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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ijpvp

Using heat sink technology to decrease residual stress in 316L stainless steel

welding joint: Finite element simulation

Wenchun Jiang a, b, *, Yucai Zhang a, Wanchuck Woo b

a

b

Neutron Science Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353, Republic of Korea

a r t i c l e i n f o

a b s t r a c t

Article history:

Received 24 August 2011

Received in revised form

23 December 2011

Accepted 3 January 2012

316L type stainless steel is widely used in chemical industries due to its excellent resistance to corrosion.

But the welding residual stresses have a great effect on stress corrosion cracking. This paper used nite

element method to study the effect of heat sink on residual stress. The effects of contact length and the

average heat transfer coefcient on residual stress have been investigated. It is found that the heat sink

technology can decrease the residual stress greatly. Compared to the model without heat sink, 20% of the

peak longitudinal stress has been reduced. The heat sink decreases the dwell time during cooling from

850 C to 400 C, which is helpful to decrease the risk of sensitization of 316L stainless steel. With the

contact length increase, the transverse stress is decreased. Further increase of the contact length has no

positive effect on reducing the longitudinal stress. With the average heat transfer coefcient increase, the

transverse stress is decreased greatly while the longitudinal stress decreases slightly, and some tensile

residual stresses have been changed to compressive in some zone.

2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords:

Heat sink welding

Residual stress

Finite element

1. Introduction

Pressure vessels and piping are widely used in chemical, oil, and

nuclear industries, etc [1]. To manufacture a cylindrical or spherical

pressure vessel, welding should be used to form a closed container

to hold gases or liquids at an operating pressure [2,3]. Therefore,

a lot of welding joints, such as longitudinal weld, transverse weld,

llet weld, etc, are widely generated in a pressure vessel. Due to the

local heating and cooling, residual stresses are generated in the

weld [4e6], which have a great effect on cracking [7e10], corrosion

[11e13], fatigue [14e16], etc. A lot of pressure vessels are put into

use without any stress-relief; therefore the residual stresses have

been a serious threat to the safety. Therefore, welding residual

stresses have been received a lot of attention during the past

decade [17e19]. The driving force is that the modern structural

integrity assessment procedures (BS7910, R6 and API RP-579)

require more accurate information on the weld residual stress

state to give a more realistic assessment [20e22]. Experimental

methods including hole-drilling [19], X-ray [23] and neutron

diffraction [24,25] are widely used to measure the welding residual

stress. With the computer technology development, nite element

Petroleum, Qingdao 266555, PR China. Tel./fax: 86 532 86983482.

E-mail address: jiangwenchun@126.com (W. Jiang).

0308-0161/$ e see front matter 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.ijpvp.2012.01.002

residual stress [26e28]. Now FEM is being applied more frequently

to predict residual stresses in welded components for assessment

purposes [29]. And an evaluation combined with FEM and experiment to determine the as-welded residual stress eld has been

a trend.

It is well known that the tensile residual stress has an adverse

effect on component life. When combined with service loads,

tensile residual stresses reduce the crack initiation life, accelerate

crack growth rate, and increase the susceptibility to catastrophic

failure by fracture. Conversely, compressive residual stresses could

have a favorable effect on structural performance. A lot of methods

have been used to decrease the residual stress or generate

compressive stress on the surface. Overall post-welding heat

treatment and localized heat treatment [30] are effective. Vibration

method is also used to decrease the residual stress. Shigeru Aoki

et al. [31] found that tensile residual stress near the bead is reduced

by random vibration during welding. Xu et al. [32] found that

vibration signicantly reduced the hoop residual stresses at the

outer surface, but vibration has only a slight effect on the residual

axial stresses at the outer surface. Pulsed magnetic treatment

method is also a good method to decrease the residual stress [33].

