptable for the concrete mix.
Many sources of water unsuitable for drinking may also be used. However,
in case of a doubt, water samples should be tested for suitability.
Excessive impurities may affect

Setting Time
Strength
Durability
may cause Efflorescence
Surface Discolouration
Corrosion of Steel.

Testing Water wrt Setting Time


The Initial Setting Time of the mixes with Impure Water and that with the Pure
Water are obtained.
30 minutes acceptable.

Testing water wrt Compressive Strength


7 day and 28 day compressive strengths of the Cube/Cylinder specimens
prepared with impure water should not differ by 10 % from that of
cubes/cylinders prepared with pure water.

The tolerable concentrations of some of the impurities in water are given


in Table 7.1.
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Tolerance Conc of Impurtities in Mixing Water

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*Quality of WATER for CONCRETE


Water in Concrete has 2 purposes:
Hydrate the Cement
Lubricate the mix so as to aid Compaction.
Quality Guidelines:
Clean and free from Oils, Acids, Alkalies,
Vegetables or other Organic impurities
In gen, Water fit for drinking is fit for Concreting.
Excess of Acidity or Alkalinity. Harmful. Can be
tested with Litmus paper.
Soft waters. Produce weaker Concrete than Hard
waters (having Ca(HCO3)2)
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*Quality of WATER for CONCRETE


Quality Guidelines (Contd)
Marsh waters. Harmful
Water containing decayed Veg matters to be avoided.
They interfere with setting of Cement
Sea water

NOT to be used in RCC or PCC wks


may be used in Mass concreting, if no alternative
will retard the Setting and Hardening
causes Efflorescence
will not affect the Ultimate Str of Concrete, unless Salt is
present in excess qtys.

Salt in water corrodes Rft.


Brackish water although not always potable, is NOT
harmful for concreting.
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*Quality of WATER for CONCRETE (Contd)


Practical Fd Test
Make 2 identical Pats of size 75mm dia, and 12
mm th of neat Cement paste, one with the water
under test, and the other with water of known
suitability
Place the Pats on a clean non-absorbant surface
and leave for 48 hrs, and Setting and Hardening
time obs for both the Pats.
Should the Pat made with the water under test
not be up to the std of the other, then water
should be deemed unsuitable.
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AGGREGATES

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Cl of AGGREGATES

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Aggregates are the materials basically used as Filler with binding material
in the production of Mortar and Concrete.
They are derived from
Igneous, Sedimentary or Metamorphic rocks
Or manufactured from Blast Furnace Slag, etc.

Aggregates

form the Body of the Concrete,


reduce the Shrinkage
They occupy 70-80 % of the Vol
have considerable influence on the properties of the Concrete.
important to obtain right type and quality of Aggregates at site.
They should be Clean, Hard, Strong, Durable
Graded

INERTNESS.
Earlier Aggregates were considered to be chemically inert
but the Latest research has revealed that some of them are chemically active
certain types exhibit Chemical Bond at the interface of Aggregates and
Cement paste.

To increase the bulk density of Concrete, Aggregates are used in two (02)
markedly different sizes
the Bigger ones known to be CA (grit)
the Smaller ones FA (Sand).

CA form the main Matrix of Concrete and FA from the filler Matrix
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Cl based on Geo Origin


NATURAL AGGREGATES.
Obtained by crushing of Igneous, Sedimentary or Metamorphic rocks.
Gravels and Sand reduced to their present size by the Natural Agencies also fall in
this category.
Most widely used Aggregate are from Igneous origin.
Aggregates obtained from Pits or dredged from River, Creek or Sea are most often
NOT Clean enough or Well Graded to suit the Quality Requirement.
They therefore require Sieving and Washing before their use.

ARTIFICIAL AGGREGATES
Broken Bricks, Blast Furnace Slag and Synthetic Aggregates
Broken bricks known as brick bats are suitable for Mass Concreting, e.g.,
Foundation Bases. They are NOT for RCC wks.
Blast Furnace Slag Aggregate

obtained from Slow Cooling of the Slag, followed by Crushing.


The dense and strong particles as obtained are used for making Precast Concrete Products.
Sp. Gr. 22.8
Bulk Density . 11201300 kg/m3.
Fire Resisting
Corrosion of Rft, due to Sulphur content of Slag.

Synthetic Aggregates are produced by Thermally processed materials such as


Expanded Clay and Shale used for making Light Wt Concrete.

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Cl based on Size

CA
FA
All-in- Aggregate.

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CA - Cl based on Size

Retained on 4.75 mm Sieve


Obtained by

Natural disintegration
Artificial crushing of rocks.

Max size of Aggregate. 80 mm.


Size of Aggregate is governed by

Thickness of Section
Spacing of Rft
Clear Cover,
Mixing, Handling and Placing methods.

For Economy . Maximum Size of Aggregate should be


As large as possible
But, < 1/4th of min th of the Member.

For Reinforced Sections Maximum size should be: at least 5 mm


less than
the Clear Spacing between the Rft
clear Cover.

Aggregate > 20 mm size are gen NOT USED for RCC structural
members.
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Cl based on Size (Contd)


ALL IN AGGREGATES
Naturally available aggregates of different fractions of
FA and CA are known as All-in-Aggregate.
The deficiency of any particular fraction can be
corrected for use in the mix
NOT RECOMMENDED for Quality Concrete.
GRADED AGGREGATE
Consists of selected proportions of different particle
sizes usually chosen to produce a max density Concrete
or Soil.
e.g., a Graded Aggregate of Nominal Size 20 mm means
an Aggregate most of which passes IS sieve 20 mm.
However, grading will be based on above definition.
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Cl based on Size (Contd)


FINE AGGREGATE
Aggregate passing through 4.75 mm Sieve are defined
as FA.
They may be
Natural Sanddeposited by Rivers,
Crushed Stone Sandobtained by Crushing Stones and
Crushed Gravel Sand.

The Smallest Size of FA (sand) is 0.06 mm.


Depending upon the Particle Size, FA are described as
Fine Sand
Medium Sand
Coarse Sand

On the basis of Particle Size Distribution,


FA are Cl into Four (04) zones
Progressively Finer from Grading Zone I to IV (IS: 383).
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Cl based on Shape

CLASSIFICATION
Aggregates are Cl as

Rounded
Irregular,
Angular
Flaky.

