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# DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING AND ITS IMPLEMENTATION

## SIR CRR COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

M.Hanumantha Rao
III/IV ECE
E-mail: honeyrao123@gmail.com
Contact No: 9441518887

G.Manikanta
III/IV ECE
Email: gunda.manikanta007@ gmail.com
Contact No: 8985898030
applications etc., In this paper we are focusing the

ABSTRACT
Digital image processing is rapidly evolving field
with

growing

applications

in

science

and

## engineering. Image processing holds the possibility

of developing the ultimate machine that could
perform the visual functions as all living beings .
The process of receiving and analyzing visual
information by digital computer is called DIGITAL
IMAGE PROCESSING .This led to evolution of a
new subject called ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE.
We find

## techniques such as robo vision , biomedical

analysis, criminology, astronomy and space

## basics of image processing systems, terminology

associated , various techniques involved in the
image

processing

implementation

and

through

their

effective

MATLAB

software.

## MATLAB serves as an excellent platform for the

implementation of image processing. Hence we
explained this by considering some of the
techniques
IMAGE

like

IMAGE

SEGEMENTATION,

ENHANCEMENT

etc.,

through

## MATLAB. We conclude the paper by explaining

various applications of image processing. The
advances in technology have created tremendous
opportunities

for

visual

system

and

image

## amplitude values is called QUANTIZATION .an

digital image function is of the form

INTRODUCTION

F(x,y)=

## An image may be defined as a two dimensional

function F(x,y) where x,y are spacial coordinates
and the amplitude of F at any pair of coordinates
(x,y) is called the intensity or gray level of the

f(0,0)

f(0,1)..

f(0,n-1)
f(1,0)

f(1,1) ............f(1,n-1)

## image at that point .When (x,y) and all amplitude

values of F are all finite discrete quantities we call

## the image a DIGITAL IMAGE .Digital Image

Processing pertains to the alteration and analysis of

f(m-1,0)

f(m-1,1)..f(m-1,n-1)

## pictorial information of digital image by means of

digital computer.

## The entire process of image processing and analysis

starting from the receiving of visual information to

COMPONENTS

## 1.) Discretization and representation :converting

visual information into a discrete form :suitable for
computer

processing

,approximating

visual

## information to save storage space as well as time

requirement in subsequent processing.
2.)Processing :improving image quality by filtering
etc., compressing data to save storage and channel
capacity during transmission
3.)Analysis: extracting image features; quantifying
shapes ,registration and recognition.

DIGITALIMAGE REPRESENTATION:
An image may be continuous with respect to x and
y coordinates & also in amplitude .Converting such
an image to digital form requires coordinates as
well as amplitude to be digitized. Digitizing the

OF

IMAGE

PROCESSING SYSTEM:
Image sensing

## displaying are four principal operations

1.)IMAGE SENSOR :An image sensor intercepts
the radiant energy propogating from the scene and
transforms it to produce an intensity image .The
devises used as image sensors range from still
camera to multi spectral scanner on board in
satellites .Television cameras are widely used and
are easy to operate .There are as many as five
different systems used in television imaging.:
IMAGE

ORTHICON

TUBE,ICONOSCOPE

TUBE,

VIDICON

TUBE,IMAGE

## DISSECTOR TUBE and CHARGE COUPLED

DEVICES( known as CCD cameras).Apart from

ULTRASINIC

RANGER,

MAGNETIC

avoid

## memory access unit which is a special hardware

digitizing photograph.

## independent of central processor.

3.)PROCESSOR: Systems

## used in image processing .Dedicating image

processing systems connected to host computers are
popular

.special

coprocessor

## card(with hardware implemented image processing

operators ) and parallel operators are also being
included in many small systems to gain speed
.Interactive graphic devices are also added to
provide image editing facilities .most of the image
processing hard wares

## following architectural concepts:

1.)SERIAL OR VON NEUMANN
ARCHITECTURE
2.)MULTIPLE INSTRUCTION MULTIPLEDEVICE PROCESSORS.
3.)PIPELINES
4.)SINGLE INSTRUCTION MULTIPLE
DEVICE(SIMD) PARALLEL PROCESSORS

many

general

purpose

## A GENERAL PURPOSE IMAGE

PROCESSING SYSTEM:
THE VARIOUS IMAGE PROCESSING
TECHNIQUES ARE
1.) Image representation and modeling
2.) Image enhancement
3.) Image restoration
4.) Image analysis
5.) Image reconstruction
6.) Image data compression
IMAGE

REPRESENTATION

AND

MODELLING:
In image representation one is concerned with
characterization of the quantity that each picture
element(pixel )represents .An image could represent
luminance of objects in a scene ,the absorption of
the body tissue(x-ray imaging),radar imaging etc.,
An important consideration in image representation
in the fidelity

DISPLAY UNIT:

.Since

very

flicker

performance

of

processing

technique.

noise

expressed as

## sampled images basis images can be determined

from

unitary

matrices

called

filtering

and

correction

of

geometry

G(x,y)=h(x,y;,)f(,)d d+ (x,y)

IMAGE

TRANSFORMS.
The three canonical forms of a STOCHASTIC
MODELS

IMAGE ENHANCEMENT:
In image enhancement , the goal is to accentuate
certain image features for subsequent analysis or for
image display .Examples include contrast and edge
enhancement, pseudo coloring, noise filtering,
sharpening and magnifying .Image enhancement is
useful in feature extraction , image analysis and
visual

enhancement

## techniques such as contrast stretching, map each

gray

level

into

another

gray

level

by

predetermined transformation.