B.E. Klamecki [34] found that using the pulsed magnetic treatment

can reduce 4e7% residual stress in the lower initial stress level

specimens, and reduce 8e13% in a higher initial stress level stress. It

is found that shot-peening can generate compressive residual

W. Jiang et al. / International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping 92 (2012) 56e62

57

stress on the surface [35], which can increase the fatigue life [36],

corrosion resistance [37], etc. For pressure vessels, the welding

joints often face the corrosion media directly, and the tensile

residual stress has a great effect on corrosion. Therefore, decreasing

the tensile residual stress or generating compressive residual stress

on the surface is helpful to decrease the susceptibility to stress

corrosion cracking. In fact, it is very difcult to achieve this purpose

by the aforementioned methods because of the constraint of the

actual conditions. A new technology named heat sink welding [38]

is found to can generate low residual stress and deformation. More

recently, Yegaie et al. [39] performed a numerical simulation and

experimental investigation of temperature and residual stresses in

GTAW with a heat sink process of Monel 400 plates, and found that

a lower residual stresses and even compressive stresses near the

weld zone were generated. 316L type stainless steel is widely used

in chemical industries due to its excellent resistance to corrosion.

But vessels made of 316L are often put into use without any stressrelief, and how to decrease the weld residual stress is still

a problem. Therefore in this paper, we try to use heat sink method

to decrease the weld residual stress. The effect of heat sink on

reducing the residual stress for a 316L stainless steel weld is discussed by FEM.

The 316L stainless steel plates with the dimension of

50 mm 8 mm 100 mm were butt welded together. The groove

angle is 60 . The weld bead contains three welding layers. The

height of the bead above the parent plate is 1 mm. Fig. 2 shows

a sketching of the joint. A half model was built in order to decrease

the computational time, which means that the weld geometry is

symmetrical about the weld center-line. The FE meshing is shown

in Fig. 3. In total, 17 340 nodes and 14 850 elements are meshed. The

element types are DC3D8 and C3D8, which are used for welding

temperature and residual stress analysis, respectively.

3.2. Thermal analysis

3.2.1. Simulation of heat sink model

A simplied method is used to model the cooling effect of heat

sink. An average heat transfer coefcient was applied between the

Fig. 1 shows the schematics of the heat sinking welding technology. A half pipe was put under the welding bead of the plate. In

the rst welding pass, argon gas was passed over the bottom of the

weld pool. For the subsequent pass, cooling water was passed

through the heat sink pipe to cool the bottom of the weld bead. It is

hoped that the heat sink welding can decrease the residual stress,

but the control mechanism should be explored in depth and detail,

aiming to provide reference for the actual welding.

P2

3

2

1

P1

Fig. 2. Sketching of the welding joint.

welding residual stresses by ABAQUS. Firstly, a thermal analysis is

carried out to determine the temperature history eld, and then the

temperature results are applied incrementally to the mechanical

model to simulate the residual stress.

Table 1

Physical properties for 316L base metal and 316L weld metal [41].

Temperature

( C)

expansion, E is Youngs modulus

C (J/kg/ C)

K W/m/C

a (106

E (GPa)

mm/mm/C)

0

10

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000

1100

1200

1300

1400

Weld

Parent

Weld

Parent

488

502

520

537

555

572

589

589

589

589

589

589

589

589

589

492

502

514

526

538

550

562

575

587

599

611

623

635

647

659

14.12

15.26

16.69

18.11

19.54

20.96

22.38

23.81

25.23

26.66

28.08

29.50

30.93

32.35

33.78

168.2

164.1

158.3

152.0

144.9

136.9

127.7

117.4

105.8

92.8

78.3

62.4

44.5

23.4

1.6

195.6

191.2

185.7

179.6

172.6

164.5

155.0

144.1

131.4

116.8

100.0

80.0

57.0

30.0

2.0

14.56

15.39

16.21

16.86

17.37

17.78

18.12

18.43

18.72

18.99

19.27

19.53

19.79

20.02

20.21

58

W. Jiang et al. / International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping 92 (2012) 56e62

Table 2

0% Proof stress for 316L parent metal [41].

23

210

275

150

550

112

750

95

800

88

900

69

1100

22.4

1400

2.7

p

6 3ff Q 3x2 =a2 3y2 =b2 3zvtz0 2 =c2

1

pe

qx; y; z; t

e

e

abc1 p p

Table 3

0% Proof stress for 316L weld metal [41].

Temperature ( C)

0% Proof stress (MPa)

20

250

275

216

525

196

700

143

850

88

1000

48

1400

2.7

bottom face of welding plate and the cooling water. When cooling

by water owing over the surface of steel, the average heat transfer

coefcient of 1000 W/m2 C [40] could be applied on the surface S

marked in Fig. 2. In fact, this average heat transfer coefcient is

inuenced by a lot of factors including the type of cooling media,

owing rate, dimension of the half pipe, temperature, etc. Therefore the effect of this average heat transfer coefcient on residual

stress is discussed in the following.