ROUNDED AGGREGATES
These are generally obtained from River or Sea shore
Produce Minimum Voids (about 32%) in the concrete.
They have MINIMUM Ratio of Surface Area to Volume
Cement paste required is MINIMUM
Poor Interlocking Bond makes it unsuitable for High Strength
Concrete and Pavements.
IRREGULAR AGGREGATES
Voids about 36%
Require MORE Cement Paste as compared to Rounded Aggregate.
Because of irregularity in shape they develop GOOD BOND and are
suitable for making Ordinary Concrete.
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Cl based on Shape

ANGULAR AGGREGATES
They have Sharp, Angular and Rough Particles
Maximum VOIDS (40%).
provide Very Good BOND than the earlier two
Most Suitable for High Strength Concrete and Pavements
Requirement of Cement Paste. Relatively More.
FLAKY AGGREGATES
These are sometimes wrongly called as elongated aggregate.
However, both of these influence the concrete properties adversely.
Least Lateral Dimension (thickness) < 0.6 x Mean Dimension.
e.g. Mean Sieve Size or Mean Dimension for an Aggregate piece passing
through 50 mm and retained on 40 mm sieve is (50 + 40)/2 = 45.0 mm.
If the Least Lateral Dimension < 0.6 45 = 27.0 mm, the aggregate is classified
as FLAKY.

Flaky aggregate generally orient in one plane with Water and Air Voids
underneath.
They Adversely affect Durability. Restricted to 15% max.
ELONGATED AGGREGATES
Length = 1.8 x Mean Dimension.
Influence the Concrete properties adversely.
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Note

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Cl based on Unit Wt

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*Quality of Aggregates

Aggregates for Load bearing Concrete should be

Hard,
Strong
Non-Porous
free from Elongated and Laminated particles
Should be Suitable for the purpose required.

Porosity.
<10%. Stones absorbing >10% water after 24 hrs
immersion in water are considered Porous.
Porous materials corrode rft.

Elongated and Laminated particles. Weak in Shear


Mica. Stones having inclusion should be avoided
Granite, Basalt, Quartzite, Trap and those with rough
non-glossy surface. BEST
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Characterstics of Aggregate
The Properties to be Considered while
selecting aggregate for concrete are
Strength,
Particle Shape
Specific Gravity
Bulk Density
Voids
Porosity,
Moisture Content
Bulking.
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STRENGTH (Characteristics of Aggregate)

STRENGTH
Strength should be at least equal to that of the
Concrete.
Rocks commonly used as Aggregates have a
Compressive Strength >> usual range of Concrete
Strength.
A typical Stress-Strain Curve for Aggregate is
shown in Fig. 6.1.
The Tests conducted for strength evaluation are
Crushing test
Impact-test
10% Fines test.

Of these the Cushing Test is the most reliable.


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STRENGTH (Characteristics of Aggregate)

STRENGTH (Contd)
Limit for the Crushing Value. Generally the
specifications prescribe

45 % for Aggregate used for Concrete other than


Wearing Surface
30 % for Aggregate used for Concrete for Wearing
Surfaces, such as Runways, Roads etc..

Toughness is measured by Impact Test.


Impact Value < 30 % for Wearing Surface
Impact value < 45 % for remaining Concretes.

Hardness is tested by Abrasion test. The Abrasion


value is restricted to
< 30 % for Wearing surfaces and
< 50 % for Concrete for other purposes.
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Stress Strain Curve for Aggregate

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STIFFNESS (Characteristics of Aggregate )


Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete is approximately
equal to the Weighted Average of the moduli of
the Cement Paste and
the Aggregate,

as such. the modulus of the Coarse Aggregate has an


important influence on the Stiffness of Concrete.
A high value of Modulus reduces the Dimensional Changes
due to Creep and Shrinkage of Cement Paste
But, at the cost of higher Internal Stresses.

In Concrete that is to be subjected to Wide Variations


of Temperature and Humidity
Internal Cracking is reduced by the use of a more
Compressible Aggregate
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BOND STR (Characteristics of Aggregate)

Concrete is in a state of Internal Stress even if no external forces


are present due to
Difference between the Coefficients of Thermal Expansion of Paste
and Aggregate
The Shrinkage of Cement Paste during Hardening
It is reported that the Stresses are likely to be Greatest at the PasteAggregate Interfaces where minute Cracks exist, even in concrete that
has never been loaded.
Under increasing External Load, these Cracks spread along the
interfaces before extending into the Paste or Aggregate particles.

The Str of the Bond between Aggregate and Cement paste thus has
an important influence on the Str of Concrete.
There is no standard test for bond but it is known that the rougher
the surface texture of the particles, the better the bond.
The role of particle shape is less well understood;
the greater specific surface of Angular Particles should enable Greater
Adhesive Force to be developed,
But, the Angular Shape probably causes more severe Concentrations
of Internal Stress.
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SHAPE and TEXTURE (Characteristics of Aggregate )


The Shape influences the properties of Fresh Concrete
more than when it has Hardened.
Rounded Aggregate and Irregular shaped Aggregate
Highly Workable, but
yield Low Str Concrete.

Flaky aggregate
require more Cement Paste,
produce Max Voids
Not Desirable.

Angular shape is the best.


Crushed and Uncrushed Aggregates generally give
essentially the same Str for the same Cement Content.
The Shape and Surface Texture of FA govern its Void
Ratio and significantly affect the Water requirement.
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Sp Gr (Characteristics of Aggregate )
2.6-2.7.
Sp Gr and Porosity of Aggregates greatly
influence the Str and Absorption of Concrete.
Sp Gr of Aggregates indicates its Quality.
A low Sp Gr may indicate High Porosity and
Therefore, Poor Durability and Low Str.

Concrete Density will greatly depend on Sp Gr


of Aggregate
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Bulk Density (Characteristics of Aggregate)


The Bulk Density of Aggregate depends upon
their Packing (Graded Aggregates are more
Packed)
the Particles Shape and Size
the Grading
the Moisture Content.

