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DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING AND ITS IMPLEMENTATION

USING MAT LAB

SIR CRR COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING


M.Hanumantha Rao
III/IV ECE
E-mail: honeyrao123@gmail.com
Contact No: 9441518887

G.Manikanta
III/IV ECE
Email: gunda.manikanta007@ gmail.com
Contact No: 8985898030
applications etc., In this paper we are focusing the

ABSTRACT
Digital image processing is rapidly evolving field
with

growing

applications

in

science

and

engineering. Image processing holds the possibility


of developing the ultimate machine that could
perform the visual functions as all living beings .
The process of receiving and analyzing visual
information by digital computer is called DIGITAL
IMAGE PROCESSING .This led to evolution of a
new subject called ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE.
We find

applications of these image processing

techniques such as robo vision , biomedical


analysis, criminology, astronomy and space

basics of image processing systems, terminology


associated , various techniques involved in the
image

processing

implementation

and

through

their

effective

MATLAB

software.

MATLAB serves as an excellent platform for the


implementation of image processing. Hence we
explained this by considering some of the
techniques
IMAGE

like

IMAGE

SEGEMENTATION,

ENHANCEMENT

etc.,

through

MATLAB. We conclude the paper by explaining


various applications of image processing. The
advances in technology have created tremendous
opportunities

for

visual

system

and

image

processing. There is no doubt that the trend will

coordinate value is called SAMPLING. Digitizing

continue into the future.

amplitude values is called QUANTIZATION .an


digital image function is of the form

INTRODUCTION

F(x,y)=

An image may be defined as a two dimensional


function F(x,y) where x,y are spacial coordinates
and the amplitude of F at any pair of coordinates
(x,y) is called the intensity or gray level of the

f(0,0)

f(0,1)..

f(0,n-1)
f(1,0)

f(1,1) ............f(1,n-1)

image at that point .When (x,y) and all amplitude


values of F are all finite discrete quantities we call

the image a DIGITAL IMAGE .Digital Image


Processing pertains to the alteration and analysis of

f(m-1,0)

f(m-1,1)..f(m-1,n-1)

pictorial information of digital image by means of


digital computer.

Each element is called PIXEL OR PELS.

The entire process of image processing and analysis


starting from the receiving of visual information to

Different stages of image processing and

the giving out of the description of the image may

analysis scheme is as shown

be divided into three major stages such as

COMPONENTS

1.) Discretization and representation :converting


visual information into a discrete form :suitable for
computer

processing

,approximating

visual

information to save storage space as well as time


requirement in subsequent processing.
2.)Processing :improving image quality by filtering
etc., compressing data to save storage and channel
capacity during transmission
3.)Analysis: extracting image features; quantifying
shapes ,registration and recognition.

DIGITALIMAGE REPRESENTATION:
An image may be continuous with respect to x and
y coordinates & also in amplitude .Converting such
an image to digital form requires coordinates as
well as amplitude to be digitized. Digitizing the

OF

IMAGE

PROCESSING SYSTEM:
Image sensing

, digitizing ,processing and

displaying are four principal operations


1.)IMAGE SENSOR :An image sensor intercepts
the radiant energy propogating from the scene and
transforms it to produce an intensity image .The
devises used as image sensors range from still
camera to multi spectral scanner on board in
satellites .Television cameras are widely used and
are easy to operate .There are as many as five
different systems used in television imaging.:
IMAGE

ORTHICON

TUBE,ICONOSCOPE

TUBE,

VIDICON

TUBE,IMAGE

DISSECTOR TUBE and CHARGE COUPLED


DEVICES( known as CCD cameras).Apart from

these optical image sensors image can also be

A display device produces and shows a visual form

captured in devices like X RAY scanner, RADAR ,

of numerical values stored in a computer as a image

ULTRASINIC

array. Principal display devices. are printer, tv

RANGER,

MAGNETIC

RESINANCE IMAGING( MRI) SYSTEM etc.,

monitor, CRTs. .One major problem is,it must

2.)DIGITIZER: A digitizer is required input

refresh the screen at a rate of about 25 frames/sec to

images to a digital computer, produces digital image

avoid

composed of discrete intensity values at discrete

computers are unable to transfer the data at such a

positions .Most of the image sensors have built in

high speed the entire image is kept in a memory

digitizers or provide signal that can be digitized by

commonly called FRAME BUFFER .This memory

straight way by an A/D converter. Micro density

is scanned and displayed at the video rate by direct

meter and flying spot scanner are widely used for

memory access unit which is a special hardware

digitizing photograph.

independent of central processor.