3.2.2. Simulation of weld heating

A nonlinear heat transfer analysis was carried out to obtain the

time dependent temperature eld induced by the multi-pass

welding. In the thermal analysis, the weld heating process is

simulated by applying a heat source of double ellipsoidal

a

With heat sink

Without heat sink

200

150

100

50

0

10

20

30

40

Without heat sink

200

150

100

50

0

-50

0

10

20

b

Longitudinal stress (MPa)

100

0

-100

40

50

400

With heat sink

Without heat sink

300

200

30

Distance (mm)

400

300

50

Without heat sink

(2)

Where ff and fr are parameters which give the fractions of the heat

deposited in front and the rear parts, respectively. Note that

ff fr 2.0. Here it is assumed that ff is 1.5 and fr is 0.5, which is

based on the fact that the temperature gradient in the front leading

part is steeper than in the tailing edge. Q is the power of the

welding heat source. z0 is the position of the heat source in

z-direction when t is zero. The heat source of double ellipsoidal

distribution for the moving welding arc is modeled by a user

subroutine DFLUX in ABAQUS compiled by FORTRAN program.

The thermal effects due to solidication of the weld pool are

modeled by taking into account the latent heat for fusion. The value

-100

Distance (mm)

p

6 3fr Q 3x2 =a2 3y2 =b2 3zvtz0 2 =c2

2

pe

qx; y; z; t

e

e

abc2 p p

-50

-100

(1)

Temperature ( C)

0% Proof stress (MPa)

weld nodes was calculated by Goldak equation and then the total

heat input was distributed on those nodes by the calculated ratio.

The Goldak equation is expressed by the following form:

For the front heat source:

200

100

0

-100

-200

-200

0

10

20

30

40

50

Distance (mm)

Fig. 4. Residual stress along P1 with and without the use of heat sink.

10

20

30

40

Distance (mm)

Fig. 5. Effect of heat sink on residual stress along P2.

50

W. Jiang et al. / International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping 92 (2012) 56e62

of the latent heat is 300 J/g. The liquidus and the solidus temperature are 1400 C and 1375 C, respectively. To account for heat

losses, convection and radiation are both taken into consideration.

In ABQUS, the simulation of weld metal deposition can be

achieved by Element Add and Remove technology, which is similar

to Element Birth and Death technology in ANSYS. Before welding,

the weld metal elements are removed. Once the welding starts, the

welded pass is added with strain free and heated, then it is cooled

down until the next weld pass cycle begins. The temperature

history of all the nodes is stored in a le for the subsequent residual

stress calculation. The material properties relevant to thermal

analysis are density, specic heat capacity, latent heat capacity, and

solidus/liquidus temperatures.

hardening model combined by nonlinear kinematic hardening and

isotropic hardening model is much better, which should be discussed in the future. The temperature dependent physical and

mechanical properties for AISI Type 316L austenitic stainless steel

and type 316L weld metal are listed in Tables 1e3.

3.4. Boundary conditions

During the stress analysis, boundary conditions should be

applied to prevent the rigid body motion, as shown in Fig. 3. All the

nodes in the geometric symmetry plane were applied symmetry

conditions; two nodes at the ends of the edge of bottom surface

were constrained in y-direction; one node at the weld start was

constrained in Z-direction.

The residual stress is calculated by using the temperature

distribution obtained from thermal analysis as input data. Element

Add and Remove technology has also been used in stress analysis.

The material properties relevant to residual stress are elastic

modulus, yield strength, Poissons ratio, and the coefcient of

thermal expansion. The total strain rate can be decomposed into

three components as follows:

e

ts

59

Two reference paths as shown in Fig. 2 are picked to analyze. P1

and P2 are on the middle of the bottom and top surface,

respectively.

4.1. Effect of heat sink

(3)

the other model without the application of heat sink was built and

calculated.