For CA, a higher Bulk Density is an indication


of fewer Voids to be filled by Sand and
Cement.
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VOIDS (Characteristics of Aggregate)


The Void ratio is calculated as
Void ratio = 1 (Bulk density / Apparent Sp Gr)
More the Voids, Less the Str

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Porosity (Characteristics of Aggregate)


Entrapped Air Bubbles in the rocks during their
formation lead to minute Holes or Cavities known
as Pores.
Porosity of Rocks is gen < 20%
Due to Porosity, Concrete becomes Permeable
and ultimately affects
the Bond between Aggregate and Cement Paste,
resistance to Freezing and Thawing of concrete and
resistance to Abrasion of Aggregate.

Porous Aggregate
Absorb more Moisture, resulting in
Loss of Workability of Concrete at a much faster rate.
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Moisture Content
(Characteristics of Aggregate)
Moisture Content. The Surface Moisture
expressed as a % of the Wt of the Saturated
Surface Dry Aggregate
A High Moisture Content
Increases the effective W/C Ratio to an
appreciable extent and
may render the Concrete Weak.

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Bulking (Characteristics of Aggregate)


The increase in the Volume of a given mass of FA caused by the
presence of Water is known as Bulking.
REASON.
Water forms a film over the FA particles,
exerts force of Surface Tension and
pushes them apart increasing the Volume.

EXTENT and VARIATION of BULKING.


Extent of bulking depends upon the % Moisture present in the Sand
and its Fineness.
With Ordinary Sand bulking varies from 15-30 %.
It increases with Moisture Content up to a certain point (4-6%),
reaches Maximum, the Film of water on the Sand surface breaks, and
then it starts Decreasing.
Figure 6.2 shows the bulking of sand with Moisture Content.

In preparing concrete mixes if Sand is measured by Volume and no


allowance is made for bulking, the Moist Sand will occupy
considerably Larger Volume than that prepared by the Dry Sand and
consequently the Mix will be Richer. This will cause, Less Qty of
Concrete per Bag of Cement.
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Effect of Moisture Content on Bulking of Sand

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Bulking (Characteristics of Aggregate)


For example, if the Bulking of Sand is 10% and if
Mix Ratio is 1:2:4,
the Actual Volume of Sand to be used should be 1.1
2 = 2.2%, instead of 2% Volume of Cement.
If this correction is not applied, the Actual Dry Sand in
the concrete will be (1 /1.1) x 2 = 1.82, instead of 2
per unit volume of cement.
The Mix Proportion then would be 1:1.82:4 rather
than 1: 2: 4. Which indicates Lesser Production of
Concrete.
Also, there will be chances of
Segregation
Honey Combing and
Reduced Yield of Concrete.
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Bulking (Contd) (Characteristics of Aggregate)


Bulking of Sand can be determined, in field, by

filling a Container of known Volume (A) with Damp


Sand in the manner in which the mixer hopper will be
filled.
The ht of Sand in the container is measured.
The Sand is then taken out of Container carefully,
ensuring no Sand is lost during this transaction.
The Sand is then either Dried and Filled Back into the
gauge box, (or) the Container is filled with water and
the damp sand is poured in to displace the water.
Whichever method is adopted, the new depth of
aggregate in the container gives the Unbulked Volume
(B).
Then % bulking expressed as a % of the Dry Vol
% bulking = ((A-B)/B) x 100
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Fineness Modulus (Characteristics of Aggregate)


It is a Numerical Index of Fineness, giving some idea
about the Mean Size of the Particles in the Aggregates.
The fineness modulus (F.M.) varies
2.0 to 3.5 for FA
5.5 to 8.0 for CA
3.5 to 6.5 for All-in Aggregate.

PROCEDURE
Aggregate, whose F.M. is required, is placed on a Standard
Set of Sieves (80, 63, 40, 20, 12.5, 10, 4.75, 2.36, 1.18 mm
and 600, 300, 150 m) and the Set Vibrated.
The material Retained on each Sieve after Sieving
represent the fraction of Aggregate Coarser than the Sieve
in question, but, Finer than the Sieve Above.
FM = % Retained on the Sieves /100
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Fineness Modulus (Characteristics of Aggregate)


A FM of 3.0 means the 3rd sieve i.e., 600 m
is the Average Size.
The test procedure is given IS: 2386 (Part I).
The AIM of finding F.M. is
to Grade the given Aggregate for the required Str
and Workability of Concrete Mix
with Minimum Cement.

Higher F.M. Aggregate result in Harsh


Concrete Mixes
Lower F.M. result in Uneconomical Concrete
Mixes.
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*Quality of Aggregates

Sand stones.

are Porous
Soft varieties of Sand-stones make Poor Concretes and also
produce Shrinkage Cracks

Lime stone.
Quite Good provided it is Hard, Crystalline and entirely free
from Dust.
Should not be used in wks subject to Excessive Heat.

Lime stones and Sand-stones and other Porous stones. are


not suitable for Water Retaining Structures
Aggregate must be
Clean
free from Clay, Loam, Vegetable and other Organic mtrl.

Clay and Dirt coating on Aggregates


prevents Adhesion of Cement to Aggregate,
slows down the Setting and Hardening of the Cement(Concrete)
reduce the Strength of the Concrete.
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*Aggregates - Sizes
SIZES
CA. Mtrl retained on a 4.75mm IS Sieve
FA or Sand. Mtrl below 4.75mm IS Sieve.
Mtrl passing a 75 micron IS Sieve (No 200 BS sieve) is gen
considered as Clay, Fine Silt or Fine Dust in an Aggregate.
Ordering of CA
Ordered in Separate Sizes and Recombined in proper
proportion, while batching.
A 40 mm nominal max size aggregate will be ordered in 3
different Sizes
40mm to 20mm
20mm to 10mm
10mm to 4.75mm.

Separate Stockpiles should be maint for different sizes


Angular and roughly Cubicle particles are ideal.
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*Shape and Surface Texture

Shape is Cl as:

Rounded (or Spherical). Fully water worn; River or Seashore


Gravels
Irregular. Partly shaped having rounded edges; Pit Sands and
Gravels
Flaky (or Elongated ).
Usually Angular
Thickness is small relative to the Width and/or Length.