3.)PROCESSOR: Systems

used in image processing .Dedicating image


processing systems connected to host computers are
popular

nowadays

.special

coprocessor

card(with hardware implemented image processing


operators ) and parallel operators are also being
included in many small systems to gain speed
.Interactive graphic devices are also added to
provide image editing facilities .most of the image
processing hard wares

are based on one of the

following architectural concepts:


1.)SERIAL OR VON NEUMANN
ARCHITECTURE
2.)MULTIPLE INSTRUCTION MULTIPLEDEVICE PROCESSORS.
3.)PIPELINES
4.)SINGLE INSTRUCTION MULTIPLE
DEVICE(SIMD) PARALLEL PROCESSORS

many

general

purpose

A GENERAL PURPOSE IMAGE


PROCESSING SYSTEM:
THE VARIOUS IMAGE PROCESSING
TECHNIQUES ARE
1.) Image representation and modeling
2.) Image enhancement
3.) Image restoration
4.) Image analysis
5.) Image reconstruction
6.) Image data compression
IMAGE

REPRESENTATION

AND

MODELLING:
In image representation one is concerned with
characterization of the quantity that each picture
element(pixel )represents .An image could represent
luminance of objects in a scene ,the absorption of
the body tissue(x-ray imaging),radar imaging etc.,
An important consideration in image representation
in the fidelity

DISPLAY UNIT:

.Since

ranging from micro

computers to general purpose large computers are

very

flicker

or the intelligibility criteria for

measuring the quality of an image or the


performance

of

processing

technique.

Specification of such measures requires models of

or minimization of known degradations in an

perception of contrast , spatial frequencies ,color

image .this includes deblurring of images degraded

and so on .Image quantization is the analog to

by the limitations of a sensor or its environment,

digital conversion of a sampled image to a finite

noise

number of gray levels . A classical method of signal

distortions or non linearities due to sensors. The

representation is by an orthogonal series expansion

image of a point source is blurred and degraded due

such as fourier series .For images, analog

to noise by an imaging system. If the imaging

representation is possible via two dimensional

system is linear the image of an object can be

orthogonal functions called BASIS IMAGES .For

expressed as

sampled images basis images can be determined


from

unitary

matrices

called

filtering

and

correction

of

geometry

G(x,y)=h(x,y;,)f(,)d d+ (x,y)

IMAGE

TRANSFORMS.
The three canonical forms of a STOCHASTIC
MODELS

IMAGE ENHANCEMENT:
In image enhancement , the goal is to accentuate
certain image features for subsequent analysis or for
image display .Examples include contrast and edge
enhancement, pseudo coloring, noise filtering,
sharpening and magnifying .Image enhancement is
useful in feature extraction , image analysis and
visual

information display. The

enhancement

techniques such as contrast stretching, map each


gray

level

into

another

gray

level

by

predetermined transformation.

IMAGE RESTORATION: It refers to the removal

Where (x,y) is the additive noise function, f(,) is


the object ,g(x,y) is the image and h(x,y;,) is
called the point spread function(psf).A typical
image restoration problem is to find an estimate of
f(,) given the PSF , the blurred image and the
statistical properties of the noise process

angles. Reconstruction algorithms derive an image


of a thin axial slice of the object giving an inside
view otherwise unobtainable with out performing
extensive surgery. Such techniques are important in
medical imaging (CT scanners),astronomy ,radar
imaging and non destructive testing of assemblies.
IMAGE DATA COMPRESSION:

IMAGE ANALYSIS:
Image

analysis

is

concerned

with

making

quantitative measurements from an image to


produce a description of it. In the simplest form,
this task could be reading a label on a grocery item ,
sorting different parts on an assembly line or
measuring the size and orientation of blood cells in
a medical image. More advanced image analysis
systems measure quantitative information and use it
to make a sophisticated decision,such as controlling
the arm of a robot to move an object after
identifying it or navigating an aircraft with the aid
images acquired along its trajectory.Image analysis
techniques require extraction of certain features that
aid in the identification of the object.Segmentation
techniques are used to isolate the desired object
from the scene so that measurements can be made
on it subsequently.
IMAGE

RECONSTRUCTION

FROM

PROJECTIONS :
Image reconstructions from projections is a special

The amount of data associated with visual


information is so large that its storage would require
enormous storage capacity .Although the capacities
of several storage media are substantial, their access
speeds are usually inversely proportional to their
capacity .Typical television images generate data
rates exceeding 10 million bytes per sec. There are
other image sources that generate higher data rates
storage and/or transmission of such data require
large capacity and/or band width which could be
very expensive. Image data compression techniques
are concerned with reduction of the no of bits
required to store or transmit he images without any
appreciable loss of information. Because of wide
applications

like

teleconferencing

computer
remote

communications,

sensing

etc.,

data

compression is of great importance in digital image


processing.

