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International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping 92 (2012) 56e62

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International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping


journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ijpvp

Using heat sink technology to decrease residual stress in 316L stainless steel
welding joint: Finite element simulation
Wenchun Jiang a, b, *, Yucai Zhang a, Wanchuck Woo b
a
b

College of Chemical Engineering, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao 266555, PR China


Neutron Science Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353, Republic of Korea

a r t i c l e i n f o

a b s t r a c t

Article history:
Received 24 August 2011
Received in revised form
23 December 2011
Accepted 3 January 2012

316L type stainless steel is widely used in chemical industries due to its excellent resistance to corrosion.
But the welding residual stresses have a great effect on stress corrosion cracking. This paper used nite
element method to study the effect of heat sink on residual stress. The effects of contact length and the
average heat transfer coefcient on residual stress have been investigated. It is found that the heat sink
technology can decrease the residual stress greatly. Compared to the model without heat sink, 20% of the
peak longitudinal stress has been reduced. The heat sink decreases the dwell time during cooling from
850  C to 400  C, which is helpful to decrease the risk of sensitization of 316L stainless steel. With the
contact length increase, the transverse stress is decreased. Further increase of the contact length has no
positive effect on reducing the longitudinal stress. With the average heat transfer coefcient increase, the
transverse stress is decreased greatly while the longitudinal stress decreases slightly, and some tensile
residual stresses have been changed to compressive in some zone.
2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords:
Heat sink welding
Residual stress
Finite element

1. Introduction
Pressure vessels and piping are widely used in chemical, oil, and
nuclear industries, etc [1]. To manufacture a cylindrical or spherical
pressure vessel, welding should be used to form a closed container
to hold gases or liquids at an operating pressure [2,3]. Therefore,
a lot of welding joints, such as longitudinal weld, transverse weld,
llet weld, etc, are widely generated in a pressure vessel. Due to the
local heating and cooling, residual stresses are generated in the
weld [4e6], which have a great effect on cracking [7e10], corrosion
[11e13], fatigue [14e16], etc. A lot of pressure vessels are put into
use without any stress-relief; therefore the residual stresses have
been a serious threat to the safety. Therefore, welding residual
stresses have been received a lot of attention during the past
decade [17e19]. The driving force is that the modern structural
integrity assessment procedures (BS7910, R6 and API RP-579)
require more accurate information on the weld residual stress
state to give a more realistic assessment [20e22]. Experimental
methods including hole-drilling [19], X-ray [23] and neutron
diffraction [24,25] are widely used to measure the welding residual
stress. With the computer technology development, nite element

* Corresponding author. College of Chemical Engineering, China University of


Petroleum, Qingdao 266555, PR China. Tel./fax: 86 532 86983482.
E-mail address: jiangwenchun@126.com (W. Jiang).
0308-0161/$ e see front matter 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.ijpvp.2012.01.002

method (FEM) has been proved to be a power tool to predict the


residual stress [26e28]. Now FEM is being applied more frequently
to predict residual stresses in welded components for assessment
purposes [29]. And an evaluation combined with FEM and experiment to determine the as-welded residual stress eld has been
a trend.
It is well known that the tensile residual stress has an adverse
effect on component life. When combined with service loads,
tensile residual stresses reduce the crack initiation life, accelerate
crack growth rate, and increase the susceptibility to catastrophic
failure by fracture. Conversely, compressive residual stresses could
have a favorable effect on structural performance. A lot of methods
have been used to decrease the residual stress or generate
compressive stress on the surface. Overall post-welding heat
treatment and localized heat treatment [30] are effective. Vibration
method is also used to decrease the residual stress. Shigeru Aoki
et al. [31] found that tensile residual stress near the bead is reduced
by random vibration during welding. Xu et al. [32] found that
vibration signicantly reduced the hoop residual stresses at the
outer surface, but vibration has only a slight effect on the residual
axial stresses at the outer surface. Pulsed magnetic treatment
method is also a good method to decrease the residual stress [33].
B.E. Klamecki [34] found that using the pulsed magnetic treatment
can reduce 4e7% residual stress in the lower initial stress level
specimens, and reduce 8e13% in a higher initial stress level stress. It
is found that shot-peening can generate compressive residual

W. Jiang et al. / International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping 92 (2012) 56e62

57

Fig. 3. Finite element meshing.

Fig. 1. Schematics of the heat sink welding.