Surface Texture is Cl under 6 headings:

Glassy
Smooth
Rough or Pitted
Crystalline
Honey Combed
Porous

Rounded and Irregular Gravels are smooth


Crushed Stones are Rough
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*Shape and Surface Texture (Contd)


Both Shape and Surface Texture affect
Workability
Density
Str of Concrete
Effect of Shape. It is more imp factor.
Workability. increases as the Aggre particles become Smoother and
Rounder.
Roughly Spherical (or, Rounded) aggregate produce the most Workable
Concrete for the same Mix Proportions and the W/C ratio
Concrete made with Sharp Angular Aggregate (Crushed Rock or
Crushed Gravel) is considerably less Workable and also needs more
Sand and more Cement;

Interlocking. Angular particles interlock better.


Voids. Angular pieces have more Voids than rounded ones.
Crushing Str. For the same deg of Workability, Angular Aggregate
may produce a Concrete having a Crushing str some 50% lower than
a water worn and relatively rounded aggregate.
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*Shape and Surface Texture (Contd)


Excess of thin, flat, elongated or flaky particles should
be avoided as they produce Harsh Unworkable mix and
are not suitable for Strength Bearing Concrete Wks.
Rounded Aggregate should be preferred where
available, because, they are Economical than Angular
pieces to produce the same Workability....
require about 1 Cum less Cement, per 100 Cum of
Concrete
about 2 Cum less Sand, per 100 Cum of Concrete
about 1.5 ltrs less Water, per Bag of Cement

Effect of TEXTURE
Aggre with Rough surface produce Weaker Concrete.
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SAND

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FA or Sand
Sand is
Round/ Angular in Grains
often found Mixed in various Gradation of Fineness.

Sand used for Mortars should consist of Sharp (i.e.


Angular) Grains of various sizes.
Angular Grained Sands best results of Tensile Str.
Round Grained Sands highest Compression Str.
STR of Mortars is effected by the variation in the size of
Sand particles. form and variety of Sand particles
cause Up to 50% Variation in Str
Sand particles should be Hard.
Color. Varies from Deep Brown to White. Deep Brown
color is due to traces of Iron.
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FA or Sand
Impurities in Sand.
Clay, Silt, Salts, Mica and Organic matter cause
Weakness.
All Sands gen contain some % of Silt and Clay.
Mica is easily discernable from its shining surface.
A certain % of impurities are inevitable in Sand.
Permissive limits.
Silt 6%
Mica 2 to 3%
Free from Shell.

Coal residues have a Corrosive effect on Rft.


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Classisfication
Sand may be cl on the basis of
Source
Mineralogical Composition
Size of the Particles
Particle Size Distribution.

Cl based on Source
Natural Sandresulting from natural
disintegration of Rocks or deposited by Streams
Crushed Stone Sandproduced by crushing Hard
Stones
Crushed Gravel Sandproduced by crushing
Natural Gravel.
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Classisfication
Cl based on Mineralogical Composition
Quartz Sand
Felspar Sand
Carbonaceous Sand.

Cl based on Size
Coarse Sand F.M. 2.90-3.20;
Medium SandF.M. 2.60-2.90;
Fine SandF.M. 2.20-2.60.

Cl based on Particle Size Distribution


divided in 4 Grades from Grading Zone I to Grading
Zone IV
given in Table 6.2.
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Gradings of FA

COARSER

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FINENESS INCREASING

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55

*FA or SAND

FA or Sand is the mtrl

most of which passes through 4.75mm IS sieve.


It is used in the Concrete to fill the voids in CA to produce a
dense Concrete and to reduce the qty of Cement.

Sources
Sea Sand.
Particles too fine and too uniform for good class wk.
Sea Sand should not be used in its natural state. Salts will
attack rft
if Salt content is too high, (-)
it will retard Setting and Hardening of Cement
may cause Efflorescence
but it may not have any deleterious effect on Ultimat Str of the
Concrete.

Washing will remove most of the Salt content.


Sea Sand must be tested for Organic Impurities.
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*FA or SAND
Pit Sand.
From Abandoned Beds of River.
Usually considered as the BEST.
Has Sharp Angular Grains (vs) River Sand which is Fine
with Rounded Grains.

Fresh water, River or Lake Sand.


Usually Quite Good, but, may be Contaminated with
mud.
Often found mixed with Clay, Silt and Mica

Crushed Stone.
Screenings from Crushed stone often contain a high %
of Dust and Clay and may tend to be Flaky.
Flaky or Angular Particles may produce a Harsh
Concrete.
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Proportioning of Concrete

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The Principle Object of proportioning Concrete is


to achieve requisite Strength
with desired Workability

To achieve this Object, due attention should be paid to the


selection of Cement and Aggregates according to the
specifications.
Concrete Mix Design is dealt in detail in chapter 11. Some
Imp Considerations are:
1. The MIX must be Workable so that it can be placed and
finished without extra effort.
2. Low Cement Consumption, consistent with the
attainment of desired properties.
3. High Cement Content should improve Strength,
Impermeability, Density and Workability.
4. For the same Cement Content, Ingredients and
Workability : increase in Density of Mix Strength and
Impermeability
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Grades and Mix Proportioning of CC

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PRODUCTION

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Quality Concrete
A Good Quality Concrete is essentially
a Homogeneous Mixture of Cement, CA, FA, Water
which consolidates into a Hard Mass, due to
Hydration.

Specific Functions of these four constituents

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CA acts as a Filler.
FA fills up the voids between the Paste and the CA.
Cement in conjunction with Water acts as a Binder.
The Mobility of the Mixture is aided by the Cement
Paste, Fines and nowadays, increasingly by the use of
Admixtures.
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Quality Concrete
QUALITY CONCRETE
Most of the properties of the hardened concrete
depend on the Care exercised at Every Stage of
Mfg.
A Rational Proportioning of the ingredients of
concrete is the essence of the Mix Design.
However, it may not guarantee of having achieved
the objective of the quality concrete work.
The AIM of QC is to ensure the production of
concrete of Uniform Strength from Batch to Batch.
This requires some Rules to be followed in various
stages of Concrete Production
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Stages of Concrete Production


1. Batching, or measurement of materials
2. Mixing
3. Transporting
4. Placing
5. Compacting
6. Curing
7. Finishing

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BATCHING
Ensuring Proper and Accurate Quantity of all
ingredients to achieve Good Quality Concrete
Accuracy of Batching.
Aggregates, Cement and Water. 3%
Admixtures. 5%

2 Methods of batching
Volume batching
Weigh batching.

Factors affecting the Choice of Batching Method


Size of job
Production Rate
Required Standards of Batching performance.