IMPLEMENTATION

THROUGH

MAT

class of image restoration problems where a two

LAB :

dimensional object is reconstructed from several

MATLAB

one dimensional projections .Each projection is

technical computing. It integrates computation,

obtained by projecting a parallel X RAY beam

visualization, and programming in an easy-to-use

through the object. Planar projections are thus

environment where problems and solutions are

obtained by viewing the object from may different

expressed in familiar mathematical notation.

is a high-performance language for

The Image Processing Toolbox is a collection of

wnr1 = deconvwnr(Blurred,PSF);

functions that extend the capability of the MATLAB

figure;imshow(wnr1);

numeric computing environment. The toolbox

title('Restored, True PSF');

supports a wide range of image processing

NP = abs(fftn(noise)).^2;

operations, including

NPOW = sum(NP(:))/prod(size(noise)); % noise

1.Spatial image transformations

power

2.Morphological operations

NCORR = fftshift(real(ifftn(NP))); % noise ACF,

3.Neighborhood and block operations

centered

4.Linear filtering and filter design

IP = abs(fftn(im2double(I))).^2;

5.Transforms Image analysis and enhancement

IPOW = sum(IP(:))/prod(size(I)); % original image

6.Image registration

power

7.Deblurring Region of interest operations

ICORR = fftshift(real(ifftn(IP))); % image ACF,


centered

We have implemented a few techniques of image

wnr7=deconvwnr(BlurredNoisy,PSF,NCORR,IC

processing like IMAGE ENHANCEMENT,IMAGE

RR);

DEBLURRING,CONTRAST ENHANCEMENT

figure;imshow(wnr7);

The source code is written in the MATLAB

title('Restored with ACF');

EDITOR and the results are obtained as following:

ICORR1 = ICORR(:,ceil(size(I,1)/2));

Deblurring Images Using the Wiener

wnr8

Filter

deconvwnr(BlurredNoisy,PSF,NPOW,ICORR1);

Wiener deconvolution can be used effectively when


the frequency characteristics of the image and

figure;imshow(wnr8);
title('Restored with NP & 1D-ACF');

additive noise are known, to at least some degree.


Similar to the above we can perform many number
I = imread('peppers.png');
I = I(10+[1:256],222+[1:256],:);

of IMAGE PROCESSING TECHNIQUES using


MATLAB

figure;imshow(I);title('Original Image');
LEN = 31;
THETA = 11;
PSF = fspecial('motion',LEN,THETA);
Blurred = imfilter(I,PSF,'circular','conv');
figure; imshow(Blurred);
title('Blurred');

APPLICATIONS:
1.

In the field of Medicine this is highly

applicable in areas like Medical imaging, Scanning,


Ultrasound and X-rays etc.

from one point to another point. Here the robots are


fixed with cameras to view the object which is to be
moved. The hand of the robot and the object that is
to be captured are observed by the cameras, which
are fixed to the robot in position, this real time
image is processed by the image processing
techniques to get the actual distance between the
Bone Scan

Baby Scan and Thyroids

hand and the object. Here the base wheel of the


robots hand is rotated through an angle which is
proportional to the actual distance between hand
and the object. Here a point in the target is obtained
by using the Edge Detection Technique. The
operation to be performed is controlled by the
micro-controller, which is connected to the ports of
the fingers of the robots hand. Using the software
programs the operations to be performed are
assigned keys from the keyboard. By pressing the
relative key on the keyboard the hand moves
appropriately.

Chest X-Ray and Aortic angiogram

Here the usage of sensors/cameras and Edge


Detection technique are related to Image Processing

Image Processing is rapidly used for MRI SCAN

and Vision Systems. By this technique the

(Magnetic Resonance Imaging) and CT SCAN

complexity of using manual sensors is minimized to

(Computer Tomography). Tomography is an

a great extent and thereby sophistication is

imaging technique that generates an image of a thin

increased. Hence image processing is used here in

cross sectional slice of a test piece.

the study of robotics.

2.) Image Processing is vastly being implemented in

3.) This led to the evolution of a new subject called

Vision Systems in Robotics. Robots capture the real

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE which has a large

time images using cameras and process them to

area of common interest and motivation with

fulfill the desired action.

another subject known as pattern recognisation.

A simple application in robotics using Vision

These techniques are widely employed in

Systems is a robot hand-eye coordination system.

BIOMETRIC SYSTEMS etc.,

Consider that the robots task is to move an object

CONCLUSION:

IMAGE PROCESSING is a critical study, which

office

plays a vital role in modern world as it is involved

meteorology, information and technology .There is

with advanced use of science and technology. The

no doubt that the trend will continue into the future.

advances in technology have created tremendous

REFERENCES:

opportunities

1)www.google.co.in

for Vision

Processing. The

System

and

Image

image processing applications

extend over a wide range of fields such as military,

automation

2)www.wikipidia.org
3)IEEE magazines.

,biomedical,

astronomy,