3. Finite element simulation


stress on the surface [35], which can increase the fatigue life [36],
corrosion resistance [37], etc. For pressure vessels, the welding
joints often face the corrosion media directly, and the tensile
residual stress has a great effect on corrosion. Therefore, decreasing
the tensile residual stress or generating compressive residual stress
on the surface is helpful to decrease the susceptibility to stress
corrosion cracking. In fact, it is very difcult to achieve this purpose
by the aforementioned methods because of the constraint of the
actual conditions. A new technology named heat sink welding [38]
is found to can generate low residual stress and deformation. More
recently, Yegaie et al. [39] performed a numerical simulation and
experimental investigation of temperature and residual stresses in
GTAW with a heat sink process of Monel 400 plates, and found that
a lower residual stresses and even compressive stresses near the
weld zone were generated. 316L type stainless steel is widely used
in chemical industries due to its excellent resistance to corrosion.
But vessels made of 316L are often put into use without any stressrelief, and how to decrease the weld residual stress is still
a problem. Therefore in this paper, we try to use heat sink method
to decrease the weld residual stress. The effect of heat sink on
reducing the residual stress for a 316L stainless steel weld is discussed by FEM.

3.1. Finite element model


The 316L stainless steel plates with the dimension of
50 mm  8 mm  100 mm were butt welded together. The groove
angle is 60 . The weld bead contains three welding layers. The
height of the bead above the parent plate is 1 mm. Fig. 2 shows
a sketching of the joint. A half model was built in order to decrease
the computational time, which means that the weld geometry is
symmetrical about the weld center-line. The FE meshing is shown
in Fig. 3. In total, 17 340 nodes and 14 850 elements are meshed. The
element types are DC3D8 and C3D8, which are used for welding
temperature and residual stress analysis, respectively.
3.2. Thermal analysis
3.2.1. Simulation of heat sink model
A simplied method is used to model the cooling effect of heat
sink. An average heat transfer coefcient was applied between the

2. Heat sink technology


Fig. 1 shows the schematics of the heat sinking welding technology. A half pipe was put under the welding bead of the plate. In
the rst welding pass, argon gas was passed over the bottom of the
weld pool. For the subsequent pass, cooling water was passed
through the heat sink pipe to cool the bottom of the weld bead. It is
hoped that the heat sink welding can decrease the residual stress,
but the control mechanism should be explored in depth and detail,
aiming to provide reference for the actual welding.

P2
3
2
1
P1
Fig. 2. Sketching of the welding joint.

A three dimensional FE program was developed to simulate the


welding residual stresses by ABAQUS. Firstly, a thermal analysis is
carried out to determine the temperature history eld, and then the
temperature results are applied incrementally to the mechanical
model to simulate the residual stress.

Table 1
Physical properties for 316L base metal and 316L weld metal [41].
Temperature
( C)

C is specic heat, K is conductivity, a coefcient thermal


expansion, E is Youngs modulus
C (J/kg/ C)

K W/m/C

a (106

E (GPa)

mm/mm/C)

0
10
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
1300
1400

Weld

Parent

Weld and parent

Weld

Parent

488
502
520
537
555
572
589
589
589
589
589
589
589
589
589

492
502
514
526
538
550
562
575
587
599
611
623
635
647
659

14.12
15.26
16.69
18.11
19.54
20.96
22.38
23.81
25.23
26.66
28.08
29.50
30.93
32.35
33.78

168.2
164.1
158.3
152.0
144.9
136.9
127.7
117.4
105.8
92.8
78.3
62.4
44.5
23.4
1.6

195.6
191.2
185.7
179.6
172.6
164.5
155.0
144.1
131.4
116.8
100.0
80.0
57.0
30.0
2.0

14.56
15.39
16.21
16.86
17.37
17.78
18.12
18.43
18.72
18.99
19.27
19.53
19.79
20.02
20.21

58

W. Jiang et al. / International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping 92 (2012) 56e62

Table 2
0% Proof stress for 316L parent metal [41].
23
210

275
150

550
112

750
95

800
88

900
69

1100
22.4

1400
2.7

p
6 3ff Q 3x2 =a2 3y2 =b2 3zvtz0 2 =c2
1
pe
qx; y; z; t
e
e
abc1 p p

Table 3
0% Proof stress for 316L weld metal [41].
Temperature ( C)
0% Proof stress (MPa)