For most important works Weigh Batching is


recommended.
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VOLUME BATCHING
VOLUME BATCHING
for Small Jobs only.
Amount of each Solid Ingredient is measured by Loose
Volume; using standard box known as Gauge Box (Fig.
10.1). Gauge Box Vol = 0.035m3
Cement
is always measured by Weight, irrespective of the method of
batching.
Volume of a Bag of Cement (50 kg) = 0.035 m3.

The amount of Solid Granular material in a CuM will be an


indefinite quantity. e.g. Density of Sand in a Moist Loose
condition << Density of Dry Compacted Sand.
Correction to the effect of bulking of FA should be made, if
volume batching is adopted
Water is measured either in Kg or Litres.
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Wooden Box for Gauging Aggregates

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WEIGH BATCHING

MANUAL BATCHING.

For Smaller Wks


Weighing and Batching done Manually.
Weighing may also be done by Ordinary Platform Weighing
Machines.

WEIGH BUCKETS.
For Large size wks.
Weigh Buckets are fed from Hoppers and these discharge
the ingredients by Gravity, straight into the Mixer.

AUTOMATIC BATCHING PLANTS.


Automatic batching plants ranging from Small to Large
capacity
Manually or Electrically Op
OP.

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By Pressing a Button, Weighing of Materials is put into Motion


Flow of each is Cut-Off when the Correct Wt is reached.
Some Batchers Record Graphically the Wt of each material
delivered to each Batch.
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WEIGH BATCHING
Adding Water
Water is NOT added by Graduated Buckets, as the
Water may spill over during its addition.
A Horizontal or Vertical Tank is fitted to the Mixer.
The Fitting is so designed to have a Control to
admit any desired Qty of Water

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MIXING
The Object of Mixing is
to make the Concrete Mass
Homogeneous and Uniform
in Colour and Consistency.

All the Aggregate Particles should have a Coat of


Cement Paste
All the Ingredients should Blend into a Uniform
Mass.

The Mixing is done by


Hand
Mixer.
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for Small Jobs.


PROCESS

HAND MIXING

Measured Qtys of CA and FA are spread over an


impervious floor, in Alternate Layers.
Cement is poured over it, and, the ingredients are
Mixed Dry with shovel, until Uniformity in Colour is
achieved.
This Mix is Spread out in th of 200 mm and Water is
sprinkled.
The Mix is kept on Turning Over till a Uniform Colour
is achieved.

Desirable to add 10% extra Cement to cater for


the possible inferior concrete produced by this
method (as the Hand Mixing cannot be thorough)
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MACHINE MIXING
For Quality Wks
Mixers can be broadly classified as
Batch Mixers
Continuous Mixers.

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BATCH MIXERS (Machine Mixing)


BATCH MIXERS
Produce concrete Batch by Batch, with time interval
Small and Medium size wks.
Batch mixer may be of
Pan type
Drum type (Fig. 10.3).

Based on Technique of Mixing..Drum type are Cl as


Tilting (T)
Non-Tilting (NT),
Reversing (R) type,.

Based on Drum Capacity..Standard Sizes of the


Mixers :
Tilting: 85T, 100T, 140T, 200T
Non-tilting: 200NT, 280NT, 340NT, 400NT, 800NT
Reversing: 200R, 280R, 340R, 400R.
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Pan-type Drum Mixer

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Tilting Drum Type Batch Mixer

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Tilting Drum Type Bucket Mixer

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Non-Tilting Drum type Concrete Mixer

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Reversing Drum Mixer

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MACHINE MIXING

CONTINUOUS MIXERS

Produce Concrete Continuously, till plant is


working.
for Large Size Wks, e.g., Dams.
A typical Vertical Batching Mixing Plant for large size
work is shown in Fig. 10.2

Sometimes Mixers are specified by 2 Qtys:


Total Volume of Ingredients Added, and
the Volume of Concrete Produced.
e.g. 285/ 200-Litres Mixer takes 285 Litres of
Ingredients and yields 200 Liters of Concrete.
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Vertical Batching Mixing Plant

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TILTING MIXERS
The Tilting Mixers may be
Hand Fed or
Loader (Skip) Fed.

The Mixer is generally


Bowl shaped
Double Conical Frustum type.

It can be Tilted for discharging Concrete. Blades


are fixed inside the drum. The Revolving Drum
with the Mixing Blades gives Lifting and Free Fall
to the mix, Combs and Agitates it. The Mixed
Concrete is discharged from the open top of the
drum by tilting it downwards.
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TILTING MIXERS (Contd)


The Concrete tips out rapidly under gravity in an
Unsegregated mass as soon as the drum is tilted.
These Mixers may be used to their Advantage for
Mixes of
Low Workability and
containing Large Size Aggregate.

The Disadvantage of these mixers lies in the fact


that some Mortar adheres to the Drum and is left
out in the drum during discharging.
To check this some amount of Mortar is mixed in
the mixer before the first Batching called
Buttering.
A typical tilting mixer is shown in Plate 1.
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Drum Type Batch Mixer

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NON-TILTING MIXER
It consists of a
Non-tilting Cylindrical Drum with Blades inside
2 Circular Openings at the 2 ends.

The Drum rotates about a Horizontal Axis (Fig.


10.4).
The Ingredients are fed from one opening and
the Mix discharged from the other opening at
the other end by at inclined chute.
Drawback. Segregation that occurs owing to
Slow Rate of Discharge.
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Non-Tilting Drum type Concrete Mixer

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REVERSING DRUM TYPE MIXEER


These are also known as Forced action type
mixers and are used for large size works.
It consists of a
Horizontal Non-Tilting type Drum (Fig 10.5).
2 sets of Blades.
First Set of Blades. Mixes the Mix, while the Drum is
rotated in one Direction.
Second Set of Blades. Discharges the Mix, when the
Drum is reversed.