Fig. 4 shows the residual stress along P1 with and without the

heat sink. At the case without heat sink, transverse stress is

increased gradually from the weld center, reaching a maximum of

178 MPa at 15 mm, and then it is decreased to the end gradually.

When the heat sink is used, the transverse stress in the weld is

decreased greatly but the peak transverse stress is changed little. At

the condition without heat sink, the peak of longitudinal stress is

350 MPa shown at the weld root, then it is decreased gradually

ts

thermal strain, respectively. Elastic strain is modeled using the

isotropic Hookes law with temperature-dependent Youngs

modulus and Poissons ratio. The thermal strain is calculated using

temperature-dependent coefcient of thermal expansion. For the

plastic strain, a rate-independent plastic model is employed with

Von Mises yield surface, temperature-dependent mechanical

properties and linear kinematic hardening model. Kinematic

hardening is considered because material points undergo both

loading and unloading in the welding process, which has been

b2500

Temperature ( C)

2000

1500

1000

500

0

10

15

20

25

30

35

Time (s)

With heat sink

2500

1500

Temperature ( C)

Temperature ( C)

2000

1500

1000

500

0

1000

500

0

0

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

1510

Time (s)

1520

1530

1540

Time (s)

1550

1560

W. Jiang et al. / International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping 92 (2012) 56e62

In the heat sink welding, the cooling medium has a contact

surface to the weld plate. Here the effect of contact length on

residual stress is discussed. Keeping the rest of parameters

unchanged, the effect of contact length is changed to discuss its

effect. Fig. 7 shows the effect of contact length on residual stress

along path P1. It is shown that the transverse stress is decreased

with the contact length increase. When the contact length is too

small, the function of reducing residual stress is not notable. When

the length is further increased to 35 mm, the transverse stress in

the weld metal has been decreased greatly. But with the contact

length increase, the longitudinal stress in the weld and HAZ has

been slightly increased. It seems that a further increase in contact

length has no positive effect on reducing longitudinal stress.

4.3. Effect of the average heat transfer coefcient

In the heat sink welding, the average heat transfer coefcient is

inuenced by some factors, such as the type of cooling medium,

temperature, thickness of the half pipe, etc. Therefore the effect of

shows the effect of the average coefcient on residual stress along

P1. It is shown that the transverse stress is decreased as the average

heat transfer coefcient increases. When the coefcient is increased

to 3000 W/m2 C, the transverse stress in some zone has been

changed to compressive stress. With the increase of the heat transfer

coefcient, the temperature in weld zone is decreased, which leads

to the residual stress decrease. The longitudinal stress is slightly

decreased with the average heat transfer coefcient increase.

4.4. Discussion

316L type stainless steel is widely used in the chemical industries because of its good corrosion resistance. As shown in the

paper, tensile residual stresses are generated in the weld root and

its vicinity. Once the operating load is applied, the stress state

becomes complex. The weld root often faces the corrosion medium

directly, and the generated tensile residual stresses have a great

effect on stress corrosion cracking, intercrystalline corrosion, creep,

etc. Therefore, controlling the residual stress is very important to

assure the structure integrity.

This paper found that the heat sink has benets to reduce the

residual stress. With the heat sink applied, the temperature

difference along the weld joint is decreased, and the coefcient of

a

Transverse stress (MPa)

away from the weld center, and then changes to compressive stress

at 16 mm. After the heat sink is used, the longitudinal stress is also

decreased and the peak value has been decreased to 288 MPa. And

some longitudinal stresses are changed to compressive. But the

longitudinal stress near the root is increased from 180 MPa to

270 MPa.

Fig. 5 shows the effect of heat sink on residual stress along P2.

Without the heat sink, the transverse stress is increased gradually

from the weld center and reaches the peak (182 MPa) at heat

affected zone (HAZ), and then it is decreased away from the HAZ.

After the heat sink is applied, transverse stress in the weld zone is

decreased slightly. At the case without heat sink, a maximum of the

longitudinal stress, 360 MPa, is generated in the weld metal. Then it

is decreased away from the weld metal. After the heat sink is

applied, the peak of longitudinal stress is decreased to around

290 MPa.

The above analysis clearly shows that the heat sink has a function to reduce the residual stress. Due to the application of heat

sink, the peak stress has been reduced, and the longitudinal stress

in the weld surface becomes more uniform. Therefore the heat sink

has a role to reduce the risk of crack generation.