20
250

275
216

525
196

700
143

850
88

1000
48

1400
2.7

bottom face of welding plate and the cooling water. When cooling
by water owing over the surface of steel, the average heat transfer
coefcient of 1000 W/m2  C [40] could be applied on the surface S
marked in Fig. 2. In fact, this average heat transfer coefcient is
inuenced by a lot of factors including the type of cooling media,
owing rate, dimension of the half pipe, temperature, etc. Therefore the effect of this average heat transfer coefcient on residual
stress is discussed in the following.
3.2.2. Simulation of weld heating
A nonlinear heat transfer analysis was carried out to obtain the
time dependent temperature eld induced by the multi-pass
welding. In the thermal analysis, the weld heating process is
simulated by applying a heat source of double ellipsoidal

a
With heat sink
Without heat sink

Transverse stress (MPa)

200
150
100
50
0

10

20

30

40

With heat sink


Without heat sink

200
150
100
50
0
-50
0

10

20

b
Longitudinal stress (MPa)

100
0
-100

40

50

400
With heat sink
Without heat sink

300

200

30

Distance (mm)

400
300

Longitudinal stress (MPa)

50

With heat sink


Without heat sink

(2)

Where ff and fr are parameters which give the fractions of the heat
deposited in front and the rear parts, respectively. Note that
ff fr 2.0. Here it is assumed that ff is 1.5 and fr is 0.5, which is
based on the fact that the temperature gradient in the front leading
part is steeper than in the tailing edge. Q is the power of the
welding heat source. z0 is the position of the heat source in
z-direction when t is zero. The heat source of double ellipsoidal
distribution for the moving welding arc is modeled by a user
subroutine DFLUX in ABAQUS compiled by FORTRAN program.
The thermal effects due to solidication of the weld pool are
modeled by taking into account the latent heat for fusion. The value

-100

Distance (mm)

p
6 3fr Q 3x2 =a2 3y2 =b2 3zvtz0 2 =c2
2
pe
qx; y; z; t
e
e
abc2 p p

-50
-100

(1)

For the rear heat source:

Transverse stress (MPa)

Temperature ( C)
0% Proof stress (MPa)

distribution proposed by Goladk et al. [17]. Ratio of heat ux in each


weld nodes was calculated by Goldak equation and then the total
heat input was distributed on those nodes by the calculated ratio.
The Goldak equation is expressed by the following form:
For the front heat source:

200
100
0
-100
-200

-200
0

10

20

30

40

50

Distance (mm)
Fig. 4. Residual stress along P1 with and without the use of heat sink.

10

20

30

40

Distance (mm)
Fig. 5. Effect of heat sink on residual stress along P2.

50

W. Jiang et al. / International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping 92 (2012) 56e62

of the latent heat is 300 J/g. The liquidus and the solidus temperature are 1400  C and 1375  C, respectively. To account for heat
losses, convection and radiation are both taken into consideration.
In ABQUS, the simulation of weld metal deposition can be
achieved by Element Add and Remove technology, which is similar
to Element Birth and Death technology in ANSYS. Before welding,
the weld metal elements are removed. Once the welding starts, the
welded pass is added with strain free and heated, then it is cooled
down until the next weld pass cycle begins. The temperature
history of all the nodes is stored in a le for the subsequent residual
stress calculation. The material properties relevant to thermal
analysis are density, specic heat capacity, latent heat capacity, and
solidus/liquidus temperatures.

widely used in the welding residual stress simulation. A mixed


hardening model combined by nonlinear kinematic hardening and
isotropic hardening model is much better, which should be discussed in the future. The temperature dependent physical and
mechanical properties for AISI Type 316L austenitic stainless steel
and type 316L weld metal are listed in Tables 1e3.
3.4. Boundary conditions
During the stress analysis, boundary conditions should be
applied to prevent the rigid body motion, as shown in Fig. 3. All the
nodes in the geometric symmetry plane were applied symmetry
conditions; two nodes at the ends of the edge of bottom surface
were constrained in y-direction; one node at the weld start was
constrained in Z-direction.

3.3. Mechanical analysis


The residual stress is calculated by using the temperature
distribution obtained from thermal analysis as input data. Element
Add and Remove technology has also been used in stress analysis.
The material properties relevant to residual stress are elastic
modulus, yield strength, Poissons ratio, and the coefcient of
thermal expansion. The total strain rate can be decomposed into
three components as follows:
e

ts

59

4. Results and discussion


Two reference paths as shown in Fig. 2 are picked to analyze. P1
and P2 are on the middle of the bottom and top surface,
respectively.
4.1. Effect of heat sink

(3)