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Reversing Drum Mixer

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PAN TYPE (or) STIRRING MIXER


These are Non-Mobile Mixers and are used either
as a Central Mixing Plant or at Precast Concrete
Factory.
Primarily these are used for making Mortar but
are also used efficiently for Stiff and Cohesive
Mixes.
Rollers and Blades rotate in a Rolling Pan.
Apart from Mixing the Ingredients, they also
produce Kneading and Crushing action.
A Pan type Mixer is shown in Fig. 10.6. These are
also known as Dual Drum Mixers and are used for
mixing Concrete for Roads or Pavements.
The Concrete produced by this type of mixers
show NO Segregation
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Pan-type Drum Mixer

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PAN TYPE (or) STIRRING MIXER


Mechanism
The Drum comprises of 2 Hemispherical Halves,
rotating on a Horizontal Shaft.
One Half of the Drum is attached to the end of the Shaft and
the Other Half is free to slide over the Shaft, allowing the
Drum to open at the Centre.

A Rubber Joint and Adjustable Closing Pressure


ensures a Perfect Sealing when the Drum is closed.
Due to difference in Circumferential Speeds because
of the design of blades Cross Flow is created which
forces the Concrete towards the Centre causing
turbulence and produces a perfect Homogeneous Mix.
The Rotating Sliding Drum-Half can be retracted for
discharge of Concrete in few seconds.
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TRANSIT MIXER
Truck mounted mixers also know as Transit Mixers
(Fig. 10.7(a)) are very popular and have replaced
the Dumpers and Agitator Cars used earlier to
transport fresh concrete from the batching plant
to the site.
Transit mixers of capacity 4 to 12 Cu M mounted
on Truck Chassis are available.
Initially, these Mixers were NOT very efficient
and needed long Mixing Duration depending on
the extent of Dryness in the Mix.
Their Main Function is to keep the mix in an
agitated condition.
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Transit Mixer driven by Truck Engine

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With the development of Twin Fin Process Mixer (Fig.


10.7(b)), the Transit Mixers have become more
Efficient.
These mixers in addition to the Outer Spirals have 2
Opposed Inner Spirals.
The Outer Spirals convey the mix materials towards the
bottom of the drum while the Opposed Mixing Spirals
push the mix towards the feed opening.
The repeated Counter Current Mixing Process is carried
out within the Mixer Drum.
A number of Special Nozzles provided on the lower side of
Inner Mixing Spirals, precisely and uniformly Spray Water
on the Mix under Pressure along the entire length of the
Drum.
This results in thorough Mixing of the entire drum contents
within a short time.
Hence, production of High Quality Structural Concrete in
the transit mixer is possible at a Faster Rate
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Interior of Twin Fin Transit Mixer with Spay Arng

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The Order of Feeding the ingredients into the mixer is as


follows:
About 25 % of Water required for mixing is first introduced
into the Mixer Drum to prevent any sticking of Cement on the
Blades and bottom of the Drum.
Then the Ingredients are discharged through the Skip.
In the skip, the sequence of loading should be to add

Half the CA, then


Half the FA, and Over this
total Cement, and then
the balance Aggregates.

After discharging the ingredients into the drum, balance


Water is introduced.

The Speed of the mixers is generally 15 to 20 rpm.


For proper mixing, the RPM of Drum 25 to 30.
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MIXING TIME
Counted from the instant Complete Water is fed into
the mixer.
Time of mixing also depends on Capacity of Mixer and
is given in Table 10.3
If the Mixing Time is Reduced A Poor Quality of
Concrete is obtained
On the other hand if the Mixing Time is Increased
it is Uneconomical.
may cause Segregation.
Water may get Absorbed by the Aggregates or Evaporate
resulting in LOSS of Workability and Str.
However, it is found that
if the Mixing Time is increased to 2 minutes the Compressive
Str of Concrete produced is enhanced.
BUT, beyond this time the improvement in Compressive Str is
insignificant
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Time of Mixing
Ser
No

Capacity of
Mixer
(Cu M)

1
2
3

>= 3
2
<=1

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Minimum Mixing Time (min)


Natural
Manufactured
Aggregates
Aggregates
2
2.5
1.5
2
1.25
1.5

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TRANSPORTING

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TRANSPORTING

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MORTAR PAN
WHELL BARROW
CHUTES
DUMPER
BUCKET AND ROPE WAY
CONVEYOR BELT
SKIP AND HOIST
PUMPING
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WHEEL BARROW

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PLACING

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Foundations for Walls and Columns


Provided below the GL.
Before placing the concrete in the foundation
all the loose earth, roots of trees etc., are
removed.
If the foundation bed is dry it is made wet
so that earth does not absorb water from
concrete.
if the foundation bed is wet Water and
Mud is removed and Cement is sprinkled
before placing Concrete.
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BEAMS, COLUMNS and SLABS


Before placing the concrete,
the Forms must be examined for correct Alignment.
They should be adequately Rigid to withstand the weight
of concrete and construction loads without undue
deformation.
Forms should be Tight enough to avoid any loss of mortar
resulting in honeycombed concrete.
The insides of the forms should be Cleaned and Oiled
before use to avoid any sticking of concrete with the forms
and making their stripping off difficult.

Concrete should not be dropped but PLACED in


position to prevent Segregation. It should be PLACED
vertically from as small height as possible. It should be
Placed at One Point in the Formwork and allowed to
flow side ways to take care of Honeycombing.
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BEAMS, COLUMNS and SLABS


Laitance fmn
should be avoided.
It can be Checked by restricting th of layer of Concrete to
150300 mm for R.C.C work.
Laitance, however, if formed must be removed before
placing the next layer of concrete.
The surface of the Previous Lift is kept Rough and all the
laitance removed before placing the next lift.

The Rft

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should be checked for Tightness and Clean Surface.


The loose Rust or Scales if any, are removed by wire brush.
Paint, Oil or Grease if found should be removed.
The Minimum Cover for Rft should be checked before
Concreting.
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MASS CONCRETING
When the concrete is to be laid in Mass as for

Raft Foundation
Dam
Bridge,
Pier etc.,

LIFTS
Concrete is placed in layers of 350450 mm th. Several such
layers placed in quick succession form a LIFT
Before placing the Concrete in the next LIFT, the Surface of
Previous Lift is Cleaned thoroughly with Water Jets and
Scrubbed with Wire Brush.
In case of Dams, Sand Blasting is done.