## Where (x,y) is the additive noise function, f(,) is

the object ,g(x,y) is the image and h(x,y;,) is
called the point spread function(psf).A typical
image restoration problem is to find an estimate of
f(,) given the PSF , the blurred image and the
statistical properties of the noise process

## angles. Reconstruction algorithms derive an image

of a thin axial slice of the object giving an inside
view otherwise unobtainable with out performing
extensive surgery. Such techniques are important in
medical imaging (CT scanners),astronomy ,radar
imaging and non destructive testing of assemblies.
IMAGE DATA COMPRESSION:

IMAGE ANALYSIS:
Image

analysis

is

concerned

with

making

## quantitative measurements from an image to

produce a description of it. In the simplest form,
this task could be reading a label on a grocery item ,
sorting different parts on an assembly line or
measuring the size and orientation of blood cells in
a medical image. More advanced image analysis
systems measure quantitative information and use it
to make a sophisticated decision,such as controlling
the arm of a robot to move an object after
identifying it or navigating an aircraft with the aid
images acquired along its trajectory.Image analysis
techniques require extraction of certain features that
aid in the identification of the object.Segmentation
techniques are used to isolate the desired object
from the scene so that measurements can be made
on it subsequently.
IMAGE

RECONSTRUCTION

FROM

PROJECTIONS :
Image reconstructions from projections is a special

## The amount of data associated with visual

information is so large that its storage would require
enormous storage capacity .Although the capacities
of several storage media are substantial, their access
speeds are usually inversely proportional to their
capacity .Typical television images generate data
rates exceeding 10 million bytes per sec. There are
other image sources that generate higher data rates
storage and/or transmission of such data require
large capacity and/or band width which could be
very expensive. Image data compression techniques
are concerned with reduction of the no of bits
required to store or transmit he images without any
appreciable loss of information. Because of wide
applications

like

teleconferencing

computer
remote

communications,

sensing

etc.,

data

processing.

IMPLEMENTATION

THROUGH

MAT

LAB :

MATLAB

## The Image Processing Toolbox is a collection of

wnr1 = deconvwnr(Blurred,PSF);

## functions that extend the capability of the MATLAB

figure;imshow(wnr1);

## supports a wide range of image processing

NP = abs(fftn(noise)).^2;

operations, including

## 1.Spatial image transformations

power

2.Morphological operations

centered

## 4.Linear filtering and filter design

IP = abs(fftn(im2double(I))).^2;

## IPOW = sum(IP(:))/prod(size(I)); % original image

6.Image registration

power

centered

## We have implemented a few techniques of image

wnr7=deconvwnr(BlurredNoisy,PSF,NCORR,IC

## processing like IMAGE ENHANCEMENT,IMAGE

RR);

DEBLURRING,CONTRAST ENHANCEMENT

figure;imshow(wnr7);

## EDITOR and the results are obtained as following:

ICORR1 = ICORR(:,ceil(size(I,1)/2));

## Deblurring Images Using the Wiener

wnr8

Filter

deconvwnr(BlurredNoisy,PSF,NPOW,ICORR1);

## Wiener deconvolution can be used effectively when

the frequency characteristics of the image and

figure;imshow(wnr8);
title('Restored with NP & 1D-ACF');

## additive noise are known, to at least some degree.

Similar to the above we can perform many number
I = I(10+[1:256],222+[1:256],:);

## of IMAGE PROCESSING TECHNIQUES using

MATLAB

figure;imshow(I);title('Original Image');
LEN = 31;
THETA = 11;
PSF = fspecial('motion',LEN,THETA);
Blurred = imfilter(I,PSF,'circular','conv');
figure; imshow(Blurred);
title('Blurred');

APPLICATIONS:
1.

## applicable in areas like Medical imaging, Scanning,

Ultrasound and X-rays etc.

## from one point to another point. Here the robots are

fixed with cameras to view the object which is to be
moved. The hand of the robot and the object that is
to be captured are observed by the cameras, which
are fixed to the robot in position, this real time
image is processed by the image processing
techniques to get the actual distance between the
Bone Scan

## hand and the object. Here the base wheel of the

robots hand is rotated through an angle which is
proportional to the actual distance between hand
and the object. Here a point in the target is obtained
by using the Edge Detection Technique. The
operation to be performed is controlled by the
micro-controller, which is connected to the ports of
the fingers of the robots hand. Using the software
programs the operations to be performed are
assigned keys from the keyboard. By pressing the
relative key on the keyboard the hand moves
appropriately.

## Here the usage of sensors/cameras and Edge

Detection technique are related to Image Processing

CONCLUSION:

office

REFERENCES:

opportunities

for Vision

Processing. The

System

and

Image

## extend over a wide range of fields such as military,

automation

2)www.wikipidia.org
3)IEEE magazines.

,biomedical,

astronomy,