Fig. 6 shows the welding temperature cycle of a node in the

center of the second weld pass. It is clearly shown that the node

undergoes two heating cycles. One is caused by the weld heating

itself, and the other is caused by the third welding. The peak

temperature without heat sink is 2500 C, while it is decreased to

2200 C when the heat sink is applied. The model with heat sink

has quicker cooling rate that that without heat sink, as shown in

Fig. 6(b) and (c). The heat sink can decrease the maximum

temperature in the weld pool and increase the cooling rate, which

leads to residual stress decrease.

The austenitic stainless steel 316L could be sensitized around

850e400 C, which will leads to intercrystalline corrosion. Therefore it is very important to decrease the dwell time around

850e400 C. At the case without heat sink, it takes 13 s to cool from

850 C to 400 C, but it just takes 6.5 s when the heat sink is used, as

shown in Fig. 6. During the third welding, this node suffers another

peak temperature of 1644 and 1541 C without and with heat sink,

respectively. During the cooling from 850 to 400 C, it takes about

31 s and 11.4 s with and without heat sink welding, respectively. It

is obviously shown that the heat sink is helpful to decrease the risk

of sensitization of 316L, leading to a decrease of the risk of the

intercrystalline corrosion.

180

10mm

15mm

35mm

135

90

45

0

0

10

20

30

40

50

Distance (mm)

b

Longitudinal stress (MPa)

60

300

10mm

15mm

35mm

200

100

0

-100

-200

10

20

30

40

Distance (mm)

Fig. 7. Effect of contact length on residual stress.

50

W. Jiang et al. / International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping 92 (2012) 56e62

water and the weld plate is applied to simulate the function of heat

sink. The effects of contact length and the average heat transfer

coefcient on residual stress have been discussed. Based on the

obtained results, the following conclusions may be drawn:

200

150

100

50

1000

1500

3000

0

-50

-100

10

20

30

40

50

Distance (mm)

61

300

1000

1500

3000

200

Acknowledgments

100

0

-100

-200

0

10

20

30

40

(1) It is found that the heat sink technology can decrease the

residual stress greatly. Compared to the model without heat

sink, about 20% of the peak longitudinal stress has been

reduced.

(2) The heat sink increases the weld cooling rate. It decreases the

dwell time during the cooling from 850 C to 400 C, which is

helpful to decrease the risk of sensitization of 316L stainless

steel.

(3) With the contact length increase, the transverse stress is

decreased. Further increase of the contact length has no

obvious effect on reducing the longitudinal stress.

(4) With the average heat transfer coefcient increase, the transverse stress is decreased greatly while the longitudinal stress

decreases slightly, and some tensile residual stresses have been

changed to compressive in some zone.

50

Distance (mm)

Fig. 8. Effect of the average heat transfer coefcient on residual stress.

decrease, which lead to residual stress decrease. Compared to the

model without heat sink, about 20% of the peak longitudinal stress

has been reduced. The contact length and the average heat transfer

coefcient have a great effect on residual stress. With the contact

length and the average heat transfer coefcient increase, the

transverse stress is decreased greatly. But it seems that the further

increase of the both has little effect on reducing longitudinal stress

further. And increasing the average heat transfer coefcient can not

only decrease the residual stress, but also can generate some

compressive stress. Therefore, a good design of the heat sink

welding technology, such as choosing the cooling medium,

dimension, material design of the half piping, etc, should be performed in the future.

Another important nding is that the heat sink can decrease the

dwell time during the cooling from 850 C to 400 C, which can

decrease the intercsystalline corrosion in the welding, and increase

the corrosion resistance of the welding joint. Therefore this work

provides a good reference for controlling and decreasing the

residual stress in the 316L stainless steel welding joints.

5. Conclusion

This paper presents a study of the heat sink technology to

decrease the welding residual stress in 316L stainless steel welding

National Natural Science Foundation of China (51105380), Natural

Science Foundation of Shandong Province (ZR2010AQ002),

Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (20100133120008),

Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities

(09CX04041A), and the Research Fund of Jiangsu Key Laboratory of

Digital Manufacture for Industry Equipment and Control Technology (2010). All the authors are very grateful to the support from

Key Laboratory of Pressure System and Safety (MOE), East China

University of Science and Technology.

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