The Laitance and Loose Materials are removed and Cement


Slurry is applied.
When the Concrete is subjected to Lateral Thrust,
Bond Bars or Bond Stones are provided
to form a Key between different layers.
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CONCRETING HWs AND RUNWAYS


Concrete is laid in Bays for HW, Runway, or Floor
Slabs.
First the ground on which concrete is to be laid is
Prepared and all the loose materials and grass etc.,
are removed.
The Earth is Wetted and Compacted.

The Sub-Grades over which Concrete is to be laid


should be properly Compacted and Damped to
avoid any Loss of Moisture from Concrete.
Concrete is then laid in Alternate Bays. This
allows the Concrete to undergo sufficient
Shrinkage and Cracks do not develop afterwards.
Concrete is not placed in heap at one place and
then dragged, instead it is Placed in Uniform th.
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CONCRETING UNDER WATER

Concrete may be placed Under Water with the


help of Bottom Dump Buckets.
Concrete is taken through the water in Water- Tight
Bucket.
On reaching the place of deposition the bottom of the
Bucket is made to Open and the Concrete is dumped.
In this process certain amount of Cement is washed
away causing a reduction in Str of Concrete.

Another way of Concreting underwater is


by filling Cement Bag with Dry or Semi-Dry Mix of
Cement and Aggregates and lowering them to the
place of deposition.
The DRAWBACK of this method is that the Concrete
will be full of Voids interspersed with pieces of Gunny
Bags.
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CONCRETING UNDER WATER

The BEST METHOD of placing Concrete underwater is by


the use of TERMIE PIPE.
The Concrete is poured into it through Funnel.
Bottom end of the pipe is closed with a thick Polythene Sheet,
with the bottom end of the pipe at the place of deposition.
The Concrete (Slump 150200 mm) is poured into Funnel till the
whole pipe is filled with concrete.
The pipe is slightly lifted and given a jerk, the Polythene Sheet
Cover falls and Concrete discharged.
It should be ensured that the End of Pipe remains inside the
Concrete so that water does not enter the pipe.
The pipe is again filled with concrete through funnel and the
process repeated till the concrete level comes above the water
level.
No compaction is required for Underwater Concrete as it gets
compacted by the Hydrostatic Pressure of water.

Concrete can also be placed underwater with the help of


Pipes and Pumps.
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COMPACTION

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COMPACTION

After concrete is placed at the desired location,


the next step in the process of concrete
production is its compaction.
Compaction of the concrete is the process to
get rid of the entrapped air and voids,
elimination of segregation occurred and
form a homogeneous dense mass.

Compaction consolidates fresh concrete


within the moulds or frameworks and
around embedded parts and reinforcement steel.

Considerable quantity of Air is Entrapped in


Concrete during its Production and there is
possible Partial Segregation also. Both of these
adversely affect the Quality of Concrete.
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COMPACTION
Voids, Permeability, Rusting, Str
Voids effect Str
5 % Voids in Hardened Concrete REDUCE the Str by 30%
10 % Voids REDUCE the Str by 50%.
Therefore, the Density and consequently the Str and
Durability of Concrete largely depend upon the Degree
of Compaction.
For Max Str Driest possible concrete should be
compacted 100%.

Voids increase Permeability of Concrete.


Permeability creates Easy Passage of Moisture, Oxygen,
Chlorides, and other Aggressive Chemicals into the
Concrete.
This causes Rusting of Steel and Spalling
(Disintegration) of Concrete i.e., loss of Durability.
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COMPACTION (Contd)
Easy entry of Sulphates from the environment causes
Expansive Reaction with the C3A present in Cement.
This causes Disintegration of Concrete and Loss of Durability.

Entry of CO2 causes


Carbonation of Concrete i.e., loss of Alkalinity of Concrete or loss of
the Protective Power that Concrete gives to the Rft or other Steel
embedded in it.
Once the Carbonation Depth > th of Concrete Cover to the embedded
Steel, Steel becomes Vulnerable to the attack of Moisture.
This expedites Rusting of Steel as the protective Concrete Cover
remains NO longer Alkaline in nature.

Voids also
REDUCE the Contact between embedded Steel and Concrete. This
results in Loss of Bond Strength of Reinforced Concrete member and
thus the member loses Str.
Voids such as Honeycombs and Blowholes on the exposed surface
produce Visual Blemish. Concrete surface is not good to look with all
such blemishes. Concrete with smooth and perfect surface finish not
only Looks good but is also Stronger and more Durable.
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COMPACTION (Contd)
Compaction is achieved by imparting external
Work over the Concrete to overcome the
Internal Friction
between the Particles forming the Concrete,
between Concrete and Rft and
between Concrete and Forms and
by reducing the Air Voids to a Minimum.

The Compaction of Concrete can be achieved


by the following Methods given in succeeding
Slides.
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HAND COMPACTION
Used for Small and Unimportant Jobs.
Extremely useful for Thin Elements such as Slabs, and for
members with Congested Rfts.
for Mixes with any Workability except for very fluid or very
plastic Mix.
Hand Compaction is achieved by Rodding, Ramming, or
Tamping.
Rodding is done with the help of 16 mm diameter, 2 m long
Steel Rod to pack the Concrete between the Rft, Sharp Corners
and Edges, continuously during Concreting.
Ramming is permitted only for Unreinforced Concrete
Constructions.
Tamping. Roof and Floor Slabs are usually tamped for achieving
Compaction. Tampers are 100 100 mm in section and about 1
m long. Tamping Bars not only Compact the Concrete but also
Level the Top surface.

Limitation. large W-C ratio is required for full compaction.


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COMPACTION BY VIBRATION

This is the Most Common and Widely Used method of


compacting concrete for any Structural Element.
Vibrations imparted to the Fresh Concrete
reduce the internal friction between the particles of
concrete by setting the particles in motion and
thus produce a dense and compact mass.

On vibration,

Concrete mix gets Fluidized and


Internal Friction between the Aggregate particles REDUCES
resulting in Entrapped Air to rise to the Surface.
On losing entrapped air the Concrete gets Denser.