In order to discuss the effect of the heat sink on residual stress,


the other model without the application of heat sink was built and
calculated.
Fig. 4 shows the residual stress along P1 with and without the
heat sink. At the case without heat sink, transverse stress is
increased gradually from the weld center, reaching a maximum of
178 MPa at 15 mm, and then it is decreased to the end gradually.
When the heat sink is used, the transverse stress in the weld is
decreased greatly but the peak transverse stress is changed little. At
the condition without heat sink, the peak of longitudinal stress is
350 MPa shown at the weld root, then it is decreased gradually

ts

Where , and stands for elastic strain, plastic strain and


thermal strain, respectively. Elastic strain is modeled using the
isotropic Hookes law with temperature-dependent Youngs
modulus and Poissons ratio. The thermal strain is calculated using
temperature-dependent coefcient of thermal expansion. For the
plastic strain, a rate-independent plastic model is employed with
Von Mises yield surface, temperature-dependent mechanical
properties and linear kinematic hardening model. Kinematic
hardening is considered because material points undergo both
loading and unloading in the welding process, which has been

b2500
Temperature ( C)

2000
1500
1000
500
0
10

15

20

25

30

35

Time (s)

Without heat sink


With heat sink

2500

1500
Temperature ( C)

Temperature ( C)

2000
1500
1000
500
0

1000

500

0
0

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

1510

Time (s)

1520

1530

1540

Time (s)

Fig. 6. Welding temperature cycle.

1550

1560

W. Jiang et al. / International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping 92 (2012) 56e62

4.2. Effect of the contact length


In the heat sink welding, the cooling medium has a contact
surface to the weld plate. Here the effect of contact length on
residual stress is discussed. Keeping the rest of parameters
unchanged, the effect of contact length is changed to discuss its
effect. Fig. 7 shows the effect of contact length on residual stress
along path P1. It is shown that the transverse stress is decreased
with the contact length increase. When the contact length is too
small, the function of reducing residual stress is not notable. When
the length is further increased to 35 mm, the transverse stress in
the weld metal has been decreased greatly. But with the contact
length increase, the longitudinal stress in the weld and HAZ has
been slightly increased. It seems that a further increase in contact
length has no positive effect on reducing longitudinal stress.
4.3. Effect of the average heat transfer coefcient
In the heat sink welding, the average heat transfer coefcient is
inuenced by some factors, such as the type of cooling medium,
temperature, thickness of the half pipe, etc. Therefore the effect of

the average coefcient on residual stress is discussed here. Fig. 8


shows the effect of the average coefcient on residual stress along
P1. It is shown that the transverse stress is decreased as the average
heat transfer coefcient increases. When the coefcient is increased
to 3000 W/m2  C, the transverse stress in some zone has been
changed to compressive stress. With the increase of the heat transfer
coefcient, the temperature in weld zone is decreased, which leads
to the residual stress decrease. The longitudinal stress is slightly
decreased with the average heat transfer coefcient increase.
4.4. Discussion
316L type stainless steel is widely used in the chemical industries because of its good corrosion resistance. As shown in the
paper, tensile residual stresses are generated in the weld root and
its vicinity. Once the operating load is applied, the stress state
becomes complex. The weld root often faces the corrosion medium
directly, and the generated tensile residual stresses have a great
effect on stress corrosion cracking, intercrystalline corrosion, creep,
etc. Therefore, controlling the residual stress is very important to
assure the structure integrity.
This paper found that the heat sink has benets to reduce the
residual stress. With the heat sink applied, the temperature
difference along the weld joint is decreased, and the coefcient of

a
Transverse stress (MPa)