Vibrations do not affect the Str of Concrete; but


Concrete of Higher Str and better Quality can be made
with Lesser Water and given Cement Content.
Therefore, with vibrations Stiff Concrete with low W-C
ratio can also be Well Compacted.
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COMPACTION BY VIBRATION

For Full Compaction, Vibration can be considered to be Sufficient


when the Air Bubbles Cease to appear and
Sufficient Mortar appears to close the Surface Interstices and facilitate
easy Finishing Op.

Vibration
Helps Entrapped Air to escape first from between the CA particles and
later from the Mortar.
When Vibration continues some more Entrapped Air from the mortar
is Driven out.
However, during this Second Phase, Concrete does not show any
movement but it is in this phase that Maximum Entrapped Air is
driven out and that is the time when Most of the Consolidation takes
place.
Plastic mixes need less time of Vibration than Harsh or Dry Mixes.

Types of Vibrators in use are

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Needle,
Formwork,
Table or Platform, and
Surface Vibrators.
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NEEDLE VIBRATOR

can be used for any type of concrete work.


This consists of

a Steel Tube, called Poker, having an Eccentric Vibrating Element inside


The Needle Diameter varies from 20 to 75 mm and its Length from 250 to 900
mm.
In places where the Rft is congested , Blades are used instead of Needle.

Flexible Shaft
Power Unit. An average Frequency of Vibration is 3,500 to 5,000 CPM

A Needle Vibrator is shown in Plate 2. USE


Immersed into Concrete at a Spacing of < 600 mm (or) 8 to 10 times
the Diameter of the poker.
The Vibrator is immersed at a place for about 30 Secs to 2 Mins.
Location of the Poker Insertion should be STAGGERED to ensure that
every bit of concrete is compacted (Fig. 10.9).
The Vibrator should be allowed to Penetrate the Concrete Vertically
(inclination 10) under its Own Wt.
Poker Position should be changed gradually from the Side of the Heap
and moving away from the heap ALL ROUND (Fig. 10.10(a).
Poker should NOT be introduced in the CENTER of the Heap (Fig.
10.10(b)
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Method of Poker insertion near a heap

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FORMWK VIBRATOR
These are also known as External or Shutter vibrators.
These are generally used under the following Circumstances:
1. Compaction of Concrete is required to be done in a Very Thin or Very
Densely Congested Reinforced Section.
2. In addition to Internal Vibration, Compaction is required to be done
specially in the Cover Area where at times Needle or Poker Vibrator is
Unable to do satisfactory Compaction.
3. Compaction of Very Stiff Concrete is required to be done because such
Concrete cannot be Compacted by Internal Vibrators.
Formwork Vibrators are used for Concreting
Columns
Thin Walls and
Precast Units.

These are Rigidly Clamped to the Formwork, causing it to Vibrate and


consequently Transfer the Vibrations to Concrete.
The performance of these vibrators when directly attached to Formwork is
NOT generally satisfactory.
The Vibrator is mounted on a Steel Plate, which is attached to a Channel
or the I-beam, which runs along the formwork touching the Form
Stiffeners.
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FORMWK VIBRATOR (Contd)


The Shuttering and the formwork have to be rigid, strong and
watertight.
The Vibrators operate at a Frequency of 3,000 to 9,000 CPM
The Formwork requires to be properly designed to transfer the
Vibrations to the Concrete without itself getting displaced or
opening up.
These consume more Power and are less Efficient than the needle
vibrators
The Compaction Time of Form Vibrators is generally between 1 to 2
Mins.
Form Vibrators should NOT be used on Top of the Vertical
Formwork. Generally they should be fixed 1000 mm below the top
finished Level of Concrete.
The Top Layer of Concrete must be vibrated by a Needle Vibrator.
Use of Form Vibrator at top locations will generally cause
Separation of Concrete from the formwork. Due to Formwork being
inadequately stiffened at top it results in, in and out movement
causing the Separation.
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FORMWK VIBRATOR (Contd)

Form vibrators if used in addition to Internal vibrators help removing Entrapped Air
along the Concrete Surface giving a much Superior Finish.
Generally, Tapping with a Wooden Mallet on the external face of the formwork
also helps remove Entrapped Air which generally blemishes the concrete surface
inspite of adequate internal vibration.
VIBRATING TABLE.
A Special Case of a Formwork Vibrator used in Labs and Factories is Vibrating
Table.
The Vibrating Table consists of
a rigidly built Steel Platform
mounted on Flexible Springs and
driven by an Electric Motor.

The average Frequency of vibration is 4000 CPM. The Moulds are clamped on the
Platform.
Vibrations are stopped as soon as the Concrete in the moulds develops a Level
Smooth Surface.
Medium Workable Mixes generally require Higher Frequency of Vibration than Stiff
Mixes.
It is observed that increasing the Frequency and decreasing the Amplitude as
vibration progresses improves Consolidation by using this type of Vibrator.
The Vibrating Tables are Very Efficient in compacting Stiff and Harsh Mixes
required for Precast Elements.

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SURFACE VIBRATOR
These are also known as Screed Board
Vibrators.
Surface vibrators are used for Floor and Roof
Slabs and Pavement Surfaces.
These are effective only up to a th of 150 mm
of Concrete but can be used up to 250 mm.
Surface vibrators cause movement of fine
particles to the top and hence aid the
Finishing Op.
The operating Frequency is 4,000 CPM.
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COMPACTION BY SPINNING
This method is also known as Centrifugation
and is used for producing circular elements
such as Pipes.
The Plastic Concrete is SPUN into the
horizontal mould at a Very High Speed.
Water forced out of the mix during spinning
flows out of the Mould.
The initial W-C ratio required for effective
Compaction is 0.35 to 0.4 which after spinning
reduces to 0.3.
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COMPACTION BY JOLTING
In this method of Compaction, the mould
containing Dry Concrete is subjected to Jolt at a
frequency of 100 to 150 JPM.
Jolting
is a Vibrating action of low frequency and high
amplitude.
The mould filled with concrete is raised by about 12
mm and then
allowed to fall under gravity.
This method is used for Precast Units such as
Hollow Blocks
Cavity Blocks etc.
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COMPACTION BY ROLLING
Method of Compaction
the Soft and Plastic Concrete is fed continuously
between Rubber Rollers under Pressure up to 50
atm
This forces out the excess water in concrete.

Rolling is used to manufacture Precast


Concrete Products such as Tiles.

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