away from the weld center, and then changes to compressive stress
at 16 mm. After the heat sink is used, the longitudinal stress is also
decreased and the peak value has been decreased to 288 MPa. And
some longitudinal stresses are changed to compressive. But the
longitudinal stress near the root is increased from 180 MPa to
270 MPa.
Fig. 5 shows the effect of heat sink on residual stress along P2.
Without the heat sink, the transverse stress is increased gradually
from the weld center and reaches the peak (182 MPa) at heat
affected zone (HAZ), and then it is decreased away from the HAZ.
After the heat sink is applied, transverse stress in the weld zone is
decreased slightly. At the case without heat sink, a maximum of the
longitudinal stress, 360 MPa, is generated in the weld metal. Then it
is decreased away from the weld metal. After the heat sink is
applied, the peak of longitudinal stress is decreased to around
290 MPa.
The above analysis clearly shows that the heat sink has a function to reduce the residual stress. Due to the application of heat
sink, the peak stress has been reduced, and the longitudinal stress
in the weld surface becomes more uniform. Therefore the heat sink
has a role to reduce the risk of crack generation.
Fig. 6 shows the welding temperature cycle of a node in the
center of the second weld pass. It is clearly shown that the node
undergoes two heating cycles. One is caused by the weld heating
itself, and the other is caused by the third welding. The peak
temperature without heat sink is 2500  C, while it is decreased to
2200  C when the heat sink is applied. The model with heat sink
has quicker cooling rate that that without heat sink, as shown in
Fig. 6(b) and (c). The heat sink can decrease the maximum
temperature in the weld pool and increase the cooling rate, which
leads to residual stress decrease.
The austenitic stainless steel 316L could be sensitized around
850e400  C, which will leads to intercrystalline corrosion. Therefore it is very important to decrease the dwell time around
850e400  C. At the case without heat sink, it takes 13 s to cool from
850  C to 400  C, but it just takes 6.5 s when the heat sink is used, as
shown in Fig. 6. During the third welding, this node suffers another
peak temperature of 1644 and 1541  C without and with heat sink,
respectively. During the cooling from 850 to 400  C, it takes about
31 s and 11.4 s with and without heat sink welding, respectively. It
is obviously shown that the heat sink is helpful to decrease the risk
of sensitization of 316L, leading to a decrease of the risk of the
intercrystalline corrosion.

180
10mm
15mm
35mm

135

90

45

0
0

10

20

30

40

50

Distance (mm)

b
Longitudinal stress (MPa)

60

300
10mm
15mm
35mm

200
100
0
-100
-200

10

20

30

40

Distance (mm)
Fig. 7. Effect of contact length on residual stress.

50

W. Jiang et al. / International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping 92 (2012) 56e62

joint. An average heat transfer coefcient between the cooling


water and the weld plate is applied to simulate the function of heat
sink. The effects of contact length and the average heat transfer
coefcient on residual stress have been discussed. Based on the
obtained results, the following conclusions may be drawn:

200

Transverse stress (MPa)

150
100
50
1000
1500
3000

0
-50
-100

10

20

30

40

50

Distance (mm)

Longitudinal stress (MPa)

61

300
1000
1500
3000

200

Acknowledgments

100
0
-100
-200
0

10

20

30

40

(1) It is found that the heat sink technology can decrease the
residual stress greatly. Compared to the model without heat
sink, about 20% of the peak longitudinal stress has been
reduced.
(2) The heat sink increases the weld cooling rate. It decreases the
dwell time during the cooling from 850  C to 400  C, which is
helpful to decrease the risk of sensitization of 316L stainless
steel.
(3) With the contact length increase, the transverse stress is
decreased. Further increase of the contact length has no
obvious effect on reducing the longitudinal stress.
(4) With the average heat transfer coefcient increase, the transverse stress is decreased greatly while the longitudinal stress
decreases slightly, and some tensile residual stresses have been
changed to compressive in some zone.

50

Distance (mm)
Fig. 8. Effect of the average heat transfer coefcient on residual stress.

thermal expansion is also decreased with the temperature


decrease, which lead to residual stress decrease. Compared to the
model without heat sink, about 20% of the peak longitudinal stress
has been reduced. The contact length and the average heat transfer
coefcient have a great effect on residual stress. With the contact
length and the average heat transfer coefcient increase, the
transverse stress is decreased greatly. But it seems that the further
increase of the both has little effect on reducing longitudinal stress
further. And increasing the average heat transfer coefcient can not
only decrease the residual stress, but also can generate some
compressive stress. Therefore, a good design of the heat sink
welding technology, such as choosing the cooling medium,
dimension, material design of the half piping, etc, should be performed in the future.
Another important nding is that the heat sink can decrease the
dwell time during the cooling from 850  C to 400  C, which can
decrease the intercsystalline corrosion in the welding, and increase
the corrosion resistance of the welding joint. Therefore this work
provides a good reference for controlling and decreasing the
residual stress in the 316L stainless steel welding joints.
5. Conclusion
This paper presents a study of the heat sink technology to
decrease the welding residual stress in 316L stainless steel welding

The authors gratefully acknowledge the support from the


National Natural Science Foundation of China (51105380), Natural
Science Foundation of Shandong Province (ZR2010AQ002),
Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (20100133120008),
Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities
(09CX04041A), and the Research Fund of Jiangsu Key Laboratory of
Digital Manufacture for Industry Equipment and Control Technology (2010). All the authors are very grateful to the support from
Key Laboratory of Pressure System and Safety (MOE), East China
University of Science and Technology.
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